Gene Summary

Gene:MMP14; matrix metallopeptidase 14
Summary:Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. However, the protein encoded by this gene is a member of the membrane-type MMP (MT-MMP) subfamily; each member of this subfamily contains a potential transmembrane domain suggesting that these proteins are expressed at the cell surface rather than secreted. This protein activates MMP2 protein, and this activity may be involved in tumor invasion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:matrix metalloproteinase-14
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MMP14 (cancer-related)

Sneeggen M, Pedersen NM, Campsteijn C, et al.
WDFY2 restrains matrix metalloproteinase secretion and cell invasion by controlling VAMP3-dependent recycling.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2850 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cells secrete matrix metalloproteinases to remodel the extracellular matrix, which enables them to overcome tissue barriers and form metastases. The membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP (MMP14) is internalized by endocytosis and recycled in endosomal compartments. It is largely unknown how endosomal sorting and recycling of MT1-MMP are controlled. Here, we show that the endosomal protein WDFY2 controls the recycling of MT1-MMP. WDFY2 localizes to endosomal tubules by binding to membranes enriched in phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). We identify the v-SNARE VAMP3 as an interaction partner of WDFY2. WDFY2 knockout causes a strong redistribution of VAMP3 into small vesicles near the plasma membrane. This is accompanied by increased, VAMP3-dependent secretion of MT1-MMP, enhanced degradation of extracellular matrix, and increased cell invasion. WDFY2 is frequently lost in metastatic cancers, most predominantly in ovarian and prostate cancer. We propose that WDFY2 acts as a tumor suppressor by serving as a gatekeeper for VAMP3 recycling.

Li B, Lou G, Zhou J
MT1‑MMP promotes the proliferation and invasion of gastric carcinoma cells via regulating vimentin and E‑cadherin.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(4):2519-2526 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The present study aimed to explore the possible effects of membrane‑type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1‑MMP) on gastric carcinoma cells proliferation and invasion. Immunohistochemistry analysis was conducted to measure MT1‑MMP expression level in 15 patients with gastric carcinoma. Subsequently, recombinant short hairpin RNA (shRNA) vectors targeting MT1‑MMP were constructed to silence the expression of MT1‑MMP in gastric carcinoma cells. Then, the inhibitive efficiency was verified via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blot analysis. The effects of MT1‑MMP silencing on cell proliferation and invasion were detected through Cell Counting Kit‑8 test and Transwell assays. The expression levels of vimentin and epithelial cadherin (E‑cadherin) were detected by RT‑qPCR. The immunohistochemistry analysis results revealed that MT1‑MMP expression in gastric carcinoma tissues was markedly overexpressed compared with non‑cancerous adjacent tissues. The MT1‑MMP expression level in cancer‑derived cell line AGS cells was also significantly increased compared with that in non‑cancer‑derived GES‑1 cells. In addition, the MT1‑MMP expression level in AGS cells was significantly decreased via shRNA transfection. Cell proliferation and invasion were markedly inhibited following knockdown of MT1‑MMP level in AGS cells. These inhibitory effects were associated with the decreased expression of vimentin and increased expression of E‑cadherin. MT1‑MMP was overexpressed in gastric carcinoma cells, and silencing of MT1‑MMP inhibited the proliferation and invasion of cells via regulating the expression of vimentin and E‑cadherin.

Jiang B, Liu J, Lee MH
Targeting a Designer TIMP-1 to the Cell Surface for Effective MT1-MMP Inhibition: A Potential Role for the Prion Protein in Renal Carcinoma Therapy.
Molecules. 2019; 24(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Renal carcinoma cells express Membrane Type 1-Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, MMP-14) to degrade extracellular matrix components and a range of bioactive molecules to allow metastasis and cell proliferation. The activity of MT1-MMP is modulated by the endogenous inhibitors, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases (TIMPs). In this study, we describe a novel strategy that would enable a "designer" TIMP-1 tailored specifically for MT1-MMP inhibition (V4A/P6V/T98L;

Guo T, Zheng C, Wang Z, Zheng X
miR‑584‑5p regulates migration and invasion in non‑small cell lung cancer cell lines through regulation of MMP‑14.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(3):1747-1752 [PubMed] Related Publications
An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are involved in cancer progression. In 2010, an estimated 1,500,000 patients suffered mortality from lung cancer (LC) worldwide, and ~80% of LC patients were diagnosed with non‑small‑cell lung cancer (NSCLC). miR‑584‑5p was reported to be a potential biomarker in the diagnosis of LC; in addition, miR‑584 was recently observed to suppress the progression of thyroid carcinoma, glioma and gastric cancer. However, the specific function of miR‑584‑5p in NSCLC remains unclear. In the present study, miR‑584‑5p was decreased in the tumor tissues of NSCLC patients. Furthermore, miR‑584‑5p markedly inhibited the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. The direct regulatory association between miR‑584‑5p and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑14 was verified by a luciferase reporter gene assay. Furthermore, the results indicated that miR‑584‑5p inhibited the expression of MMP‑14 at the protein and mRNA levels. miR‑584‑5p also inhibited the expression of MMP‑4 and Slug, which are involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. Taken together, these results indicated that the miR‑584‑5p/MMP‑14 axis may serve as an anticancer target in the treatment of NSCLC patients.

