KDM4C

Gene Summary

Gene:KDM4C; lysine (K)-specific demethylase 4C
Aliases: GASC1, JHDM3C, JMJD2C, TDRD14C
Location:9p24.1
Summary:This gene is a member of the Jumonji domain 2 (JMJD2) family. The encoded protein is a trimethylation-specific demethylase, and converts specific trimethylated histone residues to the dimethylated form. This enzymatic action regulates gene expression and chromosome segregation. Chromosomal aberrations and changes in expression of this gene may be found in tumor cells. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:lysine-specific demethylase 4C
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 07 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 07 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 07 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KDM4C (cancer-related)

Sun LL, Wu JY, Wu ZY, et al.
A three-gene signature and clinical outcome in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(6):E569-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It is increasingly apparent that cancer development depends not only on genetic alterations, but also on epigenetic changes involving histone modifications. GASC1, member of the histone demethylases affecting heterochromatin formation and transcriptional repression, has been found to be dysregulation in many types of cancers including breast cancer, prostate cancer, metastatic lung sarcomatoid carcinoma, and leukemia. In this study, we examined the expression of GASC1 and certain GASC1-targeted genes (KLF4, MYC, SOX2, PPARG, MDM2, and NANOG) and identified a three-gene prognostic signature (PPARG, MDM2, and NANOG), using risk scores based on immunohistochemical analyses of 149 tumor specimens from patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The presence of a high-risk three-gene signature in the ESCC tumors was significantly associated with decreased overall survival (OS) of the patients. We validated the predictive value of the three-gene signature in a second independent cohort of 101 patients with ESCC in order to determine whether it had predictive value. The results were similar to those in 149 patients. According to multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses, the predictive model of a three-gene signature was an independent predictor for OS (p = 0.005 in cohort 1, p = 0.025 in cohort 2). In addition, ROC analysis indicated that the predictive ability of the three-gene model was more robust than that of a single biomarker. Therefore, our three-gene signature is closely associated with OS among patients with ESCC and may serve as a predictor for the poor prognosis of ESCC patients.

Hong Q, Yu S, Yang Y, et al.
A polymorphism in JMJD2C alters the cleavage by caspase-3 and the prognosis of human breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(13):4779-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
JMJD2C is a candidate oncogene that encodes a histone lysine demethylase with the ability to demethylate the lysine 9 residue of histone H3 (H3K9). The expression levels of JMJD2C are associated with tumor development and clinical outcome. Here we identify JMJD2C as a new substrate for caspase-3. JMJD2C is cleaved by caspase-3 at DEVD396G motif and then loses its demethylase activity. Additionally, we uncover D396N polymorphism (rs2296067) in the cleavage site of JMJD2C and establish its influence on the resistant to the cleavage by caspase-3. Importantly, we determined that D396N polymorphism is significantly associated with the prognosis of human breast cancer. We further found that the basal levels of DSB (double strand DNA break) repair proteins γ-H2AX (gamma-H2AX) increased when cells were treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) which activates caspase-3 activity. We also show that knockdown of JMJD2C expression results in up-regulation of basal γ-H2AX. We propose that D396N polymorphism of JMJD2C affects the prognosis of human breast cancer via altering the cleavage by caspase-3 and the ability of DSB repair which may contribute to therapy resistance.

Chong PS, Zhou J, Cheong LL, et al.
LEO1 is regulated by PRL-3 and mediates its oncogenic properties in acute myelogenous leukemia.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(11):3043-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
PRL-3, an oncogenic dual-specificity phosphatase, is overexpressed in 50% of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and associated with poor survival. We found that stable expression of PRL-3 confers cytokine independence and growth advantage of AML cells. However, how PRL-3 mediates these functions in AML is not known. To comprehensively screen for PRL3-regulated proteins in AML, we performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomics analysis and discovered 398 significantly perturbed proteins after PRL-3 overexpression. We show that Leo1, a component of RNA polymerase II-associated factor (PAF) complex, is a novel and important mediator of PRL-3 oncogenic activities in AML. We described a novel mechanism where elevated PRL-3 protein increases JMJD2C histone demethylase occupancy on Leo1 promoter, thereby reducing the H3K9me3 repressive signals and promoting Leo1 gene expression. Furthermore, PRL-3 and Leo1 levels were positively associated in AML patient samples (N=24; P<0.01). On the other hand, inhibition of Leo1 reverses PRL-3 oncogenic phenotypes in AML. Loss of Leo1 leads to destabilization of the PAF complex and downregulation of SOX2 and SOX4, potent oncogenes in myeloid transformation. In conclusion, we identify an important and novel mechanism by which PRL-3 mediates its oncogenic function in AML.

Walsh CA, Bolger JC, Byrne C, et al.
Global gene repression by the steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 promotes oncogenesis.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(9):2533-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcriptional control is the major determinant of cell fate. The steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 enhances the activity of the estrogen receptor in breast cancer cells, where it confers cell survival benefits. Here, we report that a global analysis of SRC-1 target genes suggested that SRC-1 also mediates transcriptional repression in breast cancer cells. Combined SRC-1 and HOXC11 ChIPseq analysis identified the differentiation marker, CD24, and the apoptotic protein, PAWR, as direct SRC-1/HOXC11 suppression targets. Reduced expression of both CD24 and PAWR was associated with disease progression in patients with breast cancer, and their expression was suppressed in metastatic tissues. Investigations in endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell lines and SRC-1(-/-)/PyMT mice confirmed a role for SRC-1 and HOXC11 in downregulation of CD24 and PAWR. Through bioinformatic analysis and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified AP1 proteins and Jumonji domain containing 2C (JMD2C/KDM4C), respectively, as members of the SRC-1 interactome responsible for transcriptional repression. Our findings deepen the understanding of how SRC-1 controls transcription in breast cancers.

