Research IndicatorsGraph generated 08 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 08 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: RRM2B (cancer-related)
The role of Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) subunits in different cancers has been intensively studied in our laboratory. RRM2B was identified as a p53-inducible RR subunit that involves in various critical cellular mechanisms such as cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and replication, and mitochondrial homeostasis, etc. However, little is known about the p53-independent regulation of RRM2B in cancer pathology. In this study, we discovered tumor suppressor FOXO3 as the novel regulator of RRM2B. FOXO3 directly bound to and transcriptionally activated the promoter of RRM2B, and induced the expression of RRM2B at RNA and protein levels. Moreover, Overexpression of RRM2B and/or FOXO3 inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells. The cancer tissue microarray data also demonstrated a strong correlation between the co-expression of FOXO3 plus RRM2B and increased disease survival and reduced recurrence or metastasis in lung cancer patients. Our results suggest a novel regulatory control of RRM2B function, and imply the importance of FOXO signaling pathway in DNA replication modulation. This study provides the first time evidence that RRM2B is transcriptionally and functionally regulated independent of p53 pathway by FOXO3, and it establishes that FOXO3 and RRM2B could be used as predictive biomarkers for cancer progression.
Orhan KS, Coskunpinar E, Kanliada D, et al.Investigation of the association of hRRM1 and p53R2 gene polymorphisms in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(7):12 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Head and neck squamous epithelial cell cancer (HNSCC), the world's fifth most common type of cancers, is associated with short life expectancy and high death rates if not detected in early stages. The aim of this study was to investigate hRRM1 and p53R2 gene polymorphisms by using real-time PCR technique in patients with head and neck cancer. In total, 87 patients with head and neck malignancies and 87 control group who have not any malignancies were included in the study between January 2011 and February 2012 in Istanbul University Faculty of Medicine Department of ORL. In the study, real-time PCR was used to detect hRRM1 (rs12806698 C/A) and p53R2 (rs2290707 G/T) gene polymorphisms in Turkish HNSCC patients and healthy individuals. Genomic DNA isolation was performed according to the kit protocol with spin column. LightCycler 1.5 system was used to perform SNP genotyping using hybridization probes consisting of 3'-fluorescein and a 5'-LightCycler Red labeled pair of oligonucleotide probes. There were significant differences in the distribution of hRRM1 genotypes. Frequency of individuals with hRRM1 AA genotype was higher in patients with less differentiation when compared with well differentiation [p 0.025, Fisher's exact test, odds ratio (OR) 0.140, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.024-0.797]. It is observed that A allele carriers have nearly twofold risk for development of the disease (p = 0.022; χ (2) 5.24; OR 2.02, 95 % CI 1.10-3.72).
Based on the process of carcinogenesis, carcinogens are classified as either genotoxic or non-genotoxic. In contrast to non-genotoxic carcinogens, many genotoxic carcinogens have been reported to cause tumor in carcinogenic bioassays in animals. Thus evaluating the genotoxicity potential of chemicals is important to discriminate genotoxic from non-genotoxic carcinogens for health care and pharmaceutical industry safety. Additionally, investigating the difference between the mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens could provide the foundation for a mechanism-based classification for unknown compounds. In this study, we investigated the gene expression of HepG2 cells treated with genotoxic or non-genotoxic carcinogens and compared their mechanisms of action. To enhance our understanding of the differences in the mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens, we implemented a gene set analysis using 12 compounds for the training set (12, 24, 48 h) and validated significant gene sets using 22 compounds for the test set (24, 48 h). For a direct biological translation, we conducted a gene set analysis using Globaltest and selected significant gene sets. To validate the results, training and test compounds were predicted by the significant gene sets using a prediction analysis for microarrays (PAM). Finally, we obtained 6 gene sets, including sets enriched for genes involved in the adherens junction, bladder cancer, p53 signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, peroxisome and RNA degradation. Among the 6 gene sets, the bladder cancer and p53 signaling pathway sets were significant at 12, 24 and 48 h. We also found that the DDB2, RRM2B and GADD45A, genes related to the repair and damage prevention of DNA, were consistently up-regulated for genotoxic carcinogens. Our results suggest that a gene set analysis could provide a robust tool in the investigation of the different mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens and construct a more detailed understanding of the perturbation of significant pathways.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate whether copy number changes of the genes encoding the ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) and/or subunit M2B (RRM2B) predict sensitivity to gemcitabine administered in combination with docetaxel compared to single agent docetaxel in advanced breast cancer patients.
METHODS: Primary tumor samples from patients randomly assigned to gemcitabine plus docetaxel or docetaxel alone were analyzed for RRM1 and RRM2B copy number changes using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technology with probes covering respectively RRM1 at 11p15.5 and a reference probe covering the centromere of chromosome 11 (CEN-11), and RRM2B at 8q22.3 and a reference probe covering the centromere of chromosome 8 (CEN-8). The assays were validated in a material of 60 normal breast samples. Time to progression (TTP) was the primary endpoint. Overall survival (OS) and response rate (RR) were secondary endpoints. Associations between RRM1/CEN-11 and/or RRM2B/CEN-8 ratios and time-to-event endpoints were analyzed by unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. Heterogeneity of treatment effects on TTP and OS according to gene status were investigated by subgroup analyses, and the Wald test was applied. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: FISH analysis for both RRM1 and RRM2B was successful in 251 patients. RRM1 and RRM2B aberrations (deletions and amplifications) were observed in 15.9% and 13.6% of patients, respectively. RRM1 aberrations were associated with a decreased OS in the time interval 1.5-7.4 years (hazard ratio = 1.72, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-2.79, P = 0.03). RRM2B aberrations alone or in combination with RRM1 aberrations had no prognostic impact in terms of TTP or OS. RR was not different by gene status. No significant differences were detected in TTP or OS within subgroups according to gene status and chemotherapy regimen.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the presence of RRM1 and RRM2B copy number changes in primary breast tumor specimens. Nevertheless, we found no support of the hypothesis that aberrations of RRM1 or RRM2B, neither individually nor in combination, are associated with an altered clinical outcome following chemotherapy with gemcitabine in combination with docetaxel compared to docetaxel alone in advanced breast cancer patients.
