Gene Summary

Gene:ING1; inhibitor of growth family member 1
Aliases: p33, p47, p33ING1, p24ING1c, p33ING1b, p47ING1a
Summary:This gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein that can induce cell growth arrest and apoptosis. The encoded protein is a nuclear protein that physically interacts with the tumor suppressor protein TP53 and is a component of the p53 signaling pathway. Reduced expression and rearrangement of this gene have been detected in various cancers. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:inhibitor of growth protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Lung Cancer
  • Cell Cycle
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Cancer DNA
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Apoptosis
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • ING1
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Inhibitor of Growth Protein 1
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Growth Inhibitors
  • CDKN1A
  • Transfection
  • Single-Stranded Conformational Polymorphism
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Disease Progression
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Base Sequence
  • Down-Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Liver Cancer
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Proteins
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Chromosome 13
  • Cancer RNA
  • Promoter Regions
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • src-Family Kinases
  • Messenger RNA
  • p53 Protein
  • Breast Cancer
  • Mutation
  • TP53
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ING1 (cancer-related)

Li S, Zhao X, Chang S, et al.
ERp57‑small interfering RNA silencing can enhance the sensitivity of drug‑resistant human ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(1):249-260 [PubMed] Related Publications
ERp57 has been identified to be associated with the chemoresistance of human ovarian cancer. However, its biological roles in the chemoresistance phenotype remain unclear. In the present study, the association of ERp57 with paclitaxel‑resistant cellular behavior was investigated and the sensitivity enhancement of chemoresistant human ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel was examined using ERp57‑small interfering (si)RNA silencing. Cell viability, cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and cell migration were detected using an MTT assay, clonogenic assay, flow cytometry analysis and transwell assay. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of ERp57 and protein expression levels of ERp57, STAT3, phosphorylated STAT3, PCNA, nucelolin, TUBB3, P-gp, vimentin, Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-xl, p53, MMP1, MMP2 and MMP9 of paclitaxel-sensitive human SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells were compared with paclitaxel-resistant counterpart SKOV3/tax using the real-time PCR and western blot analysis. ERp57 was highly expressed in the paclitaxel‑resistant SKOV3/tax cells, and experimental results concluded that the paclitaxel‑resistance phenotype was due primarily to the activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway. ERp57 overexpression by lentiviral particle infection decreased the sensitivity of SKOV3 cells to paclitaxel. Furthermore, ERp57‑siRNA silencing restored paclitaxel sensitivity of SKOV3/tax cells. Notably, the IC50 value of ERp57‑siRNA silenced SKOV3/tax cells was reduced to the original level and colony survival was significantly decreased in comparison with that of SKOV3/tax cells. Additionally, co‑treatment of ERp57‑siRNA silencing and paclitaxel could inhibit the STAT3 signaling pathway and downregulate the expression levels of downstream proteins. Notably, ERp57‑siRNA and 100 nM paclitaxel co‑treatment downregulated Bcl‑2, Bcl‑xl, MMP2, MMP9, TUBB3 and P‑gp expression levels and upregulated the expression of Bax protein. Furthermore, co‑treatment promoted change of the isoform of p53 to p53/p47. Bioinformatics analyses supported the experimental observations that ERp57 was associated with drug resistance in ovarian cancer. The present study implies that ERp57 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of paclitaxel‑resistant human ovarian cancer.

Jiang M, Zhou LY, Xu N, An Q
Down-regulation of miR-500 and miR-628 suppress non-small cell lung cancer proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting ING1.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 108:1628-1639 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been consistently demonstrated to be involved in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as either tumor oncogenes or tumor suppressors. However, the detailed role of miR-500 and miR-628 in NSCLC remain poorly understood.
METHODS: The expressions of miR-500 and miR-628 in NSCLC tissues and cell lines were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Cells migration, invasion, proliferation, adhesion and apoptosis abilities were test to analyze the biological functions of miR-500 and miR-628 in NSCLC. A bioinformatic analysis was conducted to predict the target genes regulated by miR-500 and miR-628 using TargetScan ( Luciferase reporter assay was employed to validate the direct targeting of ING1 by miR-500 and miR-628.
RESULTS: In this study, miR-500 and miR-628 were up-regulated with NSCLC tissues. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-500 and miR-628 significantly suppressed NSCLC cells proliferation, migration, invasion and adhesion, and induced NSCLC cells apoptosis. Additionally, the result showed that ING1 functioned as the direct target for miR-500 and miR-628, which was a core tumor suppressor in regulating NSCLC progression. Over-expression of ING1 could dramatically inhibit NSCLC cells proliferation, migration and invasion, and promote cells apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: These results brought new insights into the oncogenic role of miR-500 and miR-628 in NSCLC, indicating that miR-500 and miR-628 might be the novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of NSCLC.

Özdaş S
Nuclear entrapment of p33ING1b by inhibition of exportin-1: A trigger of apoptosis in head and neck squamous cell cancer.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2018; 64(5):66-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
The effect of deregulation of nuclear export mediated by exportin-1, with consequent cellular mislocalization of p33ING1b, a member of the tumor suppressor gene family, has not been previously investigated in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). We evaluated the effect of reversing cytoplasmic p33ING1b localization through inhibition of exportin-1 by leptomycin B (LMB) and the effect of nuclear entrapment of p33ING1b on molecular alterations in primary and metastatic HNSCC lines. The expression and location of exportin-1 and p33ING1b were analyzed by a quantitative real‑time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction PCR (qRT-PCR), a Western blot, and immunostaining. Cell proliferation and migration assays were conducted to determine the effect of exportin-1 inhibition on the cell lines. Exportin-1 was overexpressed in metastatic HNSCC, whereas p33ING1b was poorly expressed. Exportin-1 inhibition induced nuclear entrapment and upregulation of p33ING1b, extensive apoptosis, and growth arrest. It also suppressed cell migration. Cytoplasmic p33ING1b-mediated regulation of cell growth and nuclear entrapment of p33ING1b via inhibition of exportin-1 may be a key mechanism for inducing HNSCC apoptosis.

