Gene Summary

Gene:RELA; v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A
Aliases: p65, NFKB3
Summary:NF-kappa-B is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in several biological processes. It is held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state by specific inhibitors. Upon degradation of the inhibitor, NF-kappa-B moves to the nucleus and activates transcription of specific genes. NF-kappa-B is composed of NFKB1 or NFKB2 bound to either REL, RELA, or RELB. The most abundant form of NF-kappa-B is NFKB1 complexed with the product of this gene, RELA. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor p65
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcription
  • Transcription Factors
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cell Nucleus
  • NF-kappa B p50 Subunit
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • NF-kappa B
  • siRNA
  • Western Blotting
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Promoter Regions
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Drug Resistance
  • Down-Regulation
  • I-kappa B Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Protein Binding
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Translocation
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Base Sequence
  • Breast Cancer
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Messenger RNA
  • Phosphorylation
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Chromosome 11
  • Apoptosis
  • YY1 Transcription Factor
  • I-kappa B Kinase
  • RNA Interference
  • Cell Movement
  • Xenograft Models
  • Lung Cancer
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cell Survival
  • rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • VHL
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RELA (cancer-related)

Lamy S, Moldovan PL, Ben Saad A, Annabi B
Biphasic effects of luteolin on interleukin-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in glioblastoma cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015; 1853(1):126-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Success in developing therapeutic approaches to target brain tumor-associated inflammation in patients has been limited. Given that the inflammatory microenvironment is a hallmark signature of solid tumor development, anti-inflammatory targeting strategies have been envisioned as preventing glioblastoma initiation or progression. Consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with reduced risk of developing cancers, a chemopreventive effect that is, in part, attributed to their high content of phytochemicals with potent anti-inflammatory properties. We explored whether luteolin, a common flavonoid in many types of plants, may inhibit interleukin (IL)-1β function induction of the inflammation biomarker cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. We found that IL-1β triggered COX-2 expression in U-87 glioblastoma cells and synergized with luteolin to potentiate or inhibit that induction in a biphasic manner. Luteolin pretreatment of cells inhibited IL-1β-mediated phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB, nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2, and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase in a concentration-dependent manner. Luteolin also inhibited AKT phosphorylation and survivin expression, while it triggered both caspase-3 cleavage and expression of glucose-regulated protein 78. These effects were all potentiated by IL-1β, in part through increased nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Finally, luteolin was able to reduce IL-1 receptor gene expression, and treatment with IL-1 receptor antagonist or gene silencing of IL-1 receptor prevented IL-1β/luteolin-induced COX-2 expression. Our results document a novel adaptive cellular response to luteolin, which triggers anti-survival and anti-inflammatory mechanisms that contribute to the chemopreventive properties of this diet-derived molecule.

Liu Y, Mayo MW, Xiao A, et al.
Loss of BRMS1 promotes a mesenchymal phenotype through NF-κB-dependent regulation of Twist1.
Mol Cell Biol. 2015; 35(1):303-17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) is downregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and its reduction correlates with disease progression. Herein, we investigate the mechanisms through which loss of the BRMS1 gene contributes to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Using a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system, we show that loss of BRMS1 promotes basal and transforming growth factor beta-induced EMT in NSCLC cells. NSCLC cells expressing BRMS1 shRNAs (BRMS1 knockdown [BRMS1(KD)]) display mesenchymal characteristics, including enhanced cell migration and differential regulation of the EMT markers. Mesenchymal phenotypes observed in BRMS1(KD) cells are dependent on RelA/p65, the transcriptionally active subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrates that loss of BRMS1 increases Twist1 promoter occupancy of RelA/p65 K310-a key histone modification associated with increased transcription. Knockdown of Twist1 results in reversal of BRMS1(KD)-mediated EMT phenotypic changes. Moreover, in our animal model, BRMS1(KD)/Twist1(KD) double knockdown cells were less efficient in establishing lung tumors than BRMS1(KD) cells. Collectively, this study demonstrates that loss of BRMS1 promotes malignant phenotypes that are dependent on NF-κB-dependent regulation of Twist1. These observations offer fresh insight into the mechanisms through which BRMS1 regulates the development of metastases in NSCLC.

Bosman MC, Schepers H, Jaques J, et al.
The TAK1-NF-κB axis as therapeutic target for AML.
Blood. 2014; 124(20):3130-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Development and maintenance of leukemia can be partially attributed to alterations in (anti)-apoptotic gene expression. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses revealed that 89 apoptosis-associated genes were differentially expressed between patient acute myeloid leukemia (AML) CD34(+) cells and normal bone marrow (NBM) CD34(+) cells. Among these, transforming growth factor-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) was strongly upregulated in AML CD34(+) cells. Genetic downmodulation or pharmacologic inhibition of TAK1 activity strongly impaired primary AML cell survival and cobblestone formation in stromal cocultures. TAK1 inhibition was mainly due to blockade of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, as TAK1 inhibition resulted in reduced levels of P-IκBα and p65 activity. Overexpression of a constitutive active variant of NF-κB partially rescued TAK1-depleted cells from apoptosis. Importantly, NBM CD34(+) cells were less sensitive to TAK1 inhibition compared with AML CD34(+) cells. Knockdown of TAK1 also severely impaired leukemia development in vivo and prolonged overall survival in a humanized xenograft mouse model. In conclusion, our results indicate that TAK1 is frequently overexpressed in AML CD34(+) cells, and that TAK1 inhibition efficiently targets leukemic stem/progenitor cells in an NF-κB-dependent manner.

