Gene Summary

Gene:MMP10; matrix metallopeptidase 10
Aliases: SL-2, STMY2
Summary:Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. The enzyme encoded by this gene degrades proteoglycans and fibronectin. The gene is part of a cluster of MMP genes which localize to chromosome 11q22.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MMP10 (cancer-related)

Zhang G, Miyake M, Lawton A, et al.
Matrix metalloproteinase-10 promotes tumor progression through regulation of angiogenic and apoptotic pathways in cervical tumors.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:310 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer invasion and metastasis develops through a series of steps that involve the loss of cell to cell and cell to matrix adhesion, degradation of extracellular matrix and induction of angiogenesis. Different protease systems (e.g., matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs) are involved in these steps. MMP-10, one of the lesser studied MMPs, is limited to epithelial cells and can facilitate tumor cell invasion by targeting collagen, elastin and laminin. Enhanced MMP-10 expression has been linked to poor clinical prognosis in some cancers, however, mechanisms underlying a role for MMP-10 in tumorigenesis and progression remain largely unknown. Here, we report that MMP-10 expression is positively correlated with the invasiveness of human cervical and bladder cancers.
METHODS: Using commercial tissue microarray (TMA) of cervical and bladder tissues, MMP-10 immunohistochemical staining was performed. Furthermore using a panel of human cells (HeLa and UROtsa), in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed in which MMP-10 was overexpressed or silenced and we noted phenotypic and genotypic changes.
RESULTS: Experimentally, we showed that MMP-10 can regulate tumor cell migration and invasion, and endothelial cell tube formation, and that MMP-10 effects are associated with a resistance to apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that increasing MMP-10 expression stimulates the expression of HIF-1α and MMP-2 (pro-angiogenic factors) and PAI-1 and CXCR2 (pro-metastatic factors), and accordingly, targeting MMP-10 with siRNA in vivo resulted in diminution of xenograft tumor growth with a concomitant reduction of angiogenesis and a stimulation of apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our findings show that MMP-10 can play a significant role in tumor growth and progression, and that MMP-10 perturbation may represent a rational strategy for cancer treatment.

Zhang JJ, Zhu Y, Xie KL, et al.
Yin Yang-1 suppresses invasion and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by downregulating MMP10 in a MUC4/ErbB2/p38/MEF2C-dependent mechanism.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:130 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates an important role of transcription factor Yin Yang-1 (YY1) in human tumorigenesis. However, its function in cancer remains controversial and the relevance of YY1 to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains to be clarified.
METHODS: In this study, we detected YY1 expression in clinical PDAC tissue samples and cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. We also detected MUC4 and MMP10 mRNA levels in 108 PDAC samples using qRT-PCR and analyzed the correlations between YY1 and MUC4 or MMP10 expression. The role of YY1 in the proliferation, invasion and metastatic abilities of PDAC cells in vitro was studied by CCK-8 assay, cell migration and invasion assays. In vivo pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis was studied by a xenogenous subcutaneously implant model and a tail vein metastasis model. The potential mechanisms underlying YY1 mediated tumor progression in PDAC were explored by digital gene expression (DGE) sequencing, signal transduction pathways blockage experiments and luciferase assays. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 15.0 software.
RESULTS: We found that the expression of YY1 in PDACs was higher compared with their adjacent non-tumorous tissues and normal pancreas tissues. However, PDAC patients with high level overexpression of YY1 had better outcome than those with low level overexpression. YY1 expression levels were statistically negatively correlated with MMP10 expression levels, but not correlated with MUC4 expression levels. YY1 overexpression suppressed, whereas YY1 knockdown enhanced, the proliferation, invasion and metastatic properties of BXPC-3 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. YY1 suppresses invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by downregulating MMP10 in a MUC4/ErbB2/p38/MEF2C-dependent mechanism.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that YY1 plays a negative role, i.e. is a tumor suppressor, in PDAC, and may become a valuable diagnostic and prognostic marker of PDAC.

Prasad NB, Fischer AC, Chuang AY, et al.
Differential expression of degradome components in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.
Mod Pathol. 2014; 27(7):945-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although the cure rate for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is high, the diverse spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma has made it difficult for early diagnosis, particularly the aggressive tumors that are highly associated with mortality. Therefore, molecular markers are needed as an adjunct to current staging methods for diagnosing high-risk lesions, and stratifying those patients with aggressive tumors. To identify such biomarkers, we have examined a comprehensive set of 200 histologically defined squamous cell carcinoma and normal skin samples by using a combination of microarray, QRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses. A characteristic and distinguishable profile including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) as well as other degradome components was differentially expressed in squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal skin samples. The expression levels of some of these genes including matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1), matrix metallopeptidase 10 (MMP10), parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1), FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (FOS), interleukin 6 (IL6) and reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK) were significantly differentially expressed (P≤0.02) in squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal skin. Furthermore, based on receiver operating characteristic analyses, the mRNA and protein levels of MMP1 are significantly higher in aggressive tumors compared with non-aggressive tumors. Given that MMPs represent the most prominent family of proteinases associated with tumorigenesis, we believe that they may have an important role in modulating the tumor microenvironment of squamous cell carcinoma.