McClurg UL, Nabbi A, Ricordel C, et al.
Human ex vivo prostate tissue model system identifies ING3 as an oncoprotein.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 118(5):713-726 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although the founding members of the INhibitor of Growth (ING) family of histone mark readers, ING1 and ING2, were defined as tumour suppressors in animal models, the role of other ING proteins in cellular proliferation and cancer progression is unclear.
METHODS: We transduced ex vivo benign prostate hyperplasia tissues with inducible lentiviral particles to express ING proteins. Proliferation was assessed by H3S10
RESULTS: We found that ING3 stimulates cellular proliferation in ex vivo tissues, suggesting that ING3 could be oncogenic. Indeed, ING3 overexpression transformed normal human dermal fibroblasts. We observed elevated levels of ING3 in prostate cancer samples, which correlated with poorer patient survival. Consistent with an oncogenic role, gene-silencing experiments revealed that ING3 is required for the proliferation of breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer cells. Finally, ING3 controls the expression of an intricate network of cell cycle genes by associating with chromatin modifiers and the H3K4
CONCLUSIONS: Our investigations create a shift in the prevailing view that ING proteins are tumour suppressors and redefine ING3 as an oncoprotein.

Saini P, Courtneidge SA
Tks adaptor proteins at a glance.
J Cell Sci. 2018; 131(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tyrosine kinase substrate (Tks) adaptor proteins are considered important regulators of various physiological and/or pathological processes, particularly cell migration and invasion, and cancer progression. These proteins contain PX and SH3 domains, and act as scaffolds, bringing membrane and cellular components in close proximity in structures known as invadopodia or podosomes. Tks proteins, analogous to the related proteins p47

Kikuchi H, Mimuro H, Kuribayashi F
Resveratrol strongly enhances the retinoic acid-induced superoxide generating activity via up-regulation of gp91-phox gene expression in U937 cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 495(1):1195-1200 [PubMed] Related Publications
The membrane bound cytochrome b

Wang F, Wang AY, Chesnelong C, et al.
ING5 activity in self-renewal of glioblastoma stem cells via calcium and follicle stimulating hormone pathways.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(3):286-301 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Stem cell-like brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) cause recurrence of glioblastomas, with BTIC 'stemness' affected by epigenetic mechanisms. The ING family of epigenetic regulators (ING1-5) function by targeting histone acetyltransferase (HAT) or histone deacetylase complexes to the H3K4me3 mark to alter histone acetylation and subsequently, gene expression. Here we find that ectopic expression of ING5, the targeting subunit of HBO1, MOZ and MORF HAT complexes increases expression of the Oct4, Olig2 and Nestin stem cell markers, promotes self-renewal, prevents lineage differentiation and increases stem cell pools in BTIC populations. This activity requires the plant homeodomain region of ING5 that interacts specifically with the H3K4me3 mark. ING5 also enhances PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK activity to sustain self-renewal of BTICs over serial passage of stem cell-like spheres. ING5 exerts these effects by activating transcription of calcium channel and follicle stimulating hormone pathway genes. In silico analyses of The Cancer Genome Atlas data suggest that ING5 is a positive regulator of BTIC stemness, whose expression negatively correlates with patient prognosis, especially in the Proneural and Classical subtypes, and in tumors with low SOX2 expression. These data suggest that altering histone acetylation status and signaling pathways induced by ING5 may provide useful clinical strategies to target tumor resistance and recurrence in glioblastoma.

Kim E, Kim W, Lee S, et al.
TRAF4 promotes lung cancer aggressiveness by modulating tumor microenvironment in normal fibroblasts.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):8923 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Normal fibroblasts surrounding tumor cells play a crucial role in cancer progression through formation of the tumor microenvironment. Because factors secreted from normal fibroblasts can modulate the tumor microenvironment, it is necessary to identify key factors associated with regulation of secreted factors and to investigate the molecular mechanisms contributing to the tumor microenvironment formation process. In this study, we found that radiation induced the expression and K63-linkage poly-ubiquitination of TRAF4 in normal lung fibroblasts. The K63-linkage poly-ubiquitinated TRAF4 formed complexes with NOX2 or NOX4 by mediating phosphorylated p47-phox in normal lung fibroblasts. Moreover, we showed that TRAF4 stabilized NOX complexes by decreasing lysosomal degradation of NOX2 and NOX4 after irradiation. NOX complexes increased endosomal ROS levels that were permeable into cytoplasm, leading to NF-κB-mediated ICAM1 up-regulation. Soluble ICAM1 was subsequently secreted into conditioned media of radiation-activated normal lung fibroblasts. The conditioned media from irradiated normal fibroblasts enhanced proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of non-small cell lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate that TRAF4 in irradiated fibroblasts is positively associated with aggressiveness of adjacent cancer cells by altering the tumor microenvironment. Thus, we suggest that regulation of TRAF4 might be a promising strategy for cancer therapy.

