Research IndicatorsGraph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 28 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (8)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: S100A2 (cancer-related)
Here, we show for the first time that the familial breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA1, along with interacting ΔNp63 proteins, transcriptionally upregulate the putative tumour suppressor protein, S100A2. Both BRCA1 and ΔNp63 proteins are required for S100A2 expression. BRCA1 requires ΔNp63 proteins for recruitment to the S100A2 proximal promoter region, while exogenous expression of individual ΔNp63 proteins cannot activate S100A2 transcription in the absence of a functional BRCA1. Consequently, mutation of the ΔNp63/p53 response element within the S100A2 promoter completely abrogates the ability of BRCA1 to upregulate S100A2. S100A2 shows growth control features in a range of cell models. Transient or stable exogenous S100A2 expression inhibits the growth of BRCA1 mutant and basal-like breast cancer cell lines, while short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of S100A2 in non-tumorigenic cells results in enhanced proliferation. S100A2 modulates binding of mutant p53 to HSP90, which is required for efficient folding of mutant p53 proteins, by competing for binding to HSP70/HSP90 organising protein (HOP). HOP is a cochaperone that is required for the efficient transfer of proteins from HSP70 to HSP90. Loss of S100A2 leads to an HSP90-dependent stabilisation of mutant p53 with a concomitant loss of p63. Accordingly, S100A2-deficient cells are more sensitive to the HSP-90 inhibitor, 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, potentially representing a novel therapeutic strategy for S100A2- and BRCA1-deficient cancers. Taken together, these data demonstrate the importance of S100A2 downstream of the BRCA1/ΔNp63 signalling axis in modulating transcriptional responses and enforcing growth control mechanisms through destabilisation of mutant p53.
Lin SJ, Chang KP, Hsu CW, et al.Low-molecular-mass secretome profiling identifies C-C motif chemokine 5 as a potential plasma biomarker and therapeutic target for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
J Proteomics. 2013; 94:186-201 [PubMed
] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Cancer cell secretome profiling has been shown to be a promising strategy for identifying potential body fluid-accessible cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. However, very few reports have investigated low-molecular-mass (LMr) proteins (<15kDa) in the cancer cell secretome. In the present study, we applied tricine-SDS-gel-assisted fractionation in conjunction with LC-MS/MS to systemically identify LMr proteins in the secretomes of three nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines. We examined two NPC tissue transcriptome datasets to identify LMr genes/proteins that are highly upregulated in NPC tissues and also secreted/released from NPC cells, obtaining 35 candidates. We verified the overexpression of four targets (LSM2, SUMO1, RPL22, and CCL5) in NPC tissues by immunohistochemistry and demonstrated elevated plasma levels of two targets (S100A2 and CCL5) in NPC patients by ELISA. Notably, plasma CCL5 showed good power (AUC 0.801) for discriminating NPC patients from healthy controls. Additionally, functional assays revealed that CCL5 promoted migration of NPC cells, an effect that was effectively blocked by CCL5-neutralizing antibodies and maraviroc, a CCL5 receptor antagonist. Collectively, our data indicate the feasibility of the tricine-SDS-gel/LC-MS/MS approach for efficient identification of LMr proteins from cancer cell secretomes, and suggest that CCL5 is a potential plasma biomarker and therapeutic target for NPC.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Both LMr proteome and cancer cell secretome represent attractive reservoirs for discovery of cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Our present study provides evidence for the practicality of using the tricine-SDS-PAGE/LC-MS/MS approach for in-depth identification of LMr proteins from the NPC cell secretomes, leading to the discovery of CCL5 as a potential plasma biomarker and therapeutic target for NPC. We believe that the modified GeLC-MS/MS approach used here can be further applied to explore extremely low-abundance, extracellular LMr proteins with important biological functions in other cell lines and biospecimens.
Naz S, Bashir M, Ranganathan P, et al.Protumorigenic actions of S100A2 involve regulation of PI3/Akt signaling and functional interaction with Smad3.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(1):14-23 [PubMed
] Related Publications
S100 family of calcium-binding proteins is commonly upregulated in a variety of tumor types and is often associated with tumor progression. Among several S100 members, altered expression of S100A2 is a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker in cancer. Several reports suggest a role for S100A2 in metastasis. Earlier, our studies established regulation of S100A2 by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and its involvement in TGF-β-mediated cancer cell invasion and migration. However, the molecular mechanisms of S100A2 protumorigenic actions remain unexplored. In the present study, we demonstrate that overexpression of S100A2 in A549 lung cancer cells induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) followed by increased invasion, loose colony morphology in soft agar and enhanced Akt phosphorylation (Ser-473). Furthermore, overexpression of S100A2 led to increased tumor growth in immunocompromised mice. In agreement, immunohistochemical examination of resected xenograft tumors established inverse correlation between S100A2 and E-cadherin expression together with activated Akt signaling. Interestingly, our study demonstrates a strong dependence of S100A2 and Smad3 in TGF-β-induced Hep3B cell EMT and invasion. Most importantly, we demonstrate that these effects of S100A2 are manifested through functional interaction with Smad3, which is enhanced in the presence of high calcium and TGF-β. S100A2 stabilizes Smad3 and binds to its C-terminal MH2 domain. Additionally, loss of S100A2 attenuates the transcription of TGF-β/Smad3 target genes involved in tumor promotion, such as PA1-1 and vimentin. Collectively, our findings present the first mechanistic details of S100A2 protumorigenic actions and its involvement in TGF-β-mediated cancer cell invasion and EMT.
AIM: To develop novel biomarkers of rectal radiotherapy, we measured gene expression profiles on biopsies taken before and during preoperative radiotherapy.
