Gene Summary

Gene:PTPRC; protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C
Aliases: LCA, LY5, B220, CD45, L-CA, T200, CD45R, GP180
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitosis, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus is classified as a receptor type PTP. This PTP has been shown to be an essential regulator of T- and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. It functions through either direct interaction with components of the antigen receptor complexes, or by activating various Src family kinases required for the antigen receptor signaling. This PTP also suppresses JAK kinases, and thus functions as a regulator of cytokine receptor signaling. Alternatively spliced transcripts variants of this gene, which encode distinct isoforms, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: PTPRC (cancer-related)

Huang X, Zhang Y, Gao Z
Plasmablastic lymphoma of the stomach with C-MYC rearrangement in an immunocompetent young adult: a case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(4):e470 [PubMed] Related Publications
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare B-cell neoplasm mostly described in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Herein, we described a case of PBL presenting as gastric mass in a 21-year-old young adult without known immunodeficiency. The histological examination of the specimen showed a diffuse proliferation of round- to oval-shaped large cells with scant cytoplasm, and prominent nucleoli. The neoplasm stained positively for CD45, CD38, MUM1, and Vs38C, but typical B-cell and T-cell markers (PAX5, CD20, CD79a, and CD3) were absent. The proliferative index (Ki-67) was about 95%. And the neoplastic cells diffusely expressed the c-myc protein. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA in situ hybridization was negative. Molecular genetic study via interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization disclosed the rearrangement involving c-myc gene. Awareness of this distinctive lymphoma can prevent misdiagnosis by the clinicians and/or the pathologists.

Hokuto D, Sho M, Yamato I, et al.
Clinical impact of herpesvirus entry mediator expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(2):157-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), also known as tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily 14, regulates a variety of physiological and pathological responses in both innate and acquired immunity. Although HVEM is also suggested to be a critical regulator in tumours, actual roles in human cancer are largely unknown. This study aimed to clarify clinical importance of HVEM in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied HVEM expression in 150 HCC patients to explore its clinical relevance, and we examined tumour infiltrating T cells and local immune status of them.
RESULTS: HVEM was expressed in HCC cells, while no or only limited expression was observed in normal tissues in the liver. Tumour HVEM expression was significantly correlated with age, serum protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) level, vascular invasion and tumour node metastasis (TNM) stage. Furthermore, tumour HVEM expression significantly correlated with postoperative recurrence and survival. Importantly, multivariate analysis indicated that the HVEM status had an independent prognostic value. Furthermore, HVEM status was inversely correlated with tumour-infiltrating CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD45RO(+) lymphocytes. In addition, it was also associated with reduced expression of perforin, granzyme B and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Taken together, tumour-expressing HVEM plays a functionally important role in HCC.
CONCLUSION: Tumour-expressing HVEM plays a critical role in human HCC, possibly through regulating immune evasion. Therefore, targeting HVEM may be a novel promising therapeutic strategy for HCC.

Matsushita H, Yahata T, Sheng Y, et al.
Establishment of a humanized APL model via the transplantation of PML-RARA-transduced human common myeloid progenitors into immunodeficient mice.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e111082 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent advances in cancer biology have revealed that many malignancies possess a hierarchal system, and leukemic stem cells (LSC) or leukemia-initiating cells (LIC) appear to be obligatory for disease progression. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia characterized by the formation of a PML-RARα fusion protein, leads to the accumulation of abnormal promyelocytes. In order to understand the precise mechanisms involved in human APL leukemogenesis, we established a humanized in vivo APL model involving retroviral transduction of PML-RARA into CD34(+) hematopoietic cells from human cord blood and transplantation of these cells into immunodeficient mice. The leukemia well recapitulated human APL, consisting of leukemic cells with abundant azurophilic abnormal granules in the cytoplasm, which expressed CD13, CD33 and CD117, but not HLA-DR and CD34, were clustered in the same category as human APL samples in the gene expression analysis, and demonstrated sensitivity to ATRA. As seen in human APL, the induced APL cells showed a low transplantation efficiency in the secondary recipients, which was also exhibited in the transplantations that were carried out using the sorted CD34- fraction. In order to analyze the mechanisms underlying APL initiation and development, fractionated human cord blood was transduced with PML-RARA. Common myeloid progenitors (CMP) from CD34(+)/CD38(+) cells developed APL. These findings demonstrate that CMP are a target fraction for PML-RARA in APL, whereas the resultant CD34(-) APL cells may share the ability to maintain the tumor.

Eun JR, Jung YJ, Zhang Y, et al.
Hepatoma SK Hep-1 cells exhibit characteristics of oncogenic mesenchymal stem cells with highly metastatic capacity.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e110744 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: SK Hep-1 cells (SK cells) derived from a patient with liver adenocarcinoma have been considered a human hepatoma cell line with mesenchymal origin characteristics, however, SK cells do not express liver genes and exhibit liver function, thus, we hypothesized whether mesenchymal cells might contribute to human liver primary cancers. Here, we characterized SK cells and its tumourigenicity.
METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that classical mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers were presented on SK cells, but endothelial marker CD31, hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 were negative. SK cells are capable of differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts as adipose-derived MSC (Ad-MSC) and bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) do. Importantly, a single SK cell exhibited a substantial tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity in immunodefficient mice. Metastasis not only occurred in circulating organs such as lung, liver, and kidneys, but also in muscle, outer abdomen, and skin. SK cells presented greater in vitro invasive capacity than those of Ad-MSC and BM-MSC. The xenograft cells from subcutaneous and metastatic tumors exhibited a similar tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity, and showed the same relatively homogenous population with MSC characteristics when compared to parental SK cells. SK cells could unlimitedly expand in vitro without losing MSC characteristics, its tumuorigenicity and metastatic capacity, indicating that SK cells are oncogenic MSC with enhanced self-renewal capacity. We believe that this is the first report that human MSC appear to be transformed into cancer stem cells (CSC), and that their derivatives also function as CSCs.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that SK cells represent a transformation mechanism of normal MSC into an enhanced self-renewal CSC with metastasis capacity, SK cells and their xenografts represent a same relative homogeneity of CSC with substantial metastatic capacity. Thus, it represents a novel mechanism of tumor initiation, development and metastasis by CSCs of non-epithelial and endothelia origin.