Jin Y, Liang ZY, Zhou WX, Zhou L
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI2) inhibits invasive potential of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro via uPA- and RB/E2F1-related mechanisms.
Hepatol Int. 2019; 13(2):180-189 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI2) has been shown to be associated with invasive phenotypes and prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its biological roles and underlying mechanisms in invasion of HCC have not been explored. The present study aimed to address the issues.
METHODS: First, sub-lines in that PAI2 was stably overexpressed and silenced were established based on MHCC97H and BEL7402 cell lines, respectively. Wound-healing and transwell assays were applied to evaluate cell migration and invasion. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activity was measured using an ELISA kit. Real-time RT-PCR and western blotting were used to show gene expression at mRNA and protein levels. E2F1 expression in human specimens was determined by tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical staining.
RESULTS: The sub-lines, MHCC97H-PAI2 and BEL7402-siPAI2, were successfully established. The two sub-lines carried much lower and higher migration and invasion powers, respectively, in contrast to the controls. In MHCC97H-PAI2 sub-line, intra-medium uPA activity was significantly decreased, while RB expression was obviously elevated, compared with the controls. The BEL7402-siPAI2 sub-line presented the opposite trend. To identify the role of RB/E2F1 pathway, we transiently overexpressed E2F1 in MHCC97H-PAI2 sub-line, and largely reversed the inhibitory effects of PAI2 on cell migration and invasion, through regulating multiple matrix metalloproteinases and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In HCC specimens, E2F1 expression was much higher in tumor than in non-tumor tissues, and was significantly related to Edmondson-Steiner grade, overall as well as tumor-free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that PAI2 inhibits invasive potential of HCC cells via uPA- and RB/E2F1-related mechanisms.

Kopp S, Krüger M, Bauer J, et al.
Microgravity Affects Thyroid Cancer Cells during the TEXUS-53 Mission Stronger than Hypergravity.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Thyroid cancer is the most abundant tumor of the endocrine organs. Poorly differentiated thyroid cancer is still difficult to treat. Human cells exposed to long-term real (r-) and simulated (s-) microgravity (µ

Yamanoi M, Yamanoi K, Fujii C, et al.
Annexin A1 expression is correlated with malignant potential of renal cell carcinoma.
Int J Urol. 2019; 26(2):284-290 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the expression of annexin A1 protein in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
METHODS: Annexin A1 expression was examined in renal cell carcinoma specimens from 27 patients, and their disease-free survival was analyzed using the log-rank test. Annexin A1 knockdown in the human renal cell carcinoma cell line Caki-1 was carried out, and its proliferation, invasion, motility and adhesion were compared with those of control cells.
RESULTS: In 13 out of 27 patients, annexin A1 was highly expressed in the membrane of renal cell carcinoma tumor cells, whereas in the rest of the patients, annexin A1 expression was weak or negligible in the membrane of those cells. Patients with high annexin A1 expression had significantly poorer disease-free survival than those with weak or negligible annexin A1 expression (P = 0.031). In the renal cell carcinoma cell line, annexin A1 knockdown cells showed significantly decreased proliferation, invasion, motility and adhesion relative to control cells, and expressed lower relative levels of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha transcripts, showing a potential pathway regulated by annexin A1.
CONCLUSION: Annexin A1 is associated with renal cell carcinoma malignant potential and could serve as a marker of poor prognosis.

Li M, Ren CX, Zhang JM, et al.
The Effects of miR-195-5p/MMP14 on Proliferation and Invasion of Cervical Carcinoma Cells Through TNF Signaling Pathway Based on Bioinformatics Analysis of Microarray Profiling.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 50(4):1398-1413 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study is aimed at identification of miR-195-5p/MMP14 expression in cervical cancer (CC) and their roles on cell proliferation and invasion profile of CC cells through TNF signaling pathway in CC.
METHODS: Microarray analysis, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and DAVID were used to analyze differentially expressed miRNAs, mRNAs and signaling pathways. MiR-195-5p and MMP14 expression levels in CC cell were determined by qRT-PCR. Western blot was employed to measure MMP14 and TNF signaling pathway-relating protein level. Luciferase reporter system was used to confirm the targeting relationship between MMP14 and miR-195-5p. Cell proliferation and invasion was respectively deeded by CCK8, transwell. In vivo experiment was carried out to study the impact of MMP14 and miR-195-5p on CC development in mice.
RESULTS: The microarray analysis and the results of qRT-PCR determined that miR-195-5p was under-expressed and MMP14 was over-expressed in CC cells. GSEA and DAVID analysis showed that TNF signaling pathway was regulated by miR-195-5p/MMP14 and activated in cervical carcinoma cells. The miR-195-5p and MMP14 have a negative regulation relation. In vivo experiment found that down-regulated MMP14 and up-regulated miR-195-5p suppressed the tumor development.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that MMP14 is a direct target of miR-195-5p, and down-regulated MMP14 and up-regulated miR-195-5p suppressed proliferation and invasion of CC cells by inhibiting TNF signaling pathway.