Tian H, Ge C, Li H, et al.Ribonucleotide reductase M2B inhibits cell migration and spreading by early growth response protein 1-mediated phosphatase and tensin homolog/Akt1 pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2014; 59(4):1459-70 [PubMed
] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Ribonucleotide reductase (RR)M2B is an enzyme belonging to the ribonucleotide reductase enzyme family, which is essential for DNA synthesis and repair. RRM2B plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis; however, little is known about the expression and underlying molecular mechanisms of RRM2B in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we report that down-regulation of RRM2B in HCC is negatively associated with intrahepatic metastasis, regardless of p53 status. Moreover, the ectopic overexpression of RRM2B decreased HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro, whereas silencing RRM2B expression resulted in increased migration and invasion in vitro and intrahepatic and lung metastasis in vivo. Additionally, knockdown of RRM2B by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in HCC cells was associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including the down-regulation of E-cadherin, and the concomitant up-regulation of N-cadherin and slug. A further experiment showed that RRM2B inhibited cell migration and spreading through regulation of the early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1)/phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/Akt1 pathway. Consistently, we also detected a significant correlation between RRM2B and E-cadherin protein expression in HCC tissues. Furthermore, Egr-1 also directly bound to the RRM2B promoter and repressed RRM2B transcription, thereby establishing a negative regulatory feedback loop.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that RRM2B suppresses cell migration and spreading by way of modulation of the Egr-1/PTEN/Akt1 pathway.
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a major regulator of the DNA damage response. ATM promotes the activation of BRCA1, CHK2, and p53 leading to the induction of response genes such as CDKN1A (p21), GADD45A, and RRM2B that promote cell-cycle arrest and DNA repair. The upregulation of these response genes may contribute to resistance of cancer cells to genotoxic therapies. Here, we show that histone deacetylases (HDAC) play a major role in mitigating the response of the ATM pathway to DNA damage. HDAC inhibition decreased ATM activation and expression, and attenuated the activation of p53 in vitro and in vivo. Select depletion of HDAC1 and HDAC2 was sufficient to modulate ATM activation, reduce GADD45A and RRM2B induction, and increase sensitivity to DNA strand breaks. The regulation of ATM by HDAC enzymes therefore suggests a vital role for HDAC1 and HDAC2 in the DNA damage response, and the potential use of the ATM pathway as a pharmacodynamic marker for combination therapies involving HDAC inhibitors.
Matsushita S, Ikeda R, Fukushige T, et al.p53R2 is a prognostic factor of melanoma and regulates proliferation and chemosensitivity of melanoma cells.
J Dermatol Sci. 2012; 68(1):19-24 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The treatment of melanoma, an aggressive, chemo-resistant skin cancer characterized by rapid metastasis and a poor prognosis, requires the development of innovative therapies with improved efficacy. The p53R2 gene that encodes the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit 2 homologue is induced by several stress signals including DNA-damaging agents that activate p53. The p53R2 gene product increases the deoxynucleotide triphosphate pool in the nucleus; this facilitates DNA repair and synthesis.
OBJECTIVE: We examined the expression of p53R2 in melanoma and evaluated whether p53R2 is involved in the growth and proliferation of melanoma cells. Methods We examined the clinicopathological significance of p53R2 in melanoma. To investigate the role of p53R2 in melanoma we used KHm5 and KHm6 melanoma cells that express p53R2, and p53R2-targeting small interfering (si) RNA.
RESULTS: p53R2 expression was detected immunohistochemically in 56 of 78 patients (71.8%). The expression of p53R2 was significantly correlated with the depth of invasion and the tumor stage. p53R2-targeting siRNA successfully knocked down p53R2 and significantly inhibited the growth of KHm5 and 6 cells. Moreover, The degree of KHm5 and 6 cell growth inhibition was greater in the presence of both p53R2-targeting siRNA and nimustine (ACNU) than with ACNU alone, suggesting that p53R2 silencing enhanced the chemosensitivity of KHm5 and 6 cells to ACNU.
CONCLUSIONS: We propose p53R2 as a therapeutic target to enhance the effectiveness of chemotherapy in patients with p53R2-positive melanoma.
Melanoma cell lines and normal human melanocytes (NHM) were assayed for p53-dependent G1 checkpoint response to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage. Sixty-six percent of melanoma cell lines displayed a defective G1 checkpoint. Checkpoint function was correlated with sensitivity to IR with checkpoint-defective lines being radio-resistant. Microarray analysis identified 316 probes whose expression was correlated with G1 checkpoint function in melanoma lines (P≤0.007) including p53 transactivation targets CDKN1A, DDB2, and RRM2B. The 316 probe list predicted G1 checkpoint function of the melanoma lines with 86% accuracy using a binary analysis and 91% accuracy using a continuous analysis. When applied to microarray data from primary melanomas, the 316 probe list was prognostic of 4-yr distant metastasis-free survival. Thus, p53 function, radio-sensitivity, and metastatic spread may be estimated in melanomas from a signature of gene expression.