Ratovitski EA
Phospho-ΔNp63α/microRNA network modulates epigenetic regulatory enzymes in squamous cell carcinomas.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(5):749-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tumor protein (TP) p63/microRNAs functional network may play a key role in supporting the response of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) to chemotherapy. We show that the cisplatin exposure of SCC-11 cells led to upregulation of miR-297, miR-92b-3p, and miR-485-5p through a phosphorylated ΔNp63α-dependent mechanism that subsequently modulated the expression of the protein targets implicated in DNA methylation (DNMT3A), histone deacetylation (HDAC9), and demethylation (KDM4C). Further studies showed that mimics for miR-297, miR-92b-3p, or miR-485-5p, along with siRNA against and inhibitors of DNMT3A, HDAC9, and KDM4C modulated the expression of DAPK1, SMARCA2, and MDM2 genes assessed by the quantitative PCR, promoter luciferase reporter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Finally, the above-mentioned treatments affecting epigenetic enzymes also modulated the response of SCC cells to chemotherapeutic drugs, rendering the resistant SCC cells more sensitive to cisplatin exposure, thereby providing the groundwork for novel chemotherapeutic venues in treating patients with SCC.

Uimonen K, Merikallio H, Pääkkö P, et al.
GASC1 expression in lung carcinoma is associated with smoking and prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma.
Histol Histopathol. 2014; 29(6):797-804 [PubMed] Related Publications
GASC1 (gene amplified in squamous cell carcinoma 1) encodes a nuclear protein that epigenetically catalyses the lysine demethylation of histones. We investigated the expression of GASC1 in different histological subtypes of lung cancer (n=289). Percentage value of GASC1 immunohistochemical expression was evaluated separately in the nuclei and cytoplasms of epithelial cancer cells. The results were compared with clinicopathologic factors and the smoking history of the patients. In lung tumor cells, 38% of nuclei and 54% of the cytoplasms stained positive for GASC1. Adenocarcinomas expressed more GASC1 nuclear (p=0.00011) and cytoplasmic (p=0.00074) positivity than squamous cell carcinoma. Smokers displayed less nuclear and cytoplasmic GASC1 expression than non-smokers (p=0.028 and p=0.036, respectively). Similarly, patients with more cytoplasmic positive staining had fewer pack years (p=0.043). Nuclear GASC1 expression had an impairing effect on survival when all histological lung cancer types were analysed together (p=0.039) and separately in squamous cell lung carcinoma (p=0.016). The results reveal that GASC1 expression is higher in adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma. Smoking decreases GASC1 expression in tumor cells, indicating that tobacco smoke may influence the methylation of histone 3 lysine residues in lung cancer. Nonetheless, nuclear GASC1 predicts a poor prognosis, especially in squamous cell carcinoma.

Gregory BL, Cheung VG
Natural variation in the histone demethylase, KDM4C, influences expression levels of specific genes including those that affect cell growth.
Genome Res. 2014; 24(1):52-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA sequence variants influence gene expression and cellular phenotypes. In this study, we focused on natural variation in the gene encoding the histone demethylase, KDM4C, which promotes transcriptional activation by removing the repressive histone mark, H3K9me3, from its target genes. We uncovered cis-acting variants that contribute to extensive individual differences in KDM4C expression. We also identified the target genes of KDM4C and demonstrated that variation in KDM4C expression leads to differences in the growth of normal and some cancer cells. Together, our results from genetic mapping and molecular analysis provide an example of how genetic variation affects epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cellular phenotype.

Young LC, Hendzel MJ
The oncogenic potential of Jumonji D2 (JMJD2/KDM4) histone demethylase overexpression.
Biochem Cell Biol. 2013; 91(6):369-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Jumonji D2 proteins (JMJD2/KDM4) function to demethylate di- and trimethylated (me2/3) histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2/3) and H3K36me3. Knockout mouse models for Kdm4b and Kdm4d have not resulted in gross abnormalities, while mouse models for Kdm4a and Kdm4c have not been reported. However, the KDM4 subfamily of demethylases are overexpressed in several tumor types. Overexpression of KDM4 proteins alters transcription and chromatin remodeling, driving cellular proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, invasion, and migration. Increased proliferation occurs through KDM4-mediated modification of cell cycle timing, as well as through increased numbers of replication forks. Recent evidence also suggests that KDM4C overexpression contributes to the maintenance of a pluripotent state. Together these data suggest that overexpression of KDM4 proteins induces numerous oncogenic effects.