METHODS: Six patients presenting with a locally advanced rectal cancer (T>T2, N0/Nx, M0) eligible for preoperative radiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions) were selected in a pilot study. Six tumor and 3 normal tissues biopsies were taken before and during radiotherapy, after a dose of 7.2 Gy at a median time of 1 h following irradiation (0:27-2:12). Tumor or normal tissue purity was assessed by a pathologist prior to RNA extraction. Mean RNA content was 23 μg/biopsy (14-37) before radiotherapy and 22.7 μg/biopsy (12-35) during radiotherapy. After RNA amplification, biopsies were analysed with 54K HG-U133A Plus 2.0 Affymetrix expression micro-arrays. Data were normalized according to MAS5 algorithm. A gene expression ratio was calculated as: (gene expression during radiotherapy - gene expression before radiotherapy)/gene expression before radiotherapy. Were selected genes that showed a ratio higher than ± 0.5 in all 6 patients.
RESULTS: Microarray analysis showed that preoperative radiotherapy significantly up-regulated 31 genes and down-regulated 6 genes. According to the Gene Ontology project classification, these genes are involved in protein metabolism (ADAMDEC1; AKAP7; CAPN5; CLIC5; CPE; CREB3L1; NEDD4L; RAB27A), ion transport (AKAP7; ATP2A3; CCL28; CLIC5; F2RL2; NEDD4L; SLC6A8), transcription (AKAP7; CREB3L1; ISX; PABPC1L; TXNIP), signal transduction (CAPN5; F2RL2; RAB27A; TNFRSF11A), cell adhesion (ADAMDEC1; PXDN; SPON1; S100A2), immune response (CCL28; PXDN; TNFRSF11A) and apoptosis (ITM2C; PDCD4; PVT1). Up-regulation of 3 genes (CCL28; CLIC5; PDCD4) was detected by 2 different probes and up-regulation of 2 genes (RAB27A; TXNIP) by 3 probes.
CONCLUSION: Micro-arrays can efficiently assess early transcriptomic changes during preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer, and may help better understand tumor radioresistance.
In this study we selected three breast cancer cell lines (SKBR3, SUM149 and SUM190) with different oncogene expression levels involved in ERBB2 and EGFR signaling pathways as a model system for the evaluation of selective integration of subsets of transcriptomic and proteomic data. We assessed the oncogene status with reads per kilobase per million mapped reads (RPKM) values for ERBB2 (14.4, 400, and 300 for SUM149, SUM190, and SKBR3, respectively) and for EGFR (60.1, not detected, and 1.4 for the same 3 cell lines). We then used RNA-Seq data to identify those oncogenes with significant transcript levels in these cell lines (total 31) and interrogated the corresponding proteomics data sets for proteins with significant interaction values with these oncogenes. The number of observed interactors for each oncogene showed a significant range, e.g., 4.2% (JAK1) to 27.3% (MYC). The percentage is measured as a fraction of the total protein interactions in a given data set vs total interactors for that oncogene in STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins, version 9.0) and I2D (Interologous Interaction Database, version 1.95). This approach allowed us to focus on 4 main oncogenes, ERBB2, EGFR, MYC, and GRB2, for pathway analysis. We used bioinformatics sites GeneGo, PathwayCommons and NCI receptor signaling networks to identify pathways that contained the four main oncogenes and had good coverage in the transcriptomic and proteomic data sets as well as a significant number of oncogene interactors. The four pathways identified were ERBB signaling, EGFR1 signaling, integrin outside-in signaling, and validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation. The greater dynamic range of the RNA-Seq values allowed the use of transcript ratios to correlate observed protein values with the relative levels of the ERBB2 and EGFR transcripts in each of the four pathways. This provided us with potential proteomic signatures for the SUM149 and 190 cell lines, growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 (GRB7), Crk-like protein (CRKL) and Catenin delta-1 (CTNND1) for ERBB signaling; caveolin 1 (CAV1), plectin (PLEC) for EGFR signaling; filamin A (FLNA) and actinin alpha1 (ACTN1) (associated with high levels of EGFR transcript) for integrin signalings; branched chain amino-acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1), carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CAD), nucleolin (NCL) (high levels of EGFR transcript); transferrin receptor (TFRC), metadherin (MTDH) (high levels of ERBB2 transcript) for MYC signaling; S100-A2 protein (S100A2), caveolin 1 (CAV1), Serpin B5 (SERPINB5), stratifin (SFN), PYD and CARD domain containing (PYCARD), and EPH receptor A2 (EPHA2) for PI3K signaling, p53 subpathway. Future studies of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), from which the cell lines were derived, will be used to explore the significance of these observations.
Zhao Y, Zhang TB, Wang QClinical significance of altered S100A2 expression in gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(4):1556-62 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The S100A2 gene has been reported to be a putative tumor‑suppressor gene. Nevertheless, overexpression of S100A2 has been found in certain types of cancer. This study investigated S100A2 expression in tissue specimens of gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, adenomatous dysplasia and gastric cancer to determine its association with clinical features. A serial of tissue samples (gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, adenomatous dysplasia and gastric cancer samples) were used for quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses of S100A2 expression. The data revealed that there was a gradual loss of S100A2 expression from gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia to cancer tissue specimens (p<0.001). In gastric cancer samples, loss of S100A2 expression was associated with increased tumor size, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and a poor prognosis (p<0.001). However, the intestinal type of gastric cancer expressed more S100A2 protein than the diffuse type (p<0.001). In conclusion, data from the present study demonstrated that loss of S100A2 expression contributes to gastric cancer development and progression; therefore, the determination of S100A2 expression levels may help to predict the carcinogenesis and aggressiveness of gastric cancer as well as patient survival.