Li F, Li XJ, Qiao L, et al.
miR-98 suppresses melanoma metastasis through a negative feedback loop with its target gene IL-6.
Exp Mol Med. 2014; 46:e116 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression has a critical role in tumor development and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which miRNAs control melanoma metastasis is unknown. Here, we report reduced miR-98 expression in melanoma tissues with increasing tumor stage as well as metastasis; its expression is also negatively associated with melanoma patient survival. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-98 inhibits melanoma cell migration in vitro as well as metastatic tumor size in vivo. We also found that IL-6 is a target gene of miR-98, and IL-6 represses miR-98 levels via the Stat3-NF-κB-lin28B pathway. In an in vivo melanoma model, we demonstrate that miR-98 reduces melanoma metastasis and increases survival in part by reducing IL-6 levels; it also decreases Stat3 and p65 phosphorylation as well as lin28B mRNA levels. These results suggest that miR-98 inhibits melanoma metastasis in part through a novel miR-98-IL-6-negative feedback loop.

Momose I, Abe H, Watanabe T, et al.
Antitumor effects of tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives: New proteasome inhibitors.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(12):1609-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
The proteasome degrades numerous regulatory proteins that are critical for tumor growth. Thus, proteasome inhibitors are promising antitumor agents. New proteasome inhibitors, such as tyropeptins and tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives, have a potent inhibitory activity. Here we report the antitumor effects of two new tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives, AS-06 and AS-29. AS-06 and AS-29 significantly suppress the degradation of the proteasome-sensitive fluorescent proteins in HEK293PS cells, and induce the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in human multiple myeloma cells. We show that these derivatives also suppress the degradation of the NF-κB inhibitor IκB-α and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in multiple myeloma cells, resulting in the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AS-06 and AS-29 induce apoptosis through the caspase-8 and caspase-9 cascades. In a xenograft mouse model, i.v. administration of tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives inhibits proteasome in tumors and clearly suppresses tumor growth in mice bearing human multiple myeloma. Our results indicate that tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives could be lead therapeutic agents against human multiple myeloma.

Keerthy HK, Mohan CD, Sivaraman Siveen K, et al.
Novel synthetic biscoumarins target tumor necrosis factor-α in hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(46):31879-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
TNF is a pleotropic cytokine known to be involved in the progression of several pro-inflammatory disorders. Many therapeutic agents have been designed to counteract the effect of TNF in rheumatoid arthritis as well as a number of cancers. In the present study we have synthesized and evaluated the anti-cancer activity of novel biscoumarins in vitro and in vivo. Among new compounds, BIHC was found to be the most cytotoxic agent against the HepG2 cell line while exhibiting less toxicity toward normal hepatocytes. Furthermore, BIHC inhibited the proliferation of various hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Subsequently, using in silico target prediction, BIHC was predicted as a TNF blocker. Experimental validation was able to confirm this hypothesis, where BIHC could significantly inhibit the recombinant mouse TNF-α binding to its antibody with an IC50 of 16.5 μM. Furthermore, in silico docking suggested a binding mode of BIHC similar to a ligand known to disrupt the native, trimeric structure of TNF, and also validated with molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, we have demonstrated the down-regulation of p65 phosphorylation and other NF-κB-regulated gene products upon BIHC treatment, and on the phenotypic level the compound shows inhibition of CXCL12-induced invasion of HepG2 cells. Also, we demonstrate that BIHC inhibits infiltration of macrophages to the peritoneal cavity and suppresses the activity of TNF-α in vivo in mice primed with thioglycollate broth and lipopolysaccharide. We comprehensively validated the TNF-α inhibitory efficacy of BIHC in an inflammatory bowel disease mice model.

Lee GR, Jang SH, Kim CJ, et al.
Capsaicin suppresses the migration of cholangiocarcinoma cells by down-regulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression via the AMPK-NF-κB signaling pathway.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2014; 31(8):897-907 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma is one of the most difficult malignancies to cure. An important prognostic factor is metastasis, which precludes curative surgical resection. Recent evidence shows that capsaicin has an inhibitory effect on cancer cell migration and invasion. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the capsaicin-induced anti-migration and anti-invasion effects on HuCCT1 cholangiocarcinoma cells. Migration and invasion were significantly reduced in response to capsaicin. Capsaicin also inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). In capsaicin-treated cells, levels of phosphorylated AMPK increased, and this effect was abolished by treatment with the AMPK inhibitor, Compound C. Capsaicin enhanced the expression of SIRT1, which can activate the transcription factor NF-κB by deacetylation. This suggests that NF-κB is activated by capsaicin via the SIRT1 pathway. In addition, capsaicin-activated AMPK induced the phosphorylation of IκBα and nuclear localization of NF-κB p65. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that capsaicin reduced MMP-9 transcription by inhibiting NF-κB p65 translocation and deacetylation via SIRT1. These findings provide evidence that capsaicin suppresses the migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells by inhibiting NF-κB p65 via the AMPK-SIRT1 and the AMPK-IκBα signaling pathways, leading to subsequent suppression of MMP-9 expression.