Lin CZ, Ou RW, Hu YH
Lentiviral-mediated microRNA-26b up-regulation inhibits proliferation and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2018; 34(10):547-555 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequently occurred malignancy worldwide with a high mortality. The treatment for HCC is still controversial. Emerging evidences have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRs) play a role in HCC. This study aims to investigate the effects of lentiviral-mediated miRNA-26b (miR-26b) on the proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells. The normal hepatic cell line HL-7702 and HCC cell lines HepG2 (without metastatic potential), SMMC-7721 (with low metastatic potential) and MHCC97H (with high metastatic potential) were purchased for our experiment. The lentiviral-mediated miR-26b overexpression (miR-26b-LV) and low expression (sh-miR-26b) were constructed to transfect the cells. The miR-26b expression and expressions of Karyopherin α-2 (KPNA2), matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), MMP-7 and MMP-14 were determined by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. The proliferation and metastasis of transfected HCC cells were detected by MTT and Transwell assay respectively. The miR-26b expressions were decreased significantly in MHCC97H cells. With lentiviral-mediated miR-26b overexpression, the proliferation and migration of HepG2, MHCC97H and SMMC-7721 cells were decreased significantly. The RT-qPCR and western blot analysis results revealed that the mRNA and protein expressions of KPNA2, MMP-1, MMP-7 and MMP-14 were decreased by lentiviral-mediated miR-26b overexpression. All the above indexes in the HepG2, MHCC97H and SMMC-7721 cells treated by sh-miR-26b exhibited opposite trends. These results show that overexpressed miR-26b could inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells significantly, which provides a novel target and theoretical foundation for the treatment of HCC.

Tanić M, Krivokuća A, Čavić M, et al.
Molecular signature of response to preoperative radiotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer.
Radiat Oncol. 2018; 13(1):193 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is an indispensable part of various treatment modalities for breast cancer. Specifically, for non-inflammatory locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients, preoperative radiotherapy (pRT) is currently indicated as a second line therapy in the event of lack of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Still approximately one third of patients fails to respond favourably to pRT. The aim of this study was to explore molecular mechanisms underlying differential response to radiotherapy (RT) to identify predictive biomarkers and potential targets for increasing radiosensitivity.
METHODS: The study was based on a cohort of 134 LABC patients, treated at the Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia (IORS) with pRT, without previous or concomitant systemic therapy. Baseline transcriptional profiles were established using Agilent 60 K microarray platform in a subset of 23 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) LABC tumour samples of which 11 radiotherapy naïve and 3 post-radiotherapy samples passed quality control and were used for downstream analysis. Biological networks and signalling pathways underlying differential response to RT were identified using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software. Predictive value of candidate genes in the preoperative setting was further validated by qRT-PCR in an independent subset of 60 LABC samples of which 42 had sufficient quality for data analysis, and in postoperative setting using microarray data from 344 node-negative breast cancer patients (Erasmus cohort, GSE2034 and GSE5327) treated either with surgery only (20%) or surgery with RT (80%).
RESULTS: We identified 192 significantly differentially expressed genes (FDR < 0.10) between pRT-responsive and non-responsive tumours, related to regulation of cellular development, growth and proliferation, cell cycle control of chromosomal replication, glucose metabolism and NAD biosynthesis II route. APOA1, MAP3K4, and MMP14 genes were differentially expressed (FDR < 0.20) between pRT responders and non-responders in preoperative setting, while MAP3K4 was further validated as RT-specific predictive biomarker of distant metastasis free survival (HR = 2.54, [95%CI:1.42-4.55], p = 0.002) in the postoperative setting.
CONCLUSIONS: This study pinpoints MAP3K4 as a putative biomarker of response to RT in both preoperative and postoperative settings and a potential target for radiosensitising combination therapy, warranting further pre-clinical studies and prospective clinical validation.

Duan Y, Dong Y, Dang R, et al.
MiR-122 inhibits epithelial mesenchymal transition by regulating P4HA1 in ovarian cancer cells.
Cell Biol Int. 2018; 42(11):1564-1574 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is one of the most common gyneacologic malignancies, with high morbidity and high mortality. Hsa-miR-122-5p (miR-122) has been reported with tumor-suppressing roles in various cancers. In this study, miR-122 was overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells, and phenotypic experiments demonstrated that miR-122 inhibited migration and invasion in SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells. MiR-122 also suppressed epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), evidenced by expression changes of E-cadherin, vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, and MMP14. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) was identified as a target of miR-122, and downregulated by miR-122. MiR-122-induced the elevation of migration, invasion, and EMT were recovered by P4HA1. Additionally, miR-122 restrained the tumor metastasis of SKOV3 cells in peritoneal cavity of nude mice. In summary, we demonstrated that miR-122 inhibited migration, invasion, EMT, and metastasis in peritoneal cavity of ovarian cancer cells by targeting P4HA1 for the first time, which shed lights on the discovery of miR-122 and P4HA1 as possible potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer.