Giráldez MD, Lozano JJ, Cuatrecasas M, et al.Gene-expression signature of tumor recurrence in patients with stage II and III colon cancer treated with 5'fluoruracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 132(5):1090-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Although receiving adjuvant chemotherapy after radical surgery, a disappointing proportion of patients with colorectal cancer will develop tumor recurrence. Probability of relapse is currently predicted from pathological staging, there being a need for additional markers to further select high-risk patients. This study was aimed to identify a gene-expression signature to predict tumor recurrence in patients with Stages II and III colon cancer treated with 5'fluoruracil (5FU)-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Two-hundred and twenty-eight patients diagnosed with Stages II-III colon cancer and treated with surgical resection and 5FU-based adjuvant chemotherapy were included. RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples and expression of 27 selected candidate genes was analyzed by RT-qPCR. A tumor recurrence predicting model, including clinico-pathological variables and gene-expression profiling, was developed by Cox regression analysis and validated by bootstrapping. The regression analysis identified tumor stage and S100A2 and S100A10 gene expression as independently associated with tumor recurrence. The risk score derived from this model was able to discriminate two groups with a highly significant different probability of tumor recurrence (HR, 2.75; 95%CI, 1.71-4.39; p = 0.0001), which it was maintained when patients were stratified according to tumor stage. The algorithm was also able to distinguish two groups with different overall survival (HR, 2.68; 95%CI, 1.12-6.42; p = 0.03). Identification of a new gene-expression signature associated with a high probability of tumor recurrence in patients with Stages II and III colon cancer receiving adjuvant 5FU-based chemotherapy, and its combination in a robust, easy-to-use and reliable algorithm may contribute to tailor treatment and surveillance strategies.
Naz S, Ranganathan P, Bodapati P, et al.Regulation of S100A2 expression by TGF-β-induced MEK/ERK signalling and its role in cell migration/invasion.
Biochem J. 2012; 447(1):81-91 [PubMed
] Related Publications
S100A2, an EF hand calcium-binding protein, is a potential biomarker in several cancers and is also a TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β)-regulated gene in melanoma and lung cancer cells. However, the mechanism of S100A2 regulation by TGF-β and its significance in cancer progression remains largely unknown. In the present study we report the mechanism of S100A2 regulation by TGF-β and its possible role in TGF-β-mediated tumour promotion. Characterization of the S100A2 promoter revealed an AP-1 (activator protein-1) element at positions -1161 to -1151 as being the most critical factor for the TGF-β1 response. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays confirmed the functional binding of the AP-1 complex, predominantly JunB, to the S100A2 promoter in response to TGF-β1 in HaCaT keratinocytes. JunB overexpression markedly stimulated the S100A2 promoter which was blocked by the dominant-negative JunB and MEK1 [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinase 1] inhibitor, PD98059. Intriguingly, despite the presence of a putative SMAD-binding element, S100A2 regulation by TGF-β1 was found to be SMAD3 independent. Interestingly, p53 protein and TGF-β1 show synergistic regulation of the S100A2 promoter. Finally, knockdown of S100A2 expression compromised TGF-β1-induced cell migration and invasion of Hep3B cells. Together our findings highlight an important link between the TGF-β1-induced MAPK and p53 signalling pathways in the regulation of S100A2 expression and pro-tumorigenic actions.
Lee K, Yun ST, Yun CO, et al.S100A2 promoter-driven conditionally replicative adenovirus targets non-small-cell lung carcinoma.
Gene Ther. 2012; 19(10):967-77 [PubMed
] Related Publications
S100A2, a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins, has been implicated in carcinogenesis as both a tumor suppressor and stimulator. Here, we characterized promoter activity of S100A2, generated an S100A2 promoter-driven conditionally replicative adenovirus (Ad/SA), and evaluated its anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Promoter activity of S100A2 was greatly restricted to tumor cells, and the S100A2 promoter bound with typical nuclear targets of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. EGF-stimulated EGFR phosphorylation induced S100A2 expression and further activated E1A expression of Ad/SA, which was restored by EGFR signal inhibition in a concentration-dependent manner in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In two EGFR-activated tumor xenograft animal models, Ad/SA exhibited potent anti-tumor activity, whereas cetuximab, an EGFR-targeting anticancer drug, was active transiently or ineffective. Combined treatment with cetuximab or cisplatin plus Ad/SA resulted in enhanced anti-tumor activity. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor sections showed moderate-to-high grade signals for EGFR and adenovirus, and a reduction in viable cells in Ad/SA-treated tumors. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the S100A2 promoter-driven adenovirus is a potent inhibitor of cancers, and further suggest that S100A2 is a target gene of EGFR signaling pathway in NSCLC.
PURPOSE: To study the expression and cellular distribution of multiple S100A genes and proteins in normal corneal-limbal epithelium and ocular surface squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissue.
METHODS: Normal corneal-limbal tissue was obtained from the Lions Eye Bank, Tampa, FL. Ocular surface SCC tissues were excised from patients undergoing surgery at Singapore National Eye Centre. S100A mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR. S100 protein distribution was determined by immunofluorescent staining analysis.
RESULTS: Twelve S100 mRNAs were identified in human corneal and limbal epithelial cells. S100A2, A6, A8, A9, A10, and A11 mRNA was expressed at high level, while S100A1, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, and A12 mRNA expression was low. The intracellular localization of S100A2, A6, A8, A9, A10 and A11 protein was determined in normal corneal-limbal and SCC tissues. S100A2 and S100A10 proteins were enriched in basal limbal epithelial cells of the normal tissue. S100A8 and S100A9 were found only at the surface of peripheral corneal and limbal epithelium. S100A6 was uniformly found at the plasma membrane of corneal and limbal epithelial cells. S100A11 was found at the supralayer limbal epithelial cells adjacent to the conjunctiva. SCC tissue showed typical pathological changes with expression of cytokeartin (CK) 14 and CK4 in the epithelial cells. All SCC epithelial cells were positive of S100A2, S100A10, S100A6 and S100A11 staining. Intracellular staining of S100A8 and S100A9 was found in several layers of SCC epithelium. Expression of S100A2 and S100A10 decreased dramatically in cultured limbal epithelial cells with increased passaging, which was accompanied by a small increase of S100A9 mRNA, with no changes of S100A8 gene expression. Serum and growth hormone depletion of the culture serum caused a small reduction of S100A2 and S100A10 gene expression, which was accompanied by a small increase of S100A9 mRNA while no changes of S100A8 expression was measured.