Lee HY, Yang EG, Park H
Hypoxia enhances the expression of prostate-specific antigen by modifying the quantity and catalytic activity of Jumonji C domain-containing histone demethylases.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(12):2706-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxygen concentration in prostate cancer tissue is significantly low, i.e. ~0.3% O2. This study showed that pathological hypoxia (<0.5% O2) increased the expression of androgen receptor (AR) target genes such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and kallikrein-related peptidase 2 in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells by modifying the quantity and activity of related Jumonji C domain-containing histone demethylases (JMJDs). Under pathological hypoxia, the catalytic activities of JMJD2A, JMJD2C and Jumonji/ARID domain-containing protein 1B (JARID1B) were blocked due to the lack of their substrate, i.e. oxygen. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed that hypoxia increased the appearance of H3K9me3 and H3K4me3, substrates of JMJD2s and JARID1B, respectively, in the PSA enhancer. In contrast, JMJD1A, which demethylates both H3K9me2 and H3K9me1, maintained its catalytic activity even under severe hypoxia. Furthermore, hypoxia increased the expression of JMJD1A. Hypoxia and androgen additively increased the recruitment of JMJD1A and p300 on the enhancer region of PSA through interaction with the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and AR, both of which bind the PSA enhancer. Thus, hypoxia enhanced the demethylation of H3K9me2 and H3K9me1, leading to provide unmethylated H3K9 residues that are substrates for histone acetyltransferase, p300. Consequently, hypoxia increased the acetylation of histones of the PSA enhancer, which facilitates its transcription.

Yamamoto S, Tateishi K, Kudo Y, et al.
Histone demethylase KDM4C regulates sphere formation by mediating the cross talk between Wnt and Notch pathways in colonic cancer cells.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(10):2380-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alterations in genes coding for histone modifiers are found in human cancers, suggesting that histone modification is involved in malignant features of neoplastic cells. This study showed that a histone demethylase KDM4C is significant for colonosphere formation by mediating the cross talk between oncogenic pathways through a feed-forward mechanism. The expression of KDM4C gene was increased in spheres from colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and the knockdown (KD) of KDM4C eliminated colonosphere formation. We found that the KD of β-catenin, an important oncogenic factor in CRC, resulted in not only decreased sphere formation but also impaired upregulation of KDM4C gene in spheres. β-Catenin bound to the KDM4C promoter, suggesting that KDM4C is involved in the sphere-forming ability downstream of β-catenin in CRC cells. Microarray analysis identified the JAG1 gene that codes for a notch ligand Jagged1 responsible for sphere formation as a target of KDM4C. KDM4C KD decreased the expression of JAG1 gene, and the downregulation of JAG1 gene recapitulated the impaired colonosphere formation. JAG1 is also a target of β-catenin, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed the binding of β-catenin and KDM4C onto the JAG1 promoter during colonosphere formation. Importantly, KDM4C KD ruined the recruitment of β-catenin onto the JAG1 promoter independently of the H3-K9 methylation status and blunted JAG1 expression during sphere formation. These data indicate that KDM4C maintains the sphere-forming capacity in CRCs by mediating the β-catenin-dependent transcription of JAG1 in a feed-forward manner.

Kashyap V, Ahmad S, Nilsson EM, et al.
The lysine specific demethylase-1 (LSD1/KDM1A) regulates VEGF-A expression in prostate cancer.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(3):555-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recurrent prostate cancer remains a major clinical challenge. The lysine specific demethylase-1 (LSD1/KDM1A), together with the JmjC domain-containing JMJD2A and JMJD2C proteins, have emerged as critical regulators of histone lysine methylation. The LSD1-JMJD2 complex functions as a transcriptional co-regulator of hormone activated androgen and estrogen receptors at specific gene promoters. LSD1 also regulates DNA methylation and p53 function. LSD1 is overexpressed in numerous cancers including prostate cancer through an unknown mechanism. We investigated expression of the LSD1 and JMJD2A in malignant human prostate specimens. We correlated LSD1 and JMJD2A expression with known mediators of prostate cancer progression: VEGF-A and cyclin A1. We show that elevated expression of LSD1, but not JMJD2A, correlates with prostate cancer recurrence and with increased VEGF-A expression. We show that functional depletion of LSD1 expression using siRNA in prostate cancer cells decreases VEGF-A and blocks androgen induced VEGF-A, PSA and Tmprss2 expression. We demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 reduces proliferation of both androgen dependent (LnCaP) and independent cell lines (LnCaP: C42, PC3). We show a direct mechanistic link between LSD1 over-expression and increased activity of pro-angiogenic pathways. New therapies targeting LSD1 activity should be useful in the treatment of hormone dependent and independent prostate cancer.

Luo W, Chang R, Zhong J, et al.
Histone demethylase JMJD2C is a coactivator for hypoxia-inducible factor 1 that is required for breast cancer progression.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(49):E3367-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activates transcription of genes encoding proteins that play key roles in breast cancer biology. We hypothesized that interaction of HIF-1 with epigenetic regulators may increase HIF-1 transcriptional activity, and thereby promote breast cancer progression. We report that the histone demethylase jumonji domain containing protein 2C (JMJD2C) selectively interacts with HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α, and that HIF-1α mediates recruitment of JMJD2C to the hypoxia response elements of HIF-1 target genes. JMJD2C decreases trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9, and enhances HIF-1 binding to hypoxia response elements, thereby activating transcription of BNIP3, LDHA, PDK1, and SLC2A1, which encode proteins that are required for metabolic reprogramming, as well as LOXL2 and L1CAM, which encode proteins that are required for lung metastasis. JMJD2C expression is significantly associated with expression of GLUT1, LDHA, PDK1, LOX, LOXL2, and L1CAM mRNA in human breast cancer biopsies. JMJD2C knockdown inhibits breast tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis to the lungs of mice following mammary fat pad injection. Taken together, these findings establish an important epigenetic mechanism that stimulates HIF-1-mediated transactivation of genes encoding proteins involved in metabolic reprogramming and lung metastasis in breast cancer.