Majumder A, Ray S, Banerji A
Epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 452(1-2):111-121 [PubMed] Related Publications
In breast cancer, increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and phosphorylation have been correlated with increased invasive potential and poor prognosis. Interaction of EGFR with its ligand epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates cellular signalling cascades promoting tumour invasion. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are upregulated in most cancers and play crucial roles in modulating invasion and metastasis. EGFR-mediated regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in breast cancer was investigated using metastatic human breast ductal carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Culture of MCF-7 cells on 1 µg/ml EGF-coated culture dishes for 24 h led to appreciable increase in MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity. Expression of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phosphorylation of EGFR and phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3K), and nuclear translocation of EGFR and cellular migration were also appreciably increased. Targeting EGFR-EGF interactions by treatment of MCF-7 cells with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies prior to culture on EGF prevented appreciable upregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity. Increased expression of MT1-MMP and FAK, phosphorylation of EGFR and PI3K and enhanced cell migration were also inhibited. Treatment of cells with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 prevented upregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 indicating that EGFR-mediated signalling for MMP regulation occurs through PI3K. As increased EGFR activity has been observed in highly invasive breast cancers, targeting EGFR-EGF interactions might render such cancers less invasive by inhibiting EGFR-mediated upregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and therefore could be of importance in their clinical management.

Knutti N, Huber O, Friedrich K
CD147 (EMMPRIN) controls malignant properties of breast cancer cells by interdependent signaling of Wnt and JAK/STAT pathways.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 451(1-2):197-209 [PubMed] Related Publications
EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, EMN, CD147) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed in numerous cell types both as a soluble and a membrane-spanning glycoprotein. It is involved in many physiological processes, as well as in cancer. This study addresses mechanisms of crosstalk between EMN-driven cancer-related cellular responses and the canonical Wnt-pathway in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. Genetic knockdown of EMN in MCF-7 resulted in characteristic changes in cellular shape, organization of the actin cytoskeleton and malignancy profile, indicating that EMN expression represses cell motility, but, in contrast, exerts a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation and invasive properties. Increased invasiveness coincided with elevated expression of Wnt-target genes and established invasion driver matrix metalloproteinase MMP14. Activation of the downstream Wnt-pathway by means of heterologous β-catenin and/or TCF-4 expression, through inhibition of GSK-3β by LiCl treatment, or by cell stimulation with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) resulted in increased EMN expression. EMN over-expression raised the ratio of the two opposing Wnt pathway-driven transcription factors Sp1 and Sp5, leading to stimulation of the EMN promoter. Furthermore, the EMN promoter was activated by a feed-forward circuit involving an EMN-dependent drop in expression of the repressive signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Taken together, we show that the influence of EMMPRIN on malignancy-related properties of breast cancer cells is functionally connected to both Wnt- and JAK/STAT pathways.

Esposito MR, Binatti A, Pantile M, et al.
Somatic mutations in specific and connected subpathways are associated with short neuroblastoma patients' survival and indicate proteins targetable at onset of disease.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(10):2525-2536 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroblastoma (NB) is an embryonic malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system with heterogeneous biological, morphological, genetic and clinical characteristics. Although genomic studies revealed the specific biological features of NB pathogenesis useful for new therapeutic approaches, the improvement of high-risk (HR)-NB patients overall survival remains unsatisfactory. To further clarify the biological basis of disease aggressiveness, we used whole-exome sequencing to examine the genomic landscape of HR-NB patients at stage M with short survival (SS) and long survival (LS). Only a few genes, including SMARCA4, SMO, ZNF44 and CHD2, were recurrently and specifically mutated in the SS group, confirming the low recurrence of common mutations in this tumor. A systems biology approach revealed that in the two patient groups, mutations occurred in different pathways. Mutated genes (ARHGEF11, CACNA1G, FGF4, PTPRA, PTK2, ANK3, SMO, NTNG2, VCL and NID2) regulate the MAPK pathway associated with the organization of the extracellular matrix, cell motility through PTK2 signaling and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Moreover, we detected mutations in LAMA2, PTK2, LAMA4, and MMP14 genes, impairing MET signaling, in SFI1 and CHD2 involved in centrosome maturation and chromosome remodeling, in AK7 and SPTLC2, which regulate the metabolism of nucleotides and lipoproteins, and in NALCN, SLC12A1, SLC9A9, which are involved in the transport of small molecules. Notably, connected networks of somatically mutated genes specific for SS patients were identified. The detection of mutated genes present at the onset of disease may help to address an early treatment of HR-NB patients using FDA-approved compounds targeting the deregulated pathways.

Seino S, Kimoto T, Yoshida H, et al.
Gnetin C, a resveratrol dimer, reduces amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42) production and ameliorates Aβ42-lowered cell viability in cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.
Biomed Res. 2018; 39(3):105-115 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulation and oligomerization of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides have been known to be a potent cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). To expand the possibilities of preventing AD, we investigated the effects of resveratrol dimers, gnetin C and ε-viniferin, on Aβ 1-42 (Aβ42) production and the reduced cell viability observed after Aβ42 treatment (monomers, 10 μM) in cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Among them, addition of gnetin C (20 μM) into the media reduced Aβ42 production most efficiently. Gnetin C suppressed the expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1, β-secretase). Furthermore, gnetin C ameliorated the Aβ42-reduced cell viability most significantly. Concomitantly, gnetin C reduced intracellular Aβ oligomers (ca. 15 and 130 kDa) and elevated both levels of intracellular and extracellular Aβ monomers. Under the treatment with or without Aβ42, gnetin C upregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) which is assumed to be an Aβ-decomposing enzyme. Gnetin C may thereby prevent Aβ toxicity by suppressing BACE1 and enhancing MMP-14, together with reducing both internalization and oligomerization of exogenous Aβ monomers. The use of gnetin C may lead to the prevention of Aβ-mediated diseases, particularly AD.

