Gene Summary

Gene:PTP4A3; protein tyrosine phosphatase 4A3
Aliases: PRL3, PRL-3, PRL-R
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. Protein tyrosine phosphatases are cell signaling molecules that play regulatory roles in a variety of cellular processes. Studies of this class of protein tyrosine phosphatase in mice demonstrates that they are prenylated in vivo, suggesting their association with cell plasma membrane. The encoded protein may enhance cell proliferation, and overexpression of this gene has been implicated in tumor metastasis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
PTP4A3 is implicated in:
- early endosome
- plasma membrane
- prenylated protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: PTP4A3 (cancer-related)

Hardy S, Kostantin E, Wang SJ, et al.
Magnesium-sensitive upstream ORF controls PRL phosphatase expression to mediate energy metabolism.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019; 116(8):2925-2934 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3, also known as PTP4A1, PTP4A2, and PTP4A3) control magnesium homeostasis through an association with the CNNM magnesium transport regulators. Although high PRL levels have been linked to cancer progression, regulation of their expression is poorly understood. Here we show that modulating intracellular magnesium levels correlates with a rapid change of PRL expression by a mechanism involving its 5'UTR mRNA region. Mutations or CRISPR-Cas9 targeting of the conserved upstream ORF present in the mRNA leader derepress PRL protein synthesis and attenuate the translational response to magnesium levels. Mechanistically, magnesium depletion reduces intracellular ATP but up-regulates PRL protein expression via activation of the AMPK/mTORC2 pathway, which controls cellular energy status. Hence, altered PRL-2 expression leads to metabolic reprogramming of the cells. These findings uncover a magnesium-sensitive mechanism controlling PRL expression, which plays a role in cellular bioenergetics.

Wang L, Yu T, Li W, et al.
The miR-29c-KIAA1199 axis regulates gastric cancer migration by binding with WBP11 and PTP4A3.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(17):3134-3150 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of death among patients with cancer in China. The primary reason of GC treatment failure is metastasis. Therefore, identifying metastatic biomarkers and clarifying the regulatory mechanisms involved in the GC metastatic process are important. Here, we found that KIAA1199, a cell migration-inducing protein, was significantly overexpressed in GC and correlated with lymph node metastasis and poorer patient survival. Additionally, the introduction of KIAA1199 dramatically promoted GC cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo, and the inhibition of KIAA1199 suppressed GC cell growth and migration and induced GC cell apoptosis. Cell migration is a functional consequence of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we found that KIAA1199 inhibition or overexpression regulated the expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin through KIAA1199 binding to WW domain binding protein 11 (WBP11) and protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 3 (PTP4A3) and through the subsequent activation of the FGFR4/Wnt/β-catenin and EGFR signaling pathways. More importantly, ectopic expression of WBP11 or PTP4A3 blocked the stimulatory effects of KIAA1199 on GC cell proliferation and migration. Meanwhile, we illustrated that KIAA1199 was a target gene of miR-29c-3p and that miR-29c-3p overexpression led to decreased migration of GC cells in vitro and in vivo by suppressing the expression of KIAA1199 and several key proteins in the Wnt/β-catenin and EGFR signaling pathways (e.g., WBP11, FGFR4, and PTP4A3). Taken together, these data demonstrate that KIAA1199 promotes GC metastasis by activating EMT-related signaling pathways and that miR-29c-3p regulates GC cell migration in vitro and in vivo by regulating KIAA1199 expression and activating the FGFR4/Wnt/β-catenin and EGFR signaling pathways. These findings provide a new understanding of GC development and progression and may provide novel therapeutic strategies for GC.

Chong PSY, Zhou J, Chooi JY, et al.
Non-canonical activation of β-catenin by PRL-3 phosphatase in acute myeloid leukemia.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(9):1508-1519 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is essential for the development of AML; however, the mechanistic basis for this dysregulation is unclear. PRL-3 is an oncogenic phosphatase implicated in the development of LSCs. Here, we identified Leo1 as a direct and specific substrate of PRL-3. Serine-dephosphorylated form of Leo1 binds directly to β-catenin, promoting the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and transactivation of TCF/LEF downstream target genes such as cyclin D1 and c-myc. Importantly, overexpression of PRL-3 in AML cells displayed enhanced sensitivity towards β-catenin inhibition in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that these cells are addicted to β-catenin signaling. Altogether, our study revealed a novel regulatory role of PRL-3 in the sustenance of aberrant β-catenin signaling in AML. PRL-3 may serve as a biomarker to select for the subset of AML patients who are likely to benefit from treatment with β-catenin inhibitors. Our study presents a new avenue of cancer inhibition driven by PRL-3 overexpression or β-catenin hyperactivation.