Zhang R, Jin J, Shi J, Hou Y
INGs are potential drug targets for cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(2):189-197 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The inhibitor of growth (ING) family consists of ING1, ING2, ING3, ING4 and ING5, which function as the type II tumor suppressors. INGs regulate cell proliferation, senescence, apoptosis, differentiation, angiogenesis, DNA repair, metastasis, and invasion by multiple pathways. In addition, INGs increase cancer cell sensitivity for chemotherapy and radiotherapy, while clinical observations show that INGs are frequently lost in some types of cancers. The aim of the study was to summarize the recent progress regarding INGs regulating tumor progression.
METHODS: The literatures of INGs regulating tumor progression were searched and assayed.
RESULTS: The regulating signaling pathways of ING1, ING2, ING3 or ING4 on tumor progression were shown. The mechanisms of INGs on tumor suppression were also assayed.
CONCLUSIONS: This review better summarized the signaling mechanism of INGs on tumor suppression, which provides a candidate therapy strategy for cancers.

Esmaeili M, Pungsrinont T, Schaefer A, Baniahmad A
A novel crosstalk between the tumor suppressors ING1 and ING2 regulates androgen receptor signaling.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2016; 94(10):1167-1179 [PubMed] Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) is a transcriptional factor that has a pivotal role in the development of normal and also cancerous prostate. Therefore, analyzing AR signaling is essential to understand cancerogensis and proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa). Inhibitor of growth 1 (ING1) and ING2 are tumor suppressors with reduced expression in many cancer types. There are also indications of misregulation of ING1 and ING2 in PCa. However, the roles of ING1 and ING2 in PCa and AR signaling are poorly understood. Here, we show that surprisingly the ING1b knockdown (KD) represses AR-mediated transactivation on AR key target genes in the human LNCaP PCa cells. This is associated with growth reduction of LNCaP cells by ING1 KD. In line with this, using Ing1 knockout (KO) mice, we provide further evidence that ING1 deficiency downregulates prostate-specific AR target genes in vivo. Further analyses suggest that KD of ING1b results in induction of both cellular senescence and the cell cycle inhibitor p16
KEY MESSAGE: • The tumor suppressors ING1 and 2 are dysregulated in human prostate cancer. • ING1 deficiency reduces AR-mediated gene expression in vitro and in vivo. • ING2, like ING1, inhibits AR-mediated transactivation and prostate cancer cell growth. • ING1 regulates ING2. • ING1 and ING2 crosstalk with each other to inhibit AR signaling in prostate cancer.

Esmaeili M, Jennek S, Ludwig S, et al.
The tumor suppressor ING1b is a novel corepressor for the androgen receptor and induces cellular senescence in prostate cancer cells.
J Mol Cell Biol. 2016; 8(3):207-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) signaling is critical for prostate cancer (PCa) progression to the castration-resistant stage with poor clinical outcome. Altered function of AR-interacting factors may contribute to castration-resistant PCa (CRPCa). Inhibitor of growth 1 (ING1) is a tumor suppressor that regulates various cellular processes including cell proliferation. Interestingly, ING1 expression is upregulated in senescent primary human prostate cells; however, its role in AR signaling in PCa was unknown. Using a proteomic approach by surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (SELDI-MS) combined with immunological techniques, we provide here evidence that ING1b interacts in vivo with the AR. The interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation, in vitro GST-pull-down, and quantitative intracellular colocalization analyses. Functionally, ING1b inhibits AR-responsive promoters and endogenous key AR target genes in the human PCa LNCaP cells. Conversely, ING1b knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibit enhanced AR activity, suggesting that the interaction with ING1b represses the AR-mediated transcription. Also, data suggest that ING1b expression is downregulated in CRPCa cells compared with androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. Interestingly, its ectopic expression induces cellular senescence and reduces cell migration in both androgen-dependent and CRPCa cells. Intriguingly, ING1b can also inhibit androgen-induced growth in LNCaP cells in a similar manner as AR antagonists. Moreover, ING1b upregulates different cell cycle inhibitors including p27(KIP1), which is a novel target for ING1b. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel corepressor function of ING1b on various AR functions, thereby inhibiting PCa cell growth.

Gataullina S, Lemaire E, Wendling F, et al.
Epilepsy in young Tsc1(+/-) mice exhibits age-dependent expression that mimics that of human tuberous sclerosis complex.
Epilepsia. 2016; 57(4):648-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epileptic phenotype of Tsc1(+/-) mice pups in comparison with age-related seizures in human tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).
METHODS: Tsc1(+/-) and control mice underwent intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) recording at postnatal ages (P)8 to P33, with linear silicon probe implanted in the somatosensory cortex of one or both hemispheres for 8-24 h. Ictal events were classified visually by independent analyzers; distinct EEG patterns were related to age and analyzed to quantify field potential characteristics and signal dynamics between hemispheres. We collected retrospectively 20 infants with prenatally diagnosed TSC and EEG before seizure onset, and analyzed the electroclinical course of epilepsy, taking into account a first-line treatment by vigabatrin.
RESULTS: Spontaneous seizures were disclosed in 55% of Tsc1(+/-) mice at P9-18. Three ictal patterns were identified: from P9 to P12 "spike clusters" consisted of recurring large spikes without clinical correlate; "spasm-like" discharges dominated from P13 to P16 consisting of high amplitude large field potential superimposed with or followed by fast activity repeated every 2-10 s for at least 20 s, accompanied by rhythmic limb contractions; from P14 to P18 a "tonic-clonic like" pattern comprised rhythmic spikes of increasing amplitude with tonic-clonic movements. Early onset "spike clusters" were mainly unilateral, whereas "spasm-like" and "tonic-clonic like" patterns were bilateral. Interhemispheric propagation was significantly faster for "tonic-clonic like" than for "spasm-like" events. In infants diagnosed prenatally with TSC, clusters of sharp waves or spikes preceded the first seizure, and vigabatrin prevented the development of seizures. Patients treated after seizure onset developed spasms or focal seizures that were pharmacoresistant in 66.7% of cases.
SIGNIFICANCE: Tsc1(+/-) mice pups exhibit an age-dependent seizure pattern sequence mimicking early human TSC epilepsy features. Spike clusters before seizure onset in TSC should be considered as a first stage of epilepsy reinforcing the concept of preventive antiepileptic therapy.