CONCLUSIONS: Normal corneal and limbal epithelial cells express a broad spectrum of S100 genes and proteins. Ocular surface SCC express high levels of S100A2, S100A10, S100A8 and S100A9 proteins. The expression of S100A2 and S100A10 is associated with limbal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.
Chivu Economescu M, Necula LG, Dragu D, et al.Identification of potential biomarkers for early and advanced gastric adenocarcinoma detection.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2010 Nov-Dec; 57(104):1453-64 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to understand gradual biological variations during gastric tumorigenesis, and to identify the candidate genes that are involved in tumor progression and metastasis.
METHODOLOGY: cDNA microarray data were obtained from 10 pair of cancerous and normal adjacent tissue from gastric adenocarcinoma patients. The samples were divided in primary and advanced gastric adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis. Validation of the microarray data was accomplished by quantitative RT-PCR on additional 41 samples. The significantly modified genes were grouped in clusters according to their functional annotation, and comparison was done regarding molecular mechanisms involved tumor progression.
RESULTS: A total of 136 genes were up-regulated and 96 genes were down-regulated by at least fourfold in tumor tissue. The analysis of gene clusters revealed a complex remodelling of normal gastric epithelium morphology and function associated with the tumorigenesis and metastasis. A large number of proteases are being overexpressed, together with keratins, genes associated with morphogenesis and anti-apoptosis. Between the most significant down-regulated genes, there were genes involved in gastric motility and synthesis and genes related to metabolic and pro-apoptotic processes. We also report, the identification of seven genes, significant up-regulated, that seem to be associated with tumor progression: KRT17, COL10A2, KIAA1199, SPP1, IL11, S100A2, and MMP3.
CONCLUSIONS: Our cDNA microarray study identified several genes that appeared to meet the criteria of a good biomarker, and may therefore be especially useful for the development of diagnostic tools, for the early detection, or for the prediction of tumor progression.
Scott R, Siegrist F, Foser S, Certa UInterferon-alpha induces reversible DNA demethylation of the interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 core promoter in human melanoma cells.
J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2011; 31(8):601-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The interferon (IFN)-α response gene interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) has antiproliferative properties in a number of biological systems. In the human melanoma cell line D10, IFITM3 is constitutively expressed and we show that the core promoter is significantly hypomethylated compared to ME15 cells, where IFITM3 is tightly controlled. We demonstrate that treatment of ME15 cells with the demethylating agent 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine enhances IFITM3 expression after IFN-α treatment. In a time-course experiment, we show that IFN-α induces demethylation of specific CpG sites of the IFITM3 core promoter 6 h after stimulation and that promoter methylation is precisely re-set to the naïve state 24 h after stimulation. This cyclable modification of methylation requires costimulation with tumor growth factor-beta or expression of the calcium binding protein S100A2, which are known cofactors for enhancement of antiproliferative activity in ME15 cells. Thus, the transcriptional response to IFN-α can be enhanced by promoter demethylation of a subset of inducible genes such as IFITM3. This epigenetic modulation might be crucial to augment the immune response under critical conditions in vivo.
Russo SM, Ove R, Saif MWIdentification of prognostic and predictive markers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Highlights from the "2011 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium". San Francisco, CA, USA. January 20-22, 2011.
JOP. 2011; 12(2):92-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. While increasing treatment options have improved outcomes for many patients, they have also complicated decision-making for treatment. Unfortunately, most patients with pancreatic cancer die from their disease. Prognostic and predictive markers could play a role to improve treatment by identifying patients who may or may not require a given therapy, and determining those most likely to benefit from a therapy. At the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium held in San Francisco, January 2011, several interesting abstracts were presented that focused on prognostic and predictive markers associated with pancreatic adenocarcinomas. These abstracts discuss progress made in identifying molecular subtypes of pancreatic cancers that may provide insight into selection of patients likely to benefit from certain therapies.
McKiernan E, McDermott EW, Evoy D, et al.The role of S100 genes in breast cancer progression.
Tumour Biol. 2011; 32(3):441-50 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The S100 gene family encode low molecular weight proteins implicated in cancer progression. In this study, we analyzed the expression of four S100 genes in one cohort of patients with breast cancer and 16 S100 genes in a second cohort. In both cohorts, the expression of S100A8 and S1009 mRNA level was elevated in high-grade compared to low-grade tumors and in estrogen receptor-negative compared to estrogen receptor-positive tumors. None of the S100 transcripts investigated were significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis. Notably, multiple S100 genes, including S100A1, S100A2, S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, and S100A14 were upregulated in basal-type breast cancers compared to non-basal types. Using Spearman's correlation analysis, several S100 transcripts correlated significantly with each other, the strongest correlation has been found between S100A8 and S100A9 (r = 0.889, P < 0.001, n = 295). Of the 16 S100 transcripts investigated, only S100A11 and S100A14 were significantly associated with patient outcome. Indeed, these two transcripts predicted outcome in the cohort of patients that did not receive systemic adjuvant therapy. Based on our findings, we conclude that the different S100 genes play varying roles in breast cancer progression. Specific S100 genes are potential targets for the treatment of basal-type breast cancers.