Guo H, Cruz-Munoz ME, Wu N, et al.
Immune cell inhibition by SLAMF7 is mediated by a mechanism requiring src kinases, CD45, and SHIP-1 that is defective in multiple myeloma cells.
Mol Cell Biol. 2015; 35(1):41-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule F7 (SLAMF7) is a receptor present on immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells. It is also expressed on multiple myeloma (MM) cells. This led to development of an anti-SLAMF7 antibody, elotuzumab, showing efficacy against MM. SLAMF7 mediates activating or inhibitory effects in NK cells, depending on whether cells express or do not express the adaptor EAT-2. Since MM cells lack EAT-2, we elucidated the inhibitory effectors of SLAMF7 in EAT-2-negative NK cells and tested whether these effectors were triggered in MM cells. SLAMF7-mediated inhibition in NK cells lacking EAT-2 was mediated by SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase 1 (SHIP-1), which was recruited via tyrosine 261 of SLAMF7. Coupling of SLAMF7 to SHIP-1 required Src kinases, which phosphorylated SLAMF7. Although MM cells lack EAT-2, elotuzumab did not induce inhibitory signals in these cells. This was at least partly due to a lack of CD45, a phosphatase required for Src kinase activation. A defect in SLAMF7 function was also observed in CD45-deficient NK cells. Hence, SLAMF7-triggered inhibition is mediated by a mechanism involving Src kinases, CD45, and SHIP-1 that is defective in MM cells. This defect might explain why elotuzumab eliminates MM cells by an indirect mechanism involving the activation of NK cells.

Chéry L, Lam HM, Coleman I, et al.
Characterization of single disseminated prostate cancer cells reveals tumor cell heterogeneity and identifies dormancy associated pathways.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(20):9939-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer dormancy refers to the prolonged clinical disease-free time between removal of the primary tumor and recurrence, which is common in prostate cancer (PCa), breast cancer, esophageal cancer, and other cancers. PCa disseminated tumor cells (DTC) are detected in both patients with no evidence of disease (NED) and advanced disease (ADV). However, the molecular and cellular nature of DTC is unknown. We performed a first-in-field study of single DTC transcriptomic analyses in cancer patients to identify a molecular signature associated with cancer dormancy. We profiled eighty-five individual EpCAM⁺/CD45⁻ cells from the bone marrow of PCa patients with NED or ADV. We analyzed 44 DTC with high prostate-epithelial signatures, and eliminated 41 cells with high erythroid signatures and low prostate epithelial signatures. DTC were clustered into 3 groups: NED, ADV_1, and ADV_2, in which the ADV_1 group presented a distinct gene expression pattern associated with the p38 stress activated kinase pathway. Additionally, DTC from the NED group were enriched for a tumor dormancy signature associated with head and neck squamous carcinoma and breast cancer. This study provides the first clinical evidence of the p38 pathway as a potential biomarker for early recurrence and an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.

Jacca S, Franceschi V, Agosti M, et al.
Interferon gamma-mediated BoHV-4 replication restriction in bovine endometrial stromal cells is host IDO1 gene expression independent and BoHV-4 IE2 gene expression dependent.
Biol Reprod. 2014; 91(5):112 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present work the interaction between bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4)-infected bovine endometrial stromal cells (BESCs) and interferon gamma (IFNG) was investigated. Starting from the particular tropism of BoHV-4 toward BESCs, a pure population of these cells, free of CD45-positive cells, was prepared and proven to have a bona fide mesenchymal derivation as shown by vimentin-positive and cytokeratin-negative staining. BESCs expressed functional IFNG receptors (IFNGR) 1 and 2 but not IFNG ligand. BESCs transfected with a new reporter construct made by cloning the bovine indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) promoter in front of the luciferase reporter gene responded to exogenous IFNG treatment. Further, IFNG-treated or constitutively secreting IFNG BESCs strongly restricted BoHV-4 replication and consequent cytopathic effect. IDO1 expression in BESCs was tightly induced by IFNG and IDO1 was previously shown to be the mediator for some of the IFNG pathogenostatic effects. However, IDO1 inhibitors and IDO1 constitutive expression could not respectively abrogate or recapitulate IFNG effect on BoHV-4-infected BESCs, whereas BoHV-4 immediate early (IE2) gene expression was transcriptionally depressed by IFNG axis activation independently from IDO1 expression; this was further confirmed by revealing a BoHV-4 IE2 gene promoter area containing potential responsive elements interacting with inhibitory transcription factors induced by IFNG in BESCs. The data achieved in this work highlight at least two issues: first, the role of BESCs as target/effector cells for the IFNG; second, the importance of uterine IFNG integrity to control BoHV-4 infection recrudescence from a persistent/latent state to a chronic disease, endometritis.

Neves RP, Raba K, Schmidt O, et al.
Genomic high-resolution profiling of single CKpos/CD45neg flow-sorting purified circulating tumor cells from patients with metastatic breast cancer.
Clin Chem. 2014; 60(10):1290-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are promising surrogate markers for systemic disease, and their molecular characterization might be relevant to guide more individualized cancer therapies. To enable fast and efficient purification of individual CTCs, we developed a work flow from CellSearch(TM) cartridges enabling high-resolution genomic profiling on the single-cell level.
METHODS: Single CTCs were sorted from 40 CellSearch samples from patients with metastatic breast cancer using a MoFlo XDP cell sorter. Genomes of sorted single cells were amplified using an adapter-linker PCR. Amplification products were analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization, a gene-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for cyclin D1 (CCND1) locus amplification, and genomic sequencing to screen for mutations in exons 1, 9, and 20 of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) gene and exons 5, 7, and 8 of the tumor protein p53 (TP53) gene.
RESULTS: One common flow-sorting protocol was appropriate for 90% of the analyzed CellSearch cartridges, and the detected CTC numbers correlated positively with those originally detected with the CellSearch system (R(2) = 0.9257). Whole genome amplification was successful in 72.9% of the sorted single CTCs. Over 95% of the cells displayed chromosomal aberrations typical for metastatic breast cancers, and amplifications at the CCND1 locus were validated by qPCR. Aberrant CTCs from 2 patients harbored mutations in exon 20 of the PIK3CA gene.
CONCLUSIONS: This work flow enabled effective CTC isolation and provided insights into genomic alterations of CTCs in metastatic breast cancer. This approach might facilitate further molecular characterization of rare CTCs to increase understanding of their biology and as a basis for their molecular screening in the clinical setting.