Snyder M, Huang J, Huang XY, Zhang JJ
A signal transducer and activator of transcription 3·Nuclear Factor κB (Stat3·NFκB) complex is necessary for the expression of fascin in metastatic breast cancer cells in response to interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(43):30082-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/10/2015 Related Publications
IL-6 mediated activation of Stat3 is a major signaling pathway in the process of breast cancer metastasis. One important mechanism by which the IL-6/Stat3 pathway promotes metastasis is through transcriptional regulation of the actin-bundling protein fascin. In this study, we further analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the fascin gene promoter. We show that in addition to IL-6, TNF-α increases Stat3 and NFκB binding to the fascin promoter to induce its expression. We also show that NFκB is required for Stat3 recruitment to the fascin promoter in response to IL-6. Furthermore, Stat3 and NFκB form a protein complex in response to cytokine stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate that an overlapping STAT/NFκB site in a highly conserved 160-bp region of the fascin promoter is sufficient and necessary to induce transcription in response to IL-6 and TNF-α.

Pandey MK, Kale VP, Song C, et al.
Gambogic acid inhibits multiple myeloma mediated osteoclastogenesis through suppression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 signaling pathways.
Exp Hematol. 2014; 42(10):883-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bone disease, characterized by the presence of lytic lesions and osteoporosis is the hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM). Stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) and its receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), has been implicated as a regulator of bone resorption, suggesting that agents that can suppress SDF1α/CXCR4 signaling might inhibit osteoclastogenesis, a process closely linked to bone resorption. We, therefore, investigated whether gambogic acid (GA), a xanthone, could inhibit CXCR4 signaling and suppress osteoclastogenesis induced by MM cells. Through docking studies we predicted that GA directly interacts with CXCR4. This xanthone down-regulates the expression of CXCR4 on MM cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CXCR4 was not due to proteolytic degradation, but rather GA suppresses CXCR4 mRNA expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) DNA binding. This was further confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, as GA inhibits p65 binding at the CXCR4 promoter. GA suppressed SDF-1α-induced chemotaxis of MM cells and downstream signaling of CXCR4 by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt, p38, and Erk1/2 in MM cells. GA abrogated the RANKL-induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, we found that MM cells induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts, and that GA suppressed this process. Importantly, suppression of osteoclastogenesis by GA was mediated through IL-6 inhibition. Overall, our results show that GA is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression and has a strong potential to suppress osteoclastogenesis mediated by MM cells.

Giordano M, Roncagalli R, Bourdely P, et al.
The tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, A20) imposes a brake on antitumor activity of CD8 T cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(30):11115-20 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/10/2015 Related Publications
The transcription factor NF-κB is central to inflammatory signaling and activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Activation of the NF-κB pathway is tightly controlled by several negative feedback mechanisms, including A20, an ubiquitin-modifying enzyme encoded by the tnfaip3 gene. Mice with selective deletion of A20 in myeloid, dendritic, or B cells recapitulate some human inflammatory pathology. As we observed high expression of A20 transcripts in dysfunctional CD8 T cells in an autochthonous melanoma, we analyzed the role of A20 in regulation of CD8 T-cell functions, using mice in which A20 was selectively deleted in mature conventional T cells. These mice developed lymphadenopathy and some organ infiltration by T cells but no splenomegaly and no detectable pathology. A20-deleted CD8 T cells had increased sensitivity to antigen stimulation with production of large amounts of IL-2 and IFNγ, correlated with sustained nuclear expression of NF-κB components reticuloendotheliosis oncogene c-Rel and p65. Overexpression of A20 by retroviral transduction of CD8 T cells dampened their intratumor accumulation and antitumor activity. In contrast, relief from the A20 brake in NF-κB activation in adoptively transferred antitumor CD8 T cells led to improved control of melanoma growth. Tumor-infiltrating A20-deleted CD8 T cells had enhanced production of IFNγ and TNFα and reduced expression of the inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1. As manipulation of A20 expression in CD8 T cells did not result in pathologic manifestations in the mice, we propose it as a candidate to be targeted to increase antitumor efficiency of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy.

Giopanou I, Bravou V, Papanastasopoulos P, et al.
Metadherin, p50, and p65 expression in epithelial ovarian neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:178410 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/10/2015 Related Publications
NF-κB signaling promotes cancer progression in a large number of malignancies. Metadherin, a coactivator of the NF-κB transcription complex, was recently identified to regulate different signaling pathways that are closely related to cancer. We assessed the immunohistochemical expression of p50, p65, and metadherin in 30 ovarian carcinomas, 15 borderline ovarian tumours, and 31 benign ovarian cystadenomas. Ovarian carcinomas exhibited significantly higher expression of all 3 markers compared to benign ovarian tumours. Borderline ovarian tumours demonstrated significantly higher expression for all 3 markers compared to benign cystadenomas. Ovarian carcinomas demonstrated significantly higher expression of p50 and metadherin compared to borderline ovarian tumours, whereas no significant difference was noted in p65 expression between ovarian carcinomas and borderline ovarian tumours. There was a strong correlation with the expression levels of p50, p65, and metadherin, whereas no correlation was observed with either grade or stage. Strong p50, p65, and metadherin expression was associated with a high probability to distinguish ovarian carcinomas over borderline and benign ovarian tumours, as well as borderline ovarian tumours over benign ovarian neoplasms. A gradual increase in the expression of these molecules is noted when moving across the spectrum of ovarian carcinogenesis, from borderline ovarian tumours to epithelial carcinomas.