Yadav VR, Sahoo K, Awasthi V
Preclinical evaluation of 4-[3,5-bis(2-chlorobenzylidene)-4-oxo-piperidine-1-yl]-4-oxo-2-butenoic acid, in a mouse model of lung cancer xenograft.
Br J Pharmacol. 2013; 170(7):1436-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 4-[3,5-Bis(2-chlorobenzylidene)-4-oxo-piperidine-1-yl]-4-oxo-2-butenoic acid CLEFMA is a new anti-cancer molecule. Here, we investigated changes in apoptosis and inflammatory markers during CLEFMA-induced tumour suppression.
EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Lung adenocarcinoma H441 and A549, and normal lung fibroblast CCL151 cell lines were used, along with a xenograft model of H441 cells implanted in mice. Tumour tissues were analysed by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and/or biochemical assays. The ex vivo results were confirmed by performing selected assays in cultured cells.
KEY RESULTS: CLEFMA-induced cell death was associated with cleavage of caspases 3/9 and PARP. In vivo, CLEFMA treatment resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of tumour growth and (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in tumours, along with a reduction in the expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67. In tumour tissue homogenates, the anti-apoptotic markers (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1(cIAP1), Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and survivin) were inhibited and the pro-apoptotic Bax and BID were up-regulated. Further, CLEFMA decreased translocation of phospho-p65-NF-κB into the nucleus. In vitro, it inhibited the DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. It also reduced the expression of COX-2 in tumours and significantly depressed serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels. These effects of CLEFMA were accompanied by a reduced transcription and/or translation of the invasion markers VEGF, MMP9, MMP10, Cyclin D1 and ICAM-1.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Overall, CLEFMA inhibited growth of lung cancer xenografts and this tumour suppression was associated with NF-κB-regulated anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic effects.

Briso EM, Guinea-Viniegra J, Bakiri L, et al.
Inflammation-mediated skin tumorigenesis induced by epidermal c-Fos.
Genes Dev. 2013; 27(18):1959-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are the second most prevalent skin cancers. Chronic skin inflammation has been associated with the development of SCCs, but the contribution of skin inflammation to SCC development remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that inducible expression of c-fos in the epidermis of adult mice is sufficient to promote inflammation-mediated epidermal hyperplasia, leading to the development of preneoplastic lesions. Interestingly, c-Fos transcriptionally controls mmp10 and s100a7a15 expression in keratinocytes, subsequently leading to CD4 T-cell recruitment to the skin, thereby promoting epidermal hyperplasia that is likely induced by CD4 T-cell-derived IL-22. Combining inducible c-fos expression in the epidermis with a single dose of the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) leads to the development of highly invasive SCCs, which are prevented by using the anti-inflammatory drug sulindac. Moreover, human SCCs display a correlation between c-FOS expression and elevated levels of MMP10 and S100A15 proteins as well as CD4 T-cell infiltration. Our studies demonstrate a bidirectional cross-talk between premalignant keratinocytes and infiltrating CD4 T cells in SCC development. Therefore, targeting inflammation along with the newly identified targets, such as MMP10 and S100A15, represents promising therapeutic strategies to treat SCCs.

Sawada G, Ueo H, Matsumura T, et al.
Loss of COP1 expression determines poor prognosisin patients with gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(4):1971-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies have suggested conflicting roles for the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 in tumorigenesis, providing evidence that both the oncoprotein c-Jun and the tumor suppressor p53 may be COP1 targets. In the present study, we focused on the clinical significance of COP1 expression in gastric cancer cases and analyzed the malignant behavior of COP1‑knockdown gastric cancer cells in vitro. We analyzed COP1 expression in cancer lesions and the corresponding normal mucosa to demonstrate the clinical significance of COP1 expression in 133 cases of gastric cancer. We also investigated the relationship between COP1 expression and cell proliferation and the association of COP1 with c‑Jun transcriptional target genes, such as MMP1, MMP7 and MMP10. The expression of COP1 mRNA was significantly lower in gastric cancer tissues compared to the corresponding normal mucosa (P=0.049). In multivariate analysis for overall survival, we found that COP1 expression was an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Knockdown of COP1 expression in the gastric cancer cell lines MKN‑45 and NUGC4 promoted proliferation, and significant associations between COP1 expression and MMP1, MMP7 and MMP10 were also observed in knockdown assays. In conclusion, the present study suggests that loss of COP1 expression may be a novel indicator for the biological aggressiveness in gastric cancer.

Al-Alem LF, McCord LA, Southard RC, et al.
Activation of the PKC pathway stimulates ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, and expression of MMP7 and MMP10.
Biol Reprod. 2013; 89(3):73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Postmenopausal women are at a higher risk of ovarian cancer due, in part, to increased levels of gonadotropins such as luteinizing hormone (LH). Gonadotropins and other stimuli are capable of activating two pathways, PKA and PKC, that are altered in ovarian cancer. To determine the role of LH on ovarian cancer, we explored the effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), an LH mimic, and an activator of the PKC pathway, phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), on ovarian cancer cell-cycle kinetics and apoptosis in Ovcar3 cells. PMA treatment increased cells in the S phase of the cell cycle and initially increased apoptosis after 4 h before diminishing apoptosis after 8 h. Treatment of ovarian cancer cells with hCG had no effect on these parameters. The PKC pathway is known to differentially regulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. Results showed that ovarian cancer cells treated with PMA increased MMP7 and MMP10 mRNA levels after 8 h of treatment, and expression remained high after 12 h before decreasing at 24 h. The mRNA expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (BSG), an activator of MMPs, was unaffected by PMA. Due to the role that MMPs play in migration, we investigated the effect of PMA activation of MMPs on ovarian cancer cell migration. The use of the MMP inhibitor GM6001 blocked the increased migratory effects of PMA on ovarian cancer cells. Together, these studies show that activating the PKC pathway causes significant changes in cell cycle kinetics and selective expression of MMPs that are involved in enhancing ovarian cancer cell proliferation and migration.