Gong C, Shen J, Fang Z, et al.
Abnormally expressed JunB transactivated by IL-6/STAT3 signaling promotes uveal melanoma aggressiveness via epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults, and it carries a high risk of metastasis and mortality. Various proinflammatory cytokines have been found to be significantly increased in the aqueous humor or vitreous fluid of UM patients; however, the role of these cytokines in UM metastasis remains elusive. In the present study, we found that long-term interleukin (IL)-6 exposure promoted the migration and invasion of UM cells, diminished cell-cell adhesion, and enhanced focal adhesion. Moreover, IL-6 treatment decreased the membranous epithelial marker TJP1 and increased the cytoplasmic mesenchymal marker Vimentin. Further investigation demonstrated that JunB played a critical role in IL-6-induced UM epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In UM cells, the expression of JunB was significantly up-regulated during the IL-6-driven EMT process. Additionally, JunB induction occurred at the transcriptional level in a manner dependent on phosphorylated STAT3, during which activated STAT3 directly bound to the JunB promoter. Importantly, the knockdown of STAT3 prevented the IL-6-induced EMT phenotype as well as cell migration and invasion, whereas JunB overexpression recovered the attenuated aggressiveness of UM cells. Similarly, with IL-6 stimulation, the stable overexpression of JunB strengthened the migratory and invasive capabilities of UM cells and induced the EMT-promoting factors (Snail, Twist1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-14, and MMP-19). Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database indicated that JunB was positively correlated with IL-6 and STAT3 in UM tissues. The present study proposes an IL-6/STAT3/JunB axis leading to UM aggressiveness by EMT, which illustrates the negative side of inflammatory response in UM metastasis.

Bouris P, Manou D, Sopaki-Valalaki A, et al.
Serglycin promotes breast cancer cell aggressiveness: Induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, proteolytic activity and IL-8 signaling.
Matrix Biol. 2018; 74:35-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Serglycin is an intracellular proteoglycan that is expressed and constitutively secreted by numerous malignant cells, especially prominent in the highly-invasive, triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Notably, de novo expression of serglycin in low aggressive estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive MCF7 breast cancer cells promotes an aggressive phenotype. In this study, we discovered that serglycin promoted epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MCF7 cells as shown by increased expression of mesenchymal markers vimentin, fibronectin and EMT-related transcription factor Snail2. These phenotypic traits were also associated with the development of drug resistance toward various chemotherapy agents and induction of their proteolytic potential as shown by the increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases, including MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP and up-regulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Knockdown of serglycin markedly reduced the expression of these proteolytic enzymes in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, serglycin expression was closely linked to a pro-inflammatory gene signature including the chemokine IL-8 in ERα-negative breast cancer cells and tumors. Notably, serglycin regulated the secretion of IL-8 in breast cancer cells independently of their ERα status and promoted their proliferation, migration and invasion by triggering IL-8/CXCR2 downstream signaling cascades including PI3K, Src and Rac activation. Thus, serglycin promotes the establishment of a pro-inflammatory milieu in breast cancer cells that evokes an invasive mesenchymal phenotype via autocrine activation of IL-8/CXCR2 signaling axis.

Saby C, Rammal H, Magnien K, et al.
Age-related modifications of type I collagen impair DDR1-induced apoptosis in non-invasive breast carcinoma cells.
Cell Adh Migr. 2018; 12(4):335-347 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Type I collagen and DDR1 axis has been described to decrease cell proliferation and to initiate apoptosis in non-invasive breast carcinoma in three-dimensional cell culture matrices. Moreover, MT1-MMP down-regulates these effects. Here, we address the effect of type I collagen aging and MT1-MMP expression on cell proliferation suppression and induced-apoptosis in non-invasive MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 breast carcinoma. We provide evidence for a decrease in cell growth and an increase in apoptosis in the presence of adult collagen when compared to old collagen. This effect involves a differential activation of DDR1, as evidenced by a higher DDR1 phosphorylation level in adult collagen. In adult collagen, inhibition of DDR1 expression and kinase function induced an increase in cell growth to a level similar to that observed in old collagen. The impact of aging on the sensitivity of collagen to MT1-MMP has been reported recently. We used the MT1-MMP expression strategy to verify whether, by degrading adult type I collagen, it could lead to the same phenotype observed in old collagen 3D matrix. MT1-MMP overexpression abrogated the proliferation suppression and induced-apoptosis effects only in the presence of adult collagen. This suggests that differential collagen degradation by MT1-MMP induced a structural disorganization of adult collagen and inhibits DDR1 activation. This could in turn impair DDR1-induced cell growth suppression and apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that modifications of collagen structural organization, due to aging, contribute to the loss of the growth suppression and induced apoptosis effect of collagen in luminal breast carcinoma. MT1-MMP-dependent degradation and aging of collagen have no additive effects on these processes.