Yuan S, Jin J, Shi J, Hou Y
Inhibitor of growth-4 is a potential target for cancer therapy.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(4):4275-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The inhibitor of growth-4 (ING-4) belongs to the inhibitor of growth (ING) family that is a type II tumor suppressor gene including five members (ING1-5). As a tumor suppressor, ING4 inhibits tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis by multiple signaling pathways. In addition to that, ING4 can facilitate cancer cell sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Although ING4 loss is observed for many types of cancers, increasing evidences show that ING4 can be used for gene therapy. In this review, the recent progress of ING4 regulating tumorigenesis is discussed.

Phang BH, Othman R, Bougeard G, et al.
Amino-terminal p53 mutations lead to expression of apoptosis proficient p47 and prognosticate better survival, but predispose to tumorigenesis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(46):E6349-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Whereas most mutations in p53 occur in the DNA-binding domain and lead to its functional inactivation, their relevance in the amino-terminal transactivation domain is unclear. We show here that amino-terminal p53 (ATp53) mutations often result in the abrogation of full-length p53 expression, but concomitantly lead to the expression of the amino-terminally truncated p47 isoform. Using genetically modified cancer cells that only express p47, we demonstrate it to be up-regulated in response to various stimuli, and to contribute to cell death, through its ability to selectively activate a group of apoptotic target genes. Target gene selectivity is influenced by K382 acetylation, which depends on the amino terminus, and is required for recruitment of selective cofactors. Consistently, cancers capable of expressing p47 had a better overall survival. Nonetheless, retention of the apoptotic function appears insufficient for tumor suppression, because these mutations are also found in the germ line and lead to Li-Fraumeni syndrome. These data from ATp53 mutations collectively demonstrate that p53's apoptosis proficiency is dispensable for tumor suppression, but could prognosticate better survival.

Thakur S, Nabbi A, Klimowicz A, Riabowol K
Stromal ING1 expression induces a secretory phenotype and correlates with breast cancer patient survival.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:164 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have established that levels of the Inhibitor of Growth 1(ING1) tumor suppressor are reduced in a significant proportion of different cancer types. Here we analyzed levels of ING1 in breast cancer patients to determine its prognostic significance as a biomarker for breast cancer prognosis.
METHODS: We used automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) to determine the levels of ING1 in the tumor associated stromal cells of 462 breast cancer samples. To better understand how high ING1 levels affect nearby epithelium, we measured the levels of cytokines and secreted matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), using an ELISA based assay in mammary fibroblasts overexpressing ING1. These cells were also used in a 3-dimensional co-culture with MCF7 cells to determine the effect of released MMPs and other cytokines on growing colonies.
RESULTS: We find that high levels of ING1 in stroma are associated with tumor grade (p = 0.001) and size (p = 0.02), and inversely associated with patient survival (p = 0.0001) in luminal, but not in non-luminal cancers, suggesting that high stromal ING1 promotes cancer development. In this group of patients ING1 could also predict patient survival and act as a biomarker (HR = 2.125). While ING1 increased or decreased the expression of different cytokines, ING1 also increased the levels of MMP1, MMP3 and MMP10 by 5-8 fold, and concomitantly decreased levels of the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases TIMP2, TIMP3 and TIMP4 by 1.5-3.3 fold, resulting in significant increases in MMP activity as determined by zymography. Co-culturing of MCF7 cells with stromal cells expressing ING1 in 3-dimensional organoid cultures suggested that MCF7 colonies were less well defined, suggesting that secreted MMPs might promote migration.
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that stromal ING1 expression can predict the survival of patients with luminal breast cancer. High levels of ING1 in stromal cells can promote the development of breast cancer through increased expression and release of MMPs and down regulation of TIMPs, which may be an underlying mechanism of reduced patient survival.

Ma K, Wu HY, Zhang B, et al.
Neurotoxicity effects of atrazine-induced SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells via microglial activation.
Mol Biosyst. 2015; 11(11):2915-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR) is a broad-spectrum herbicide with a wide range of applications worldwide. However, ATR is neurotoxic; it reduces dopamine levels in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum in the midbrain, affects the absorption of synaptic vesicles and synaptic bodies, and interferes with dopamine storage and uptake in synaptic vesicles, leading to neurodegenerative disorders. Microglia are resident immunocompetent and phagocytic cells that regulate and participate in the microenvironment in the central nervous system. They demonstrate macrophage characteristics after activation by releasing inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic substances to increase the inflammatory response, and are thus involved in neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects of ATR-activated microglia-mediated neuronal damage in terms of human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell death. ATR was administered to BV-2 microglial cells at 12.5, 25, and 50 μM for 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. ATR increased activated-microglia-induced overexpression of reactive oxygen species, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, gp91(phox), p47(phox), and the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β, thus reducing SH-SY5Y cell viability. These results suggest that activated microglia may play a critical role in inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neuronal death, and provide the basis for further studies on the mechanisms of ATR-induced dopaminergic system toxicity.