Csoboz B, Gombos I, Tatrai E, et al.
Chemotherapy induced PRL3 expression promotes cancer growth via plasma membrane remodeling and specific alterations of caveolae-associated signaling.
Cell Commun Signal. 2018; 16(1):51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The outcome of cancer therapy is greatly defined by the ability of a tumor cell to evade treatment and re-establish its bulk mass after medical interventions. Consequently, there is an urgent need for the characterization of molecules affecting tumor reoccurrence. The phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL3) protein was recently emerged among the targets that could affect such a phenomenon.
METHODS: The expression induction of PRL3 in melanoma cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents was assessed by western blotting. The effect of PRL3 expression on cancer growth was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The association of PRL3 with the caveolae structures of the plasma membrane was analyzed by detergent free raft purification. The effect of PRL3 expression on the membrane organization was assayed by electron microscopy and by membrane biophysical measurements. Purification of the plasma membrane fraction and co-immunoprecipitation were used to evaluate the altered protein composition of the plasma membrane upon PRL3 expression.
RESULTS: Here, we identified PRL3 as a genotoxic stress-induced oncogene whose expression is significantly increased by the presence of classical antitumor therapeutics. Furthermore, we successfully connected the presence of this oncogene with increased tumor growth, which implies that tumor cells can utilize PRL3 effects as a survival strategy. We further demonstrated the molecular mechanism that is connected with the pro-growth action of PRL3, which is closely associated with its localization to the caveolae-type lipid raft compartment of the plasma membrane. In our study, PRL3 was associated with distinct changes in the plasma membrane structure and in the caveolar proteome, such as the dephosphorylation of integrin β1 at Thr788/Thr789 and the increased partitioning of Rac1 to the plasma membrane. These alterations at the plasma membrane were further associated with the elevation of cyclin D1 in the nucleus.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies PRL3 as an oncogene upregulated in cancer cells upon exposure to anticancer therapeutics. Furthermore, this work contributes to the existing knowledge on PRL3 function by characterizing its association with the caveolae-like domains of the plasma membrane and their resident proteins.

Hellweg R, Mooneyham A, Chang Z, et al.
RNA Sequencing of Carboplatin- and Paclitaxel-Resistant Endometrial Cancer Cells Reveals New Stratification Markers and Molecular Targets for Cancer Treatment.
Horm Cancer. 2018; 9(5):326-337 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite advances in surgical technique and adjuvant treatment, endometrial cancer has recently seen an increase in incidence and mortality in the USA. The majority of endometrial cancers can be cured by surgery alone or in combination with adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy; however, a subset of patients experience recurrence for reasons that remain unclear. Recurrence is associated with chemoresistance to carboplatin and paclitaxel and consequentially, high mortality. Understanding the pathways involved in endometrial cancer chemoresistance is paramount for the identification of biomarkers and novel molecular targets for this disease. Here, we generated the first matched pairs of carboplatin-sensitive/carboplatin-resistant and paclitaxel-sensitive/paclitaxel-resistant endometrial cancer cells and subjected them to bulk RNA sequencing analysis. We found that 45 genes are commonly upregulated in carboplatin- and paclitaxel-resistant cells as compared to controls. Of these, the leukemia inhibitory factor, (LIF), the protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 3 (PTP4A3), and the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) showed a highly significant correlation between expression level and endometrial cancer overall survival (OS) and can stratify the 545 endometrial cancer patients in the TCGA cohort into a high-risk and low-risk-cohorts. Additionally, four genes within the 45 upregulated chemoresistance-associated genes are ADAMTS5, MICAL2, STAT5A, and PTP4A3 codes for proteins for which small-molecule inhibitors already exist. We identified these proteins as molecular targets for chemoresistant endometrial cancer and showed that treatment with their correspondent inhibitors effectively killed otherwise chemoresistant cells. Collectively, these findings underline the utility of matched pair of chemosensitive and chemoresistant cancer cells to identify markers for endometrial cancer risk stratification and to serve as a pharmacogenomics model for identification of alternative chemotherapy approaches for treatment of patients with recurrent disease.

Hardy S, Kostantin E, Hatzihristidis T, et al.
Physiological and oncogenic roles of the PRL phosphatases.
FEBS J. 2018; 285(21):3886-3908 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human Phosphatase of Regenerative Liver (PRL) family comprises three members (PRL-1, -2, -3; gene name PTP4A1, PTP4A2, PTP4A3) that are highly expressed in a majority of cancers. This review summarizes our current understanding of PRL biology, including an overview of their evolutionary relationships and the regulatory mechanisms controlling their expression. We provide an updated view on our current knowledge on the PRL functions in solid tumors, hematological cancer, and normal physiology, particularly emphasizing on the use of in vivo mouse models. We also highlight a novel relationship positioning PRL as a central node controlling magnesium homeostasis through an association with the CNNM proteins, which are involved in magnesium transport.

Mu N, Gu J, Liu N, et al.
PRL-3 is a potential glioblastoma prognostic marker and promotes glioblastoma progression by enhancing MMP7 through the ERK and JNK pathways.
Theranostics. 2018; 8(6):1527-1539 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Sun W, Zhang Y, Wong KC, et al.
Increased expression of GATA zinc finger domain containing 1 through gene amplification promotes liver cancer by directly inducing phosphatase of regenerating liver 3.
Hepatology. 2018; 67(6):2302-2319 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We identified that GATA zinc finger domain containing 1 (GATAD1), a transcriptional factor, was significantly up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through gene amplification. We demonstrated the critical role, molecular mechanisms, and clinical implications of GATAD1 as a novel oncogenic factor in HCC. We found that GATAD1 protein was expressed in 76.6% of primary HCCs (85/111) but silenced in normal liver tissues. Gene amplification of GATAD1 was positively correlated with its overexpression in primary HCCs (R = 0.629, P < 0.0001). GATAD1 significantly increased cell proliferation, G
CONCLUSION: GATAD1 plays a pivotal oncogenic role in HCC by directly inducing PRL3 transcription to activate the Akt signaling pathway. GATAD1 may serve as an independent poor prognostic factor for HCC patients. (Hepatology 2018;67:2302-2319).