Sato J, Kimura T, Saito T, et al.Gene expression analysis for predicting gemcitabine resistance in human cholangiocarcinoma.
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2011; 18(5):700-11 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine is a promising drug for cholangiocarcinoma treatment. However, the kinetics and metabolism of this drug in cholangiocarcinoma treatment are not well defined. We aimed to investigate the potential clinical role of gemcitabine metabolism-related genes in the gemcitabine sensitivity of cholangiocarcinoma and identify and characterize novel gemcitabine resistance-related genes.
METHODS: Expressions of genes related to gemcitabine sensitivity and gemcitabine metabolism were measured in 10 cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, and the association between gene expression and gemcitabine sensitivity was evaluated. Furthermore, gemcitabine-resistant cell lines were established from YSCCC cells and subjected to genome-wide microarray analysis. The 2-fold upregulated and downregulated genes were then subjected to pathway analysis.
RESULTS: p53R2 mRNA expression was significantly higher in gemcitabine-resistant cell lines (IC(50) > 1000 nM), and all subunits of ribonucleotide reductase were upregulated in the established gemcitabine-resistant cell lines. Microarray analysis revealed that the upregulated genes in the resistant cells belonged to the glutathione and pyrimidine metabolism pathways, and that the downregulated genes belonged to the N-glycan biosynthesis pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: Increased expression of p53R2 may predict gemcitabine resistance, and upregulated RNR activity may influence gemcitabine resistance in cholangiocarcinoma cells. Glutathione pathway-related genes were induced by continuous exposure to gemcitabine and may contribute to gemcitabine resistance.
Hsieh TC, Wong C, John Bennett D, Wu JMRegulation of p53 and cell proliferation by resveratrol and its derivatives in breast cancer cells: an in silico and biochemical approach targeting integrin αvβ3.
Int J Cancer. 2011; 129(11):2732-43 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Resveratrol is a grape polyphenol with cancer preventative activities in tissue culture and animal model studies. Potential of resveratrol as a broad-based chemopreventive agent have been questioned by its limited bioavailability. The bioefficacy of resveratrol was compared with its derivatives, triacetyl-resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-triacetylstilbene) and trimethoxy-resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trimethoxystilbene) in both estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive MCF-7 and ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Binding to integrin αvβ3 and control of cell proliferation and p53 were chosen as targets for comparative analysis using an in silico and biochemical approach. Resveratrol and triacetyl-resveratrol interacted avidly and specifically with integrin αvβ3 through binding at the site targeted by the high affinity cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide. In contrast, binding of trimethoxy-resveratrol to this site was substantially less robust. Moreover, the different stilbenes also elicited diverse cellular and signaling responses in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, as evidenced by analysis of colony formation, cell proliferation, cell cycle phase transition, the extent of phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 and p53-inducible proteins, p21 and p53R2, respectively. Further, stilbene-elicited signaling cascade leading to p53 activation was examined in MCF-7 cells and results showed that resveratrol and triacetyl-resveratrol induced both ERK and p38 phosphorylation, whereas only marginal changes in state of phosphorylation in these two kinases were observed in trimethoxy-resveratrol-treated cells. Taken together, these results support that resveratrol and triacetyl-resveratrol regulate proliferation and gene expression in breast cancer cells by utilizing largely similar signaling molecules and pathways and cellular events, which appear quite distinct from those targeted by trimethoxy-resveratrol.
Deregulation of the expression of p53R2, a p53-inducible homologue of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, has been found in various human cancer tissues; however, the roles p53R2 plays in cancer progression and malignancy remain controversial. In the present study, we examined changes in gene expression profiles associated with p53R2 in cancer cells, using the analysis of cDNA microarray. Gene set enrichment analysis identified that the gene set regulating cell-cycle progression was significantly enriched in p53R2-silencing human oropharyngeal carcinoma KB cells. Attenuation of p53R2 expression significantly reduced p21 expression and moderately increased cyclin D1 expression in both wild-type p53 cancer cells (KB and MCF-7) and mutant p53 cancer cells (PC3 and MDA-MB-231). Conversely, overexpression of p53R2-GFP resulted in an increase in the expression of p21 and decrease in the expression of cyclin D1, which correlated with reduced cell population in S-phase in vitro and suppressed growth in vivo. Furthermore, the MAP/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 partially abolished modulation of p21 and cyclin D1 expression by p53R2. Moreover, under the conditions of nonstress and adriamycin-induced genotoxic stress, attenuation of p53R2 in KB cells significantly increased phosphorylated H2AX, which indicates that attenuation of p53R2 may enhance DNA damage induced by adriamycin. Overall, our study shows that p53R2 may suppress cancer cell proliferation partially by upregulation of p21 and downregulation of cyclin D1; p53R2 plays critical roles not only in DNA damage repair but also in proliferation of cancer cells.
Hsieh TC, Huang YC, Wu JMControl of prostate cell growth, DNA damage and repair and gene expression by resveratrol analogues, in vitro.