Tsai WC, Lin YC, Tsai ST, et al.Lack of modulatory function of coding nucleotide polymorphism S100A2_185G>A in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Dis. 2011; 17(3):283-90 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: S100A2, a Ca(2+) -binding protein with two EF-hands, is a tumor suppressor in oral cancer. Helix III flanking the C-terminal EF-hand is implicated to participate in the interaction of S100A2 and its target(s). The aim of this study was to examine if the coding sequence polymorphism S100A2_185G>A, leading to the peptide 62 substitution of asparagine (AAC, A allele) for serine (AGC, G allele) in helix III, had modulation effects on S100A-mediated tumor suppression.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We sequenced the coding sequence of S100A2 gene in normal oral keratinocytes (NOKs), dysplastic oral keratinocytes (DOKs), eight oral cancer lines, and 54 pairwise oral cancer specimens. We also compared the in vitro anti-tumor effect of wildtype (G allele) and variant (A allele) S100A2 expression using cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and colony formation assays.
RESULTS: With the exception of CAL27 and SCC-15 cancer lines being heterozygotes of A and G alleles, the remaining oral cells were homozygotic in G alleles. No alterations of anti-growth, anti-migration, anti-invasion, and anti-colony formation were observed between variant and wildtype cells. Moreover, no minor S100A2_185A allele was detected in 54-pairwise clinical specimens.
CONCLUSION: The coding sequence polymorphism S100A2_185G>A had no regulatory role in S100A2-mediated tumor suppression in oral cancer.
Luo J, Zhu Y, Yang G, et al.Loss of Reprimo and S100A2 expression in human gastric adenocarcinoma.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2011; 39(10):752-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Reprimo and S100A2 are two newly identified candidate tumor-suppressor genes, which play an important role in the regulation of p53-dependent cell cycle. In this study, we examined the expressions of Reprimo and S100A2 in surgical specimens of gastric adenocarcinoma and correlated these results with pathological and clinical parameters. Tissues were obtained from 100 gastric adenocarcinoma patients that underwent curative gastrectomy. Reprimo and S100A2 expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis. Loss of Reprimo and S100A2 expressions occurred in 65 and 52% of the patients, respectively. Loss of Reprimo expression was significantly correlated with the depth of tumor invasion (P = 0.000), lymphatic vessel invasion (P = 0.006), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.000). Loss of S100A2 expression was significantly associated with histological type (P = 0.009), depth of invasion (P = 0.033), lymphatic vessel invasion (P = 0.01), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). In addition, there was a significant positive association between the expressions of Reprimo and S100A2 (P < 0.01). The results suggest that loss of Reprimo and S100A2 expressions occurs frequently in gastric adenocarcinomas. The expressions of Reprimo and S100A2 may be potential biomarkers for gastric adenocarcinomas detection.
Leclerc E, Heizmann CW, Vetter SWRAGE and S100 protein transcription levels are highly variable in human melanoma tumors and cells.
Gen Physiol Biophys. 2009; 28 Spec No Focus:F65-75 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) has been suggested to play an important role in melanoma. Animal studies with anti-RAGE antibodies have shown that RAGE blockade leads to reduced melanoma tumor growth and metastasis formation. RAGE is a multiligand receptor and among its ligands are the Ca-binding S100 proteins. Certain S100 proteins are differentially expressed in melanoma. For example, S100B is currently used as a reliable prognostic biomarker in patients with malignant melanoma. We have surveyed 40 human melanoma tumor samples for the transcription of RAGE and five of its known S100 protein ligands. Compared to normal skin tissue, we found highly significant (p < 0.0001) over-expression of S100B and underexpression of S100A2, whereas no significant difference in transcription of S100A6 and S100A10 was observed. RAGE showed slightly increased transcription in stage IV. Between individual tumor samples tremendous differences in transcription of the S100 proteins were observed, whereas RAGE expression showed relatively little variance. We also analyzed three well-characterized melanoma cell lines for S100 and RAGE expression. The S100 protein transcription profile showed clear differences between cultured melanoma cells and melanoma tumor tissue. Detailed profiling of S100 and RAGE transcription in melanoma tumors in combination with imunohisto-chemical and clinical data may lead to improved molecular diagnostic of melanoma and subsequently may facilitate improved treatment in the future.
Bruheim S, Xi Y, Ju J, Fodstad OGene expression profiles classify human osteosarcoma xenografts according to sensitivity to doxorubicin, cisplatin, and ifosfamide.
Clin Cancer Res. 2009; 15(23):7161-9 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: In osteosarcoma, aggressive preoperative and postoperative multidrug chemotherapy given to all patients has improved patient survival rate to the present level of approximately 60%. However, no tumor marker is available that reliably can identify those patients who will or will not respond to chemotherapy.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In an attempt to find leads to such markers, we have obtained microarray gene expression profiles from a panel of 10 different human osteosarcoma xenografts and related the results to their sensitivity to ifosfamide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin.
RESULTS: The expression data identified genes with highly significant differential expression between poor and good responder xenografts to the three different drugs: 85 genes for doxorubicin, 74 genes for cisplatin, and 118 genes for ifosfamide. Technical validation with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed good correlation with the microarray expression data. Gene Ontology-guided analysis suggested that properties of the poorly responsive xenografts were resistance to undergo programmed cell death and, particularly for ifosfamide, a drive toward dedifferentiation and increased tumor aggressiveness. Leads toward metabolic alterations and involvement of mitochondrial pathways for apoptosis and stress response were more prominent for doxorubicin and cisplatin. Finally, small interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing of IER3 and S100A2 sensitized the human osteosarcoma cell line OHS to treatment with 4-hydroperoxyifosfamide.