Crea F, Sun L, Mai A, et al.
The emerging role of histone lysine demethylases in prostate cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2012; 11:52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Early prostate cancer (PCa) is generally treatable and associated with good prognosis. After a variable time, PCa evolves into a highly metastatic and treatment-refractory disease: castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). Currently, few prognostic factors are available to predict the emergence of CRPC, and no curative option is available. Epigenetic gene regulation has been shown to trigger PCa metastasis and androgen-independence. Most epigenetic studies have focused on DNA and histone methyltransferases. While DNA methylation leads to gene silencing, histone methylation can trigger gene activation or inactivation, depending on the target amino acid residues and the extent of methylation (me1, me2, or me3). Interestingly, some histone modifiers are essential for PCa tumor-initiating cell (TIC) self-renewal. TICs are considered the seeds responsible for metastatic spreading and androgen-independence. Histone Lysine Demethylases (KDMs) are a novel class of epigenetic enzymes which can remove both repressive and activating histone marks. KDMs are currently grouped into 7 major classes, each one targeting a specific methylation site. Since their discovery, KDM expression has been found to be deregulated in several neoplasms. In PCa, KDMs may act as either tumor suppressors or oncogenes, depending on their gene regulatory function. For example, KDM1A and KDM4C are essential for PCa androgen-dependent proliferation, while PHF8 is involved in PCa migration and invasion. Interestingly, the possibility of pharmacologically targeting KDMs has been demonstrated. In the present paper, we summarize the emerging role of KDMs in regulating the metastatic potential and androgen-dependence of PCa. In addition, we speculate on the possible interaction between KDMs and other epigenetic effectors relevant for PCa TICs. Finally, we explore the role of KDMs as novel prognostic factors and therapeutic targets. We believe that studies on histone demethylation may add a novel perspective in our efforts to prevent and cure advanced PCa.

Krill-Burger JM, Lyons MA, Kelly LA, et al.
Renal cell neoplasms contain shared tumor type-specific copy number variations.
Am J Pathol. 2012; 180(6):2427-39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Copy number variant (CNV) analysis was performed on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) specimens (chromophobe, clear cell, oncocytoma, papillary type 1, and papillary type 2) using high-resolution arrays (1.85 million probes). The RCC samples exhibited diverse genomic changes within and across tumor types, ranging from 106 to 2238 CNV segments in a clear-cell specimen and in a papillary type 2 specimen, respectively. Despite this heterogeneity, distinct CNV segments were common within each tumor classification: chromophobe (seven segments), clear cell (three segments), oncocytoma (nine segments), and papillary type 2 (two segments). Shared segments ranged from a 6.1-kb deletion (oncocytomas) to a 208.3-kb deletion (chromophobes). Among common tumor type-specific variations, chromophobes, clear-cell tumors, and oncocytomas were composed exclusively of noncoding DNA. No CNV regions were common to papillary type 1 specimens, although there were 12 amplifications and 12 deletions in five of six samples. Three microRNAs and 12 mRNA genes had a ≥98% coding region contained within CNV regions, including multiple gene families (chromophobe: amylases 1A, 1B, and 1C; oncocytoma: general transcription factors 2H2, 2B, 2C, and 2D). Gene deletions involved in histone modification and chromatin remodeling affected individual subtypes (clear cell: SFMBT and SETD2; papillary type 2: BAZ1A) and the collective RCC group (KDM4C). The genomic amplifications/deletions identified herein represent potential diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers.

Kristensen LH, Nielsen AL, Helgstrand C, et al.
Studies of H3K4me3 demethylation by KDM5B/Jarid1B/PLU1 reveals strong substrate recognition in vitro and identifies 2,4-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid as an in vitro and in cell inhibitor.
FEBS J. 2012; 279(11):1905-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dynamic methylations and demethylations of histone lysine residues are important for gene regulation and are facilitated by histone methyltransferases and histone demethylases (HDMs). KDM5B/Jarid1B/PLU1 is an H3K4me3/me2-specific lysine demethylase belonging to the JmjC domain-containing family of histone demethylases (JHDMs). Several studies have linked KDM5B to breast, prostate and skin cancer, highlighting its potential as a drug target. However, most inhibitor studies have focused on other JHDMs, and inhibitors for KDM5B remain to be explored. Here, we report the expression, purification and characterization of the catalytic core of recombinant KDM5B (ccKDM5B, residues 1-769). We show that ccKDM5B, recombinantly expressed in insect cells, demethylates H3K4me3 and H3K4me2 in vitro. The kinetic characterization showed that ccKDM5B has an apparent Michaelis constant (K(m) (app) ) value of 0.5 μm for its trimethylated substrate H3(1-15)K4me3, a considerably increased apparent substrate affinity than reported for related HDMs. Despite the presence of a PHD domain, the catalytic activity was not affected by additional methylation at the H3K9 position, suggesting that in vitro chromatin cross-talk between H3K4 and H3K9 does not occur for ccKDM5B. Inhibition studies of ccKDM5B showed both in vitro and in cell inhibition of ccKDM5B by 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA) with a potency similar to that reported for the HDM KDM4C. Structure-guided sequence alignment indicated that the binding mode of 2,4-PDCA is conserved between KDM4A/C and KDM5B.