Carcinogenesis. 2011; 32(1):93-101 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The chemopreventive potential of resveratrol is marred by its low bioavailability. Studies of modified resveratrol may reveal features that affect its bioefficacy and bioavailability. We compared the anti-proliferative and gene regulatory activities of resveratrol with trimethoxy-resveratrol and triacetyl-resveratrol using cultured human prostate cancer (CaP) cells. LNCaP cells were incubated with resveratrol and its analogues. Changes in proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis and prostate specific antigen (PSA) PSA were determined. DNA damage was assayed by phosphorylated-histone H2AX changes. Expression of total and serine-15-phosphorylated p53 and p53-inducible cell cycle regulatory protein p21 and ribonucleotide reductase subunit p53R2 involved in DNA repair were measured by immunobloting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Exposure to resveratrol or triacetyl-resveratrol activated p53, increased p21 and p53R2 and decreased PSA expression in LNCaP cells. These changes were attenuated by the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α. However, LNCaP cells exposed to trimethoxy-resveratrol showed induction of apoptosis, reduction in G₁ and prolongation of the SG₂M phases. Resveratrol and analogues were also studied in CWR22Rv1 (containing mutated p53) and p53-null PC-3 cells. CWR22Rv1 cells exposed to resveratrol and triacetyl-resveratrol showed a G₁S block, concomitant with increased p53 and p21 expression; however, identically treated PC-3 cells showed attenuated progression through the SG₂M phases. Trimethoxy-resveratrol did not affect CWR22Rv1 cell cycle but reduced and expanded PC-3 cells in the G₁ and SG₂M phases, respectively. These results suggest that triacetyl-resveratrol and trimethoxy-resveratrol are active against different stage CaP cells, using overlapping and distinct mechanisms.
Ocean AJ, Christos P, Sparano JA, et al.Phase II trial of the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehydethiosemicarbazone plus gemcitabine in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011; 68(2):379-88 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: 3-Aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehydethiosemicarbazone (3-AP) is a novel small molecule ribonucleotide reductase (RR) inhibitor which is more potent than hydroxyurea, the prototype of RR inhibitors. 3-AP enhances the cellular uptake and DNA incorporation of gemcitabine in tumor cell lines. We evaluated the combination of 3-AP plus gemcitabine in advanced biliary tract adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: Thirty-three patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder or biliary tract received gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days) 1 h after completing a 4-h infusion of 3-AP given at a dose of 105 mg/m(2) in patients with normal liver function (stratum A) or 80 mg/m(2) if abnormal liver function (stratum B). The trial was designed to determine whether the response rate was at least 30% in stratum A and 20% in stratum B.
RESULTS: Objective response occurred in 3 of 23 patients (13%, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 3, 34%) with normal liver function, and in 0 of 10 patients with abnormal liver function. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events in all patients included neutropenia (42%), infection (33%), thrombocytopenia (27%), anemia (18%), and fatigue (15%). Fine needle aspiration of tumor samples obtained before and 24 h after 3-AP therapy showed increased R2 mRNA expression by in situ RT-PCR, suggesting RR inhibition.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite evidence for RR inhibition in vivo, the 3-AP plus gemcitabine combination is not likely to be associated with a response rate exceeding 30% in patients with adenocarcinoma of the biliary tract.
Re-programming of metabolic pathways is a hallmark of physiological changes in cancer cells. The expression of certain genes that directly control the rate of key metabolic pathways including glycolysis, lipogenesis and nucleotide synthesis are drastically altered at different stages of tumor progression. These alterations are generally considered as an adaptation of tumor cells; however, they also contribute to the progression of tumor cells to become more aggressive phenotypes. This review summarizes the recent information about the mechanistic link of these genes to oncogenesis and their potential utility as diagnostic markers as well as for therapeutic targets. We particularly focus on three groups of genes; GLUT1, G6PD, TKTL1 and PGI/AMF in glycolytic pathway, ACLY, ACC1 and FAS in lipogenesis and RRM2, p53R2 and TYMS for nucleotide synthesis. All these genes are highly up-regulated in a variety of tumor cells in cancer patients, and they play active roles in tumor progression rather than expressing merely as a consequence of phenotypic change of the cancer cells. Molecular dissection of their orchestrated networks and understanding the exact mechanism of their expression will provide a window of opportunity to target these genes for specific cancer therapy. We also reviewed existing database of gene microarray to validate the utility of these genes for cancer diagnosis.
Therapeutic ionizing radiation damages DNA, increasing p53-regulated ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) activity required for de novo synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates used during DNA repair. This study investigated the pharmacological inhibition of RNR in cells of virally or mutationally silenced p53 cancer cell lines using 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, Triapine(R), NSC #663249), a chemotherapeutic radiosensitizer that equally inhibits RNR M2 and p53R2 small subunits. The effects of 3-AP on RNR inhibition and resulting radiosensitization were evaluated in cervical (CaSki, HeLa and C33-a) and colon (RKO, RKO-E6) cancer cells. 3-AP treatment significantly enhanced radiation-related cytotoxicity in cervical and colon cancer cells. 3-AP treatment significantly decreased RNR activity, caused prolonged radiation-induced DNA damage, and resulted in an extended G(1)/S-phase cell cycle arrest in all cell lines. Similar effects were observed in both RKO and RKO-E6 cells, suggesting a p53-independent mechanism of radiosensitization. We conclude that inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase by 3-AP enhances radiation-mediated cytotoxicity independent of p53 regulation by impairing repair processes that rely on deoxyribonucleotide production, thereby substantially increasing the radiation sensitivity of human cancers.