Edwards DR, Moroz K, Zhang H, et al.
PRL‑3 increases the aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer cells in vitro and its expression correlates with high-grade prostate tumors in patients.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(2):402-412 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The increased expression of phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL‑3) has been shown to be associated with the aggressive and metastatic phenotype of different solid tumors. However, it is not known whether PRL‑3 plays a similar role in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, immunoblot analysis of androgen receptor (AR)-positive PCa lines (LNCaP and LNCaP‑SF) revealed the constitutive cytoplasmic expression of PRL‑3, and stimulation with R1881 (AR agonist) rapidly increased the nuclear translocation of PRL‑3. The AR-negative cell lines exhibited negligible PRL‑3 expression, and the ectopic overexpression of PRL‑3 increased both the proliferative and invasive potential of PC3 and DU145 cells. In addition, we measured PRL‑3 protein expression in human prostate tumor sections. A high-density prostate tumor microarray (TMA) was immunostained to assess whether PRL‑3 expression and its subcellular localization (cytoplasmic and nuclear levels) is associated with the Gleason score (GS), Gleason grade (GG) and tumor stage (T-stage). Digital image analysis (DIA) revealed that PRL‑3 expression was significantly higher in the malignant cores, as compared to the non‑malignant areas. Increases in both total and nuclear PRL‑3 levels were also associated with a higher GS and GG. Metastatic tumors (T4‑stage) had lower cytoplasmic, but higher nuclear PRL‑3 levels. Furthermore, the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio for PRL‑3 in the tumors graded as GS7 could effectively distinguish between indolent (3+4) and aggressive (4+3) disease. Thus, our experiments using PCa lines suggested that PRL‑3 is an AR-regulated gene and its androgen-induced nuclear localization may increase the aggressive behavior of PCa cells. Furthermore, the digital analysis of immunostained tumor sections suggested that PRL‑3 may be an effective biomarker of high-grade PCa, and its nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio may be used to distinguish between indolent vs. aggressive tumors.

Lan Q, Lai W, Zeng Y, et al.
CCL26 Participates in the PRL-3-Induced Promotion of Colorectal Cancer Invasion by Stimulating Tumor-Associated Macrophage Infiltration.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2018; 17(1):276-289 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) influence cancer progression. Whether PRL-3 plays a critical role in colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis by inducing TAM infiltration remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effects of chemokine ligand 26 (CCL26) on TAM infiltration and colorectal cancer invasion and the underlying mechanism in colorectal cancer cells by overexpressing or silencing PRL-3. We found that PRL-3 upregulated CCL26 expression correlatively and participated in cell migration, according to the results of gene ontology analysis. In addition, IHC analysis results indicated that the PRL-3 and CCL26 levels were positively correlated and elevated in stage III and IV colorectal cancer tissues and were associated with a worse prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CCL26 induced TAM infiltration by CCL26 binding to the CCR3 receptor. When LoVo-P and HT29-C cells were cocultured with TAMs, CCL26 binding to the CCR3 receptor enhanced the invasiveness of LoVo-P and HT29-C cells by mobilizing intracellular Ca

Radke I, Götte M, Smollich M, et al.
Expression of PRL-3 regulates proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro.
Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017; 296(6):1153-1160 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-3 plays an important role in cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. In breast cancer, PRL-3 is overexpressed in 70-75% of tumors and even more frequently in lymph node metastases. Moreover, PRL-3 overexpression in breast cancer is associated with an adverse disease outcome. Aim of this study was to determine the role of PRL-3 in breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro.
METHODS: PRL-3 mRNA expression was evaluated in 6 breast cancer cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR. To investigate the effect of PRL-3 expression in breast cancer cells in vitro we both up- and downregulated PRL-3 expression in breast cancer cells and performed in vitro wound repair cell motility assays and invasion assays. The influence of PRL-3 knockdown in MCF-7 cells on the expression of several gene products involved in cell invasion and cytoskeletal function was evaluated with real-time PCR.
RESULTS: PRL-3 mRNA expression was demonstrated in all breast cancer cell lines evaluated. Knockdown of PRL-3 in MCF-7 cells resulted in decreased proliferation, wound healing and invasion. PRL-3 knockdown in MCF-7 cells resulted in a significant reduction of heparanase, MMP-9, actin gamma-2 and Myosin 9 expression, and significant elevation of E-cadherin.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that PRL-3 is an important regulatory factor for breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Loss of PRL-3 function induces an antimetastatic gene expression profile in breast cancer cells. Due to its role in tumor growth and metastasis, PRL-3 emerges as a new therapeutic target in breast cancer therapy.