Lapeire L, Hendrix A, Lambein K, et al.
Cancer-associated adipose tissue promotes breast cancer progression by paracrine oncostatin M and Jak/STAT3 signaling.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(23):6806-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidence supports the critical roles played by adipose tissue in breast cancer progression. Yet, the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that breast cancer-associated adipose tissue from freshly isolated tumors promotes F-actin remodeling, cellular scattering, invasiveness, and spheroid reorganization of cultured breast cancer cells. A combination of techniques, including transcriptomics, proteomics, and kinomics enabled us to identify paracrine secretion of oncostatin M (OSM) by cancer-associated adipose tissue. Specifically, OSM, expressed by CD45(+) leucocytes in the stromal vascular fraction, induced phosphorylation of STAT3 (pSTAT3-) Y705 and S727 in breast cancer cells and transcription of several STAT3-dependent genes, including S100 family members S100A7, S100A8, and S100A9. Autocrine activation of STAT3 in MCF-7 cells ectopically expressing OSM-induced cellular scattering and peritumoral neovascularization of orthotopic xenografts. Conversely, selective inhibition of OSM by neutralizing antibody and Jak family kinases by tofacitinib inhibited STAT3 signaling, peritumoral angiogenesis, and cellular scattering. Importantly, nuclear staining of pSTAT3-Y705 identified at the tumor invasion front in ductal breast carcinomas correlates with increased lymphovascular invasion. Our work reveals the potential of novel therapeutic strategies targeting the OSM and STAT3 axis in patients with breast cancer harboring nuclear pSTAT3-Y705.

Li J, Wang Z, Chong T, et al.
Over-expression of a poor prognostic marker in prostate cancer: AQP5 promotes cells growth and local invasion.
World J Surg Oncol. 2014; 12:284 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aquaporins (AQPs), water channel proteins, are known playing a major role in transcellular and transepithelial water movement; they also exhibit several properties related to tumor development. The aim of the present study is to elucidate whether the expression of AQP5 is a strong prognostic biomarker for prostate cancer, and the potential role in the progression of prostate cancer cells.
METHODS: AQP5 expression was measured in 60 prostate cancer tissues and cells (both PC-3 and LNCaP) by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assay. AQP5 gene amplification was detected with FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). Proliferation and migration of cells and AQP5 siRNA cells were detected with MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) and Boyden chambers. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were detected by imFISH staining (CEP8-CD45-DAPI) assay.
RESULTS: The results showed that in 60 tumor specimens, 19 (31.7%) patients showed high level of AQP5 expression, while 30 (50.0%) showed a moderate, intermediate level of staining, and 11 (18.3%) showed an absence of AQP5 staining, respectively. High-expression of AQP5 protein frequently accompanied gene amplification detection with FISH. The AQP5 over-expression was also associated with TNM stage (P=0.042), and lymph node metastasis (P=0.001). The relationships between age or tumor size with the expression of AQP5 were not significant (P>0.05). A positive correlation between the number of CTCs and AQP5 expression (P<0.05) was demonstrated. In addition, patients who were negative for AQP5 had superior cumulative survival rate than those who were positive for it. Over-expression of AQP5 protein was also found in prostate cancer cells and cell proliferation and migration were significantly attenuated by AQP5-siRNA.
CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that AQP5 in prostate cancer was an independent prognostic indicator. AQP5 over-expression was likely to play a role in cell growth and metastasis. These conclusions suggest that AQP5 may be an effective therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

Jiang X, Yin W, Song J, et al.
Primary central nervous system extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, with antecedent hemophagocytic syndrome in a child.
Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2014 Nov-Dec; 17(6):482-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary central nervous system (CNS) extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NKTCL), is an exceedingly uncommon entity. Here, we present a case of CNS NKTCL that manifested initially as hemophagocytic syndrome 4 months earlier in a 13-year-old girl. Histological examination revealed the cerebellum mass was composed of large-sized and atypical tumor cells, with an angiocentric and angiodestructive growth pattern and prominent necrosis. The tumor cells exhibited marked pleomorphism with conspicuous nucleoli and prominent mitotic activity. Immunohistochemical staining showed the tumor cells were positive for CD45, CD2, CD3ε, CD30, CD43, CD56, and granzyme B. Epstein-Barr virus--encoded ribonucleic acid was expressed in almost all of the nuclei of the lymphoma cells. The T-cell receptor γ chain gene rearrangement study showed no evidence of a clonal rearrangement. The patient was treated with etoposide and dexamethasone and died a few days after the operation. As far as we know, this case is the 1st pediatric and female patient of primary CNS NKTCL with antecedent hemophagocytic syndrome, which highlights the clinical data and is helpful for the diagnosis of this tumor.

Cierna Z, Mego M, Janega P, et al.
Matrix metalloproteinase 1 and circulating tumor cells in early breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:472 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play role in tumor dissemination and are an independent survival predictor in breast cancer (BC) patients. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between CTCs and tumor MMP1 in BC.
METHODS: Study included 149 primary BC patients treated by surgery from March 2012 to March 2013. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were depleted of hematopoietic cells using RossetteSep(TM) selection kit. RNA extracted from CD45-depleted PBMC was interrogated for expression of EMT (TWIST1, SNAIL1, SLUG, ZEB1) and epithelial (CK19) gene transcripts by qRT-PCR. Patient samples with higher epithelial and/or mesenchymal gene transcripts than those of healthy donors (n = 60) were considered as CTC positive. Expression of MMP1 in surgical specimens was evaluated by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: CTCs were detected in 24.2% patients. CTCs exhibiting only epithelial markers were present in 8.7% patients, whereas CTCs with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (CTC_EMT) were observed in 13.4% of patients and CTCs co-expressing both markers were detected in 2.0% patients. Patients with CTC_EMT in peripheral blood had significantly increased expression of MMP1 in tumor cells (p = 0.02) and tumor associated stroma (p = 0.05) than those of patients without CTC_EMT. In multivariate analysis, CTC_EMT and tumor grade were independently associated with MMP1 expression in cancer cells, while CTC_EMT and Ki67 were independently associated with MMP1 expression in cancer associated stroma.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest link between MMP1 and CTCs with EMT phenotype and support role of MMPs and EMT in tumor dissemination.