Link PA, Baer MR, James SR, et al.p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase (p53R2/RRM2B) is a DNA hypomethylation-independent decitabine gene target that correlates with clinical response in myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myelogenous leukemia.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(22):9358-66 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
While the therapeutic activity of the deoxycytidine analogue decitabine is thought to reflect its ability to reactivate methylation-silenced genes, this agent is also known to trigger p53-dependent DNA damage responses. Here, we report that p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase (p53R2/RRM2B) is a robust transcriptional target of decitabine. In cancer cells, decitabine treatment induces p53R2 mRNA expression, protein expression, and promoter activity in a p53-dependent manner. The mechanism of p53R2 gene induction by decitabine does not seem to be promoter DNA hypomethylation, as the p53R2 5' CpG island is hypomethylated before treatment. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in wild-type p53 cells leads to genomic DNA hypomethylation but does not induce p53R2, suggesting that DNMT/DNA adduct formation is the molecular trigger for p53R2 induction. Consistent with this idea, only nucleoside-based DNMT inhibitors that form covalent DNA adducts induce p53R2 expression. siRNA targeting of p53R2 reduces the extent of cell cycle arrest following decitabine treatment, supporting a functional role for p53R2 in decitabine-mediated cellular responses. To determine the clinical relevance of p53R2 induction, we measured p53R2 expression in bone marrow samples from 15 myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myelogenous leukemia (MDS/AML) patients undergoing decitabine therapy. p53R2 mRNA and protein were induced in 7 of 13 (54%) and 6 of 9 (67%) patients analyzed, respectively, despite a lack of methylation changes in the p53R2 promoter. Most notably, there was a significant association (P = 0.0047) between p53R2 mRNA induction and clinical response in MDS/AML. These data establish p53R2 as a novel hypomethylation-independent decitabine gene target associated with clinical response.
Yanamoto S, Kawasaki G, Yamada S, et al.Ribonucleotide reductase small subunit p53R2 promotes oral cancer invasion via the E-cadherin/beta-catenin pathway.
Oral Oncol. 2009; 45(6):521-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The p53-inducible p53R2 gene has been isolated and shown to play a crucial role in DNA repair and synthesis after DNA damage. Moreover, the expression and activity of p53R2 has been reported to be associated with the anticancer agent resistance of human cancer cells. Previously, we reported that the presence of p53R2 expression was a predictive factor for regional lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma; however, the mechanism of cancer metastasis by p53R2 expression is still unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the correlation of p53R2 expression with cancer invasion in vitro. Three human oral cancer cell lines (SAS, HSC-3 and Ca9-22) were cultured, and the invasive potential of these cancer cells was evaluated using Matrigel invasion assay. To investigate the effect of p53R2 on cancer invasion, the down-regulation of p53R2 was examined by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Moreover, we examined the intracellular localization of cell adhesion molecules (E-cadherin and beta-catenin) in subcellular extractions of cancer cells by immunoblotting. The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was assessed by gelatin zymography. Down-regulation of p53R2 significantly enhanced the invasion potential (p<0.01), and enhanced nuclear translocation of beta-catenin with loss of total cellular E-cadherin expression in p53 mutant cancer cells, but not in p53 wild-type cancer cells. These changes in the invasion index by p53R2 siRNA transfection were not accompanied by alterations in MMP activity and expression. These results suggested that the expression of p53R2 could be associated with the invasion of cancer cells, and indicated that p53R2 might promote cancer invasion via the E-cadherin/beta-catenin pathway without the alteration of MMP activity.
Wang X, Zhenchuk A, Wiman KG, Albertioni FRegulation of p53R2 and its role as potential target for cancer therapy.
Cancer Lett. 2009; 276(1):1-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
p53R2, a recently discovered small subunit of human ribonucleotide reductase, is believed to play essential roles in DNA repair, mtDNA synthesis, and protection against oxidative stress. Because of the positive correlation between the level of this protein and drug sensitivity and tumor invasiveness, it constitutes a potential target for anticancer drugs as well as a diagnostic marker in cancer.
Devlin HL, Mack PC, Burich RA, et al.Impairment of the DNA repair and growth arrest pathways by p53R2 silencing enhances DNA damage-induced apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner in prostate cancer cells.
Mol Cancer Res. 2008; 6(5):808-18 [PubMed
] Related Publications
p53R2 is a p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase that contributes to DNA repair by supplying deoxynucleotide triphosphate pools in response to DNA damage. In this study, we found that p53R2 was overexpressed in prostate tumor cell lines compared with immortalized prostatic epithelial cells and that the protein was induced upon DNA damage. We investigated the effects of p53R2 silencing on DNA damage in LNCaP cells (wild-type p53). Silencing p53R2 potentiated the apoptotic effects of ionizing radiation and doxorubicin treatment as shown by increased sub-G(1) content and decreased colony formation. This sensitizing effect was specific to DNA-damaging agents. Comet assay and gamma-H2AX phosphorylation status showed that the decreased p53R2 levels inhibited DNA repair. Silencing p53R2 also reduced the levels of p21(WAF1/CIP1) at the posttranscriptional level, suggesting links between the p53-dependent DNA repair and cell cycle arrest pathways. Using LNCaP sublines stably expressing dominant-negative mutant p53, we found that the sensitizing effect of p53R2 silencing is mediated by p53-dependent apoptosis pathways. In the LNCaP sublines (R273H, R248W, and G245S) that have defects in inducing p53-dependent apoptosis, p53R2 silencing did not potentiate DNA damage-induced apoptosis, whereas p53R2 silencing was effective in a LNCaP subline (P151S) which retains the ability to induce p53-dependent apoptosis. This study shows that p53R2 is a potential therapeutic target that could be used to enhance the effectiveness of ionizing radiation or DNA-damaging chemotherapy in a subset of patients with prostate cancer.