Yang G, Zhang S, Zhang Y, et al.
The inhibitory effects of extracellular ATP on the growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via P2Y2 receptor and osteopontin.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant tumor observed in the populations of southern China and Southeast Asia. However, little is known about the effects of purinergic signal on the behavior of NPC cells. This study analyzed the effects of ATP on the growth and migration of NPC cells, and further investigated the potential mechanisms during the effects.
METHODS: Cell viability was estimated by MTT assay. Transwell assay was utilized to assess the motility of NPC cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry analysis. Changes in OPN, P2Y2 and p65 expression were assessed by western blotting analysis or immunofluorescence. The effects of ATP and P2Y2 on promoter activity of OPN were analyzed by luciferase activity assay. The binding of p65 to the promoter region of OPN was examined by ChIP assay.
RESULTS: An MTT assay indicated that ATP inhibited the proliferation of NPC cells in time- and dose-dependent manners, and a Transwell assay showed that extracellular ATP inhibited the motility of NPC cells. We further investigated the potential mechanisms involved in the inhibitory effect of extracellular ATP on the growth of NPC cells and found that extracellular ATP could reduce Bcl-2 and p-AKT levels while elevating Bax and cleaved caspase-3 levels in NPC cells. Decreased levels of p65 and osteopontin were also detected in the ATP-treated NPC cells. We demonstrated that extracellular ATP inhibited the growth of NPC cells via p65 and osteopontin and verified that P2Y2 overexpression elevated the inhibitory effect of extracellular ATP on the proliferation of NPC cells. Moreover, a dual luciferase reporter assay showed that the level of osteopontin transcription was inhibited by extracellular ATP and P2Y2. ATP decreased the binding of p65 to potential sites in the OPN promoter region in NPC cells.
CONCLUSION: This study indicated that extracellular ATP inhibited the growth of NPC cells via P2Y2, p65 and OPN. ATP could be a promising agent serving as an adjuvant in the treatment of NPC.

Turnquist C, Wang Y, Severson DT, et al.
STAT1-induced ASPP2 transcription identifies a link between neuroinflammation, cell polarity, and tumor suppression.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(27):9834-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/10/2015 Related Publications
Inflammation and loss of cell polarity play pivotal roles in neurodegeneration and cancer. A central question in both diseases is how the loss of cell polarity is sensed by cell death machinery. Here, we identify apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 with signature sequences of ankyrin repeat-, SH3 domain-, and proline-rich region-containing protein 2 (ASPP2), a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor, activator of p53, and regulator of cell polarity, as a transcriptional target of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). LPS induces ASPP2 expression in murine macrophage and microglial cell lines, a human monocyte cell line, and primary human astrocytes in vitro. LPS and IFNs induce ASPP2 transcription through an NF-κB RELA/p65-independent but STAT1-dependent pathway. In an LPS-induced maternal inflammation mouse model, LPS induces nuclear ASPP2 in vivo at the blood-cerebral spinal fluid barrier (the brain's barrier to inflammation), and ASPP2 mediates LPS-induced apoptosis. Consistent with the role of ASPP2 as a gatekeeper to inflammation, ASPP2-deficient brains possess enhanced neuroinflammation. Elevated ASPP2 expression is also observed in mouse models and human neuroinflammatory disease tissue, where ASPP2 was detected in GFAP-expressing reactive astrocytes that coexpress STAT1. Because the ability of ASPP2 to maintain cellular polarity is vital to CNS development, our findings suggest that the identified STAT1/ASPP2 pathway may connect tumor suppression and cell polarity to neuroinflammation.

Xie X, Xiao H, Ding F, et al.
Over-expression of prolyl hydroxylase-1 blocks NF-κB-mediated cyclin D1 expression and proliferation in lung carcinoma cells.
Cancer Genet. 2014; 207(5):188-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prolyl hydroxylase-1 (PHD1), a member of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-PHD family, plays an important role in regulating the stability of HIFs. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway consists of a family of transcription factors that play critical roles in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. In this study, we demonstrate that PHD1 can inhibit NF-κB activity and its target genes in lung cancer cells based on both over-expression and RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PHD1 in human A549 lung cancer cells and HEK293 T cells. Of medical importance, PHD1 could induce cell cycle arrest in lung cancer cells, resulting in the suppression of cell proliferation. Xenograft tumor growth assays indicate that PHD1 plays a critical role in suppressing lung cancer growth. These findings reveal a new role of PHD1 in lung cancer and provide new treatment perspectives for cancer therapy by characterizing PHD1 as a potential target.

Li X, Zhang B, Wu Q, et al.
Interruption of KLF5 acetylation converts its function from tumor suppressor to tumor promoter in prostate cancer cells.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(3):536-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2016 Related Publications
KLF5 possesses both tumor suppressing and tumor promoting activities, though the mechanism controlling these opposing functions is unknown. In cultured noncancerous epithelial cells, KLF5 converts from proproliferative to antiproliferative activity upon TGFβ-induced acetylation, which sequentially alters the KLF5 transcriptional complex and the expression of genes such as p15 and MYC. In this study, we tested whether the acetylation status of KLF5 also determines its opposing functions in tumorigenesis using the PC-3 and DU 145 prostate cancer cell lines, whose proliferation is inhibited by TGFβ. KLF5 inhibited the proliferation of these cancer cells, and the inhibition was dependent on KLF5 acetylation. MYC and p15 showed the same patterns of expression change found in noncancerous cells. In nude mice, KLF5 also suppressed tumor growth in an acetylation-dependent manner. Furthermore, deacetylation switched KLF5 to tumor promoting activity, and blocking TGFβ signaling attenuated the tumor suppressor activity of KLF5. RNA sequencing and comprehensive data analysis suggest that multiple molecules, including RELA, p53, CREB1, MYC, JUN, ER, AR and SP1, mediate the opposing functions of AcKLF5 and unAcKLF5. These results provide novel insights into the mechanism by which KLF5 switches from antitumorigenic to protumorigenic function and also suggest the roles of AcKLF5 and unAcKLF5, respectively, in the tumor suppressing and tumor promoting functions of TGFβ.