Tien JC, Liu Z, Liao L, et al.
The steroid receptor coactivator-3 is required for the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(13):3997-4008 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcriptional coactivator SRC-3 plays a key role in enhancing prostate cancer cell proliferation. Although SRC-3 is highly expressed in advanced prostate cancer, its role in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) driven by PTEN mutation is unknown. We documented elevated SRC-3 in human CRPC and in PTEN-negative human prostate cancer. Patients with high SRC-3 and undetectable PTEN exhibited decreased recurrence-free survival. To explore the causal relationship in these observations, we generated mice in which both Pten and SRC-3 were inactivated in prostate epithelial cells (Pten3CKO mice), comparing them with mice in which only Pten was inactivated in these cells (PtenCKO mice). SRC-3 deletion impaired cellular proliferation and reduced tumor size. Notably, while castration of PtenCKO control mice increased the aggressiveness of prostate tumors relative to noncastrated counterparts, deletion of SRC-3 in Pten3CKO mice reversed all these changes. In support of this finding, castrated Pten3CKO mice also exhibited decreased levels of phospho-Akt, S6 kinase (RPS6KB1), and phosphorylated S6 protein (RPS6), all of which mediate cell growth and proliferation. Moreover, these tumors appeared to be more differentiated as evidenced by higher levels of Fkbp5, an AR-responsive gene that inhibits Akt signaling. Lastly, these tumors also displayed lower levels of certain androgen-repressed genes such as cyclin E2 and MMP10. Together, our results show that SRC-3 drives CRPC formation and offer preclinical proof of concept for a transcriptional coactivator as a therapeutic target to abrogate CRPC progression.

Aravindan S, Natarajan M, Herman TS, Aravindan N
Radiation-induced TNFα cross signaling-dependent nuclear import of NFκB favors metastasis in neuroblastoma.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2013; 30(6):807-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ascertaining function-specific orchestration of NFκB in response to radiation may reveal a molecular blue-print that dictates induced relapse and metastasis of the neuroblastoma. We recently demonstrated that sustained activation of NFκB caused by ionizing radiation (IR)-initiated TNFα-NFκB feedback signaling leads to radioresistance and recurrence of neuroblastoma. We investigated whether muting IR-triggered or TNFα-dependent second-signaling feedback-dependent NFκB nuclear import results in limiting IR-altered invasion and metastasis. Neuroblastoma cells were exposed to 2 Gy and incubated for 1 h or 24 h. The cells were then treated with an NFκB-targeting peptide blocker, SN50. Upon confirming the blockade in DNA-binding activity, transcription driven transactivation of NFκB and secretion of soluble TNFα, transcriptional alterations of 93 tumor invasion/metastasis genes were assessed by using QPCR profiling and then were selectively validated at the protein level. Exposure to 2 Gy induced 63, 42 and 71 genes in surviving SH-SY5Y, IMR-32 and SK-N-MC cells, respectively. Blocking post-translational nuclear import of NFκB comprehensively inhibited both initial activation of genes (62/63, 34/42 and 65/71) triggered by IR and also TNFα-mediated second signaling-dependent sustained (59/63, 32/42 and 71/71) activation of tumor invasion and metastasis signaling molecules. Furthermore, alterations in the proteins MMP9, MMP2, PYK-2, SPA-1, Dnmt3b, Ask-1, CTGF, MMP10, MTA-2, NF-2, E-Cadherin, TIMP-2 and ADAMTS1 and the results of our scratch-wound assay validate the role of post-translational NFκB in IR-regulated invasion/metastasis. These data demonstrate that IR-induced second-phase (post-translational) NFκB activation mediates TNFα-dependent second signaling and further implies that IR induced NFκB in cells that survive after treatment regulates tumor invasion/metastasis signaling.

Sze KM, Chu GK, Lee JM, Ng IO
C-terminal truncated hepatitis B virus x protein is associated with metastasis and enhances invasiveness by C-Jun/matrix metalloproteinase protein 10 activation in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2013; 57(1):131-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Random integration of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA into the host genome is frequent in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and this leads to truncation of the HBV DNA, particularly at the C-terminal end of the HBV X protein (HBx). In this study, we investigated the frequency of this natural C-terminal truncation of HBx in human HCCs and its functional significance. In 50 HBV-positive patients with HCC, full-length HBx was detected in all nontumorous livers. However, full-length HBx was found in only 27 (54%) of the HCC tumors, whereas natural carboxylic acid (COOH)-truncated HBx was found in the remaining 23 (46%) tumors. Upon clinicopathological analysis, the presence of natural COOH-truncated HBx significantly correlated with the presence of venous invasion, a hallmark of metastasis (P = 0.005). Inducible stable expression of the COOH-truncated HBx protein (with 24 amino acids truncated at the C-terminal end) enhanced the cell-invasive ability of HepG2 cells, as compared to full-length HBx, using the Matrigel cell-invasion assay. It also resulted in increased C-Jun transcriptional activity and enhanced transcription of matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10), whereas activation of the MMP10 promoter by COOH-truncated HBx was abolished when the activator protein 1-binding sites on the MMP10 promoter were mutated. Furthermore, silencing of MMP10 by short interfering RNA in HBxΔC1-expressing HepG2 cells resulted in significant reduction of cell invasiveness.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that COOH truncation of HBx, particularly with 24 amino acids truncated at the C-terminal end, plays a role in enhancing cell invasiveness and metastasis in HCC by activating MMP10 through C-Jun.

Petrella BL, Armstrong DA, Vincenti MP
Interleukin-1 beta and transforming growth factor-beta 3 cooperate to activate matrix metalloproteinase expression and invasiveness in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Cancer Lett. 2012; 325(2):220-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytokines present in the tumor microenvironment can promote the invasiveness and metastatic potential of cancer cells. We therefore investigated the effects of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1B) and transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGFB3) on the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell line A549. We found that these cytokines synergistically activated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, and MMP-10 gene expression in these cells through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent pathways. Consistent with this, both cytokines stimulated epithelial to mesenchymal transition and MAPK-dependent invasion through Matrigel™. These studies identify IL-1B and TGFB3 as pro-invasive factors in NSCLC and potential therapeutic targets for tumor progression.