CONCLUSIONS: The expression profiles contained several novel biomarker candidates that may help predict the responsiveness of osteosarcoma to doxorubicin, cisplatin, and ifosfamide. The potential of selected candidates will be further validated on clinical specimens from osteosarcoma patients.
Parker LP, Taylor DD, Kesterson S, Gercel-Taylor CGene expression profiling in response to estradiol and genistein in ovarian cancer cells.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2009 May-Jun; 6(3):189-94 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Despite optimal primary treatment of ovarian cancer, overall prognosis is poor due to recurrences. While steroid hormone receptors are frequently expressed, the role of estrogen receptor (ER) in ovarian carcinogenesis, response to treatment or prognosis has not been established. We analyzed the gene-expression in response to estradiol (E2) and genistein (Gen) in ovarian cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell lines (Br-1, UL-1; Oy-1), treated with E2 (10 nM) or Gen (5 microM), were used for gene expression profiling. RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting were used to further analyze gene expression data.
RESULTS: Twenty-four genes were differentially regulated in ovarian cancer cell lines. C3, CLU, COL6A1, DLC1, NME1, NRIP1, PTEN, RAC2, S100A2 were down-regulated with E2 in Br-1 and UL-1 cells. MK167, SERPINB5, SLC7A5, CDK1NA, LCN2, PLAU, PHB2, CTSB, EGLN2, ERBB2, HMGB1, ID2, ITGB4, TOP2A were up-regulated in Oy-1 cells with E2 and/or genistein. ERBB2 and ID2 (E2 and Gen), LCN2, PHB2 and HMGB1 (Gen) were down-regulated in Br-1 cells. ERalpha and ERbeta were detected in all cell lines at different levels.
CONCLUSION: Variable response of ovarian cancer cells to E2 and Gen was observed. Study of ERs including splice variants, co-regulatory molecules are necessary to understand the relevance of receptors.
BACKGROUND: Morphologically similar cancers display heterogeneous patterns of molecular aberrations and follow substantially different clinical courses. This diversity has become the basis for the definition of molecular phenotypes, with significant implications for therapy. Microarray or proteomic expression profiling is conventionally employed to identify disease-associated genes, however, traditional approaches for the analysis of profiling experiments may miss molecular aberrations which define biologically relevant subtypes.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present Messina, a method that can identify those genes that only sometimes show aberrant expression in cancer. We demonstrate with simulated data that Messina is highly sensitive and specific when used to identify genes which are aberrantly expressed in only a proportion of cancers, and compare Messina to contemporary analysis techniques. We illustrate Messina by using it to detect the aberrant expression of a gene that may play an important role in pancreatic cancer.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Messina allows the detection of genes with profiles typical of markers of molecular subtype, and complements existing methods to assist the identification of such markers. Messina is applicable to any global expression profiling data, and to allow its easy application has been packaged into a freely-available stand-alone software package.
Biankin AV, Kench JG, Colvin EK, et al.Expression of S100A2 calcium-binding protein predicts response to pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer.
Gastroenterology. 2009; 137(2):558-68, 568.e1-11 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND & AIMS: Current methods of preoperative staging and predicting outcome following pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer (PC) are inadequate. We evaluated the utility of multiple biomarkers from distinct biologic pathways as potential predictive markers of response to pancreatectomy and patient survival.
METHODS: We assessed the relationship of candidate biomarkers known, or suspected, to be aberrantly expressed in PC, with disease-specific survival and response to therapy in a cohort of 601 patients.
RESULTS: Of the 17 candidate biomarkers examined, only elevated expression of S100A2 was an independent predictor of survival in both the training (n = 162) and validation sets (n = 439; hazard ratio [HR], 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48-3.25; P < .0001) when assessed in a multivariate model with clinical variables. Patients with high S100A2 expressing tumors had no survival benefit with pancreatectomy compared with those with locally advanced disease, whereas those without high S100A2 expression had a survival advantage of 10.6 months (19.4 vs 8.8 months, respectively) and a HR of 3.23 (95% CI: 2.39-4.33; P < .0001). Of significance, patients with S100A2-negative tumors had a significant survival benefit from pancreatectomy even in the presence of involved surgical margins (median, 15.7 months; P = .0007) or lymph node metastases (median, 17.4 months; P = .0002).
CONCLUSIONS: S100A2 expression is a good predictor of response to pancreatectomy for PC and suggests that high S100A2 expression may be a marker of a metastatic phenotype. Prospective measurement of S100A2 expression in diagnostic biopsy samples has potential clinical utility as a predictive marker of response to pancreatectomy and other therapies that target locoregional disease.
Strazisar M, Mlakar V, Glavac DThe expression of COX-2, hTERT, MDM2, LATS2 and S100A2 in different types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2009; 14(3):442-56 [PubMed
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Several studies have reported different expression levels of certain genes in NSCLC, mostly related to the stage and advancement of the tumours. We investigated 65 stage I-III NSCLC tumours: 32 adenocarcinomas (ADC), 26 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and 7 large cell carcinomas (LCC). Using the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we analysed the expression of the COX-2, hTERT, MDM2, LATS2 and S100A2 genes and researched the relationships between the NSCLC types and the differences in expression levels. The differences in the expression levels of the LATS2, S100A2 and hTERT genes in different types of NSCLC are significant. hTERT and COX-2 were over-expressed and LATS2 under-expressed in all NSCLC. We also detected significant relative differences in the expression of LATS2 and MDM2, hTERT and MDM2 in different types of NSCLC. There was a significant difference in the average expression levels in S100A2 for ADC and SCC. Our study shows differences in the expression patterns within the NSCLC group, which may mimic the expression of the individual NSCLC type, and also new relationships in the expression levels for different NSCLC types.