Garritano S, Romanel A, Ciribilli Y, et al.
In-silico identification and functional validation of allele-dependent AR enhancers.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(7):4816-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Androgen Receptor (AR) and Estrogen Receptors (ERs) are key nuclear receptors that can cooperate in orchestrating gene expression programs in multiple tissues and diseases, targeting binding elements in promoters and distant enhancers. We report the unbiased identification of enhancer elements bound by AR and ER-α whose activity can be allele-specific depending on the status of nearby Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP). ENCODE data were computationally mined to nominate genomic loci with: (i) chromatin signature of enhancer activity from activation histone marks, (ii) binding evidence by AR and ER-α, (iii) presence of a SNP. Forty-one loci were identified and two, on 1q21.3 and 13q34, selected for characterization by gene reporter, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and RT-qPCR assays in breast (MCF7) and prostate (PC-3) cancer-derived cell lines. We observed allele-specific enhancer activity, responsiveness to ligand-bound AR, and potentially influence on the transcription of closely located genes (RAB20, ING1, ARHGEF7, ADAM15). The 1q21.3 variant, rs2242193, showed impact on AR binding in MCF7 cells that are heterozygous for the SNP. Our unbiased genome-wide search proved to be an efficient methodology to discover new functional polymorphic regulatory regions (PRR) potentially acting as risk modifiers in hormone-driven cancers and overall nominated SNPs in PRR across 136 transcription factors.

Han X, Chen Y, Yao N, et al.
MicroRNA let-7b suppresses human gastric cancer malignancy by targeting ING1.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2015; 22(3):122-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators that play key roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. In this study, we investigate whether let-7b acts as a tumor suppressor to inhibit invasion and metastasis in gastric cancers. We analyzed the expression of let-7b in 60 pair-matched gastric neoplastic and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Functional analysis of let-7b expression was assessed in vitro in gastric cancer cell lines with let-7b precursor and inhibitor. The roles of let-7b in tumorigenesis and tumor metastasis were analyzed using a stable let-7b expression plasmid in nude mice. A luciferase reporter assay was used to assess the effect of let-7b on inhibitor of growth family, member 1 (ING1) expression. Real-time PCR showed decreased levels of let-7b expression in metastatic gastric cancer tissues and cell lines that are potentially highly metastatic. Cell invasion and migration were significantly impaired in GC9811-P and SGC7901-M cell lines after transfection with let-7b mimics. Nude mice with xenograft models of gastric cancer confirmed that let-7b could inhibit gastric cancer metastasis in vivo after transfection by the lentivirus pGCsil-GFP- let-7b. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that let-7b directly binds to the 3'-UTR of ING1, and real-time PCR and western blotting further indicated that let-7b downregulated the expression of ING1 at the mRNA and protein levels. Our study demonstrates that overexpression of let-7b in gastric cancer can inhibit invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells through directly targeting the tumor metastasis-associated gene ING1. These findings help clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in gastric cancer metastasis and indicate that let-7b modulation may be a bona fide treatment of gastric cancer.

He D, Miao H, Xu Y, et al.
MiR-371-5p facilitates pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and decreases patient survival.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e112930 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in tumorigenesis, either as a tumor suppressor or as an oncogenic miRNA, depending on different tumor types. To date, scientists have obtained a substantial amount of knowledge with regard to miRNAs in pancreatic cancer. However, the expression and function of miR-371-5p in pancreatic cancer has not been clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of miR-371-5p in pancreatic cancer and its association with the survival of patients with pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: The expression of miR-371-5p was examined in pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and their adjacent normal pancreatic tissues (ANPT) or in pancreatic cancer cell lines by qRT-PCR. The association of miR-371-5p expression with overall survival was determined. The proliferation and apoptosis of SW-1990 and Panc-1 cells, transfected with miR-371-5p mimics or inhibitor, were assessed using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The tumorigenicity was evaluated via mice xenograft experiments. miR-371-5p promoter interactions were analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP). Protein expression was analyzed by Western blot.
RESULTS: The expression level of miR-371-5p was dramatically upregulated in clinical PDAC tissues compared with ANPT. Patients with high miR-371-5p expression had a significantly shorter survival than those with low miR-371-5p expression. The in vitro and in vivo assays showed that overexpression of miR-371-5p resulted in cell proliferation and increased tumor growth, which was associated with inhibitor of growth 1 (ING1) downregulation. Interestingly, we also found that ING1, in turn, inhibited expression of miR-371-5p in the promoter region.
CONCLUSIONS: our study demonstrates a novel ING1-miR-371-5p regulatory feedback loop, which may have a critical role in PDAC. Thus miR-371-5p can prove to be a novel prognostic factor and therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer treatment.