Lu C, Ward PS, Kapoor GS, et al.
IDH mutation impairs histone demethylation and results in a block to cell differentiation.
Nature. 2012; 483(7390):474-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recurrent mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 have been identified in gliomas, acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) and chondrosarcomas, and share a novel enzymatic property of producing 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) from α-ketoglutarate. Here we report that 2HG-producing IDH mutants can prevent the histone demethylation that is required for lineage-specific progenitor cells to differentiate into terminally differentiated cells. In tumour samples from glioma patients, IDH mutations were associated with a distinct gene expression profile enriched for genes expressed in neural progenitor cells, and this was associated with increased histone methylation. To test whether the ability of IDH mutants to promote histone methylation contributes to a block in cell differentiation in non-transformed cells, we tested the effect of neomorphic IDH mutants on adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Introduction of either mutant IDH or cell-permeable 2HG was associated with repression of the inducible expression of lineage-specific differentiation genes and a block to differentiation. This correlated with a significant increase in repressive histone methylation marks without observable changes in promoter DNA methylation. Gliomas were found to have elevated levels of similar histone repressive marks. Stable transfection of a 2HG-producing mutant IDH into immortalized astrocytes resulted in progressive accumulation of histone methylation. Of the marks examined, increased H3K9 methylation reproducibly preceded a rise in DNA methylation as cells were passaged in culture. Furthermore, we found that the 2HG-inhibitable H3K9 demethylase KDM4C was induced during adipocyte differentiation, and that RNA-interference suppression of KDM4C was sufficient to block differentiation. Together these data demonstrate that 2HG can inhibit histone demethylation and that inhibition of histone demethylation can be sufficient to block the differentiation of non-transformed cells.

Wu J, Liu S, Liu G, et al.
Identification and functional analysis of 9p24 amplified genes in human breast cancer.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(3):333-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previously, our group identified a novel amplicon at chromosome 9p24 in human esophageal and breast cancers, and cloned the novel gene, GASC1 (gene amplified in squamous cell carcinoma 1, also known as JMJD2C/KDM4C), from this amplicon. GASC1 is a histone demethylase involved in the deregulation of histone methylation in cancer cells. In the current study, we aimed to comprehensively characterize the genes in the 9p24 amplicon in human breast cancer. We performed extensive genomic analyses on a panel of cancer cell lines and narrowed the shortest region of overlap to approximately 2 Mb. Based on statistical analysis of copy number increase and overexpression, the 9p24 amplicon contains six candidate oncogenes. Among these, four genes (GASC1 UHRF2, KIAA1432 and C9orf123) are overexpressed only in the context of gene amplification while two genes (ERMP1 and IL33) are overexpressed independent of the copy number increase. We then focused our studies on the UHRF2 gene, which has a potential involvement in both DNA methylation and histone modification. Knocking down UHRF2 expression inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells specifically with 9p24 amplification. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of UHRF2 in non-tumorigenic MCF10A cells promoted cell proliferation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that UHRF2 has the ability to suppress the expression of key cell-cycle inhibitors, such as p16(INK4a), p21(Waf1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1). Taken together, our studies support the notion that the 9p24 amplicon contains multiple oncogenes that may integrate genetic and epigenetic codes and have important roles in human tumorigenesis.

Rui L, Emre NC, Kruhlak MJ, et al.
Cooperative epigenetic modulation by cancer amplicon genes.
Cancer Cell. 2010; 18(6):590-605 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosome band 9p24 is frequently amplified in primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). To identify oncogenes in this amplicon, we screened an RNA interference library targeting amplicon genes and thereby identified JAK2 and the histone demethylase JMJD2C as essential genes in these lymphomas. Inhibition of JAK2 and JMJD2C cooperated in killing these lymphomas by decreasing tyrosine 41 phosphorylation and increasing lysine 9 trimethylation of histone H3, promoting heterochromatin formation. MYC, a major target of JAK2-mediated histone phosphorylation, was silenced after JAK2 and JMJD2C inhibition, with a corresponding increase in repressive chromatin. Hence, JAK2 and JMJD2C cooperatively remodel the PMBL and HL epigenome, offering a mechanistic rationale for the development of JAK2 and JMJD2C inhibitors in these diseases.

Suikki HE, Kujala PM, Tammela TL, et al.
Genetic alterations and changes in expression of histone demethylases in prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2010; 70(8):889-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Histone demethylases LSD1, JHDM2A, and GASC1 have been suggested to function as androgen receptor co-activators, and to be involved in prostate cancer (PC) progression. We aim to identify genetic alterations and changes in expression of these genes in PC.
METHODS: PC cell lines, xenografts as well as clinical specimens were screened for mutations using denaturating high-performance liquid chromatography and sequencing, and for expression alterations by using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Only known single nucleotide polymorphisms, but no mutations, were found in these genes. JHDMA2 mRNA expression was slightly increased (P < 0.05) in PC compared with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), whereas the expression of GASC1 was slightly higher (P < 0.05) in castration-resistant PC (CRPC) compared with untreated PC or BPH. The mRNA expression of LSD1 was not altered in PC. The expression of LSD1 protein was somewhat, although not statistically significantly (P = 0.0521) lower in CRPC compared with untreated PC. In prostatectomy specimens, the level of LSD1 protein expression was associated with low pT-stage (P = 0.0402), but not with Gleason score or progression-free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: As no genetic alterations and only very modest expression changes were found, it is unlikely that LSD1, JHDM2A, or GASC1 play a major role in the progression of PC.