Li YY, Zhou CX, Gao Y
Interaction between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and fibroblasts through TGF-β1 mediated by podoplanin.
Exp Cell Res. 2018; 369(1):43-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Podoplanin is upregulated in the invasive front of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) may mediate podoplanin expression. However, the role of podoplanin in OSCC cell and fibroblast interaction remains elusive. In the present study, we found that positive podoplanin expression in OSCC cells correlated with smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in CAFs. Using CAFs and normal mucosal fibroblasts (NFs), we established indirect and direct co-culture systems mimicking the structure of OSCC. Podoplanin-overexpressing OSCC cells promoted NF activation; in direct co-culture, but not in indirect co-culture, podoplanin-overexpressing OSCC cells increased fibroblast invasion via matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), MMP-14, and αv/β6 integrin receptor (ITGA5/ITGB6) signaling. CAFs also induced podoplanin expression through the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad pathway. TGF-β1 increased the podoplanin-dependent activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), AKT, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. Additionally, CAFs promoted OSCC cell invasion by upregulating MMP-2 and MMP-14 expression in both indirect and direct co-culture. Taken together, our findings indicate that podoplanin regulates the interaction between OSCC cells and CAFs via the mutual paracrine effects of TGF-β1.

Yuan H, Wei R, Xiao Y, et al.
RHBDF1 regulates APC-mediated stimulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and proliferation of colorectal cancer cells in part via the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway.
Exp Cell Res. 2018; 368(1):24-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human rhomboid family-1 gene (RHBDF1) is an oncogene in breast and head and neck squamous cancers. Here, we show that RHBDF1 plays a significant role in colorectal cancer (CRC) formation and that the RHBDF1 expression level is higher in CRC than in corresponding normal tissues. Moreover, RHBDF1 promotes cell proliferation, invasion and migration in vitro. Furthermore, through overexpression and silencing of RHBDF1 and the mediator complex, our study demonstrates that RHBDF1 may positively regulate adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) in the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway to increase the expression levels of MMP-14 and Twist, which act as important epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) stimulating factors. Additionally, RHBDF1 may regulate c-myc and CyclinD1 expression to influence cell proliferation. Finally, RHBDF1 overexpression and silencing influence CRC growth in BALB/c nude mice. In summary, our findings demonstrate that the regulatory effects of RHBDF1 on EMT and on cell proliferation are partially attributable to the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway.

Lee H, Lee HJ, Jung JH, et al.
Melatonin disturbs SUMOylation-mediated crosstalk between c-Myc and nestin via MT1 activation and promotes the sensitivity of paclitaxel in brain cancer stem cells.
J Pineal Res. 2018; 65(2):e12496 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here the underlying antitumor mechanism of melatonin and its potency as a sensitizer of paclitaxel was investigated in X02 cancer stem cells. Melatonin suppressed sphere formation and induced G2/M arrest in X02 cells expressing nestin, CD133, CXCR4, and SOX-2 as biomarkers of stemness. Furthermore, melatonin reduced the expression of CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and c-Myc and upregulated cyclin B1 in X02 cells. Notably, genes of c-Myc related mRNAs were differentially expressed in melatonin-treated X02 cells by microarray analysis. Consistently, melatonin reduced the expression of c-Myc at mRNA and protein levels, which was blocked by MG132. Of note, overexpression of c-Myc increased the expression of nestin, while overexpression of nestin enhanced c-Myc through crosstalk despite different locations, nucleus, and cytoplasm. Interestingly, melatonin attenuated small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1) more than SUMO-2 or SUMO-3 and disturbed nuclear translocation of nestin for direct binding to c-Myc by SUMOylation of SUMO-1 protein by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation. Also, melatonin reduced trimethylated histone H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 more than dimethylation in X02 cells by Western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Notably, melatonin upregulated MT1, not MT2, in X02 cells and melatonin receptor inhibitor luzindole blocked the ability of melatonin to decrease the expression of nestin, p-c-Myc(S62), and c-Myc. Furthermore, melatonin promoted cytotoxicity, sub-G1 accumulation, and apoptotic body formation by Paclitaxcel in X02 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that melatonin inhibits stemness via suppression of c-Myc, nestin, and histone methylation via MT1 activation and promotes anticancer effect of Paclitaxcel in brain cancer stem cells.