Justilien V, Regala RP, Tseng IC, et al.
Matrix metalloproteinase-10 is required for lung cancer stem cell maintenance, tumor initiation and metastatic potential.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e35040 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) stimulate tumor invasion and metastasis by degrading the extracellular matrix. Here we reveal an unexpected role for Mmp10 (stromelysin 2) in the maintenance and tumorigenicity of mouse lung cancer stem-like cells (CSC). Mmp10 is highly expressed in oncosphere cultures enriched in CSCs and RNAi-mediated knockdown of Mmp10 leads to a loss of stem cell marker gene expression and inhibition of oncosphere growth, clonal expansion, and transformed growth in vitro. Interestingly, clonal expansion of Mmp10 deficient oncospheres can be restored by addition of exogenous Mmp10 protein to the culture medium, demonstrating a direct role for Mmp10 in the proliferation of these cells. Oncospheres exhibit enhanced tumor-initiating and metastatic activity when injected orthotopically into syngeneic mice, whereas Mmp10-deficient cultures show a severe defect in tumor initiation. Conversely, oncospheres implanted into syngeneic non-transgenic or Mmp10(-/-) mice show no significant difference in tumor initiation, growth or metastasis, demonstrating the importance of Mmp10 produced by cancer cells rather than the tumor microenvironment in lung tumor initiation and maintenance. Analysis of gene expression data from human cancers reveals a strong positive correlation between tumor Mmp10 expression and metastatic behavior in many human tumor types. Thus, Mmp10 is required for maintenance of a highly tumorigenic, cancer-initiating, metastatic stem-like cell population in lung cancer. Our data demonstrate for the first time that Mmp10 is a critical lung cancer stem cell gene and novel therapeutic target for lung cancer stem cells.

Li X, Tai HH
Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases mediates thromboxane A2-induced invasion in lung cancer cells.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2012; 12(6):703-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thromboxane A(2) receptor (TP) has been shown to play an important role in multiple aspects of cancer development including regulation of tumor growth, survival and metastasis. Here we report that TP mediates cancer cell invasion by inducing expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). TP agonist, I-BOP, significantly elevated MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-10 mRNA levels in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells overexpressing TPα or TPβ. The secretion of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in conditioned media was determined using Western blot analysis and zymographic assay. Signaling pathways of I-BOP-induced MMP-1 expression were examined in further detail as a model system for MMPs induction. Signaling molecules involved in I-BOP-induced MMP-1 expression were identified by using specific inhibitors including small interfering (si)-RNAs of signaling molecules and promoter reporter assay. The results indicate that I-BOP-induced MMP-1 expression is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-activator protein-1(AP-1) and ERK-CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) pathways. I-BOP-induced cellular invasiveness of A549 cells expressing TPα or TPβ was determined by invasion assay. GM6001, a general inhibitor of MMPs, decreased basal and I-BOP-induced cell invasion. Knockdown of MMP-1 and MMP-9 by their respective siRNA partially reduced I-BOP-stimulated cell invasion suggesting that other MMPs induced by I-BOP were also involved. Our studies establish the relationship between TP and MMPs in cancer cell invasion and suggest that the thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2))-TP signaling is a potential therapeutic target for cancer invasion and metastasis.

Wu MH, Tsai YT, Hua KT, et al.
Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibit macrophage-induced gastric cancer cell migration by attenuating the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10.
J Nutr Biochem. 2012; 23(11):1434-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uptake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) improves the treatment of cancer and reduces tumor-associated macrophage count. However, the mechanism of this relationship is still unclear. In this study, macrophages enhanced gastric cancer cell migration ability and induced the differentially expressed matrix metalloproteinase genes (MMP1, MMP3 and MMP10) of N87 as identified by polymerase chain reaction array. Furthermore, DHA and EPA inhibited macrophage-enhanced cancer cell migration and attenuated MMP10 at both the RNA and protein level. The suppression of MMP10 expression was further verified by zymography and antibody blocking experiments. Additionally, DHA and EPA attenuated expression of macrophage-activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) in cancer cells. Attenuation was verified by demonstrating blockade with specific inhibitors and thereby increased MMP10 expression. Accordingly, we hypothesized that macrophage enhances cancer cell migration through ERK and STAT3 phosphorylation and subsequent increased MMP10 expression and that DHA and EPA could attenuate these signals. These findings not only explain the beneficial effects of DHA/EPA, but also point to ERK/STAT3/MMP10 as the potential targets for gastric cancer treatment.

Huang L, Xu Y, Cai G, et al.
Downregulation of S100A4 expression by RNA interference suppresses cell growth and invasion in human colorectal cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 27(4):917-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
S100A4 protein, a member of the S100 superfamily of calcium-binding proteins, is frequently observed in various types of human cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Our previous investigations have demonstrated that the overexpression of S100A4 is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in CRC; however, its biological roles in CRC remain unclear. In the present study, we compared the expression of S100A4 at the mRNA and protein levels in six CRC cell lines, and found that the expression levels roughly coincided with their invasiveness. Using RNA interference, we suppressed S100A4 expression in SW620 CRC cells with highly invasive potential and S100A4 high expression. The specific knockdown of S100A4 strongly suppressed cell growth, migration and invasion activities. Furthermore, employing metastasis-related gene mRNA microarrays, we found four genes to be significantly dysregulated (more than 2-fold) after downregulation of S100A4, including three downregulated genes (MMP9, MMP10 and CDH11) and one upregulated gene (TIMP4). Our present results indicate that S100A4 may positively regulate tumor cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis associated with multiple molecules. Thus, the inhibition of S100A4 might be a potentially novel approach to treatment for CRC.