Purwanti YI, Chen C, Lam DH, et al.
Antitumor effects of CD40 ligand-expressing endothelial progenitor cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells in a metastatic breast cancer model.
Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014; 3(8):923-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Given their intrinsic ability to home to tumor sites, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are attractive as cellular vehicles for targeted cancer gene therapy. However, collecting sufficient EPCs is one of the challenging issues critical for effective clinical translation of this new approach. In this study, we sought to explore whether human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could be used as a reliable and accessible cell source to generate human EPCs suitable for cancer treatment. We used an embryoid body formation method to derive CD133(+)CD34(+) EPCs from human iPS cells. The generated EPCs expressed endothelial markers such as CD31, Flk1, and vascular endothelial-cadherin without expression of the CD45 hematopoietic marker. After intravenous injection, the iPS cell-derived EPCs migrated toward orthotopic and lung metastatic tumors in the mouse 4T1 breast cancer model but did not promote tumor growth and metastasis. To investigate their therapeutic potential, the EPCs were transduced with baculovirus encoding the potent T cell costimulatory molecule CD40 ligand. The systemic injection of the CD40 ligand-expressing EPCs stimulated the secretion of both tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ and increased the caspase 3/7 activity in the lungs with metastatic tumors, leading to prolonged survival of the tumor bearing mice. Therefore, our findings suggest that human iPS cell-derived EPCs have the potential to serve as tumor-targeted cellular vehicles for anticancer gene therapy.

Baboolal TG, Boxall SA, Churchman SM, et al.
Intrinsic multipotential mesenchymal stromal cell activity in gelatinous Heberden's nodes in osteoarthritis at clinical presentation.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2014; 16(3):R119 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Gelatinous Heberden's nodes (HNs), also termed synovial cysts, are a common form of generalized osteoarthritis (OA). We sought to determine whether HN cases at clinical presentation contained multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) and to explore whether such cells were more closely related to bone marrow (BM) or synovial fluid (SF) MSCs by transcriptional analysis.
METHODS: At clinical presentation, gelatinous material was extracted/extruded from the distal phalangeal joint of OA patients with HNs. From this, plastic adherent cells were culture-expanded for phenotypic and functional characterization and comparison with BM- and SF-MSCs. Mesenchymal related gene expression was studied by using a custom-designed TaqMan Low Density Array to determine transcriptional similarities between different MSC groups and skin fibroblasts.
RESULTS: In all cases, HN material produced MSC-like colonies. Adherent cultures displayed an MSC phenotype (CD29(+), CD44(+), CD73(+), CD81(+), and CD90(+) and CD14(-) CD19(-), CD31(-), CD34(-), CD45(-), and HLADR(-)) and exhibited osteogenic, chondrogenic lineage differentiation but weak adipogenesis. Gene cluster analysis showed that HN-MSCs were more closely related to SF- than normal or OA BM-MSCs with significantly higher expression of synovium-related gene markers such as bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1A (BMPR1A), protein/leucine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP), secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4), and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6 (TNFAIP6) (P <0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Gelatinous HNs derived from hand OA at clinical presentation contain a population of MSCs that share transcriptional similarities with SF-derived MSCs. Their aberrant entrapment within the synovial cysts may impact on their normal role in joint homeostasis.

Watanabe M, Serizawa M, Sawada T, et al.
A novel flow cytometry-based cell capture platform for the detection, capture and molecular characterization of rare tumor cells in blood.
J Transl Med. 2014; 12:143 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Personalized cancer treatment relies on the accurate detection of actionable genomic aberrations in tumor cells. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) could provide an alternative genetic resource for diagnosis; however, the technical difficulties in isolating and analyzing rare CTCs have limited progress to date. In this preclinical study, we aimed to develop an improved capture system for molecular characterization of CTCs based on a novel cell sorting technology.
METHODS: We developed a cell capture platform using On-chip Sort (On-Chip Biotechnologies), a novel bench-top cell sorter equipped with a disposable microfluidic chip. Spike-in experiments comprising a series of lung cancer cell lines with varying epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) expression levels were conducted to assess the capture and purification efficiency of the platform. Samples were negatively enriched using anti-CD45-coated magnetic beads to remove white blood cells, followed by sample fixation and labeling. The enriched and labeled samples were then sorted by On-chip Sort based on cytokeratin, vimentin, and CD45 expression. Captured cells were immediately subjected to whole genome amplification followed by mutation analysis using deep targeted sequencing, and copy number analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).
RESULTS: Spike-in experiments revealed an excellent overall mean capture rate of 70.9%. A 100% success rate in the detection of EGFR, KRAS and BRAF mutations from captured cells was achieved using pyrosequencing and deep sequencing. The mutant variant detection rates were markedly higher than those obtained with the CellSearch profile kit. qPCR analysis of amplified DNA demonstrated reproducible detection of copy number changes of the EGFR in captured tumor cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Using a novel cell sorter, we established an efficient and convenient platform for the capture of CTCs. Results of a proof-of-principle preclinical study indicated that this platform has potential for the molecular characterization of captured CTCs from patients.