Xu L, Zhang M, Li H, et al.
SH3BGRL as a novel prognostic biomarker is down-regulated in acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2018; 59(4):918-930 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphatase PRL-3 expression is positively associated to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) progression and drug resistance. SH3-domain-binding glutamic acid-rich protein-like protein (SH3BGRL), a downstream effector of PRL-3, plays a tumor suppressive role in solid tumors, but it remains elusive in AML. Here, we followed up and validated the relevance of SH3BGRL expression to AML progression in 116 cases. Results showed that SH3BGRL is down-regulated in 62.37% AML cases with poor prognosis. Cases with positive response to therapy accompanies with SH3GRL expression restoration. Mechanistically, SH3BGRL down-regulation promotes AML cell cycle progression and enhances the anti-apoptotic ability to drug cytotoxicity. While ectopic SH3BGRL blocks AML cell cycle and proliferation to sensitize them to therapeutic drugs via apoptosis. Xenograft assays further confirmed the suppressive role of SH3BGRL in leukemogenesis. Thus, our results demonstrated that SH3BGRL is a novel crucial player in AML progression and could be both a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker.

Foy M, Anézo O, Saule S, Planque N
PRL-3/PTP4A3 phosphatase regulates integrin β1 in adhesion structures during migration of human ocular melanoma cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2017; 353(2):88-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
In a previous transcriptomic analysis of 63 ocular melanomas of the uvea, we found that expression of the PRL-3/PTP4A3 gene, encoding a phosphatase that is anchored to the plasma membrane, was associated with the risk of metastasis, and a poor prognosis. We also showed that PRL-3 overexpression in OCM-1 ocular melanoma cells significantly increased cell migration in vitro and invasiveness in vivo, suggesting a direct role for PRL-3 in the metastatic spreading of uveal melanoma. Here, we aimed to identify PRL-3 substrates at the plasma membrane involved in adhesion to the extracellular matrix. We focused on integrin β1, which is the most highly expressed integrin in our cohort of uveal melanomas. We show that preventing PRL-3 anchorage to the plasma membrane i) abolishes PRL-3-induced migration in OCM-1 cells, ii) specifically enhances the spreading of OCM-1 cells overexpressing PRL-3, and iii) favors the maturation of large focal adhesions (FAs) containing integrin β1 on collagen I. Knockdown experiments confirmed integrin β1 involvement in PRL3-induced migration. We identified interactions between PRL-3 and integrin β1, as well as with FAK P-Y397, an auto-activated form of Focal Adhesion Kinase found in FAs. We also show that integrin β1 may be dephosphorylated by PRL-3 in its intracytoplasmic S/T region, an important motif for integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Finally, we observed that PRL-3 regulated the clustering of integrin β1 in FAs on collagen I but not on fibronectin. This work identifies PRL-3 as a new regulator of cell adhesion structures to the extracellular matrix, and further supports PRL-3 as a key actor of metastasis in uveal melanoma, of which molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood.

Yin H, Huang X, Tao M, et al.
Adenovirus-mediated TIPE2 overexpression inhibits gastric cancer metastasis via reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2017; 24(4):180-188 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced protein 8-like 2 (TNFAIP8L2; also termed TIPE2) has been shown to be involved in both the immune-negative modulation and cancer. We previously found that TIPE2 is lost in human gastric cancer, and TIPE2 restoration suppresses gastric cancer growth by induction of apoptosis and impairment of protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. However, its correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastric cancer is largely elusive. In the present report, we carried out a gain-of-function study in AGS and HGC-27 human gastric cancer cells by adenovirus-mediated human TIPE2 gene transfer (AdVTIPE2). We then examined the effects of AdVTIPE2 on in vitro migration and invasion of AGS and HGC-27 tumor cells by wound-healing assay and Transwell invasion assay, respectively. We also investigated the effects of AdVTIPE2 on in vivo lung metastasis of AGS and HGC-27 tumor cells by intravenous (i.v.) injection in athymic BALB/c nude mice. We demonstrated that AdVTIPE2 remarkably suppressed the migratory, invasive and metastatic potential of AGS and HGC-27 tumor cells in vitro and in vivo in BALB/c nude mouse model. Mechanistically, AdVTIPE2 obviously upregulated E-cadherin epithelial marker in AGS and HGC-27 tumor cells, whereas it downregulated N-cadherin and Vimentin mesenchymal markers, Snail1, Snail2/Slug and Zeb1 EMT-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs), and tripartite motif-containing 29 (TRIM29) and phosphatase regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) gastric cancer-specific metastasis markers. Importantly, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor VIII and 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132 assays revealed that TIPE2 downregulated Snail1 and Snail2/Slug in a GSK-3β- and proteasome-dependent manner possibly by impairing AKT signaling. Our data provided the first evidence that TIPE2 inhibits gastric cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis very probably via reversal of EMT, revealing that TIPE2 may be a novel therapeutic target for human gastric cancer EMT and metastasis.

Grönroos T, Teppo S, Mehtonen J, et al.
Overexpression of PTP4A3 in ETV6-RUNX1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2017; 54:1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell signalling, which is often derailed in cancer, is a network of multiple interconnected pathways with numerous feedback mechanisms. Dynamics of cell signalling is intimately regulated by addition and removal of phosphate groups by kinases and phosphatases. We examined expression of members of the PTP4A family of phosphatases across acute leukemias. While expression of PTP4A1 and PTP4A2 remained relatively unchanged across diseases, PTP4A3 showed marked overexpression in ETV6-RUNX1 and BCR-ABL1 subtypes of precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We show that PTP4A3 is regulated by the ETV6-RUNX1 fusion, but noticed no marked impact on cell viability either after PTP4A3 silencing or treatment with a PTP4A3 inhibitor. Regulation of PTP4A3 expression is altered in specific subgroups of acute leukemias and this is likely brought about by expression of the aberrant fusion genes.