Liu H, Qin YR, Bi J, et al.
Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 is associated with poor survival in patients with early stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Dis Esophagus. 2012 Sep-Oct; 25(7):656-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Matrix metallopeptidase 10 (MMP10) is frequently expressed and correlates closely with metastasis and poor prognosis in various human cancers. However, the significance of MMP10 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its role in ESCC progression remains unclear. In this report, upregulation of MMP10 mRNA was detected in 39/60 (65.0%) of primary ESCC tissues compared with their paired nontumor esophageal tissues. Tissue microarray (TMA) study found protein overexpression of MMP10 in 188/239 (78.7%) of primary ESCC tissues but not in their corresponding nontumor esophageal tissues, suggesting that overexpression of MMP10 may play important roles in ESCC development and progression. Although the overexpression of MMP10 was not significantly associated with disease-specific survival rate (P= 0.182) for all tested ESCCs, it was significantly associated with poorer disease-specific survival (P= 0.001) in early stage of ESCCs (I-IIA). In addition, multivariate analysis found that MMP10 expression in tumor tissues was evaluated as a potential independent prognostic factor for early stage ESCC patients. These findings suggest that MMP10 plays an important role in ESCC progression in the early stage, and overexpression of MMP10 in tumor tissues could be used as a potential prognostic marker for patients with early clinical stage of ESCC.

Regala RP, Justilien V, Walsh MP, et al.
Matrix metalloproteinase-10 promotes Kras-mediated bronchio-alveolar stem cell expansion and lung cancer formation.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e26439 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP-10; stromelysin 2) is a member of a large family of structurally related matrix metalloproteinases, many of which have been implicated in tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. We recently identified Mmp10 as a gene that is highly induced in tumor-initiating lung bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) upon activation of oncogenic Kras in a mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma. However, the potential role of Mmp10 in lung tumorigenesis has not been addressed. Here, we demonstrate that Mmp10 is overexpressed in lung tumors induced by either the smoke carcinogen urethane or oncogenic Kras. In addition, we report a significant reduction in lung tumor number and size after urethane exposure or genetic activation of oncogenic Kras in Mmp10 null (Mmp10(-/-)) mice. This inhibitory effect is reflected in a defect in the ability of Mmp10-deficient BASCs to expand and undergo transformation in response to urethane or oncogenic Kras in vivo and in vitro, demonstrating a role for Mmp10 in the tumor-initiating activity of Kras-transformed lung stem cells. To determine the potential relevance of MMP10 in human cancer we analyzed Mmp10 expression in publicly-available gene expression profiles of human cancers. Our analysis reveals that MMP10 is highly overexpressed in human lung tumors. Gene set enhancement analysis (GSEA) demonstrates that elevated MMP10 expression correlates with both cancer stem cell and tumor metastasis genomic signatures in human lung cancer. Finally, Mmp10 is elevated in many human tumor types suggesting a widespread role for Mmp10 in human malignancy. We conclude that Mmp10 plays an important role in lung tumor initiation via maintenance of a highly tumorigenic, cancer-initiating, stem-like cell population, and that Mmp10 expression is associated with stem-like, highly metastatic genotypes in human lung cancers. These results indicate that Mmp10 may represent a novel therapeutic approach to target lung cancer stem cells.

Yamamoto K, Matsuoka H, Yakushijin K, et al.
A novel five-way translocation, t(3;9;13;8;14)(q27;p13;q32;q24;q32), with concurrent MYC and BCL6 rearrangements in a primary bone marrow B-cell lymphoma.
Cancer Genet. 2011; 204(9):501-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal translocations involving MYC at 8q24 are found in Burkitt lymphoma (BL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and BL (BCLU). Here, we describe a novel five-way translocation, t(3;9;13;8;14)(q27;p13;q32;q24;q32), involving MYC, BCL6, and the immunoglobulin heavy locus (IGH@) in a 73-year-old man with BCLU. The bone marrow was massively infiltrated with 95.6% abnormal medium- to large-sized lymphoid cells without vacuoles. Flow cytometric analyses indicated that the infiltrating cells were positive for CD10, CD19, CD20, CD25, HLA-DR, and κ chain. Immunohistochemistry revealed that they were also positive for BCL2 and CD10, and weakly positive for BCL6. The MIB1 index was approximately 99%. G-banding and spectral karyotyping demonstrated the presence of a t(3;9;13;8;14)(q27;p13;q32;q24;q32). Fluorescence in situ hybridization detected an IGH/MYC fusion signal on the der(14)t(8;14)(q24;q32). In addition, 5' and 3'BCL6 signals were separated onto the der(9)t(3;9)(q27;p13) and the der(3)t(3;14)(q27;q32), respectively. Unexpectedly, no BCL6 signal was found on the non-translocated chromosome 3. Finally, the revised karyotype was as follows: 49,XY,del(3)(q27q27),t(3;9;13;8;14)(q27;p13;q32;q24;q32), +der(6)t(6;13)(q13;q32)t(9;13)(p13;q32),+7,+12,i(18)(q10)[2]/50,sl,+7[2]/50,sl,+2[1]. These results suggest that this five-way translocation could bring about the deregulated expression of MYC on the der(14)t(8;14) and BCL6 on the der(3)t(3;14) by the IGH@ enhancer/promoter in a single event and may have contributed to the development of this BCLU.

Deraz EM, Kudo Y, Yoshida M, et al.
MMP-10/stromelysin-2 promotes invasion of head and neck cancer.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e25438 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Periostin, IFN-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) and Wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5B (Wnt-5b) were previously identified as the invasion promoted genes of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by comparing the gene expression profiles between parent and a highly invasive clone. We have previously reported that Periostin and IFITM1 promoted the invasion of HNSCC cells. Here we demonstrated that Wnt-5b overexpression promoted the invasion of HNSCC cells. Moreover, stromelysin-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-10; MMP-10) was identified as a common up-regulated gene among Periostin, IFITM1 and Wnt-5b overexpressing HNSCC cells by using microarray data sets. In this study, we investigated the roles of MMP-10 in the invasion of HNSCC.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined the expression of MMP-10 in HNSCC cases by immunohistochemistry. High expression of MMP-10 was frequently observed and was significantly correlated with the invasiveness and metastasis in HNSCC cases. Next, we examined the roles of MMP-10 in the invasion of HNSCC cells in vitro. Ectopic overexpression of MMP-10 promoted the invasion of HNSCC cells, and knockdown of MMP-10 suppressed the invasion of HNSCC cells. Moreover, MMP-10 knockdown suppressed Periostin and Wnt-5b-promoted invasion. Interestingly, MMP-10 overexpression induced the decreased p38 activity and MMP-10 knockdown induced the increased p38 activity. In addition, treatment with a p38 inhibitor SB203580 in HNSCC cells inhibited the invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that MMP-10 plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of HNSCC, and that invasion driven by MMP-10 is partially associated with p38 MAPK inhibition. We suggest that MMP-10 can be used as a marker for prediction of metastasis in HNSCC.