Liu S, Sun X, Wang M, et al.
A microRNA 221- and 222-mediated feedback loop maintains constitutive activation of NFκB and STAT3 in colorectal cancer cells.
Gastroenterology. 2014; 147(4):847-859.e11 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Constitutive activation of the transcription factors nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and STAT3 is involved in the development and progression of human colorectal cancer (CRC). Little is known about how these factors become activated in cancer cells. We investigated whether microRNA miR-221 and miR-222 regulate NF-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation in human CRC cell lines.
METHODS: CRC cell lines (HCT116 and RKO) were transfected with miR-221 or miR-222 mimics or inhibitors. The activity levels of NF-κB and STAT3 were measured in dual luciferase reporter assays. We used immunoblot and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses to measure protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. Cells were analyzed by proliferation, viability, and flow cytometry analyses. Mice were given injections of azoxymethane, followed by dextran sodium sulfate, along with control lentivirus or those expressing mRNAs that bind miR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221/miR-222 sponge). The levels of miR-221 and miR-222 as well as RelA, STAT3, and PDLIM2 mRNAs were measured in 57 paired CRC and adjacent nontumor tissues from patients.
RESULTS: In CRC cell lines, mimics of miR-221 and miR-222 activated NF-κB and STAT3, further increasing expression of miR-221 and miR-222. miR-221 and miR-222 bound directly to the coding region of RelA mRNA, increasing its stability. miR-221 and miR-222 also reduced the ubiquitination and degradation of the RelA and STAT3 proteins by binding to the 3' untranslated region of PDLIM2 mRNA (PDLIM2 is a nuclear ubiquitin E3 ligase for RelA and STAT3). Incubation of CRC cells with miR-221 and miR-222 inhibitors reduced their proliferation and colony formation compared with control cells. In mice with colitis, injection of lentiviruses expressing miR-221/miR-222 sponges led to formation of fewer tumors than injection of control lentiviruses. Human CRC tissues had higher levels of miR-221 and miR-222 than nontumor colon tissues; increases correlated with increased levels of RelA and STAT3 mRNAs. Levels of PDLIM2 mRNA were lower in CRC than nontumor tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: In human CRC cells, miR-221 and miR-222 act in a positive feedback loop to increase expression levels of RelA and STAT3. Antagonism of miR-221 and miR-222 reduces growth of colon tumors in mice with colitis.

Yu Y, Zhang X, Hong S, et al.
The expression of platelet-activating factor receptor modulates the cisplatin sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells: a novel target for combination therapy.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(3):515-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of the gynaecological cancers. Although cisplatin (CDDP) is an effective treatment for ovarian cancer, recurrence is frequent and leads to death. The objective was to explore the role and possible mechanisms of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) signalling in CDDP-treated ovarian cancer cells.
METHODS: The upregulation of PAFR in CDDP-treated ovarian cancer cells was observed using realtime PCR and Western blot. The potential role of PAFR in modulating the CDDP sensitivity was assessed using a pharmacological inhibitor and siRNA knockdown. The PAFR-activated signalling pathways involved in cell responses to CDDP were assessed.
RESULTS: Cisplatin induced increased PAFR expression in two ovarian cancer cell lines. The upregulation of PAFR by CDDP correlated with the time-dependent accumulation of NF-κB and HIF-1α in the nucleus. The inhibition of PAFR sensitised the ovarian cancer cells to CDDP. The PI3K and ERK pathways lie downstream of activated PAFR in CDDP-treated cells and their inhibition enhanced CDDP sensitivity. Finally, co-treatment with a PAFR antagonist (Ginkgolide B) and CDDP markedly reduced tumour growth in an in vivo model of ovarian cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings suggest that PAFR is a novel and promising therapeutic target for sensitising ovarian cancer cells to CDDP.

Chang TP, Kim M, Vancurova I
Analysis of TGFβ1 and IL-10 transcriptional regulation in CTCL cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation.
Methods Mol Biol. 2014; 1172:329-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
The immunosuppressive cytokines transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) regulate a variety of biological processes including differentiation, proliferation, tissue repair, tumorigenesis, inflammation, and host defense. Aberrant expression of TGFβ1 and IL-10 has been associated with many types of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, as well as with many types of cancer and leukemia. Patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) have high levels of malignant CD4+ T cells expressing IL-10 and TGFβ1 that suppress the immune system and diminish the antitumor responses. The transcriptional regulation of TGFβ1 and IL-10 expression is orchestrated by several transcription factors, including NFκB. However, while the transcriptional regulation of pro-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic genes by NFκB has been studied extensively, much less is known about the NFκB regulation of immunosuppressive genes. In this chapter, we describe a protocol that uses chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to analyze the transcriptional regulation of TGFβ1 and IL-10 by measuring recruitment of NFκB p65, p50, c-Rel, Rel-B, and p52 subunits to TGFβ1 and IL-10 promoters in human CTCL Hut-78 cells.