Nacheva EP, Brazma D, Virgili A, et al.
Deletions of immunoglobulin heavy chain and T cell receptor gene regions are uniquely associated with lymphoid blast transformation of chronic myeloid leukemia.
BMC Genomics. 2010; 11:41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) results from the neoplastic transformation of a haematopoietic stem cell. The hallmark genetic abnormality of CML is a chimeric BCR/ABL1 fusion gene resulting from the Philadelphia chromosome rearrangement t(9;22)(q34;q11). Clinical and laboratory studies indicate that the BCR/ABL1 fusion protein is essential for initiation, maintenance and progression of CML, yet the event(s) driving the transformation from chronic phase to blast phase are poorly understood.
RESULTS: Here we report multiple genome aberrations in a collection of 78 CML and 14 control samples by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. We found a unique signature of genome deletions within the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) and T cell receptor regions (TCR), frequently accompanied by concomitant loss of sequences within the short arm regions of chromosomes 7 and 9, including IKZF1, HOXA7, CDKN2A/2B, MLLT3, IFNA/B, RNF38, PAX5, JMJD2C and PDCD1LG2 genes.
CONCLUSIONS: None of these genome losses were detected in any of the CML samples with myeloid transformation, chronic phase or controls, indicating that their presence is obligatory for the development of a malignant clone with a lymphoid phenotype. Notably, the coincidental deletions at IGH and TCR regions appear to precede the loss of IKZF1 and/or p16 genes in CML indicating a possible involvement of RAG in these deletions.

Liu G, Bollig-Fischer A, Kreike B, et al.
Genomic amplification and oncogenic properties of the GASC1 histone demethylase gene in breast cancer.
Oncogene. 2009; 28(50):4491-500 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Earlier, mapping of the 9p23-24 amplicon in esophageal cancer cell lines led us to the positional cloning of gene amplified in squamous cell carcinoma 1 (GASC1), which encodes a nuclear protein with a Jumonji C domain that catalyzes lysine (K) demethylation of histones. However, the transforming roles of GASC1 in breast cancer remain to be determined. In this study, we identified GASC1 as one of the amplified genes for the 9p23-24 region in breast cancer, particularly in basal-like subtypes. The levels of GASC1 transcript expression were significantly higher in aggressive, basal-like breast cancers compared with nonbasal-like breast cancers. Our in vitro assays demonstrated that GASC1 induces transformed phenotypes, including growth factor-independent proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, altered morphogenesis in Matrigel, and mammosphere forming ability, when overexpressed in immortalized, nontransformed mammary epithelial MCF10A cells. Additionally, GASC1 demethylase activity regulates the expression of genes critical for stem cell self-renewal, including NOTCH1, and may be linked to the stem cell phenotypes in breast cancer. Thus, GASC1 is a driving oncogene in the 9p23-24 amplicon in human breast cancer and targeted inhibition of GASC1 histone demethylase in cancer could provide potential new avenues for therapeutic development.

Canova C, Hashibe M, Simonato L, et al.
Genetic associations of 115 polymorphisms with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract across 10 European countries: the ARCAGE project.
Cancer Res. 2009; 69(7):2956-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) include malignant tumors of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus and account for 6.4% of all new cancers in Europe. In the context of a multicenter case-control study conducted in 14 centers within 10 European countries and comprising 1,511 cases and 1,457 controls (ARCAGE study), 115 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 62 a priori-selected genes were studied in relation to UADT cancer. We found 11 SNPs that were statistically associated with UADT cancers overall (5.75 expected). Considering the possibility of false-positive results, we focused on SNPs in CYP2A6, MDM2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and gene amplified in squamous cell carcinoma 1 (GASC1), for which low P values for trend (P trend<0.01) were observed in the main effects analyses of UADT cancer overall or by subsite. The rare variant of CYP2A6 -47A>C (rs28399433), a phase I metabolism gene, was associated with reduced UADT cancer risk (P trend=0.01). Three SNPs in the MDM2 gene, involved in cell cycle control, were associated with UADT cancer. MDM2 IVS5+1285A>G (rs3730536) showed a strong codominant effect (P trend=0.007). The rare variants of two SNPs in the TNF gene were associated with a decreased risk; for TNF IVS1+123G>A (rs1800610), the P trend was 0.007. Variants in two SNPs of GASC1 were found to be strongly associated with increased UADT cancer risk (for both, P trend=0.008). This study is the largest genetic epidemiologic study on UADT cancers in Europe. Our analysis points to potentially relevant genes in various pathways.