Stott-Miller M, Houck JR, Lohavanichbutr P, et al.
Tumor and salivary matrix metalloproteinase levels are strong diagnostic markers of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011; 20(12):2628-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) cause degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membranes, and thus may play a key role in cancer development.
METHODS: In our search for biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), we compared primary OSCC, oral dysplasia and control subjects with respect to: (i) expression of MMP1, MMP3, MMP10, and MMP12 in oral epithelial tissue using Affymetrix U133 2.0 Plus GeneChip arrays, followed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) for MMP1, and (ii) determination of MMP1 and MMP3 concentrations in saliva.
RESULTS: MMP1 expression in primary OSCC (n = 119) was >200-fold higher (P = 7.16 × 10(-40)) compared with expression levels in nonneoplastic oral epithelium from controls (n = 35). qRT-PCR results on 30 cases and 22 controls confirmed this substantial differential expression. The exceptional discriminatory power to separate OSCC from controls was validated in two independent testing sets (AUC% = 100; 95% CI: 100-100 and AUC% = 98.4; 95% CI: 95.6-100). Salivary concentrations of MMP1 and MMP3 in OSCC patients (33 stage I/II, 26 stage III/IV) were 6.2 times (95% CI: 3.32-11.73) and 14.8 times (95% CI: 6.75-32.56) higher, respectively, than in controls, and displayed an increasing trend with higher stage disease.
CONCLUSION: Tumor and salivary MMPs are robust diagnostic biomarkers of OSCC.
IMPACT: The capacity of MMP gene expression to identify OSCC provides support for further investigation into MMPs as potential markers for OSCC development. Detection of MMP proteins in saliva in particular may provide a promising means to detect and monitor OSCC noninvasively.

Sheh A, Ge Z, Parry NM, et al.
17β-estradiol and tamoxifen prevent gastric cancer by modulating leukocyte recruitment and oncogenic pathways in Helicobacter pylori-infected INS-GAS male mice.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011; 4(9):1426-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori infection promotes male predominant gastric adenocarcinoma in humans. Estrogens reduce gastric cancer risk and previous studies showed that prophylactic 17β-estradiol (E2) in INS-GAS mice decreases H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis. We examined the effect of E2 and tamoxifen (TAM) on H. pylori-induced gastric cancer in male and female INS-GAS mice. After confirming robust gastric pathology at 16 weeks postinfection (WPI), mice were implanted with E2, TAM, both E2 and TAM, or placebo pellets for 12 weeks. At 28 WPI, gastric histopathology, gene expression, and immune cell infiltration were evaluated and serum inflammatory cytokines measured. After treatment, no gastric cancer was observed in H. pylori-infected males receiving E2 and/or TAM, whereas 40% of infected untreated males developed gastric cancer. E2, TAM, and their combination significantly reduced gastric precancerous lesions in infected males compared with infected untreated males (P < 0.001, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively). However, TAM did not alter female pathology regardless of infection status. Differentially expressed genes from males treated with E2 or TAM (n = 363 and n = 144, Q < 0.05) associated highly with cancer and cellular movement, indicating overlapping pathways in the reduction of gastric lesions. E2 or TAM deregulated genes associated with metastasis (PLAUR and MMP10) and Wnt inhibition (FZD6 and SFRP2). Compared with controls, E2 decreased gastric mRNA (Q < 0.05) and serum levels (P < 0.05) of CXCL1, a neutrophil chemokine, leading to decreased neutrophil infiltration (P < 0.01). Prevention of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer by E2 and TAM may be mediated by estrogen signaling and is associated with decreased CXCL1, decreased neutrophil counts, and downregulation of oncogenic pathways.

Solár P, Sytkowski AJ
Differentially expressed genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line A2780.
Cancer Lett. 2011; 309(1):11-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer cells are usually initially sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy, such as cisplatin (CDDP), but typically become resistant over time. Such drug resistance is a serious impediment to successful disease treatment, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for resistance are not fully understood. In search of novel mechanisms that may lead to the development of CDDP chemoresistance, we used subtractive hybridization to identify differentially expressed genes in CDDP resistant CP70 and C200 cells vs. CDDP sensitive A2780 human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells. We analyzed 256 randomly selected clones. Subtraction efficiency was determined by dot blot and DNA sequencing. Confirmation of differentially expressed cDNAs was done by virtual northern blot analysis, and 17 genes that were differentially expressed in CDDP resistant cell lines vs. CDDP sensitive A2780 cells were identified. The expression of 10 of these genes was low or undetectable in sensitive A2780 cells in comparison to resistant cells and an additional seven genes were more highly expressed in resistant CP70 and C200 vs. A2780 cells. Our identified genes are involved in numerous and diverse cellular processes, such as inhibition of apoptosis (ARHGDIB), stress response (HSPCA, TRA1), chromatin condensation (CNAP1, RanBP2), invasiveness of cells (MMP10), alteration of Ca(2+) homeostasis (ASPH, ATP2B1) and others. Further characterization of these genes and gene products should yield important insights into the biology of CDDP resistance in ovarian carcinoma.