Rubio T, Köhn M
Regulatory mechanisms of phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL)-3.
Biochem Soc Trans. 2016; 44(5):1305-1312 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL)-3 is overexpressed in many human cancer types and tumor metastases when compared with healthy tissues. Different pathways and mechanisms have been suggested to modulate PRL-3 expression levels and activity, giving some valuable insights but still leaving an incomplete picture. Investigating these mechanisms could provide new targets for therapeutic drug development. Here, we present an updated overview and summarize recent findings concerning the different PRL-3 expression regulatory mechanisms and posttranslational modifications suggested to modulate the activity, localization, or stability of this phosphatase.

Mariscal J, Alonso-Nocelo M, Muinelo-Romay L, et al.
Molecular Profiling of Circulating Tumour Cells Identifies Notch1 as a Principal Regulator in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:37820 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying metastasis colonization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) remains incomplete. A complete overview integrating driver mutations, primary tumour heterogeneity and overt metastasis lacks the dynamic contribution of disseminating metastatic cells due to the inaccessibility to the molecular profiling of Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs). By combining immunoisolation and whole genome amplification, we performed a global gene expression analysis of EpCAM positive CTCs from advanced NSCLC patients. We identified an EpCAM+ CTC-specific expression profile in NSCLC patients mostly associated with cellular movement, cell adhesion and cell-to-cell signalling mediated by PI3K/AKT, ERK1/2 and NF-kB pathways. NOTCH1 emerged as a driver connecting active signalling pathways, with a reduced number of related candidate genes (NOTCH1, PTP4A3, LGALS3 and ITGB3) being further validated by RT-qPCR on an independent cohort of NSCLC patients. In addition, these markers demonstrated high prognostic value for Progression-Free Survival (PFS). In conclusion, molecular characterization of EpCAM+ CTCs from advanced NSCLC patients provided with highly specific biomarkers with potential applicability as a "liquid biopsy" for monitoring of NSCLC patients and confirmed NOTCH1 as a potential therapeutic target to block lung cancer dissemination.

Kaveh F, Baumbusch LO, Nebdal D, et al.
A systematic comparison of copy number alterations in four types of female cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16(1):913 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Detection and localization of genomic alterations and breakpoints are crucial in cancer research. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a methodological and biological perspective, different female, hormone-dependent cancers to identify common and diverse DNA aberrations, genes, and pathways.
METHODS: In this work, we analyzed tissue samples from patients with breast (n = 112), ovarian (n = 74), endometrial (n = 84), or cervical (n = 76) cancer. To identify genomic aberrations, the Circular Binary Segmentation (CBS) and Piecewise Constant Fitting (PCF) algorithms were used and segmentation thresholds optimized. The Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) algorithm was applied to the segmented data to identify significantly altered regions and the associated genes were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to detect over-represented pathways and functions within the identified gene sets.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Analyses of high-resolution copy number alterations in four different female cancer types are presented. For appropriately adjusted segmentation parameters the two segmentation algorithms CBS and PCF performed similarly. We identified one region at 8q24.3 with focal aberrations that was altered at significant frequency across all four cancer types. Considering both, broad regions and focal peaks, three additional regions with gains at significant frequency were revealed at 1p21.1, 8p22, and 13q21.33, respectively. Several of these events involve known cancer-related genes, like PPP2R2A, PSCA, PTP4A3, and PTK2. In the female reproductive system (ovarian, endometrial, and cervix [OEC]), we discovered three common events: copy number gains at 5p15.33 and 15q11.2, further a copy number loss at 8p21.2. Interestingly, as many as 75% of the aberrations (75% amplifications and 86% deletions) identified by GISTIC were specific for just one cancer type and represented distinct molecular pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results disclose that some prominent copy number changes are shared in the four examined female, hormone-dependent cancer whereas others are definitive to specific cancer types.

Thura M, Al-Aidaroos AQO, Yong WP, et al.
PRL3-zumab, a first-in-class humanized antibody for cancer therapy.
JCI Insight. 2016; 1(9):e87607 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Novel, tumor-specific drugs are urgently needed for a breakthrough in cancer therapy. Herein, we generated a first-in-class humanized antibody (PRL3-zumab) against PRL-3, an intracellular tumor-associated phosphatase upregulated in multiple human cancers, for unconventional cancer immunotherapies. We focused on gastric cancer (GC), wherein elevated

Xiong J, Li Z, Zhang Y, et al.
PRL-3 promotes the peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by regulating PTEN.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(4):1819-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peritoneal metastasis is the most frequent cause of death in patients with advanced gastric carcinoma (GC). The phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) is recognized as an oncogene and plays an important role in GC peritoneal metastasis. However, the mechanism of how PRL-3 regulates GC invasion and metastasis is unknown. In the present study, we found that PRL-3 presented with high expression in GC with peritoneal metastasis, but phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) was weakly expressed. The p-PTEN/PTEN ratio was also higher in GC with peritoneal metastasis than that in the normal gastric tissues. We also found the same phenomenon when comparing the gastric mucosa cell line with the GC cell lines. After constructing a wild-type and a mutant-type plasmid without enzyme activity and transfecting them into GC SGC7901 cells, we showed that only PRL-3 had enzyme activity to downregulate PTEN and cause PTEN phosphorylation. The results also showed that PRL-3 increased the expression levels of MMP-2/MMP-9 and promoted the migration and invasion of the SGC7901 cells. Knockdown of PRL-3 decreased the expression levels of MMP-2/MMP-9 significantly, which further inhibited the migration and invasion of the GC cells. PRL-3 also increased the expression ratio of p-Akt/Akt, which indicated that PRL-3 may mediate the PI3K/Akt pathway to promote GC metastasis. When we transfected the PTEN siRNA plasmid into the PRL-3 stable low expression GC cells, the expression of p-Akt, MMP-2 and MMP-9 was reversed. In conclusion, our results provide a bridge between PRL-3 and PTEN; PRL-3 decreased the expression of PTEN as well as increased the level of PTEN phosphorylation and inactivated it, consequently activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and upregulating MMP-2/MMP-9 expression to promote GC cell peritoneal metastasis.