Vinatzer U, Gollinger M, Müllauer L, et al.
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: novel translocations including rearrangements of ODZ2, JMJD2C, and CNN3.
Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14(20):6426-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The well-known translocations identified in MALT lymphomas include t(11;18)/API2-MALT1, t(1;14)/IGH-BCL10, and t(14;18)/IGH-MALT1. Molecular investigations have suggested that these three disparate translocations affect a common pathway, resulting in the constitutive activation of nuclear factor-kappaB. However, the vast majority of MALT lymphomas are negative for any of the above-mentioned translocations and the underlying pathogenesis is unclear.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fresh tissue of 29 gastric and extragastric MALT lymphomas was studied for genetic aberrations by conventional karyotyping, long-distance inverse PCR (LDI-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR).
RESULTS: Conventional cytogenetics, FISH, and RT-PCR identified aberrations in 26 of 29 MALT lymphoma. Balanced translocations were found in 21 cases. IGH was rearranged in the majority of cases with balanced translocations (n = 17/21); 3 cases had t(11;18)/API2-MALT1 and 1 case had novel t(6;7)(q25;q11), respectively. IGH partner genes involved MALT1, FOXP1, BCL6, and four new chromosomal regions on chromosome arms 1p, 1q, 5q, and 9p. LDI-PCR identified three novel partner genes on 1p (CNN3), 5q (ODZ2), and 9p (JMJD2C). FISH assays were established and confirmed LDI-PCR results. QRT-PCR showed deregulation of the novel genes in the translocation-positive cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study expands the knowledge on the genetic heterogeneity of MALT lymphomas.

Urbanucci A, Waltering KK, Suikki HE, et al.
Androgen regulation of the androgen receptor coregulators.
BMC Cancer. 2008; 8:219 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The critical role of the androgen receptor (AR) in the development of prostate cancer is well recognized. The transcriptional activity of AR is partly regulated by coregulatory proteins. It has been suggested that these coregulators could also be important in the progression of prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to identify coregulators whose expression is regulated by either the androgens and/or by the expression level of AR.
METHODS: We used empty vector and AR cDNA-transfected LNCaP cells (LNCaP-pcDNA3.1, and LNCaP-ARhi, respectively), and grew them for 4 and 24 hours in the presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at various concentrations. The expression of 25 AR coregulators (SRC1, TIF2, PIAS1, PIASx, ARIP4, BRCA1, beta-catenin, AIB3, AIB1, CBP, STAT1, NCoR1, AES, cyclin D1, p300, ARA24, LSD1, BAG1L, gelsolin, prohibitin, JMJD2C, JMJD1A, MAK, PAK6 and MAGE11) was then measured by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR).
RESULTS: Five of the coregulators (AIB1, CBP, MAK, BRCA1 and beta-catenin) showed more than 2-fold induction and 5 others (cyclin D1, gelsolin, prohibitin, JMJD1A, and JMJD2C) less than 2-fold induction. Overexpression of AR did not affect the expression of the coregulators alone. However, overexpression of AR enhanced the DHT-stimulated expression of MAK, BRCA1, AIB1 and CBP and reduced the level of expression of beta-catenin, cyclinD1 and gelsolin.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we identified 5 coactivators whose expression was induced by androgens suggesting that they could potentiate AR signaling. Overexpression of AR seems to sensitize cells for low levels of androgens.

Hélias C, Struski S, Gervais C, et al.
Polycythemia vera transforming to acute myeloid leukemia and complex abnormalities including 9p homogeneously staining region with amplification of MLLT3, JMJD2C, JAK2, and SMARCA2.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2008; 180(1):51-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycythemia vera (PV) is a clonal stem cell disorder characterized by an excessive erythrocyte production. At diagnosis, a normal karyotype is found in < or =80% of cases, but an abnormal karyotype frequently develops with evolution. Trisomy 9 and gains on 9p are some of the most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities, together with trisomy 8 and del(20q) in both PV and idiopathic myelofibrosis. We report the case of a 54-year-old man whose disease was classified as an acute myeloid transformation of PV. Cytogenetic and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis detected several chromosomal abnormalities that included an amplification of 9p. Complementary FISH analysis established amplification of the 9p22 approximately p24.3 region including several known genes: MLLT3 (alias AF9), JMJD2C (alias GASC1), JAK2, and SMARCA2 (alias BRM). JAK2(V617F) mutation status was quantitatively assessed by allele-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Although crossing points analysis showed JAK2(V617F) mutated alleles at 52%, it is still impossible to describe conclusively the mutational status of the amplified JAK2 gene within the sole homogeneously staining region, because total genomic DNA was extracted for the analysis and not only DNA from cells with the homogeneously staining region. Gains on 9p being among the most common anomalies in PV, amplification of a gene or genes on this region may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis or evolution of PV.

Metzger E, Yin N, Wissmann M, et al.
Phosphorylation of histone H3 at threonine 11 establishes a novel chromatin mark for transcriptional regulation.
Nat Cell Biol. 2008; 10(1):53-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Posttranslational modifications of histones such as methylation, acetylation and phosphorylation regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. Here we show that protein-kinase-C-related kinase 1 (PRK1) phosphorylates histone H3 at threonine 11 (H3T11) upon ligand-dependent recruitment to androgen receptor target genes. PRK1 is pivotal to androgen receptor function because PRK1 knockdown or inhibition impedes androgen receptor-dependent transcription. Blocking PRK1 function abrogates androgen-induced H3T11 phosphorylation and inhibits androgen-induced demethylation of histone H3. Moreover, serine-5-phosphorylated RNA polymerase II is no longer observed at androgen receptor target promoters. Phosphorylation of H3T11 by PRK1 accelerates demethylation by the Jumonji C (JmjC)-domain-containing protein JMJD2C. Thus, phosphorylation of H3T11 by PRK1 establishes a novel chromatin mark for gene activation, identifying PRK1 as a gatekeeper of androgen receptor-dependent transcription. Importantly, levels of PRK1 and phosphorylated H3T11 correlate with Gleason scores of prostate carcinomas. Finally, inhibition of PRK1 blocks proliferation of androgen receptor-induced tumour cell proliferation, making PRK1 a promising therapeutic target.