Zafar A, Wu F, Hardy K, et al.
Chromatinized protein kinase C-θ directly regulates inducible genes in epithelial to mesenchymal transition and breast cancer stem cells.
Mol Cell Biol. 2014; 34(16):2961-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is activated during cancer invasion and metastasis, enriches for cancer stem cells (CSCs), and contributes to therapeutic resistance and disease recurrence. Signal transduction kinases play a pivotal role as chromatin-anchored proteins in eukaryotes. Here we report for the first time that protein kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) promotes EMT by acting as a critical chromatin-anchored switch for inducible genes via transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and the key inflammatory regulatory protein NF-κB. Chromatinized PKC-θ exists as an active transcription complex and is required to establish a permissive chromatin state at signature EMT genes. Genome-wide analysis identifies a unique cohort of inducible PKC-θ-sensitive genes that are directly tethered to PKC-θ in the mesenchymal state. Collectively, we show that cross talk between signaling kinases and chromatin is critical for eliciting inducible transcriptional programs that drive mesenchymal differentiation and CSC formation, providing novel mechanisms to target using epigenetic therapy in breast cancer.

Marwarha G, Raza S, Meiers C, Ghribi O
Leptin attenuates BACE1 expression and amyloid-β genesis via the activation of SIRT1 signaling pathway.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1842(9):1587-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
The aspartyl protease β-site AβPP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in Aβ production, a peptide at the nexus of neurodegenerative cascades in Alzheimer Disease (AD). The adipocytokine leptin has been demonstrated to reduce Aβ production and decrease BACE1 activity and expression levels. However, the signaling cascades involved in the leptin-induced mitigation in Aβ levels and BACE1 expression levels have not been elucidated. We have demonstrated that the transcription factor nuclear factor - kappa B (NF-κB) positively regulates BACE1 transcription. NF-κB activity is tightly regulated by the mammalian sirtuin SIRT1. Multiple studies have cogently evinced that leptin activates the metabolic master regulator SIRT1. In this study, we determined the extent to which SIRT1 expression and activity regulate the leptin-induced attenuation in BACE1 expression and Aβ levels in cultured human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. This study also elucidated and delineated the signal transduction pathways involved in the leptin induced mitigation in BACE1 expression. Our results demonstrate for the first time that leptin attenuates the activation and transcriptional activity of NF-κB by reducing the acetylation of the p65 subunit in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data shows that leptin reduces the NF-κB-mediated transcription of BACE1 and consequently reduces Amyloid-β genesis. Our study provides a valuable insight and a novel mechanism by which leptin reduces BACE1 expression and Amyloid-β production and may help design potential therapeutic interventions.

Zhao K, Song X, Huang Y, et al.
Wogonin inhibits LPS-induced tumor angiogenesis via suppressing PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2014; 737:57-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wogonin has been shown to have anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor effects. However, whether wogonin inhibits LPS-induced tumor angiogenesis is not well known. In this study, we investigated the effect of wogonin on inhibiting LPS-induced tumor angiogenesis and further probed the underlying mechanisms. ELISA results revealed that wogonin could suppress LPS-induced VEGF secretion from tumor cells. Transwell assay, tube formation assay, rat aortic ring assay and CAM model were used to evaluate the effect of wogonin on angiogenesis induced by MCF-7 cell (treated with LPS) in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory effect of wogonin on angiogenesis in LPS-treated MCF-7 cells was then confirmed by the above in vitro and in vivo assays. The study of the molecular mechanism showed that wogonin could suppress PI3K/Akt signaling activation. Moreover, wogonin inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its binding to DNA. The result of real-time PCR and luciferase reporter assay suggested that VEGF expression was down-regulated by wogonin primarily at the transcriptional level. IGF-1 and p65 expression plasmid were used to activate PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways, and to observe the effect of wogonin on the simualtion of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling. Taken together, the result suggested that wogonin was a potent inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis and provided a new insight into the mechanisms of wogonin against cancer.

Hong B, Li H, Zhang M, et al.
p38 MAPK inhibits breast cancer metastasis through regulation of stromal expansion.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(1):34-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
p38 MAPK signaling controls cell growth, proliferation and the cell cycle under stress conditions. However, the function of p38 activation in tumor metastasis is still not well understood. We report that p38 activation in breast cancer cells inhibits tumor metastasis but does not substantially modulate primary tumor growth. Stable p38 knockdown in breast cancer cells suppressed NF-κB p65 activation, inhibiting miR-365 expression and resulting in increased IL-6 secretion. The inhibitory effect of p38 signaling on metastasis was mediated by suppression of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) migration to the primary tumor and sites of metastasis, where MSCs can differentiate into cancer-associated fibroblasts to promote tumor metastasis. The migration of MSCs to these sites relies on CXCR4-SDF1 signaling in the tumor microenvironment. Analysis of human primary and metastatic breast cancer tumors showed that p38 activation was inversely associated with IL-6 and vimentin expression. This study suggests that combination analysis of p38 MAPK and IL-6 signaling in patients with breast cancer may improve prognosis and treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