Igci M, Arslan A, Erturhan S, et al.
Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 13q33-34 region and molecular analysis of ING1 and p53 genes in bladder carcinoma.
Mol Biol Rep. 2015; 42(2):507-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is a consequence of accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in the cell which can lead to activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSG). Since members of ING family were discovered as TSGs in different cancer types, it was aimed to analyze the chromosome 13q33-34 region, ING1 and p53 genes in bladder cancer. 30 paired normal and tumor tissues were investigated in terms of microdeletion of chromosome 13q33-34 region, ING1 expression and mutation status of ING1 and p53 genes. Because there is no data available about the transcription factors which bind to ING1 promoter, the promoter sequence was analyzed via Genomatix-MatInspector and TFSEARCH softwares. Used DS markers were D13S285, D13S1315, D13S796, D13S278, D13S158, and D13S779 where loss of heterozygosity (LOH) results were as 23.3, 20, 6.7, 3.3, 6.7, and 0 %, respectively. The highest LOH scores were obtained with markers D13S285 and D13S1315 which are flanking the ING1. Seven of 30 cases showed alteration in expression (p > 0.05). However, no mutation was detected in the exons of ING1. One patient showed a two-nucleotide deletion in p53 gene. However no significant TSG activity of ING1 was observed while higher activity was reported in different cancer types. As for the LOH data 13q33-34 region may contain different candidate TSGs like COL4A1, COL4A2 and SOX1. As a result of computational promoter analysis, some factors like ABL, E2F, HIF1, SOX, P53, BPTF, NRSF, c-Rel and c-ETS were associated with the promoter region. Molecular analysis of ING1 promoter warrants further analysis.

Buza N, Xu F, Wu W, et al.
Recurrent chromosomal aberrations in intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus: high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization study.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(9):1885-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) is a distinct smooth muscle neoplasm with a potential of clinical aggressiveness due to its ability to extend into intrauterine and extrauterine vasculature. In this study, chromosomal alterations analyzed by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization were performed in 9 cases of IVL. The analysis was informative in all cases with multiple copy number losses and/or gains observed in each tumor. The most frequent recurrent loss of 22q12.3-q13.1 was observed in 6 tumors (66.7%), followed by losses of 22q11.23-q13.31, 1p36.13-p33, 2p25.3-p23.3, and 2q24.2-q32.2 and gains of 6p22.2, 2q37.3 and 10q22.2-q22.3, in decreasing order of frequency. Copy number variants were identified at 14q11.2, 15q11.1-q11.2, and 15q26.2. Genes mapping to the regions of loss include CHEK2, EWS, NF2, PDGFB, and MAP3K7IP1 on chromosome 22q, HEI10 on chromosome 14q, and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B, E2F2, ARID1A KPNA6, EIF3S2 , PTCH2, and PIK3R3 on chromosome 1p. Regional losses on chromosomes 22q and 1p and gains on chromosomes 12q showed overlaps with those previously observed in uterine leiomyosarcomas. In addition, presence of multiple chromosomal aberrations implies a higher level of genetic instability. Follow-up polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing analysis of MED12 gene revealed absence of G> A transition at nucleotides c.130 or c.131 in all 9 cases, a frequent mutation found in uterine leiomyoma and its variants. In conclusion, this is the first report of high-resolution, genome-wide investigation of IVL by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. The presence of high frequencies of recurrent regional loss involving several chromosomes is an important finding and likely related to the pathogenesis of the disease.

Thakur S, Singla AK, Chen J, et al.
Reduced ING1 levels in breast cancer promotes metastasis.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(12):4244-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INhibitor of Growth 1 (ING1) expression is repressed in breast carcinomas, but its role in breast cancer development and metastasis is unknown. ING1 levels were quantified in >500 patient samples using automated quantitative fluorescence immunohistochemistry, and data were analysed for correlations to patient outcome. Effects of altering ING levels were examined in microarrays and metastasis assays in vitro, and in a mouse metastasis model in vivo. ING1 levels were lower in tumors compared to adjacent normal breast tissue and correlated with tumor size (p=0.019) and distant recurrence (p=0.001) in ER- or Her2+ patients. In these patients ING1 predicted disease-specific and distant metastasis-free survival. Transcriptome analysis showed that the pathway most affected by ING1 was breast cancer (p = 0.0008). Decreasing levels of ING1 increased, and increasing levels decreased, migration and invasion of MDA-MB231 cells in vitro. ING1 overexpression also blocked cancer cell metastasis in vivo and eliminated tumor-induced mortality in mouse models. Our data show that ING1 protein levels are downregulated in breast cancer and for the first time, we show that altering their levels regulates metastasis in vitro and in vivo, which indicates that ING1 may have a therapeutic role for inhibiting metastasis of breast cancer.

Bose P, Thakur SS, Brockton NT, et al.
Tumor cell apoptosis mediated by cytoplasmic ING1 is associated with improved survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(10):3210-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The ING1 epigenetic regulator and tumor suppressor plays a central role in apoptosis. The Ing1 gene is functionally inactivated in many cancer types but is rarely mutated. Although most studies have implicated the major ING1 isoform, p33ING1b, in nuclear apoptotic signalling, we recently discovered a novel and potent apoptosis-inducing effect of p33ING1b translocation to the mitochondria in response to DNA damage. In the present study, we examined the impact of cytoplasmic/mitochondrial localization of p33ING1b in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patient samples and explored the therapeutic potential of adenovirally-overexpressed p33ING1b in OSCC cell lines in combination with ionizing radiation (IR) treatment. In contrast with previous reports, we found that p33ING1b protein and mRNA levels are higher in OSCC compared to normal epithelial cells. In OSCC patient samples, higher levels of intra-tumoral cytoplasmic p33ING1b correlated with increased apoptotic markers and significantly better patient survival. This association was strongest in patients who received post-operative radiotherapy. IR treatment induced p33ING1b translocation to the mitochondria and adenoviral-p33ING1b synergized with IR to kill OSCC cells. Our results identify a novel functional relationship between cytoplasmic p33ING1b and patient survival and highlight the potential for the use of p33ING1b as a therapeutic agent in combination with adjuvant radiotherapy in OSCC.