Beasley WD, Beynon J, Jenkins GJ, Parry JMReprimo 824 G>C and p53R2 4696 C>G single nucleotide polymorphisms and colorectal cancer: a case-control disease association study.
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008; 23(4):375-81 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Improved survival from colorectal cancer (CRC) may result from screening for inherited genetic risk factors. Reprimo and p53R2 are p53-inducible genes involved in cell cycle surveillance and DNA repair. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these genes have been discovered, but their effects on the genes' function and association with CRC is not known.
METHODS: Ninety healthy controls, 52 diverticular disease controls and 96 CRC cases were genotyped. DNA was extracted from buccal brush biopsies. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) methods. Tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and allelic- and genotype-disease association were performed online using the Finetti program.
RESULTS: All three populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to p53R2 4696C>G SNP, and no CRC associations were demonstrated with this SNP. The healthy and CRC populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to the Reprimo 824G>C SNP, but the diverticular disease population was not (P=0.03). No CRC were demonstrated with Reprimo 824G>C.
CONCLUSION: No association between p53R2 4696C>G and Reprimo 824G>C with CRC was shown by this study. An association between the Reprimo 824G>C heterozygote and diverticular disease may exist on the basis of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
Yokomakura N, Natsugoe S, Okumura H, et al.Improvement in radiosensitivity using small interfering RNA targeting p53R2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2007; 18(3):561-7 [PubMed
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Chemoradiation therapy (CRT), a combination of X-ray irradiation and anticancer agents as a radiosensitizer, has been found to be an effective treatment for esophageal cancer and has been linked to p53 genetics. The p53 gene family regulates cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA damage repair. A recently identified ribonucleotide reductase, p53R2, is directly regulated by p53 in the supply of nucleotides for repairing damaged DNA. In the present study, we investigated the improvement in radiosensitivity of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines using p53R2 small interfering RNA (siRNA). p53R2 expression in ESCC cells (TE-8) with or without transfection of p53R2 siRNA was examined by Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The radiosensitivity of TE-8 cells was also measured by cell survival assay. In addition, we investigated the relationship between the expression of p53R2 mRNA in the biopsy specimens of untreated primary tumors and the efficacy of CRT, using RT-PCR. The expression of p53R2 was amplified after X-ray irradiation (14 Gy) and diminished after X-ray irradiation following the transfection of p53R2 siRNA in TE-8 cells. The radiosensitivity of the TE-8 cells significantly improved following the transfection of p53R2 siRNA. In the clinical study, a significantly lower p53R2 mRNA expression was detected in the effective response cases. We demonstrated that p53R2 is associated with the radiosensitivity of ESCC cell lines, and that p53R2 expression is reduced after X-ray irradiation following the transfection of p53R2 siRNA. This protocol could potentially improve the efficacy of radiation therapy.
Nardinocchi L, Puca R, Sacchi A, D'Orazi GHIPK2 knock-down compromises tumor cell efficiency to repair damaged DNA.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007; 361(1):249-55 [PubMed
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Homeodomain Interacting Protein Kinase-2 (HIPK2) is a protein with many functions and a modulator of p53 oncosuppressor functions. TP53 is the "guardian of the genome" thus, is the most critical tumor suppressor gene product that inhibits malignant transformation. P53R2 gene is directly induced by p53 in response to DNA damage and is involved in the p53 checkpoint for repairing damaged DNA to block genome instability. Here we wanted to explore the involvement of HIPK2 in damaged-DNA repair by regulating p53-induced p53R2 gene. We show that, induction of p53R2 expression, p53 recruitment onto p53R2 promoter, and its transcriptional activation was strongly impaired by HIPK2 knock-down, in response to drug. The failure of p53-induced p53R2 activation markedly compromised damaged-DNA repair efficiency. Finally, overexpression of exogenous p53 overcame the inability of endogenous p53 to activate p53R2-luc promoter in HIPK2 depleted cells. These data suggest that HIPK2 is involved in damaged-DNA repair taking part in restraining tumor progression, at least in part depending on p53 regulation.
Iwakawa M, Ohno T, Imadome K, et al.The radiation-induced cell-death signaling pathway is activated by concurrent use of cisplatin in sequential biopsy specimens from patients with cervical cancer.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2007; 6(6):905-11 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: To identify changes in gene expression related to the concurrent use of platinum compounds with radiotherapy, in the treatment of cervical cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Biopsy specimens were obtained from 39 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, before and during fractionated radiotherapy. Twenty patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone, while 19 received the same radiotherapy plus concomitant chemotherapy with cisplatin (CRT). Changes in gene expression induced by treatment were investigated using single-color oligo-microarrays consisting of 44K human sequences. Paraffin-embedded samples were used to examine apoptosis and the expression of protein by treatment-responsive genes. Changes in mRNA expression were assessed for these genes by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Aberrant genomic change (detected using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization), human papillomavirus infection, and p53 status were also evaluated.