Morscio J, Dierickx D, Nijs J, et al.
Clinicopathologic comparison of plasmablastic lymphoma in HIV-positive, immunocompetent, and posttransplant patients: single-center series of 25 cases and meta-analysis of 277 reported cases.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(7):875-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma often associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. To gain insight in this aggressive lymphoma subtype, the clinicopathologic characteristics of 25 unpublished single-center PBLs (2 in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, 11 in immunocompetent individuals [IC-PBL], 12 in transplant recipients [PT-PBL]) and of 277 reported PBLs were summarized. In the reported series, PBL patients were predominantly male (77%) with a median age at diagnosis of 46 years (range, 1.2 to 87 y). The majority of the biopsies (66%) was EBV positive. Extranodal presentation was most frequent (88%, of which 35% were oral, 18% gastrointestinal, 12% cutaneous). PBL was diagnosed in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients (50%), immunocompetent individuals (35%), and transplant recipients (14%). These subgroups differed in age at diagnosis (median: 41, 64, 47 y, respectively), primary localization (oral, oral, cutaneous, respectively), EBV positivity (75%, 50%, 67%, respectively), CD45 expression (31%, 33%, 70%, respectively), and C-MYC aberrations (78%, 44%, 38%, respectively). Ann Arbor stage I, EBV positivity, CD45 expression, and lack of C-MYC aberrations were associated with better outcome (P<0.05). Our series of IC-PBL and PT-PBL cases revealed differential expression of CD10 (0% vs. 42%, respectively), CD56 (22% vs. 42%, respectively), TP53 (67% vs. 8%, respectively), and BCL2 (88% vs. 25%, respectively). Gene expression analysis of 5 of our PT-PBLs revealed upregulation of DNMT3B, PTP4A3, and CD320 in EBV-positive PT-PBL and suggested a role for cancer/testis antigens. The results of this retrospective study suggest different pathogenic mechanisms of PBL in different immunologic settings and a potentially important impact of EBV and CD45 on prognosis.

Bie Q, Zhang P, Su Z, et al.
Polarization of ILC2s in peripheral blood might contribute to immunosuppressive microenvironment in patients with gastric cancer.
J Immunol Res. 2014; 2014:923135 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Newly identified nuocytes or group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play an important role in Th2 cell mediated immunity such as protective immune responses to helminth parasites, allergic asthma, and chronic rhinosinusitis. However, the contributions of ILC2s in the occurrence and development of cancer remain unknown. Our previous study found that there was a predominant Th2 phenotype in patients with gastric cancer. In this study, the ILC2s related genes or molecules in PBMC from patients with gastric cancer were measured, and the potential correlation between them was analyzed. The expression levels of RORα, GATA3, T1/ST2, IL-17RB, CRTH2, IL-33, IL-5, and IL-4 mRNA were significantly increased in patients, but no significant changes were found in ICOS, CD45, and IL-13 expression, and there was a positive correlation between RORα or IL-13 and other related factors, such as ICOS and CD45. The increased frequency of ILC2s was also found in PBMC of patients by flow cytometry. In addition, the mRNA of Arg1 and iNOS were also significantly increased in patients. These results suggested that there are polarized ILC2s in gastric cancer patients which might contribute to immunosuppressive microenvironment and closely related to the upregulation of MDSCs and M2 macrophages.

Tymoszuk P, Charoentong P, Hackl H, et al.
High STAT1 mRNA levels but not its tyrosine phosphorylation are associated with macrophage infiltration and bad prognosis in breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:257 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: STAT1 has been attributed a function as tumor suppressor. However, in breast cancer data from microarray analysis indicated a predictive value of high mRNA expression levels of STAT1 and STAT1 target genes belonging to the interferon-related signature for a poor response to therapy. To clarify this issue we have determined STAT1 expression levels and activation by different methods, and investigated their association with tumor infiltration by immune cells. Additionally, we evaluated the interrelationship of these parameters and their significance for predicting disease outcome.
METHODS: Expression of STAT1, its target genes SOCS1, IRF1, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, IFIT1, IFITM1, MX1 and genes characteristic for immune cell infiltration (CD68, CD163, PD-L1, PD-L2, PD-1, CD45, IFN-γ, FOXP3) was determined by RT-PCR in two independent cohorts comprising 132 breast cancer patients. For a subset of patients, protein levels of total as well as serine and tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 were ascertained by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting and protein levels of CXCL10 by ELISA.
RESULTS: mRNA expression levels of STAT1 and STAT1 target genes, as well as protein levels of total and serine-phosphorylated STAT1 correlated with each other in neoplastic tissue. However, there was no association between tumor levels of STAT1 mRNA and tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 and between CXCL10 serum levels and CXCL10 expression in the tumor. Tumors with increased STAT1 mRNA amounts exhibited elevated expression of genes characteristic for tumor-associated macrophages and immunosuppressive T lymphocytes. Survival analysis revealed an association of high STAT1 mRNA levels and bad prognosis in both cohorts. A similar prognostically relevant correlation with unfavorable outcome was evident for CXCL10, MX1, CD68, CD163, IFN-γ, and PD-L2 expression in at least one collective. By contrast, activation of STAT1 as assessed by the level of STAT1-Y701 phosphorylation was linked to positive outcome. In multivariate Cox regression, the predictive power of STAT1 mRNA expression was lost when including expression of CXCL10, MX1 and CD68 as confounders.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms distinct prognostic relevance of STAT1 expression levels and STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation in breast cancer patients and identifies an association of high STAT1 levels with elevated expression of STAT1 target genes and markers for infiltrating immune cells.

Medina DJ, Abass-Shereef J, Walton K, et al.
Cobblestone-area forming cells derived from patients with mantle cell lymphoma are enriched for CD133+ tumor-initiating cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e91042 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is associated with a significant risk of therapeutic failure and disease relapse, but the biological origin of relapse is poorly understood. Here, we prospectively identify subpopulations of primary MCL cells with different biologic and immunophenotypic features. Using a simple culture system, we demonstrate that a subset of primary MCL cells co-cultured with either primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) or murine MS-5 cells form in cobblestone-areas consisting of cells with a primitive immunophenotype (CD19-CD133+) containing the chromosomal translocation t (11;14)(q13;q32) characteristic of MCL. Limiting dilution serial transplantation experiments utilizing immunodeficient mice revealed that primary MCL engraftment was only observed when either unsorted or CD19-CD133+ cells were utilized. No engraftment was seen using the CD19+CD133- subpopulation. Our results establish that primary CD19-CD133+ MCL cells are a functionally distinct subpopulation of primary MCL cells enriched for MCL-initiating activity in immunodeficient mice. This rare subpopulation of MCL-initiating cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MCL.