Tallen G, Riabowol K
Keep-ING balance: tumor suppression by epigenetic regulation.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(16):2728-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer cells accumulate genetic and epigenetic changes that alter gene expression to drive tumorigenesis. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor, cell cycle, differentiation and DNA repair genes contributes to neoplastic transformation. The ING (inhibitor of growth) proteins (ING1-ING5) have emerged as a versatile family of growth regulators, phospholipid effectors, histone mark sensors and core components of HDAC1/2 - and several HAT chromatin-modifying complexes. This review will describe the characteristic pathways by which ING family proteins differentially affect the Hallmarks of Cancer and highlight the various epigenetic mechanisms by which they regulate gene expression. Finally, we will discuss their potentials as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in epigenetic treatment strategies.

Guérillon C, Bigot N, Pedeux R
The ING tumor suppressor genes: status in human tumors.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 345(1):1-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
ING genes (ING1-5) were identified has tumor suppressor genes. ING proteins are characterized as Type II TSGs since they are involved in the control of cell proliferation, apoptosis and senescence. They may also function as Type I TSGs since they are also involved in DNA replication and repair. Most studies have reported that they are frequently lost in human tumors and epigenetic mechanisms or misregulation of their transcription may be involved. Recently, studies have described that this loss may be caused by microRNA inhibition. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on ING functions, their involvement in tumor suppression and, in order to give a full assessment of the current knowledge, we review all the studies that have examined ING status in human cancers.

Puri N, Pitman RT, Mulnix RE, et al.
Non-small cell lung cancer is susceptible to induction of DNA damage responses and inhibition of angiogenesis by telomere overhang oligonucleotides.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 343(1):14-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Exposure of the telomere overhang acts as a DNA damage signal, and exogenous administration of an 11-base oligonucleotide homologous to the 3'-telomere overhang sequence (T-oligo) mimics the effects of overhang exposure by inducing senescence and cell death in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, but not in normal bronchial epithelial cells. T-oligo-induced decrease in cellular proliferation in NSCLC is likely directed through both p53 and its homolog, p73, with subsequent induction of senescence and expression of senescence-associated proteins, p21, p33(ING), and p27(Kip1) both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, T-oligo decreases tumor size and inhibits angiogenesis through decreased VEGF signaling and increased TSP-1 expression.

Jajoo S, Mukherjea D, Kaur T, et al.
Essential role of NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species generation in regulating microRNA-21 expression and function in prostate cancer.
Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013; 19(16):1863-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: Oncogenic microRNAs (miRs) promote tumor growth and invasiveness. One of these, miR-21, contributes to carcinogenesis in prostate and other cancers. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate the expression and function of miR-21 and its target proteins, maspin and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), in prostate cancer cells.
RESULTS: The highly aggressive androgen receptor negative PC-3M-MM2 prostate cancer cells demonstrated high expression of miR-21 and p47(phox) (an essential subunit of NADPH oxidase). Using loss-of-function strategy, we showed that transfection of PC-3M-MM2 cells with anti-miR-21- and p47(phox) siRNA (si-p47(phox)) led to reduced expression of miR-21 with concurrent increase in maspin and PDCD4, and decreased the invasiveness of the cells. Tail-vein injections of anti-miR-21- and si-p47(phox)-transfected PC-3M-MM2 cells in severe combined immunodeficient mice reduced lung metastases. Clinical samples from patients with advanced prostate cancer expressed high levels of miR-21 and p47(phox), and low expression of maspin and PDCD4. Finally, ROS activated Akt in these cells, the inhibition of which reduced miR-21 expression.
INNOVATION: The levels of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS are high in prostate cancer cells, which have been shown to be involved in their growth and migration. This study demonstrates that ROS produced by this pathway is essential for the expression and function of an onco-miR, miR-21, in androgen receptor-negative prostate cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that miR-21 is an important target of ROS, which contributes to the highly invasive and metastatic phenotype of prostate cancer cells.

Yu L, Thakur S, Leong-Quong RY, et al.
Src regulates the activity of the ING1 tumor suppressor.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e60943 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The INhibitor of Growth 1 (ING1) is stoichiometric member of histone deacetylase (HDAC) complexes and functions as an epigenetic regulator and a type II tumor suppressor. It impacts cell growth, aging, apoptosis, and DNA repair, by affecting chromatin conformation and gene expression. Down regulation and mislocalization of ING1 have been reported in diverse tumor types and Ser/Thr phosphorylation has been implicated in both of these processes. Here we demonstrate that both in vitro and in vivo, the tyrosine kinase Src is able to physically associate with, and phosphorylate ING1, which results in a nuclear to cytoplasmic relocalization of ING1 in cells and a decrease of ING1 stability. Functionally, Src antagonizes the ability of ING1 to induce apoptosis, most likely through relocalization of ING1 and down regulation of ING1 levels. These effects were due to both kinase-dependent and kinase-independent properties of Src, and were most apparent at elevated levels of Src expression. These findings suggest that Src may play a major role in regulating ING1 levels during tumorigenesis in those cancers in which high levels of Src expression or activity are present. These data represent the first report of tyrosine kinase-mediated regulation of ING1 levels and suggest that kinase activation can impact chromatin structure through the ING1 epigenetic regulator.