RESULTS: The expression of CDKN1A, BAX, TNFSF8, and RRM2B was consistently upregulated by CRT (9 Gy with a single administration of cisplatin). Similar expression changes were induced by RT (9 Gy) alone, although the variability between tumors was greater. Apoptotic cells were significantly increased in both groups. CRT significantly increased the numbers of cases with diffusely distributed CDKN1A-positive cells. Genetic losses at 2q33-ter and gains of 3q26-ter were detected in the samples with high frequency; 60% were positive for human papillomavirus DNA; and three tumors had deletions/mutations of the p53 gene. There was no difference in the incidence of these genomic changes between the groups, and no association was found with the changes in expression of CDKN1A, BAX, TNFSF8 or RRM2B.
CONCLUSIONS: Using biopsy samples from pretreatment and midtreatment cervical tumors, we identified therapy-induced genes related to the cell death signaling pathway. CRT produced a homogenous pattern of changes in expression of known radiation-responsive genes.
Liu X, Zhou B, Xue L, et al.Ribonucleotide reductase subunits M2 and p53R2 are potential biomarkers for metastasis of colon cancer.
Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2007; 6(5):374-81 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase plays a key role in converting ribonucleoside diphosphate to 2'-deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate, which is necessary for DNA repair and replication. To determine if human ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 (hRRM2) and p53-dependent human ribonucleotide reductase small subunit R2 (p53R2) play roles on invasion ability of cancer cells, the gene transferring technique was used to construct stable hRRM2 and p53R2 overexpression transfectants. Increase of hRRM2 dramatically enhanced the cell migration in KB and PC-3 cells, but p53R2 overexpression reduced cellular invasion potential to 50% and 40% in KB and PC-3 cells, respectively. Furthermore, hRRM2 enhanced cancer cells to induce the cell migration of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells, but p53R2 reduced this ability in transfectants.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: To further determine the role of human ribonucleotide reductase subunits on cancer metastasis, a tissue array, including 59 primary and 49 metastatic colon adenocarcinoma samples, was used. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the relationship between human ribonucleotide reductase subunits and metastasis.
RESULTS: Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that p53R2 is negatively related to the metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma samples (odds ratio, 0.23; P < 0.05); hRRM2 increases the risk of metastasis in colon cancer, but did not show significantly. Thus, opposing regulation of hRRM2 and p53R2 in invasion potential might play a critical role in determining the invasion and metastasis phenotype in cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: The expression level of ribonucleotide reductase small subunits could serve as biomarkers to predict the malignancy potential of human cancers in the future.
Liu X, Zhou B, Xue L, et al.Metastasis-suppressing potential of ribonucleotide reductase small subunit p53R2 in human cancer cells.
Clin Cancer Res. 2006; 12(21):6337-44 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Previous gene transfection studies have shown that the accumulation of human ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 (hRRM2) enhances cellular transformation, tumorigenesis, and malignancy potential. The latest identified small subunit p53R2 has 80% homology to hRRM2. Here, we investigate the role of p53R2 in cancer invasion and metastasis.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The immunohistochemistry was conducted on a tissue array including 49 primary and 59 metastatic colon adenocarcinoma samples to determine the relationship between p53R2 expression and metastasis. A Matrigel invasive chamber was used to sort the highly invasive cells and to evaluate the invasion potential of p53R2.
RESULTS: Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that p53R2 is negatively related to the metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma samples (odds ratio, 0.23; P<0.05). The decrease of p53R2 is associated with cell invasion potential, which was observed in both p53 wild-type (KB) and mutant (PC-3 and Mia PaCa-2) cell lines. An increase in p53R2 expression by gene transfection significantly reduced the cellular invasion potential to 54% and 30% in KB and PC-3 cells, respectively, whereas inhibition of p53R2 by short interfering RNA resulted in a 3-fold increase in cell migration.
CONCLUSIONS: Opposite regulation of hRRM2 and p53R2 in invasion potential might play a critical role in determining the invasion and metastasis phenotype in cancer cells. The expression level of ribonucleotide reductase small subunits may serve as a biomarker to predict the malignancy potential of human cancers in the future.
Okumura H, Natsugoe S, Yokomakura N, et al.Expression of p53R2 is related to prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2006; 12(12):3740-5 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: The p53 gene and its family are important factors for carcinogenesis, prognosis, and chemoresistance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A recently identified ribonucleotide reductase, p53R2, is regulated by p53 for supplying nucleotides to repair damaged DNA. In the present study, we analyzed the expression and clinicopathologic significance of p53 and p53R2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We immunohistochemically investigated the relationship between p53 and p53R2 expressions in surgical specimens of primary tumors in 222 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
RESULTS: The positive expression rate of p53 was 47.1% and that of p53R2 was 61.7%. Positive p53R2 expression was significantly correlated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, stage, and poor prognosis. In the p53-negative group, the 5-year survival rate was better in patients with negative p53R2 expression than in those with positive p53R2 expression. Multivariate analysis indicated that the negative expression of both p53 and p53R2 was an independent prognostic factor along with tumor depth nodal metastasis and stage.