Harun SNA, Israf DA, Tham CL, et al.
The Molecular Targets and Anti-Invasive Effects of 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxyl-3methoxybenzylidine) cyclohexanone or BHMC in MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells.
Molecules. 2018; 23(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In order to metastasize, tumor cells need to migrate and invade the surrounding tissues. It is important to identify compound(s) capable of disrupting the metastasis of invasive cancer cells, especially for hindering invadopodia formation, so as to provide anti-metastasis targeted therapy. Invadopodia are thought to be specialized actin-rich protrusions formed by highly invasive cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM). A curcuminoid analogue known as 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidine)cyclohexanone or BHMC has shown good potential in inhibiting inflammation and hyperalgesia. It also possesses an anti-tumor effects on 4T1 murine breast cancer cells in vivo. However, there is still a lack of empirical evidence on how BHMC works in preventing human breast cancer invasion. In this study, we investigated the effect of BHMC on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and its underlying mechanism of action to prevent breast cancer invasion, especially during the formation of invadopodia. All MDA-MB-231 cells, which were exposed to the non-cytotoxic concentrations of BHMC, expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which indicate that the anti-proliferative effects of BHMC did not interfere in the subsequent experiments. By using a scratch migration assay, transwell migration and invasion assays, we determined that BHMC reduces the percentage of migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. The gelatin degradation assay showed that BHMC reduced the number of cells with invadopodia. Analysis of the proteins involved in the invasion showed that there is a significant reduction in the expressions of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 7 (β-PIX), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) in the presence of BHMC treatment at 12.5 µM. Therefore, it can be postulated that BHMC at 12.5 µM is the optimal concentration for preventing breast cancer invasion.

Yang R, Zheng G, Ren D, et al.
The clinical significance and biological function of tropomyosin 4 in colon cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 101:1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tropomyosin 4 (TPM4) has been found to be dys-regulated, and function as oncogene or anti-oncogene in human cancers. However, there was no report on the clinical significance and biological function of TPM4 in colon cancer. This study was designed to investigate the clinical value and biological function of TPM4 in colon cancer. Thus, we detected the TPM4 expression in colon cancer clinical samples, and conducted the gain-of-function in colon cancer cell lines. In our results, TPM4 mRNA and protein expressions were reduced in colon cancer tissues and cell lines compared with normal colon tissues and colon epithelial cell line, respectively. TPM4 protein low-expression was obviously associated with clinical stage, T classification (invasion depth), N classification (lymph node metastasis), distant metastasis and differentiation. Survival analysis showed low-expression of TPM4 was an unfavorable independent prognostic factor for colon cancer patients. Moreover, the experiments in vitro suggested up-regulated TPM4 expression suppressed colon cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis-associated gene expression including MMP-2, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP, but had no effect on cell proliferation. In conclusion, TPM4 is associated with clinical progression in colon cancer patient and acts as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer cell.

Xu W, He L, Li Y, et al.
Silencing of lncRNA ZFAS1 inhibits malignancies by blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling in gastric cancer cells.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2018; 82(3):456-465 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is a common malignancy with high mortality. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) zinc finger antisense (ZFAS)1 is upregulated in gastric cancer specimens compared with the para-carcinoma tissues. The silencing of ZFAS1 inhibited the growth, proliferation, cell cycle progress, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and enhanced the sensitivity to cis-platinum or paclitaxel in SGC7901 cells, as evidenced by the expression changes of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, Cyclin B1, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-14. The ZFAS1 also activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Subsequently, the ZFAS1 knockdown-induced the inhibition of migration, invasion, EMT and resistance to chemotherapeutic reagens was reversed by the overexpression of β-catenin. In summary, the silencing of ZFAS1 inhibited the growth, proliferation, cell cycle progress, migration, invasion, EMT and chemotherapeutic tolerance by blocking the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in gastric cancer cells.

Suetsugu T, Koshizuka K, Seki N, et al.
Downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 14 by the antitumor miRNA, miR-150-5p, inhibits the aggressiveness of lung squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(3):913-924 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present study, in order to elucidate the aggressive nature of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSQ), we investigated the oncogenic RNA networks regulated by antitumor microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) in LUSQ cells. The analysis of our original miRNA expression signatures of human cancers revealed that microRNA‑150‑5p (miR‑150‑5p) was downregulated in various types of cancer, indicating that miR‑150‑5p acts as an antitumor miRNA by targeting several oncogenic genes. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate the antitumor roles of miR‑150‑5p in LUSQ cells and to identify oncogenes regulated by miR‑150‑5p that are involved in the aggressive behavior of LUSQ. The downregulation of miR‑150‑5p was validated in clinical samples of LUSQ and cell lines (SK-MES‑1 and EBC‑1). The ectopic overexpression of miR‑150‑5p significantly suppressed cancer cell aggressiveness. Comprehensive gene expression analyses revealed that miR‑150‑5p regulated 9 genes in the LUSQ cells. Among these, matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) was found to be a direct target of miR‑150‑5p, as shown by luciferase reporter assay. The knockdown of MMP14 using siRNA against MMP14 (si-MMP14) significantly inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. The overexpression of MMP14 was detected in clinical specimens of LUSQ by immunohistochemistry. On the whole, these findings suggest that the downregulation of miR‑150‑5p and the overexpression of MMP14 may be deeply involved in the pathogenesis of LUSQ.

Yang C, Tabatabaei SN, Ruan X, Hardy P
The Dual Regulatory Role of MiR-181a in Breast Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017; 44(3):843-856 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of highly conserved noncoding single-stranded RNA molecules of 21 to 25 nucleotides. miRNAs silence their cognate target genes at the post-transcriptional level and have been shown to have important roles in oncogenesis, invasion, and metastasis via epigenetic post-transcriptional gene regulation. Recent evidence indicates that the expression of miR-181a is altered in breast tumor tissue and in the serum of patients with breast cancer. However, there are several contradicting findings that challenge the biological significance of miR-181a in tumor development and metastasis. In fact, some studies have implicated miR-181a in regulating breast cancer gene expression. Here we summarize the current literature demonstrating established links between miR-181a and human breast cancer with a focus on recently identified mechanisms of action. This review also aims to explore the potential of miR-181a as a diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker for breast cancer and to discuss the contradicting data regarding its targeting therapeutics and the associated challenges.