Wang L, Liu J, Zhong Z, et al.
PTP4A3 is a target for inhibition of cell proliferatin, migration and invasion through Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in glioblastoma under the regulation of miR-137.
Brain Res. 2016; 1646:441-450 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most common primary malignant adult brain tumors. It is characterized by aggressive progression and poor prognosis. There is significant need to understand the mechanism of GBM malignancy and develop improved therapeutic options for GBM patients. We systematically studied the function of PTP4A3 in the malignancy of GBM. We found that PTP4A3 was upregulated in GBM tissues and cells. Knockdown of PTP4A3 expression in GBM cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. PTP4A3 knockdown modulated the activity of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway by inducing de-phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR. We identified PTP4A3 as a direct target of miR-137. MiR-137 has been reported as a tumor suppressor in GBM development. In this study, overexpression of miR-137 in GBM cells also inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Finally, restoration of PTP4A3 expression in miR-137 overexpressing cells partially reversed the inhibition of GBM cell malignancy, and the de-phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR. We identified that PTP4A3 regulated GBM via miR-137-mediated Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

Slørdahl TS, Abdollahi P, Vandsemb EN, et al.
The phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) is important for IL-6-mediated survival of myeloma cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(19):27295-306 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplastic proliferation of bone marrow plasma cells. PRL-3 is a phosphatase induced by interleukin (IL)-6 and other growth factors in MM cells and promotes MM-cell migration. PRL-3 has also been identified as a marker gene for a subgroup of patients with MM. In this study we found that forced expression of PRL-3 in the MM cell line INA-6 led to increased survival of cells that were depleted of IL-6. It also caused redistribution of cells in cell cycle, with an increased number of cells in G2M-phase. Furthermore, forced PRL-3 expression significantly increased phosphorylation of Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 both in the presence and the absence of IL-6. Knockdown of PRL-3 with shRNA reduced survival in MM cell line INA-6. A pharmacological inhibitor of PRL-3 reduced survival in the MM cell lines INA-6, ANBL-6, IH-1, OH-2 and RPMI8226. The inhibitor also reduced survival in 9 of 9 consecutive samples of purified primary myeloma cells. Treatment with the inhibitor down-regulated the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and led to activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Inhibition of PRL-3 also reduced IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3. In conclusion, our study shows that PRL-3 is an important mediator of growth factor signaling in MM cells and hence possibly a good target for treatment of MM.

Vandsemb EN, Bertilsson H, Abdollahi P, et al.
Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) is overexpressed in human prostate cancer tissue and promotes growth and migration.
J Transl Med. 2016; 14:71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: PRL-3 is a phosphatase implicated in oncogenesis in multiple cancers. In some cancers, notably carcinomas, PRL-3 is also associated with inferior prognosis and increased metastatic potential. In this study we investigated the expression of PRL-3 mRNA in fresh-frozen samples from patients undergoing radical prostatectomy because of prostate cancer (PC) and the biological function of PRL-3 in prostate cancer cells.
METHODS: Samples from 41 radical prostatectomy specimens (168 samples in total) divided into low (Gleason score ≤ 6), intermediate (Gleason score = 7) and high (Gleason score ≥ 8) risk were analyzed with gene expression profiling and compared to normal prostate tissue. PRL-3 was identified as a gene with differential expression between healthy and cancerous tissue in these analyses. We used the prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145 and a small molecular inhibitor of PRL-3 to investigate whether PRL-3 had a functional role in cancer. Relative ATP-measurement and thymidine incorporation were used to assess the effect of PRL-3 on growth of the cancer cells. We performed an in vitro scratch assay to investigate the involvement of PRL-3 in migration. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify PRL-3 protein in prostate cancer primary tumor and corresponding lymph node metastases.
RESULTS: Compared to normal prostate tissue, the prostate cancer tissue expressed a significantly higher level of PRL-3. We found PRL-3 to be present in both PC3 and DU145, and that inhibition of PRL-3 led to growth arrest and apoptosis in these two cell lines. Inhibition of PRL-3 led to reduced migration of the PC3 cells. Immunohistochemistry showed PRL-3 expression in both primary tumor and corresponding lymph node metastases.
CONCLUSIONS: PRL-3 mRNA was expressed to a greater extent in prostate cancer tissue compared to normal prostate tissue. PRL-3 protein was expressed in both prostate cancer primary tumor and corresponding lymph node metastases. The results from our in vitro assays suggest that PRL-3 promotes growth and migration in prostate cancer. In conclusion, these results imply that PRL-3 has a role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer.