Jensen HA, Styskal LE, Tasseff R, et al.
The Src-family kinase inhibitor PP2 rescues inducible differentiation events in emergent retinoic acid-resistant myeloblastic leukemia cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58621 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Retinoic acid is an embryonic morphogen and dietary factor that demonstrates chemotherapeutic efficacy in inducing maturation in leukemia cells. Using HL60 model human myeloid leukemia cells, where all-trans retinoic acid (RA) induces granulocytic differentiation, we developed two emergent RA-resistant HL60 cell lines which are characterized by loss of RA-inducible G1/G0 arrest, CD11b expression, inducible oxidative metabolism and p47(phox) expression. However, RA-treated RA-resistant HL60 continue to exhibit sustained MEK/ERK activation, and one of the two sequentially emergent resistant lines retains RA-inducible CD38 expression. Other signaling events that define the wild-type (WT) response are compromised, including c-Raf phosphorylation and increased expression of c-Cbl, Vav1, and the Src-family kinases (SFKs) Lyn and Fgr. As shown previously in WT HL60 cells, we found that the SFK inhibitor PP2 significantly increases G1/G0 cell cycle arrest, CD38 and CD11b expression, c-Raf phosphorylation and expression of the aforementioned regulators in RA-resistant HL60. The resistant cells were potentially incapable of developing inducible oxidative metabolism. These results motivate the concept that RA resistance can occur in steps, wherein growth arrest and other differentiation events may be recovered in both emergent lines. Investigating the mechanistic anomalies in resistant cell lines is of therapeutic significance and helps to mechanistically understand the response to retinoic acid's biological effects in WT HL60 cells.

Chen J, Tran UM, Rajarajacholan U, et al.
ING1b-inducible microRNA203 inhibits cell proliferation.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 108(5):1143-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The ING family of type II tumour suppressors serve as both epigenetic 'readers' and target histone acetyl transferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) 'writers' of the epigenetic histone code. The ING1 protein has also been implicated in regulating microRNA (miRNA) levels. In this study, we identify a link between ING1b and the miRNA epigenetic network.
METHODS: Primary fibroblasts infected with adenoviruses expressing GFP control or GFP plus ING1b were examined for alterations in miRNA profiles using a miRNA PCR array. Additional experiments confirmed specificity and consequences of altered miRNA expression.
RESULTS: MicroRNAs miR-203, miR-375, miR-449b and miR-200c were increased by ING1b overexpression. Ectopic expression of miR-203 inhibited U2OS and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell growth, and induced G1 cell cycle arrest in U2OS cells as estimated by flow cytometry. Transfection with miR-203 inhibitor reversed the proliferation inhibition induced by ING1b in U2OS cells. CHIP assays showed that ING1b bound to the promoter of miR-203. Western blot analyses showed that CDK6, c-Abl and Src were downregulated by the transfection of miR-203.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that ING1b epigenetically regulates several miRNAs including miR-203. The several-fold increase in miR-203 by ING1b might inhibit cancer cell proliferation through coordinate downregulation of CDK6, c-Abl and Src.

Further References

Garkavtsev I, Kazarov A, Gudkov A, Riabowol K
Suppression of the novel growth inhibitor p33ING1 promotes neoplastic transformation.
Nat Genet. 1996; 14(4):415-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Using a new strategy for tumour suppressor gene isolation based on subtractive hybridization and the subsequent selection of transforming 'genetic suppressor elements', we have cloned a novel gene called ING1 encoding a 33-kD protein (p33ING1) that displays characteristics of a tumour suppressor. Acute expression of transfected constructs encoding this gene inhibited cell growth while chronic expression of ING1 antisense constructs promoted cell transformation. Limited analyses of tumour cell lines show that mutation of the ING1 gene occurs in neuroblastoma cells and reduced expression was seen in some breast cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that ING1 can act as a potent growth regulator in normal and in established cells and provide evidence for a role as a candidate tumour suppressor gene whose inactivation may contribute to the development of cancers.

Sanchez-Cespedes M, Okami K, Cairns P, Sidransky D
Molecular analysis of the candidate tumor suppressor gene ING1 in human head and neck tumors with 13q deletions.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000; 27(3):319-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
The candidate tumor-suppressor gene ING1 encodes p33(ING1), a nuclear protein which physically interacts with TP53. It has been shown that p33(ING1) acts in the same biochemical pathway as TP53, leading to cell growth inhibition. Interestingly, a rearrangement of the ING1 gene was found in a neuroblastoma cell line, supporting its involvement in tumor development. Because ING1 resides on the long arm of chromosome 13 (13q34) (a region frequently deleted in many tumor types), we sought to characterize its role in head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We first analyzed 44 primary tumors for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 13q, using four widely spaced microsatellite markers (13q14, 13q14.3-q22, 13q22, and 13q34). Twenty (48%) of the tumor samples showed LOH in all of the informative markers tested, including D13S1315 at 13q34. Two of the tumors displayed partial losses restricted to one marker (D13S118 at 13q14 in tumor 1164, and D13S135 at 13q14.3-q22 in tumor 1398). We then determined the genomic structure of the ING1 gene and sequenced the entire coding region in 20 primary tumors showing 13q LOH and in five head and neck cancer cell lines. A single germline polymorphism was detected in 10 of the tumors analyzed (T to C change) located 110 nucleotides upstream of the starting methionine. No somatic mutations were found in any of the samples, suggesting that ING1 is not a tumor suppressor gene target in head and neck cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 27:319-322, 2000.

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