Harvey AE, Lashinger LM, Hays D, et al.
Calorie restriction decreases murine and human pancreatic tumor cell growth, nuclear factor-κB activation, and inflammation-related gene expression in an insulin-like growth factor-1-dependent manner.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e94151 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Calorie restriction (CR) prevents obesity and has potent anticancer effects that may be mediated through its ability to reduce serum growth and inflammatory factors, particularly insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and protumorigenic cytokines. IGF-1 is a nutrient-responsive growth factor that activates the inflammatory regulator nuclear factor (NF)-κB, which is linked to many types of cancers, including pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that CR would inhibit pancreatic tumor growth through modulation of IGF-1-stimulated NF-κB activation and protumorigenic gene expression. To test this, 30 male C57BL/6 mice were randomized to either a control diet consumed ad libitum or a 30% CR diet administered in daily aliquots for 21 weeks, then were subcutaneously injected with syngeneic mouse pancreatic cancer cells (Panc02) and tumor growth was monitored for 5 weeks. Relative to controls, CR mice weighed less and had decreased serum IGF-1 levels and smaller tumors. Also, CR tumors demonstrated a 70% decrease in the expression of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory factors S100a9 and F4/80, and a 56% decrease in the macrophage chemoattractant, Ccl2. Similar CR effects on tumor growth and NF-κB-related gene expression were observed in a separate study of transplanted MiaPaCa-2 human pancreatic tumor cell growth in nude mice. In vitro analyses in Panc02 cells showed that IGF-1 treatment promoted NF-κB nuclear localization, increased DNA-binding of p65 and transcriptional activation, and increased expression of NF-κB downstream genes. Finally, the IGF-1-induced increase in expression of genes downstream of NF-κB (Ccdn1, Vegf, Birc5, and Ptgs2) was decreased significantly in the context of silenced p65. These findings suggest that the inhibitory effects of CR on Panc02 pancreatic tumor growth are associated with reduced IGF-1-dependent NF-κB activation.

Qiu R, Ma G, Zheng C, et al.
Antineoplastic effect of calycosin on osteosarcoma through inducing apoptosis showing in vitro and in vivo investigations.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014; 97(1):17-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, increasing studies have documented that tumorigenesis closely relates to apoptotic processes. Thus, inducing apoptosis is an anti-cancer strategy against osteosarcoma. Here we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of calycosin on human osteosarcoma cell (143B) in vitro. The results showed that calycosin dose-dependently inhibited 143B cell proliferation as reflected in tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay (P<0.01). In addition, calycosin effectively down-regulated cellular mRNA expressions of IκBα, NF-κB p65 and cyclin D1 through RT-PCR assay (P<0.01). Next, calycosin-mediated inhibitory effect on 143B tumor-bearing nude mice and the underlying mechanism were evaluated and discussed. As a result, calycosin administration significantly blocked solid tumor growth in 143B-harbored nude mice (P<0.01). Furthermore, intracellular Bcl-2 protein expression was effectively reduced in 143B-harbored tumor tissue through western blotting analysis (P<0.01), while intratumoral Apaf-1 and cleaved Caspase-3 protein levels were up-regulated, respectively (P<0.01). Taken together, calycosin possesses the anti-osteosarcoma potential, in which the mechanism involved was associated with activation of apoptotic, thus inducing apoptosis.

Zeng G, Liu J, Chen H, et al.
Dihydromyricetin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in melanoma SK-MEL-28 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(6):2713-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dihydromyricetin (DHM) exhibits multiple pharmacological activities; however, the role of DHM in anti-melanoma activities and the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of DHM on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis in the human melanoma SK-MEL-28 cell line, and to explore the related mechanisms. The effect of DHM on cell proliferation was investigated by MTT assay, and cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. TUNEL assay was used to evaluate DHM-mediated apoptosis, and western blotting was applied to examine expression levels of p53, p21, Cdc25A, Cdc2, P-Cdc2, Bax, IKK-α, NF-κB p65, p38 and P-p38 proteins. The results revealed that DHM suppressed cell proliferation of SK-MEL-28 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and caused cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase. DHM increased the production of p53 and p21 proteins and downregulated the production of Cdc25A, Cdc2 and P-Cdc2 proteins, which induced cell cycle arrest. Additionally, DHM significantly induced the apoptosis of SK-MEL-28 cells, and enhanced the expression levels of Bax proteins and decreased the protein levels of IKK-α, NF-κB (p65) and P-p38. The results suggest that DHM may be a novel and effective candidate agent to inhibit the growth of melanoma.

Chuang TD, Khorram O
miR-200c regulates IL8 expression by targeting IKBKB: a potential mediator of inflammation in leiomyoma pathogenesis.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95370 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
We have previously reported that leiomyoma expressed lower levels of miR-200c and elevated IL8 as compared to paired myometrium. Here we addressed the regulatory functions of miR-200c on the expression of inflammatory mediators and cellular viability using leiomyomas and paired myometrium and their isolated primary smooth muscle cells. Our results indicated that gain-of function or knockdown of miR-200c in leiomyoma smooth muscle cells (LSMC) regulated IL8 mRNA and protein expression through direct targeting of IKBKB and alteration of NF-kB activity. Additionally, leiomyoma expressed higher levels of phosphorylated IKBKB with no significant difference in the level of IKBKB mRNA and protein as compared to matched myometrium. Gain-of function of miR-200c in LSMC resulted in decreased IkBα phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation, which led to decreased p65 transcriptional activity of IL8 promoter, and increased caspase 3/7 activity which was not reversible following IL8 restoration. Collectively, our results suggest that NF-κB signaling pathway is a target of miR-200c regulatory function, and low level of miR-200c expression in leiomyoma by transcriptional regulation of inflammatory mediators such as IL8, in part account for development of leiomyomas.