Suzuki O, Abe M
Galectin-1-mediated cell adhesion, invasion and cell death in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma: regulatory roles of cell surface glycans.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(5):1433-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Galectin-1 is known to be one of the extracellular matrix proteins. To elucidate the biological roles of galectin-1 in cell adhesion and invasion of human anaplastic large cell lymphoma, we performed cell adhesion and invasion assays using the anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line H-ALCL, which was previously established in our laboratory. From the cell surface lectin array, treatment with neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens which cleaves all linkage types of cell surface sialic acid enhanced Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Helix pomatia (HPA) and Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA) lectin binding reactivity to cell surface of lymphoma cells suggesting that neuraminidase removes cell surface sialic acid. In cell adhesion and invasion assays treatment with neuraminidase markedly enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1 and decreased cell invasive capacity through galectin-1. α2,6-linked sialic acid may be involved in masking the effect of the interaction between galectin-1 and cell surface glycans. H-ALCL cells expressed the β-galactoside-α2,6-sialyltransferase ST6Gal1. On resialylation assay by recombinant ST6Gal1 with CMP-Neu5Ac, α2,6-resialylation of L-PHA reactive oligosaccharide by ST6Gal1 resulted in inhibition of H-ALCL cell adhesion to galectin-1 compared to the desialylated H-ALCL cells. On knockdown experiments, knockdown of ST6Gal1 dramatically enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1. N-glycosylation inhibitor swainsonine treatment resulted in enhancement of cell adhesion to galectin-1. In glycomic analysis using the lectin blocking assay treatment with PNA, Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin), Glycine max (SBA), Helix pomatia (HPA), Vicia villosa (VVA), Ulex europaeus (UEA-1), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Canavalia ensiformis (ConA), Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA), Phaseolus vulgaris-E4 (E-PHA), Datura stramonium (DSA) lectins resulted in modulation of lymphoma cell to galectin-1 suggesting that several types of glycans may regulate cell adhesion to galectin-1 by steric hindrance. The adhesive capacity of H-ALCL cells is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3 phosphate kinase (PI3K) and actin cytoskeleton, and the invasive capacity of H-ALCL cells is regulated by PI3K, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Rho and actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, galectin-1-induced cell death in H-ALCL cells was accompanied by inhibition of CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. In conclusion, cell adhesion and invasion to galectin-1 appeared to be regulated by cell surface sialylation and N-glycosylation, and galectin-1 regulates cell death through inhibition of CD45 PTP activity of H-ALCL.

Li C, Tian Y, Wang J, et al.
Abnormal immunophenotype provides a key diagnostic marker: a report of 29 cases of de novo aggressive natural killer cell leukemia.
Transl Res. 2014; 163(6):565-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aggressive natural killer (NK) cell leukemia (ANKL) is a systemic neoplastic proliferation of NK cells with an aggressive clinical course. Currently, the diagnosis of ANKL remains challenging. In the current study, we report the clinical, laboratory, immunophenotypic, and genetic findings from 29 cases of de novo ANKL in a single center and evaluate the relative contribution of these features to the diagnosis of ANKL. Clinical features, laboratory findings, morphologic, cytogenetic features, and Epstein-Barr virus status were important factors for diagnosing aggressive NK cell leukemia. On the other hand, ANKL displays a strikingly abnormal immunophenotype in contrast to nonneoplastic NK cells. The immunophenotype of ANKL cells may differ from reactive NK cells in 4 respects. First, the CD45/linear side scatter gating of flow cytometry allows the initial identification of neoplastic subpopulations for additional immunophenotypic analysis in half of ANKL cases. Second, unusual expression of surface antigens in ANKL cells was a prominent feature. Third, the clonality of ANKL cells could be identified using antibodies against CD158a/h, CD158b, or CD158e. Last, the positive rate of Ki-67 expression in ANKL cells was generally high. Based on these findings, we provide an objective marker based on clinical data for the definite diagnosis of ANKL.

Amaral AT, Manara MC, Berghuis D, et al.
Characterization of human mesenchymal stem cells from ewing sarcoma patients. Pathogenetic implications.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e85814 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ewing Sarcoma (EWS) is a mesenchymal-derived tumor that generally arises in bone and soft tissue. Intensive research regarding the pathogenesis of EWS has been insufficient to pinpoint the early events of Ewing sarcomagenesis. However, the Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) is currently accepted as the most probable cell of origin.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an initial study regarding a deep characterization of MSC obtained specifically from EWS patients (MSC-P), we compared them with MSC derived from healthy donors (MSC-HD) and EWS cell lines. We evaluated the presence of the EWS-FLI1 gene fusion and EWSR1 gene rearrangements in MSC-P. The presence of the EWS transcript was confirmed by q-RT-PCR. In order to determine early events possibly involved in malignant transformation, we used a multiparameter quantitative strategy that included both MSC immunophenotypic negative/positive markers, and EWS intrinsic phenotypical features. Markers CD105, CD90, CD34 and CD45 were confirmed in EWS samples.
RESULTS: We determined that MSC-P lack the most prevalent gene fusion, EWSR1-FLI1 as well as EWSR1 gene rearrangements. Our study also revealed that MSC-P are more alike to MSC-HD than to EWS cells. Nonetheless, we also observed that EWS cells had a few overlapping features with MSC. As a relevant example, also MSC showed CD99 expression, hallmark of EWS diagnosis. However, we observed that, in contrast to EWS cells, MSC were not sensitive to the inhibition of CD99.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our results suggest that MSC from EWS patients behave like MSC-HD and are phenotypically different from EWS cells, thus raising important questions regarding MSC role in sarcomagenesis.