CONCLUSIONS: We showed that positive p53R2 expression was related to tumor development and that alteration of p53R2 expression in p53-negative tumors was closely related to prognosis. Evaluation of the expressions of p53 and p53R2 proteins should be useful for determining the tumor properties, including prognosis, in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Uramoto H, Sugio K, Oyama T, et al.P53R2, p53 inducible ribonucleotide reductase gene, correlated with tumor progression of non-small cell lung cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2006 Mar-Apr; 26(2A):983-8 [PubMed
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p53R2 plays a crucial role in supplying dNTPs for DNA repair. The expression of p53R2 is induced by DNA-damaging agents in a p53-dependent manner and p53R2 translocates to the nucleus upon DNA damage. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the protein expression of p53R2 in paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 130 well-characterized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and the expression level of p53R2, clinical variables and survival outcome were compared. A positive expression of p53R2 was detected in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in 61 of the 130 patients (46.2%) with NSCLC. The positive ratio was significantly higher in the patients with pathological stage II/III, pathological T3-4 and pathological N1-3 than in those with stage I, T1-2 and N0, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the p53R2 expression and the gender, age at operation, histological type or p53 expression. Though our findings do not support that the p53R2 immunocytochemical marker alone plays an important prognostic role in NSCLC, the DNA repair pathway mediated by p53R2 may be responsible for controlling the growth of lung cancer.
Yoshida T, Haga S, Numata Y, et al.Disruption of the p53-p53r2 DNA repair system in ulcerative colitis contributes to colon tumorigenesis.
Int J Cancer. 2006; 118(6):1395-403 [PubMed
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With ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated tumorigenesis, p53 gene alteration is considered to be a key event. To clarify whether the p53-checkpoint is operating in foci of inflammation and that its disruption is a feature of UC-associated neoplasms, the present immunohistochemical study was conducted. Since accumulation of butyric acid with active UC is associated with apoptosis, effects of in vitro exposure of newly established UC-cancer derived cell lines to organic acids were also assessed. The regulatory subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, p53R2, was found to be localized with p53 in situ, and levels of p53, phospho-p53, p53R2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly intercorrelated. However, p53R2 expression was clearly reduced with progression through UC-associated dysplasia to carcinoma, demonstrating an inverse relation with p53 overexpression. In vitro treatment with butyrate or propionic acid, but not succinic acid, elicited a positive response in the p53-p53R2 system. Moreover, p53-dependent DNA repair, investigated by radioactive nucleotide incorporation, was induced by butyric acid and inhibited by short-interfering p53 and p53R2 RNAs. Therefore, it was concluded that the p53-p53R2-dependent DNA repair system is constitutively stimulated by butyric acid, which accumulates in UC inflammatory lesions. Since failure of the p53-G(1) checkpoint may cause dysfunction of repair under the influence of butyrate, gene alterations may increase and spread through the genome, leading to tumorigenesis.
AIM: p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase small subunit 2 (p53R2) encodes a 351-amino-acid peptide, which catalyzes conversion of ribonucleoside diphosphates to the corresponding deoxyribonucleotides required for DNA replication and repair. A recent study reported that a point mutation (G/T) in the p53 binding sequence in a colon cancer cell line completely impaired p53R2 protein activity.
METHODS: We screened the p53R2 gene coding regions and a regulatory region which contains a p53 binding sequence in 100 patients with colorectal adenoma and 100 control subjects using PCR, cold SSCP, and direct DNA sequencing.
RESULTS: Although we did not identify genetic variation in all nine exons, four regulatory-region variants were found, of which three were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (nt 1 789 C/G, nt 1 928 A/G, 1 933 T/C), and one was 20 bp insertion which replaced a ATTTT between nt 1831 and 1835. Additionally, we determined the frequency of these p53R2 variants in a recently concluded case-control study of incident sporadic colorectal adenomas (163 cases and 210 controls).
CONCLUSION: Although more detailed functional characterizations of these polymorphisms remain to be undertaken, these polymorphic sites may be useful for identifying alleles associated with mis-splicing, additional transcript factors and, more generally, in cancer-susceptibility association studies.
Yanamoto S, Iwamoto T, Kawasaki G, et al.Silencing of the p53R2 gene by RNA interference inhibits growth and enhances 5-fluorouracil sensitivity of oral cancer cells.
Cancer Lett. 2005; 223(1):67-76 [PubMed
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The p53R2 gene encodes the ribonucleotide reductase (RR) small subunit 2 homologue, and is induced by several stress signals activating p53, such as DNA-damaging agents. The p53R2 gene product causes an increase in the deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) pool in the nucleus, which facilitates DNA repair and synthesis. We hypothesized that p53R2 would be a good molecular target for cancer gene therapy. In this study, three human oral cancer cell lines (SAS, HSC-4 and Ca9-22), a human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, and a normal human fibroblast cell line NHDF were tested. We silenced the expression of p53R2 with the highly specific post-transcriptional suppression of RNA interference (RNAi). We investigated p53R2 expression with the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The sensitivity to anticancer agents was evaluated by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The expression of p53R2 showed no association with the mutational status of p53. The cancer cell lines with higher p53R2 expression were more resistant to 5-FU. RNAi-mediated p53R2 reduction selectivity inhibited growth and enhanced chemosensitivity in cancer cell lines but not in normal fibroblasts. These results suggest that basal transcription of p53R2 could be associated with the sensitivity to anticancer agents. Moreover, we assessed the possibility that p53R2 would be a good molecular target, and report that RNAi targeting of p53R2 could be useful for oral cancer gene therapy.