Štrbac D, Goričar K, Dolžan V, Kovač V
Matrix Metalloproteinases Polymorphisms as Prognostic Biomarkers in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.
Dis Markers. 2017; 2017:8069529 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare disease with a relatively short overall survival (OS). Metalloproteinases (MMPs) have a vast biological effect on tumor progression, invasion, metastasis formation, and apoptosis. MMP expression was previously associated with survival in MPM. Our aim was to evaluate if genetic variability of
Methods: We genotyped 199 MPM patients for ten polymorphisms: rs243865, rs243849 and rs7201, in
Results: Carriers of polymorphic
Conclusions: Selected

Nguyen AT, Chia J, Ros M, et al.
Organelle Specific O-Glycosylation Drives MMP14 Activation, Tumor Growth, and Metastasis.
Cancer Cell. 2017; 32(5):639-653.e6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancers grow within tissues through molecular mechanisms still unclear. Invasiveness correlates with perturbed O-glycosylation, a covalent modification of cell-surface proteins. Here, we show that, in human and mouse liver cancers, initiation of O-glycosylation by the GALNT glycosyl-transferases increases and shifts from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In a mouse liver cancer model, expressing an ER-targeted GALNT1 (ER-G1) massively increased tumor expansion, with median survival reduced from 23 to 10 weeks. In vitro cell growth was unaffected, but ER-G1 strongly enabled matrix degradation and tissue invasion. Unlike its Golgi-localized counterpart, ER-G1 glycosylates the matrix metalloproteinase MMP14, a process required for tumor expansion. Together, our results indicate that GALNTs strongly promote liver tumor growth after relocating to the ER.

Ho XD, Phung P, Q Le V, et al.
Whole transcriptome analysis identifies differentially regulated networks between osteosarcoma and normal bone samples.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017; 242(18):1802-1811 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We performed whole transcriptome analysis of osteosarcoma bone samples. Initially, we sequenced total RNA from 36 fresh-frozen samples (18 tumoral bone samples and 18 non-tumoral paired samples) matching in pairs for each osteosarcoma patient. We also performed independent gene expression analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples to verify the RNAseq results. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples allowed us to analyze the effect of chemotherapy. Data were analyzed with DESeq2, edgeR and Reactome packages of R. We found 5365 genes expressed differentially between the normal bone and osteosarcoma tissues with an FDR below 0.05, of which 3399 genes were upregulated and 1966 were downregulated. Among those genes, BTNL9, MMP14, ABCA10, ACACB, COL11A1, and PKM2 were expressed differentially with the highest significance between tumor and normal bone. Functional annotation with the reactome identified significant changes in the pathways related to the extracellular matrix degradation and collagen biosynthesis. It was suggested that chemotherapy may induce the modification of ECM with important collagen biosynthesis. Taken together, our results indicate that changes in the degradation of extracellular matrix seem to be an important mechanism of osteosarcoma and efficient chemotherapy induces the genes related to bone formation. Impact statement Osteosarcoma is a rare disease but it is of interest to many scientists all over the world because the current standard treatment still has poor results. We sequenced total RNA from 36 fresh-frozen paired samples (18 tumoral bone samples and 18 non-tumoral paired samples) from osteosarcoma patients. We found that differences in the gene expressions between the normal and affected bones reflected the changes in the regulation of the degradation of collagen and extracellular matrix. We believe that these findings contribute to the understanding of OS and suggest ideas for further studies.

Xie Y, Sun W, Deng Z, et al.
MiR-302b Suppresses Osteosarcoma Cell Migration and Invasion by Targeting Runx2.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):13388 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteosarcoma patients with lung metastasis and local invasion remain challenging to treat despite the significant contribution of the combination of surgery and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Our previous microarray study demonstrated that miR-302b had significantly lower expression in osteosarcoma cell lines than in osteoblast cell lines. In the present study, we further elucidated the role of miR-302b in regulating the migration and invasiveness of osteosarcoma. MiR-302b expression was markedly down-regulated in osteosarcoma cell lines and clinical tumour tissues. Lower levels of miR-302b expression were significantly associated with metastasis and high pathological grades. A functional study demonstrated that over-expression of miR-302b suppressed tumour cell proliferation, invasion and migration in vitro and in vivo. Runx2 was identified as a direct target gene for miR-302b by bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. Moreover, over-expression of miR-302b induced down-regulation of Runx2, OPN, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12, MMP-14, and VEGF in 143B cells. Exogenous expression of Runx2 partially rescued the inhibitory effect of miR-302b on the invasion and migration activity of 143B osteosarcoma cells. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-302b functions as a tumour repressor in the invasion and migration of osteosarcoma by directly downregulating Runx2 expression and may be a potential therapeutic target for osteosarcoma.

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