Ishikawa T, Kokura S, Enoki T, et al.
Phase I clinical trial of fibronectin CH296-stimulated T cell therapy in patients with advanced cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e83786 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that less-differentiated T cells are ideal for adoptive T cell transfer therapy (ACT) and that fibronectin CH296 (FN-CH296) together with anti-CD3 resulted in cultured cells that contain higher amounts of less-differentiated T cells. In this phase I clinical trial, we build on these prior results by assessing the safety and efficacy of FN-CH296 stimulated T cell therapy in patients with advanced cancer.
METHODS: Patients underwent fibronectin CH296-stimulated T cell therapy up to six times every two weeks and the safety and antitumor activity of the ACT were assessed. In order to determine immune function, whole blood cytokine levels and the number of peripheral regulatory T cells were analyzed prior to ACT and during the follow up.
RESULTS: Transferred cells contained numerous less-differentiated T cells greatly represented by CD27+CD45RA+ or CD28+CD45RA+ cell, which accounted for approximately 65% and 70% of the total, respectively. No ACT related severe or unexpected toxicities were observed. The response rate among patients was 22.2% and the disease control rate was 66.7%.
CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this phase I trial, indicate that FN-CH296 stimulated T cell therapy was very well tolerated with a level of efficacy that is quite promising. We also surmise that expanding T cell using CH296 is a method that can be applied to other T- cell-based therapies.

Mirkina I, Hadzijusufovic E, Krepler C, et al.
Phenotyping of human melanoma cells reveals a unique composition of receptor targets and a subpopulation co-expressing ErbB4, EPO-R and NGF-R.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e84417 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant melanoma is a life-threatening skin cancer increasingly diagnosed in the western world. In advanced disease the prognosis is grave. Growth and metastasis formation in melanomas are regulated by a network of cytokines, cytokine-receptors, and adhesion molecules. However, little is known about surface antigens and target expression profiles in human melanomas. We examined the cell surface antigen profile of human skin melanoma cells by multicolor flow cytometry, and compared their phenotype with 4 melanoma cell lines (A375, 607B, Mel-Juso, SK-Mel28). Melanoma cells were defined as CD45-/CD31- cells co-expressing one or more melanoma-related antigens (CD63, CD146, CD166). In most patients, melanoma cells exhibited ErbB3/Her3, CD44/Pgp-1, ICAM-1/CD54 and IGF-1-R/CD221, but did not express CD20, ErbB2/Her2, KIT/CD117, AC133/CD133 or MDR-1/CD243. Melanoma cell lines were found to display a similar phenotype. In most patients, a distinct subpopulation of melanoma cells (4-40%) expressed the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) and ErbB4 together with PD-1 and NGF-R/CD271. Both the EPO-R+ and EPO-R- subpopulations produced melanoma lesions in NOD/SCID IL-2Rgamma(null) (NSG) mice in first and secondary recipients. Normal skin melanocytes did not express ErbB4 or EPO-R, but expressed a functional KIT receptor (CD117) as well as NGF-R, ErbB3/Her3, IGF-1-R and CD44. In conclusion, melanoma cells display a unique composition of surface target antigens and cytokine receptors. Malignant transformation of melanomas is accompanied by loss of KIT and acquisition of EPO-R and ErbB4, both of which are co-expressed with NGF-R and PD-1 in distinct subfractions of melanoma cells. However, expression of EPO-R/ErbB4/PD-1 is not indicative of a selective melanoma-initiating potential.

Tembhare PR, Yuan CM, Venzon D, et al.
Flow cytometric differentiation of abnormal and normal plasma cells in the bone marrow in patients with multiple myeloma and its precursor diseases.
Leuk Res. 2014; 38(3):371-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Flow cytometric (FC) enumeration of abnormal plasma cells (APCs) for diagnosis and prognostication of plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD) is challenging. We studied antigen expression in normal plasma cells (NPC) (N = 34) and APC in a series of unselected PCD (N = 59). NPC subpopulations often demonstrated CD19(-), CD20(+), CD45(-) or dim and CD56(+), an immunophenotype observed in PCD. However abnormal CD81 was only observed in APCs (APC detection sensitivity 95%; specificity 100%). We evaluated differences in antigen expression patterns among MGUS (N = 14), SMM (N = 35) and MM (N = 10), finding the combination of CD45 and CD56 helpful in differentiating MGUS from SMM and MM (p = 0.0002).

Takeyama H, Yamamoto H, Yamashita S, et al.
Decreased miR-340 expression in bone marrow is associated with liver metastasis of colorectal cancer.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(4):976-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies have shown the prognostic significance of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in bone marrow of patients with colorectal cancer. However, the molecular characteristics of DTCs, including their miRNA expression profiles, remain mostly unknown. In this study, we analyzed the miRNA expression of DTCs in bone marrow. EpCAM(+) bone marrow cells were collected using immunomagnetic beads after exclusion of CD14(+) and CD45(+) cells, then subjected to miRNA microarray analysis. Cluster analysis (7 colorectal cancer patients with liver metastasis and 12 colorectal cancer patients without liver metastasis) indicated that miR-340 and miR-542-3p expressions were significantly decreased in EpCAM(+) bone marrow cells of patients with liver metastasis (P = 0.019 and 0.037, respectively). We demonstrated that pre-miR-340 administration inhibited growth of colon cancer cells and suppressed c-Met expression in vitro. In clinical samples of colorectal cancer, miR-340 was expressed at significantly lower levels in tumor tissues compared with normal mucosa. Survival analysis in 136 patients with colorectal cancer indicated that low miR-340 expression was correlated with shorter 5-year disease-free survival (P = 0.023) and poor 5-year overall survival (P = 0.046). It was of note that the colorectal cancer group with low miR-340 and high c-Met expression had the worst prognosis. We further demonstrated that systemic pre-miR-340 administration suppressed growth of pre-established HCT116 tumors in animal therapeutic models. These findings indicate that miR-340 may be useful as a novel prognostic factor and as a therapeutic tool against colorectal cancer. Our data suggest that miR-340 in bone marrow may play an important role in regulating the metastasis cascade of colorectal cancer.