Lin SY, Lee YX, Yu SL, et al.
Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 inhibits invasiveness and proliferation in non-small cell lung cancer by regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(16):21799-811 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) has been reported to be associated with colon and gastric cancer metastasis. However, the role and function of PRL-3 in human non-small cell lung cancer cells is unknown. Our studies showed that the expression of PRL-3mRNA and protein are higher in less invasive human lung adenocarcinoma cells than in highly invasive cell lines. Ectopic expression of PRL-3 reduced cell capacity for anchorage-dependent growth, anchorage-independent growth, migration, and invasion in vitro, as well as tumorigenesis in vivo. Conversely, catalytic (C104S) and prenylation-site (C170S) mutants enhanced cell invasion. Microarray profiling of PRL-3 transfectants revealed the pathways potentially involving PRL-3, including the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), extracellular matrix remodeling, and the WNT signaling pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrated that increased PRL-3 reduced Slug and enhanced E-cadherin gene expression through the AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway. In conclusion, our data suggest that PRL-3 might play a tumor suppressor role in lung cancer, distinct from other cancers, by inhibiting EMT-related pathways.

den Hollander P, Rawls K, Tsimelzon A, et al.
Phosphatase PTP4A3 Promotes Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Growth and Predicts Poor Patient Survival.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(7):1942-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the worst prognosis of all breast cancers, and women diagnosed with TNBC currently lack targeted treatment options. To identify novel targets for TNBC, we evaluated phosphatase expression in breast tumors and characterized their contributions to in vitro and in vivo growth of TNBC. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis of 102 breast cancers, we identified 146 phosphatases that were significantly differentially expressed in TNBC compared with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Of these, 19 phosphatases were upregulated (0.66-fold; FDR = 0.05) in TNBC compared with ER-positive breast cancers. We knocked down 17 overexpressed phosphatases in four triple-negative and four ER-positive breast cancer lines using specific siRNAs and found that depletion of six of these phosphatases significantly reduced growth and anchorage-independent growth of TNBC cells to a greater extent than ER-positive cell lines. Further analysis of the phosphatase PTP4A3 (also known as PRL-3) demonstrated its requirement for G1-S cell-cycle progression in all breast cancer cells, but PTP4A3 regulated apoptosis selectively in TNBC cells. In addition, PTP4A3 inhibition reduced the growth of TNBC tumors in vivo Moreover, in silico analysis revealed the PTP4A3 gene to be amplified in 29% of basal-like breast cancers, and high expression of PTP4A3 could serve as an independent prognostic indicator for worse overall survival. Collectively, these studies define the importance of phosphatase overexpression in TNBC and lay the foundation for the development of new targeted therapies directed against phosphatases or their respective signaling pathways for TNBC patients. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1942-53. ©2016 AACR.

Gari HH, Gearheart CM, Fosmire S, et al.
Genome-wide functional genetic screen with the anticancer agent AMPI-109 identifies PRL-3 as an oncogenic driver in triple-negative breast cancers.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(13):15757-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are among the most aggressive and heterogeneous cancers with a high propensity to invade, metastasize and relapse. Here, we demonstrate that the anticancer compound, AMPI-109, is selectively efficacious in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of multiple TNBC subtype cell lines as assessed by activation of pro-apoptotic caspases-3 and 7, PARP cleavage and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation. AMPI-109 had little to no effect on growth in the majority of non-TNBC cell lines examined. We therefore utilized AMPI-109 in a genome-wide shRNA screen in the TNBC cell line, BT-20, to investigate the utility of AMPI-109 as a tool in helping to identify molecular alterations unique to TNBC. Our screen identified the oncogenic phosphatase, PRL-3, as a potentially important driver of TNBC growth, migration and invasion. Through stable lentiviral knock downs and transfection with catalytically impaired PRL-3 in TNBC cells, loss of PRL-3 expression, or functionality, led to substantial growth inhibition. Moreover, AMPI-109 treatment, downregulation of PRL-3 expression or impairment of PRL-3 activity reduced TNBC cell migration and invasion. Histological evaluation of human breast cancers revealed PRL-3 was significantly, though not exclusively, associated with the TNBC subtype and correlated positively with regional and distant metastases, as well as 1 and 3 year relapse free survival. Collectively, our study is proof-of-concept that AMPI-109, a selectively active agent against TNBC cell lines, can be used as a molecular tool to uncover unique drivers of disease progression, such as PRL-3, which we show promotes oncogenic phenotypes in TNBC cells.

Li L, Shi H, Zhang M, et al.
Upregulation of metastasis-associated PRL-3 initiates chordoma in zebrafish.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(4):1541-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
The metastasis-associated phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) plays multiple roles in progression of various human cancers; however, significance of its role during development has not been addressed. Here we cloned and characterized the expression pattern of zebrafish prl-3 transcript and showed that it is ubiquitiously expressed in the first 24 h of development with both maternal and zygotic expressions. The transcripts become progressively restricted to the notochord, vessels and the intestine by 96 h post-fertilization. Notably, overexpression of zebrafish Prl-3 (zPrl-3) and human PRL-3 induces notochord malformation in zebrafish. This phenotype resembles chordoma and is confirmed by associated misexpression of notochord-specific markers. Clinical significance of the PRL-3 in chordoma is strongly suggested by detection of PRL-3 antigen in clinical chordoma specimens. Collectively, our results uncovered that aberrant overexpression of PRL-3 could initiate chordoma in early development and suggest the use of PRL-3 could be used as a predictor and a therapeutic target for chordoma.