Dia VP, Gonzalez de Mejia E
Lunasin induces apoptosis and modifies the expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix and cell adhesion in human metastatic colon cancer cells.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011; 55(4):623-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
SCOPE: Lunasin is an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) cancer preventive peptide. The objective was to evaluate the potential of lunasin to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer cells and their oxaliplatin-resistant (OxR) variants, and its effect on the expression of human extracellular matrix and adhesion genes.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Various human colon cancer cell lines which underwent metastasis were evaluated in vitro using cell flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Lunasin cytotoxicity to different colon cancer cells correlated with the expression of α(5) b(1) integrin, being most potent to KM12L4 cells (IC(50) = 13 μM). Lunasin arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase with concomitant increase in the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. Lunasin (5-25 μM) activated the apoptotic mitochondrial pathway as evidenced by changes in the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, nuclear clusterin, cytochrome c and caspase-3 in KM12L4 and KM12L4-OxR. Lunasin increased the activity of initiator caspase-9 leading to the activation of caspase-3 and also modified the expression of human extracellular matrix and adhesion genes, downregulating integrin α(5), SELE, MMP10, integrin β(2) and COL6A1 by 5.01-, 6.53-, 7.71-, 8.19- and 10.10-fold, respectively, while upregulating COL12A1 by 11.61-fold.
CONCLUSION: Lunasin can be used in cases where resistance to chemotherapy developed.

Gencer S, Cebeci A, Irmak-Yazicioglu MB
Silencing of the MMP-3 gene by siRNA transfection in gastric cancer AGS cells.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2011; 20(1):19-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The gastric epithelium is continuously exposed to toxic reactive oxygen species and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the enzymes known for their roles in the invasion of tumor cells. Here, we report the suppression of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) in gastric cancer cell line AGS by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection and its potential role in gastric cancers.
METHODS: Oxidative stress in the cell lines was assessed following H2O2 exposure using an oxidative stress marker, 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA). Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA specific to MMP-3, Transwell invasion assay, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis, and over-expression of MMP-3 were used to determine the potential role of MMP-3 gene in gastric cancers.
RESULTS: The silencing of the MMP-3 gene resulted in a decrease of invading AGS while the over-expression of it caused an increase in the invading cells compared to the untreated control cells. Moreover, it also caused a 4.1 fold increase in matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP-10) and a 7.4 fold decrease in matrix metalloproteinase 15 (MMP-15) mRNA expression levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the silencing of the MMP-3 gene decreases the number of invading AGS cells and additionally, affects the expressions of MMP-10 and MMP-15, suggesting that targeting the MMP-3 gene in gastric cancers might be a therapeutic approach due to its effects on the invasion of AGS cells and the expression of the MMP-15 gene.

Stokes A, Joutsa J, Ala-Aho R, et al.
Expression profiles and clinical correlations of degradome components in the tumor microenvironment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2010; 16(7):2022-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are characterized by high morbidity and mortality, largely due to the high invasive and metastatic potential of these tumors, high recurrence rates, and low treatment responses. Proteinases have been implicated in several aspects of tumor growth and metastasis in a broad range of tumors including HNSCC.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Comprehensive expression profiling of proteinases [matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAMs), and ADAMs with thrombospondin motif (ADAMTSs)] and their inhibitors [tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)] was done using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis of a large cohort of tissue samples representing the tumor (n = 83), the invasive margin (n = 41), and the adjacent tissue (n = 41) from 83 HNSCC patients, along with normal tissue controls (n = 13), as well as cell lines established from tumors of 34 HNSCC patients.
RESULTS: The results show specifically elevated gene expression of several proteinases, including MMP1, MMP3, MMP10, and MMP13 within tumor tissue and peritumoral adjacent tissue. In addition, the results identify several novel HNSCC-associated proteinases, including ADAM8, ADAM9, ADAM17, ADAM28, ADAMTS1, ADAMTS8, and ADAMTS15. There were also significant differences in proteinase expression based on clinical parameters, i.e., tumor location, grade, and local invasion. MMP13 expression was significantly higher in large (>4 cm) locally invasive tumors (P < 0.05). MMP9 expression was significantly decreased in tumors with regional metastasis, whereas increased expression of ADAM8 was noted in the metastatic tumors (P < 0.001 for both).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the HNSCC degradome as a valuable source of diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic molecular markers for these malignant tumors.

Zhang X, Yin P, DI D, et al.
IL-6 regulates MMP-10 expression via JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
Anticancer Res. 2009; 29(11):4497-501 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously reported that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-10 mRNA levels were significantly lower in tumor tissues than in adjacent normal tissues in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), whereas protein levels of MMP-10 were higher in the tumor tissues than the adjacent tissues. The mechanism of this divergence is still unknown. In the present study the role of Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) on interleukin (IL)-6 mediated regulation of MMP-10 expression was investigated in a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549 cells) and the molecular regulatory mechanism of MMP-10 expression was explored. A549 cells were stimulated by different concentrations of IL-6 with or without AG490, a specific JAK2 inhibitor. It was demonstrated that IL-6 moderately reduced the MMP-10 mRNA levels, whereas it significantly enhanced the MMP-10 protein mass in the A549 cells. This phenomenon mimicked the divergence of mRNA level and protein mass of MMP-10 in human NSCLC. Moreover, the present study indicated that IL-6 regulation of MMP-10 expression was via the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. STAT3 mRNA levels were significantly increased when the cells were treated with IL-6, whereas when AG490 (50 muM) was added to the cell cultures, IL-6-induced increase of STAT3 mRNA levels was abolished. Meanwhile, AG490 blocked the IL-6-induced inhibition of MMP-10 mRNA as well as blocking the IL-6-induced increase of MMP-10 protein mass in the A549 cells. Neither IL-6 nor AG490 influenced JAK2 mRNA levels in the A549 cell cultures. It is concluded that the JAK2/STAT3 pathway is involved in the IL-6-mediated regulation of MMP-10, and IL-6 can moderately reduce MMP-10 mRNA levels and strongly increase MMP-10 protein mass in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Contrasting effects of IL-6 on MMP-10 mRNA level and protein concentration in A549 cells may partially explain the divergence of MMP-10 mRNA level and protein mass in human NSCLC.