Bulk E, Sargin B, Krug U, et al.S100A2 induces metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2009; 15(1):22-9 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: S100 proteins are implicated in metastasis development in several cancers. In this study, we analyzed the prognostic role of mRNA levels of all S100 proteins in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients as well as the pathogenetic of S100A2 in the development of metastasis in NSCLC.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Microarray data from a large NSCLC patient cohort was analyzed for the prognostic role of S100 proteins for survival in surgically resected NSCLC. Metastatic potential of the S100A2 gene was analyzed in vitro and in a lung cancer mouse model in vivo. Overexpression and RNAi approaches were used for analysis of the biological functions of S100A2.
RESULTS: High mRNA expression levels of several S100 proteins and especially S100A2 were associated with poor survival in surgically resected NSCLC patients. Upon stable transfection into NSCLC cell lines, S100A2 did not alter proliferation. However, S100A2 enhanced transwell migration as well as transendothelial migration in vitro. NOD/SCID mice injected s.c. with NSCLC cells overexpressing S100A2 developed significantly more distant metastasis (64%) than mice with control vector transfected tumor cells (17%; P < 0.05). When mice with S100A2 expressing tumors were treated i.v. with shRNA against S100A2, these mice developed significantly fewer lung metastasis than mice treated with control shRNA (P = 0.021).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings identify S100A2 as a strong metastasis inducer in vivo. S100A2 might be a potential biomarker as well as a novel therapeutic target in NSCLC metastasis.
BACKGROUND: The S100 protein family comprises 22 members whose protein sequences encompass at least one EF-hand Ca2+ binding motif. They were involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. However, the expression status of S100 family members in gastric cancer was not known yet.
METHODS: Combined with analysis of series analysis of gene expression, virtual Northern blot and microarray data, the expression levels of S100 family members in normal and malignant stomach tissues were systematically investigated. The expression of S100A3 was further evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR.
RESULTS: At least 5 S100 genes were found to be upregulated in gastric cancer by in silico analysis. Among them, four genes, including S100A2, S100A4, S100A7 and S100A10, were reported to overexpressed in gastric cancer previously. The expression of S100A3 in eighty patients of gastric cancer was further examined. The results showed that the mean expression levels of S100A3 in gastric cancer tissues were 2.5 times as high as in adjacent non-tumorous tissues. S100A3 expression was correlated with tumor differentiation and TNM (Tumor-Node-Metastasis) stage of gastric cancer, which was relatively highly expressed in poorly differentiated and advanced gastric cancer tissues (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first report of systematic evaluation of S100 gene expressions in gastric cancers by multiple in silico analysis. The results indicated that overexpression of S100 gene family members were characteristics of gastric cancers and S100A3 might play important roles in differentiation and progression of gastric cancer.
Rand V, Prebble E, Ridley L, et al.Investigation of chromosome 1q reveals differential expression of members of the S100 family in clinical subgroups of intracranial paediatric ependymoma.
Br J Cancer. 2008; 99(7):1136-43 [PubMed
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Gain of 1q is one of the most common alterations in cancer and has been associated with adverse clinical behaviour in ependymoma. The aim of this study was to investigate this region to gain insight into the role of 1q genes in intracranial paediatric ependymoma. To address this issue we generated profiles of eleven ependymoma, including two relapse pairs and seven primary tumours, using comparative genome hybridisation and serial analysis of gene expression. Analysis of 656 SAGE tags mapping to 1q identified CHI3L1 and S100A10 as the most upregulated genes in the relapse pair with de novo 1q gain upon recurrence. Moreover, three more members of the S100 family had distinct gene expression profiles in ependymoma. Candidates (CHI3L1, S100A10, S100A4, S100A6 and S100A2) were validated using immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray of 74 paediatric ependymoma. In necrotic cases, CHI3L1 demonstrated a distinct staining pattern in tumour cells adjacent to the areas of necrosis. S100A6 significantly correlated with supratentorial tumours (P<0.001) and S100A4 with patients under the age of 3 years at diagnosis (P=0.038). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that S100A6 and S100A4 are differentially expressed in clinically relevant subgroups, and also demonstrates a link between CHI3L1 protein expression and necrosis in intracranial paediatric ependymoma.
Strazisar M, Rott T, Glavac DFrequent polymorphic variations but rare tumour specific mutations of the S100A2 on 1q21 in non-small cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer. 2009; 63(3):354-9 [PubMed
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Contrary to the recent hypothesis that S100A2 is a tumour suppressor, no somatic mutations have yet been identified. We therefore screened 90 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) samples, initially for mutations in S100A2 and then also for mutations in P53 and K-RAS genes. Alterations were detected in 46.7% of squamous lung cancer (SCC) samples, but we detected only one novel tumour specific mutation, Q23X in squamous carcinoma. We detected four polymorphisms, two of them published for the first time (144+109 C/G and 297+75A/G) and two already published: S62N, in the coding region and related to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 297+17T/C. Analysis of S100A2 expression revealed that expression in adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas is significantly different, but not related to any of the found alterations. In one tumour with S62N polymorphism, P53 and K-RAS genes were also mutated, while two tumours with the Q23X mutation have a P53 but no K-RAS mutation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing alterations in the S100A2 gene proving a relation between changes in predominantly squamous lung cancer.
Yao R, Lopez-Beltran A, Maclennan GT, et al.Expression of S100 protein family members in the pathogenesis of bladder tumors.