Nakayama N, Yamashita K, Tanaka T, et al.
Genomic gain of the PRL-3 gene may represent poor prognosis of primary colorectal cancer, and associate with liver metastasis.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2016; 33(1):3-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
PRL-3 genomic copy number is increased in colorectal cancer (CRC), and PRL-3 expression is closely associated with lymph node and liver metastasis of CRC. However, the clinical significance of PRL-3 genomic gain for CRC remains obscure. Here, PRL-3 genomic status in 109 primary CRC tumors and in 44 CRC tumors that had metastasized to the liver, was quantified using real time PCR. Association of PRL-3 genomic status with clinicopathological factors and prognosis was assessed in detail. PRL-3 genomic gain was identified in 31 primary CRC (27.4 %) and was more frequently seen in stage III than in stage II (p = 0.025). Among the clinicopathological factors assessed, PRL-3 genomic gain was significantly associated with poorly differentiated histology (p = 0.0039). Moreover, CRC patients with PRL-3 genomic gain exhibited poorer prognosis than those with no gain in stage II-IV CRC (p = 0.017). PRL-3 genomic gain was identified in 18 (41 %) of the liver metastasis tumors, and this frequency of gain was significantly increased as compared to that of the corresponding primary CRCs (11 %) (p = 0.001). Our findings suggested that PRL-3 genomic gain may represent an aggressive phenotype of primary CRC, and may associate with liver metastasis.

Zhang C, Tian W, Meng L, et al.
PRL-3 promotes gastric cancer migration and invasion through a NF-κB-HIF-1α-miR-210 axis.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2016; 94(4):401-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) has been implicated in controlling cancer cell invasiveness. Deregulated expression of PRL-3 is involved in cancer progression and predicts poor overall survival. Recent studies have revealed critical roles for microRNAs in various cellular processes, including tumorigenic development. In this study, we aimed to explore the linkage between PRL-3 and microRNAs in gastric cancer. We found that PRL-3 transcript levels were positively correlated with miR-210 levels in gastric cancer tissues. In gastric cancer cells, PRL-3 upregulated miR-210 expression in a HIF-1α-dependent fashion under normoxia and hypoxia. In addition, PRL-3 activated NF-κB signaling and promoted HIF-1α expression through modulating phosphorylation of p65. NF-κB signaling, HIF-1α, and miR-210 partially contributed to PRL-3-induced migration and invasion. Furthermore, the levels of PRL-3, HIF-1α, and miR-210 transcripts inversely affected the overall survival of gastric cancer patients. Our work identified the existence of a PRL-3-NF-κB-HIF-1α-miR-210 axis, thus providing new insight into the role of PRL-3 in promoting gastric cancer invasiveness.
KEY MESSAGE: PRL-3 regulates microRNA in gastric cancer. PRL-3 elevates hsa-miR-210 by upregulating HIF-1α. PRL-3 activates a NF-κB-HIF-1α-miR-210 axis by enhancing the phosphorylation of p65. PRL-3 promotes cell migration and invasion via the NF-κB-HIF-1α-miR-210 axis. High levels of PRL-3 and miR-210 are related with poor OS in gastric cancer.

Aydin D, Bilici A, Kayahan S, et al.
Prognostic importance of RASSF2 expression in patients with gastric cancer who had undergone radical gastrectomy.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2016; 18(6):608-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although Ras-association domain family of gene 2 (RASSF2) has been shown to undergo promoter methylation at high frequency in some cancer types and in brain metastases, its clinical utility as a useful prognostic molecular marker remains unclear in gastric cancer.
METHODS: Prognostic significance of RASSF2 expression was retrospectively analysed by immunohistochemically in 105 patients with gastric cancer who underwent curative gastrectomy.
RESULTS: Low RASSF2 expression was detected in 58 (55 %) patients, whereas 47 patients (45 %) had high RASSF2 expression. Lymph node involvement, pT stage, TNM stage, vascular invasion, perineural invasion and the presence of recurrence were found to be significantly related to RASSF2 expression levels. Low PRL-3 expression was closely correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.001), advanced pT stage (p = 0.021), advanced TNM stage (p < 0.001), the presence of vascular invasion (p < 0.001), perineural invasion (p = 0.018) and high prevalence of recurrence (p = 0.003) compared with high RASSF2 expression. The median disease-free survival (DFS) time for patients with low RASSF2 expression was significantly worse than that of patients with high RASSF2 expression (10.2 vs. 50.6 months, p < 0.001). In addition, patients with high RASSF2 expression had the higher overall survival (OS) interval compared to patients with low RASSF2 expression (NR vs. 14.9 months, p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the rate of RASSF2 expression levels was an independent prognostic factor, for DFS [p < 0.001, HR 0.12 (0.10-0.88)] and OS [p < 0.001, HR 0.10 (0.04-0.46)], as were pT stage and TNM stage, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: RASSF2 may be an important molecular marker for carcinogenesis, prognosis and progression in gastric cancer, but the potential value of RASSF2 expression as a useful molecular marker in gastric cancer progression should be evaluated, comprehensively. It would be possible to develop treatments targeting RASSF2 and advance new treatment strategies for gastric cancer.

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