Mandelker DL, Dorfman DM, Li B, Pozdnyakova O
Antigen expression patterns of MYC-rearranged versus non-MYC-rearranged B-cell lymphomas by flow cytometry.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2014; 55(11):2592-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
B-cell lymphomas with MYC rearrangement are a heterogeneous and unique group of neoplasms that may behave aggressively, especially in conjunction with other oncogenic alterations that cooperate with MYC, warranting early and intensive treatment in a subset of patients. Identification of MYC-rearranged B-cell lymphomas by immunophenotypic analysis could help guide cytogenetic work-up, as well as expedite therapeutic interventions. Using flow cytometry we analyzed the expression of CD10, CD19, CD20, CD38 and CD45 in 53 patients with three distinct neoplasms with MYC rearrangements: Burkitt lymphoma (n = 12), double hit lymphoma (n = 17) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with MYC rearrangement (n = 8). The expression profile of these commonly used antibodies was similar among these three groups. The antigenic pattern of bright CD38 and dim CD45 was unique to the MYC-rearranged neoplasms when compared to non-MYC-rearranged aggressive DLBCL (n = 16), with a combined sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 100%, suggesting a shared underlying biology among these MYC rearranged B-cell lymphomas.

Hussein S, Gill K, Baer LN, et al.
Practical diagnostic approaches to composite plasma cell neoplasm and low grade B-cell lymphoma/clonal infiltrates in the bone marrow.
Hematol Oncol. 2015; 33(1):31-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Composite plasma cell neoplasm (PCN) and low grade B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL) in the bone marrow are uncommon and raise the differential diagnosis of B-NHL with plasmacytic differentiation and PCN with lymphoplasmacytic morphology. This can be a challenging differential diagnosis, and the distinctions are important because of differences in management. We report five cases of composite PCN with B-NHL or clonal B-cell infiltrates involving the bone marrow. By using multiple different diagnostic modalities, including immunophenotyping by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, cytogenetic analysis and IGH gene rearrangement studies by polymerase chain reaction, we were able to distinguish two distinct clonally unrelated neoplasms in all cases. We describe the utility and pitfalls of these different diagnostic modalities. Flow cytometric analysis with a panel of antibodies that includes CD19, CD56, CD138, CD45 and other aberrant markers commonly expressed by PCN will allow identification of clonally unrelated PCN and B-NHL in a composite neoplasm, and distinguish them from B-NHL with plasmacytic differentiation and PCN with lymphoplasmacytic morphology. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses can give false-negative or false-positive results. In summary, a multimodal approach utilizing these different tools, including clinical data, should be used to arrive at the correct diagnosis.

Widhopf GF, Cui B, Ghia EM, et al.
ROR1 can interact with TCL1 and enhance leukemogenesis in Eμ-TCL1 transgenic mice.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(2):793-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is an oncoembryonic antigen found on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells, but not on normal adult tissues. We generated transgenic (Tg) mice with human ROR1 regulated by the murine Ig promoter/enhancer. In contrast to nontransgenic littermates, such animals had B-cell-restricted expression of ROR1 and could develop clonal expansions of ROR1(bright)CD5(+)B220(low) B cells resembling human CLL at ≥ 15 mo of age. Because immune-precipitation and mass spectrometry studies revealed that ROR1 could complex with T-cell leukemia 1 (TCL1) in CLL, we crossed these animals with Eµ-TCL1-Tg (TCL1) mice. Progeny with both transgenes (ROR1 × TCL1) developed CD5(+)B220(low) B-cell lymphocytosis and leukemia at a significantly younger median age than did littermates with either transgene alone. ROR1 × TCL1 leukemia B cells had higher levels of phospho-AKT than TCL1 leukemia cells and expressed high levels of human ROR1, which we also found complexed with TCL1. Transcriptome analyses revealed that ROR1 × TCL1 leukemia cells had higher expression of subnetworks implicated in embryonic and tumor-cell proliferation, but lower expression of subnetworks involved in cell-cell adhesion or cell death than did TCL1 leukemia cells. ROR1 × TCL1 leukemia cells also had higher proportions of Ki-67-positive cells, lower proportions of cells undergoing spontaneous apoptosis, and produced more aggressive disease upon adoptive transfer than TCL1 leukemia cells. However, treatment with an anti-ROR1 mAb resulted in ROR1 down-modulation, reduced phospho-AKT, and impaired engraftment of ROR1 × TCL1 leukemia cells. Our data demonstrate that ROR1 accelerates development/progression of leukemia and may be targeted for therapy of patients with CLL.

Schafernak KT, Variakojis D, Goolsby CL, et al.
Clonality assessment of cutaneous B-cell lymphoid proliferations: a comparison of flow cytometry immunophenotyping, molecular studies, and immunohistochemistry/in situ hybridization and review of the literature.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2014; 36(10):781-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates are diagnostically challenging. Although ancillary techniques to assess clonality can help distinguish between reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphoma, one of the most widely used techniques in hematopathology, flow cytometry immunophenotyping (FCI), has not been routinely applied to skin specimens. We performed FCI on 73 skin specimens from 67 patients clinically suspected of having a cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL) and compared the results with those obtained from immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene molecular studies (58 cases, primarily by polymerase chain reaction) and either immunohistochemistry (IHC) or in situ hybridization to evaluate for light chain restriction (22 and 2 cases, respectively). Sufficient quantity of CD45 (leukocyte common antigen)-positive cells and staining quality were achieved in 88% of cases by FCI, and clonality was detected in 68% of CBCLs versus molecular studies showing sufficient DNA quality in 74% and only 39% clonality detection, and interpretable/contributory IHC results in 84% of cases with 55% clonality detection. Clonality was documented more frequently in secondary rather than primary CBCLs by all 3 techniques. Therefore, FCI is feasible and appears to be more reliable than molecular studies or IHC/in situ hybridization for detecting clonality in CBCLs and can provide additional prognostically and therapeutically relevant information. The exception is cases with plasmacytic differentiation such as marginal zone lymphoma for which IHC might be a superior tool. We have also shown that a large subset of primary cutaneous follicle center lymphomas express CD10 and/or BCL2 by FCI. Recent advances in FCI beg the question of applicability to cutaneous T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas.

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