Anticancer Res. 2007 Sep-Oct; 27(5A):3051-8 [PubMed
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The S100 proteins act as multifactional signaling factors that are involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes. To explore the involvement of S100 genes in bladder cancers, S100 gene expressions were systematically evaluated at the RNA level by microarray and real-time PCR. Total RNAs were obtained from 4-hydroxybutyl(butyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN)-induced mouse and rat bladder cancers, human bladder cancers and matched normal bladder urothelium. Microarray analysis was performed on mouse and rat bladder cancers; real-time PCR was performed in mouse, rat and human bladder cancers and their matched normal urothelium for confirmation. Microarray analysis revealed that 9 and 6 members of the S100 gene family were differentially expressed in mouse and rat bladder cancers, respectively. Thirteen members of the S100 gene family were confirmed by real-time PCR to be differentially expressed in human bladder cancers, with overexpression of S100A2, S100A3, S100A5, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A14, S100A15, S100A16 and S100P, and underexpression of S100A1, S100A4 and S100B. S100A1, S10OA3, S100A8, S10A9, S100A14, S100A15 and S100A16 showed similar patterns of differential expression in bladder cancers from mouse, rat and human. To our knowledge this is the first report of systematic evaluation of S100 gene expressions in bladder cancers. Our results indicate that differential expression of S100 gene family members is characteristic of bladder cancers and these genes may play important roles in bladder tumorigenesis and progression.
Hennig EE, Mikula M, Orlowska J, et al.Large intra- and inter-individual variability of genes expression levels limits potential predictive value of molecular diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2008; 86(2):233-42 [PubMed
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Barrett's esophagus represents a well-defined precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma, although only a subset of patients with these lesions advances to invasive cancer. Currently, reliable markers predicting neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus are lacking. The only clinically useful risk factor is the presence of dysplasia in Barrett's epithelium, but its use as a prognostic marker of disease progression has several significant limitations. Thus, identification of biomarkers of potential prognostic value in dysplasia development in Barrett's esophagus is highly important. The aim of the study was to determine if expression levels of selected genes support histologic diagnosis of dysplastic changes in Barrett's esophagus. Upon rigorous sampling and independent histopathologic examination of endoscopic specimens by two experienced gastrointestinal pathologists, 56 patients with Barrett's esophagus (16 negative for dysplasia, 15 with indefinite, 21 with low-grade, and 4 with high-grade dysplasia) were selected for molecular analysis. The relative mRNA levels of ten selected genes were estimated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Although expression of nine genes showed trends toward down- or upregulation during progression from Barrett's esophagus without dysplasia to Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia, only a decrease in S100A2 mRNA levels was statistically significant (P<0.05). However, there was considerable variation among individuals and significant overlapping of ranges. Furthermore, detailed, comparative analysis of serial samples from Barrett's mucosa and normal squamous epithelium shows large intra-individual variability of gene expression levels. In conclusion, expression of this set of ten genes cannot be used as a molecular marker aiding histological examination of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. Significant inter- and intra-patient variations of gene expression levels makes use of the selected genes impractical.
Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Miyasaka Y, et al.Over-expression of S100A2 in pancreatic cancer correlates with progression and poor prognosis.
J Pathol. 2007; 213(3):275-82 [PubMed
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Controversy exists regarding the clinical significance of S100A2 in the progression of tumours. In pancreatic cancer, little is known about the role of S100A2. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of S100A2 expression in pancreatic carcinogenesis. We microdissected invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cells from 22 lesions, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) cells from five lesions, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) cells from 38 lesions, pancreatitis-affected epithelial (PAE) cells from 16 lesions, and normal ductal cells from 18 normal pancreatic tissues. S100A2 expression in 14 pancreatic cancer cell lines, microdissected cells and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples was examined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Microdissection analyses revealed that IDC cells expressed higher levels of S100A2 than did IPMN, PAE or normal cells (all comparisons, p < 0.007). Cell lines from metastatic sites expressed higher levels of S100A2 than those from primary sites. PanIN cells expressed higher levels of S100A2 than normal cells (p = 0.018). IDC cells associated with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma expressed higher levels of S100A2 than did IDC cells without poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (p = 0.006). Analyses of FFPE samples revealed that levels of S100A2 were higher in samples from patients who survived < 1000 days after surgery than in those from patients who survived > 1000 days (p = 0.043). Immunohistochemical analysis was consistent with qRT-PCR. S100A2 may be a marker of tumour progression or prognosis in pancreatic carcinogenesis and pancreatic cancer.
Gollob JA, Sciambi CJDecitabine up-regulates S100A2 expression and synergizes with IFN-gamma to kill uveal melanoma cells.
Clin Cancer Res. 2007; 13(17):5219-25 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Metastatic uveal melanoma is resistant to conventional chemotherapy and immunotherapy. In this study, we investigated the responsiveness of uveal melanoma cell lines to IFNs and the hypomethylating agent decitabine.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The uveal melanoma cell lines 92-1, UW-1, OCM-1, and MKT-BR were exposed to varying concentrations of IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, and decitabine, alone and in combination. The effects of decitabine on gene expression were examined using DNA microarray analysis.
RESULTS: We found that IFN-gamma and decitabine induced cell death in uveal melanoma. Whereas a high concentration of IFN-gamma (1,000 units/mL) was required to induce cell death, we observed a dose-related increase in cell death when decitabine was used at a range of 0.1 to 10 micromol/L. Strikingly, 1 micromol/L decitabine synergized with 10 to 1,000 units/mL IFN-gamma to induce massive cell death. In contrast, decitabine had no effect on three cutaneous melanoma cell lines and exhibited no synergy with either IFN. In uveal melanoma, decitabine up-regulated the expression of genes involved in growth control and apoptosis and down-regulated genes that have been implicated in the malignant phenotype of cutaneous melanoma. The gene up-regulated to the greatest degree by decitabine and whose expression showed a dose-effect across the three concentrations of decitabine was S100A2, a putative tumor suppressor. The genes modulated by decitabine in uveal melanoma were largely unaffected in cutaneous melanoma.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings form a basis for testing the decitabine/IFN-gamma combination in metastatic uveal melanoma and for exploring the role of S100A2 in the susceptibility of uveal melanoma to IFN-mediated cell death.