Huang Y, Song N, Ding Y, et al.
Pulmonary vascular destabilization in the premetastatic phase facilitates lung metastasis.
Cancer Res. 2009; 69(19):7529-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Before metastasis, certain organs have already been influenced by primary tumors. However, the exact alterations and regulatory mechanisms of the premetastatic organs remain poorly understood. Here, we report that, in the premetastatic stage, angiopoietin 2 (Angpt2), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 3, and MMP10 are up-regulated in the lung by primary B16/F10 tumor, which leads to the increased permeability of pulmonary vasculatures and extravasation of circulating tumor cells. Subsequent studies show that Angpt2, MMP3, and MMP10 have a synergistic effect on disrupting vascular integrity in both in vitro and in vivo models. Lentivirus-based in vivo RNA interference of Angpt2, MMP3, and MMP10 attenuates the pulmonary vascular permeability and suppresses the infiltration of myeloid cells in the premetastatic lung. Moreover, knocking down these factors significantly inhibits the spontaneous lung metastasis in the model by orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231-Luc-D3H1 cells in nude mice. Further investigations reveal that the malignancy of tumor cells is positively correlated with their capabilities to induce the expression of Angpt2, MMP3, and MMP10. Luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay also suggest that transforming growth factor-beta1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha signaling are involved in the regulation of these premetastatic factors. Our study shows that pulmonary vascular destabilization in the premetastatic phase promotes the extravasation of tumor cells and facilitates lung metastasis, which may provide potential targets for clinical prevention of metastasis.

Armstrong DA, Phelps LN, Vincenti MP
CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta regulates matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in interleukin-1beta-stimulated A549 lung carcinoma cells.
Mol Cancer Res. 2009; 7(9):1517-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is an inflammation-inducible neutral protease that mediates extracellular matrix remodeling and promotes tumor invasion. In this study, we examined the activation of MMP-1 gene expression in A549 lung carcinoma cells stimulated with the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). We found that MMP-1 mRNA levels were maximal following 16 hours of IL-1beta stimulation and that this correlated with the expression of the transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-beta (CEBPB). Knockdown of CEBPB expression with short hairpin RNA abrogated the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-10 in IL-1beta-stimulated A549 cells. An established CEBP element in the MMP-1 promoter was found to be required for basal and IL-1beta-induced transcription. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays showed that CEBPB binds to this promoter element maximally 16 hours after IL-1beta stimulation. DNA affinity chromatography studies showed that the LAP1, LAP2, and LIP isoforms of CEBPB bind to the IL-1beta-responsive CEBPB site in the MMP-1 promoter. Exogenous expression of the LAP1 and LAP2 isoforms stimulated the MMP-1 promoter, whereas LIP had no effect. Phosphorylation of CEBPB at Thr(235) peaked at 16 hours in IL-1beta-stimulated cells. The MEK inhibitor U0126 inhibited this phosphorylation and reduced MMP-1 gene induction. These studies establish CEBPB as an important mediator of metalloproteinase gene activation during inflammatory responses in lung cancer cells and highlight the different regulatory roles of CEBPB isoforms.

Saini S, Liu J, Yamamura S, et al.
Functional significance of secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 in metastatic renal cell carcinomas.
Cancer Res. 2009; 69(17):6815-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
The secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) is a Wingless-type (Wnt) antagonist that has been associated with various malignancies, including renal cell carcinomas (RCC). However, the functional significance of SFRP1 has never been investigated in metastatic RCC. Here, we investigated the role of this molecule in kidney cancer progression and metastasis. Using Wnt pathway-focused cDNA expression profiling in normal renal, primary RCC, and metastatic RCC cell lines, we identified that SFRP1 is up-regulated in metastatic RCC. SFRP1 overexpression in metastatic RCC was confirmed by immunostaining in renal tissues. We explored the molecular mechanisms underlying SFRP1 up-regulation by analyzing DNA methylation and histone modification patterns on SFRP1 promoter. We found that this gene is unmethylated/hypomethylated and enriched in activating histone modifications in metastatic RCC. To understand the functional significance of SFRP1 overexpression in metastatic RCC with regard to tumorigenesis, we used a small interfering RNA-mediated approach to knockdown the gene and monitored cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and metastatic behavior. Proliferation was unaltered and apoptosis increased on attenuation of SFRP1 expression. Also, SFRP1 depletion decreased the invasive potential of the metastatic RCC cell line, suggesting that the overexpression of this Wnt antagonist may be related to invasiveness and metastatic behavior in RCC. We investigated the molecular basis of the role of SFRP1 in invasion and metastasis and found that matrix metalloproteinase MMP10 is regulated by SFRP1. In conclusion, our data suggest that SFRP1 plays a role in the metastatic potential of RCC. The present findings may be important in the design of treatment modalities for metastatic RCC.

Yen CY, Chen CH, Chang CH, et al.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 1 and MMP10 but not MMP12 are potential oral cancer markers.
Biomarkers. 2009; 14(4):244-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA performance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 1, MMP10 and MMP12 as oral cancer markers. With gingiva as the control, the areas under the receiver- operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of the relative gene expressions for MMP1, MMP10 and MMP12 were 0.715, 0.727 and 0.513, respectively. With the margins or neck platysma muscles as controls, the AUCs of MMP1, MMP10 and MMP12 were 0.746 vs 0.626, 0.712 vs 0.683 and 0.697 vs 0.630, respectively. MMP10 displayed the best sensitivity for oral cancer detection with any controls. MMP1 and MMP10 were suitable markers for cancer detection with gingiva and margin as controls. Using neck tissue as the control, only MMP10 was suitable for cancer detection. With margin and neck controls, there were no significant differences for MMP1, MMP10 and MMP12 in different stages, invasion and locations or different habits. Therefore, MMP1 and MMP10 but not MMP12 are potential oral cancer markers.

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