Li Z, Guo Y, Jiang H, et al.
Differential regulation of MMPs by E2F1, Sp1 and NF-kappa B controls the small cell lung cancer invasive phenotype.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:276 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: E2F1 transcription factor plays a vital role in the regulation of diverse cellular processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis. E2F1 overexpression has been demonstrated in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and extensive metastasis in early phase is the most important feature of SCLC. In this study, we investigated the involvement of E2F1 in the process of invasion and metastasis in SCLC by regulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of E2F1 and MMPs in SCLC samples in a Chinese Han population. The impact of E2F1 on invasion and metastasis was observed by transwell and wound healing experiments with depletion of E2F1 by specific siRNA. The target genes regulated by E2F1 were identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-to-sequence, and the expressions of target genes were detected by real time PCR and western blotting. The dual luciferase reporter system was performed to analyze the regulatory relationship between E2F1 and MMPs.
RESULTS: E2F1 is an independent and adverse prognosis factor that is highly expressed in SCLC in a Chinese Han population. Knockdown of E2F1 by specific siRNA resulted in the downregulation of migration and invasion in SCLC. The expressions of MMP-9 and -16 in SCLC were higher than other MMPs, and their expressions were most significantly reduced after silencing E2F1. ChIP-to-sequence and promoter-based luciferase analysis demonstrated that E2F1 directly controlled MMP-16 expression via an E2F1 binding motif in the promoter. Although one E2F1 binding site was predicted in the MMP-9 promoter, luciferase analysis indicated that this binding site was not functionally required. Further study demonstrated that E2F1 transcriptionally controlled the expression of Sp1 and p65, which in turn enhanced the MMP-9 promoter activity in SCLC cells. The associations between E2F1, Sp1, p65, and MMP-9 were validated by immunohistochemistry staining in SCLC tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: E2F1 acts as a transcriptional activator for MMPs and directly enhances MMP transcription by binding to E2F1 binding sequences in the promoter, or indirectly activates MMPs through enhanced Sp1 and NF-kappa B as a consequence of E2F1 activation in SCLC.

Lundqvist J, Yde CW, Lykkesfeldt AE
1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits cell growth and NFκB signaling in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells.
Steroids. 2014; 85:30-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resistance to antiestrogens is a major clinical problem in current breast cancer treatment and development of new treatment strategies for these tumors is highly prioritized. In this study, we have investigated the effects of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the proliferation of tamoxifen-resistant cells. Further, we have investigated on a molecular level the effects of vitamin D on NFkB signaling in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. Parental human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and four tamoxifen-resistant sublines have been used to investigate the effects of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on cell proliferation using a colorimetric method, gene expression using quantitative PCR, protein phosphorylation using Western blot analysis and cellular localization of proteins using immunofluorescence microscopy. We found that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is able to strongly decrease the growth of both tamoxifen-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells and that this antiproliferative effect of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 might be mediated via inhibition of the NFκB pathway. We found that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates the gene expression of IkB, an NFκB-inhibiting protein, and that cells pretreated with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 have a decreased sensitivity to TNFα stimulation. Further, we show that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 treatment strongly decreases the TNFα-induced translocation of p65 into the nucleus. This manuscript reports novel findings regarding the effects of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on NFκB signaling in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells and suggests that vitamin D might be interesting for further evaluation as a new strategy to treat antiestrogen-resistant breast cancers.

Tao HF, Liu YS, Fang JL, et al.
Significance of SODD expression in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and its influence on chemotherapy.
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(1):2020-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study explored the clinical significance of silencer of death domain (SODD) expression in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and its influence on chemotherapy as well as the effect of SODD expression on apoptosis of leukemic cells. The expression of SODD proteins in different ALL groups was determined by immunocytochemistry. The SODD RNAi-interfering plasmid was constructed and transferred to Jurkat cells, and the effects of SODD expression on cell proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed using the MTT and FCM methods. The expressions of SODD, Phospho-NF-κB-P65, Bcl-2, and Caspase 3 were detected by Western blot analysis. The expression of SODD proteins was significantly higher in the ALL groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). The positive expression rate of SODD was significantly higher in refractory/relapsed and clinical high-risk groups than in standard-risk, initial treatment, and complete remission groups (P < 0.05). Microtubule-targeting drugs such as vincristine and taxol can notably down-regulate SODD expression during apoptosis, whereas DNR, and Ara-c cannot. The sensitivity of Jurkat cells to chemotherapeutic drugs increased with down-regulated SODD expression induced by SODD-interfering plasmid transfection. The sensitivity of the cells transfected with SODD-cloning genes decreased. SODD expression was high in the ALL children. These findings indicated that SODD over-expression might be correlated with the clinical classification, curative effect, and prognosis of ALL cells. Microtubule-targeting drugs can specifically down-regulate SODD expression in leukemic cells, thereby increasing the sensitivity of leukemic cells to SODD-targeting chemotherapeutics. In contrast, increased SODD expression tends to reduce sensitivity.

Ren G, Hu J, Wang R, et al.
Rapamycin inhibits Toll-like receptor 4-induced pro-oncogenic function in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(6):2804-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells and is associated with HNSCC cancer progression. Rapamycin has been proven to be efficient for the treatment of HNSCC in vivo, yet the mechanism is not understood and rapamycin demonstrates little effect in vitro. In the present study, the HNSCC cell lines CAL27 and SCC4 were pre-treated with rapamycin then stimulated with a TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cell proliferation, migration, invasion, resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, cytokine production, NF-κB and p65 activation were determined. The results indicated that LPS significantly stimulated HNSCC cell proliferation, cytokine production, migration, invasion and resistance to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Pretreatment with rapamycin significantly attenuated LPS-induced pro-oncogenic effects by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB by LPS. siRNA knockdown of TLR4 in HNSCC cells demonstrated that rapamycin attenuated LPS-induced pro-oncogenic effects via TLR4. Hence, this study suggests rapamycin may be efficient for the treatment of HNSCC by attenuating TLR4-induced pro-oncogenic effects.

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