Wissmann M, Yin N, Müller JM, et al.
Cooperative demethylation by JMJD2C and LSD1 promotes androgen receptor-dependent gene expression.
Nat Cell Biol. 2007; 9(3):347-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Posttranslational modifications of histones, such as methylation, regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. Recently, lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), the first histone demethylase, was identified. LSD1 interacts with the androgen receptor and promotes androgen-dependent transcription of target genes by ligand-induced demethylation of mono- and dimethylated histone H3 at Lys 9 (H3K9) only. Here, we identify the Jumonji C (JMJC) domain-containing protein JMJD2C as the first histone tridemethylase regulating androgen receptor function. JMJD2C interacts with androgen receptor in vitro and in vivo. Assembly of ligand-bound androgen receptor and JMJD2C on androgen receptor-target genes results in demethylation of trimethyl H3K9 and in stimulation of androgen receptor-dependent transcription. Conversely, knockdown of JMJD2C inhibits androgen-induced removal of trimethyl H3K9, transcriptional activation and tumour cell proliferation. Importantly, JMJD2C colocalizes with androgen receptor and LSD1 in normal prostate and in prostate carcinomas. JMJD2C and LSD1 interact and both demethylases cooperatively stimulate androgen receptor-dependent gene transcription. In addition, androgen receptor, JMJD2C and LSD1 assemble on chromatin to remove methyl groups from mono, di and trimethylated H3K9. Thus, our data suggest that specific gene regulation requires the assembly and coordinate action of demethylases with distinct substrate specificities.

Italiano A, Attias R, Aurias A, et al.
Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a metastatic lung sarcomatoid carcinoma: 9p23 neocentromere and 9p23-p24 amplification including JAK2 and JMJD2C.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2006; 167(2):122-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung (LSC) is a rare lung cancer characterized by an admixture of carcinoma and sarcoma components. Data concerning the genomic alterations of LSC are almost nonexistent. Here, we report on the first molecular cytogenetic characterization of a metastatic LSC. Cytogenetic and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) analyses showed a near-triploid karyotype with numerous structural aberrations and four to six small supernumerary marker chromosomes containing chromosome 9 sequences. Comparative genomic hybridization on arrays (array CGH) detected an amplification of 9p23 approximately p24.3 and gains of 1q11 approximately q23.3, 3q26.2 approximately q29, and 17q23.2 approximately q24.1. The 9p amplification was also detected in the primary tumor and another metastasis of the same patient, indicating it was a significant element in the pathogenesis of this LSC case. Complementary FISH analysis showed that the small supernumerary chromosomes were isochromosomes for 9p23 approximately p24.3. These isochromosomes were lacking alpha-satellite sequences although they were still stable after 55 passages in culture. As demonstrated by immunostaining with anti-centromere antibodies, they contained a functional centromere. So-called analphoid "neocentromeres" are rare and have been mainly described in constitutional abnormal karyotypes. This case is the third description of the identification of neocentromeres in cancer, (i.e. well-differentiated liposarcoma and acute myeloid leukemia), and is the first one in a carcinoma. Our results suggest that the 9p23 neocentromere of this case of LSC might be similar to a 9p23 neocentromere previously identified in two constitutional cases. The frequency of neocentromere formation in solid tumors may indeed be underestimated and may have a significant implication in chromosomal instability in tumor cells.

Ehrbrecht A, Müller U, Wolter M, et al.
Comprehensive genomic analysis of desmoplastic medulloblastomas: identification of novel amplified genes and separate evaluation of the different histological components.
J Pathol. 2006; 208(4):554-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Desmoplastic medulloblastoma (DMB) is a malignant cerebellar tumour composed of two distinct tissue components, pale islands and desmoplastic areas. Previous studies revealed mutations in genes encoding members of the sonic hedgehog pathway, including PTCH, SMOH and SUFUH in DMBs. However, little is known about other genomic aberrations. We performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis of 22 sporadic DMBs and identified chromosomal imbalances in 20 tumours (91%; mean, 4.9 imbalances/tumour). Recurrent chromosomal gains were found on chromosomes 3, 9 (six tumours each), 20, 22 (five tumours each), 2, 6, 7, 17 (four tumours each) and 1 (three tumours). Recurrent losses involved chromosomes X (eight tumours), Y (six of eleven tumours from male patients), 9, 12 (four tumours each), as well as 10, 13 and 17 (three tumours each). Four tumours demonstrated high-level amplifications involving sequences from 1p22, 5p15, 9p, 12p13, 13q33-q34 and 17q22-q24, respectively. Further analysis of the 9p and 17q22-q24 amplicons by array-based CGH (matrix-CGH) and candidate gene analyses revealed amplification of JMJD2C at 9p24 in one DMB and amplification of RPS6KB1, APPBP2, PPM1D and BCAS3 from 17q23 in three DMBs. Among the 17q23 genes, RPS6KB1 showed markedly elevated transcript levels as compared to normal cerebellum in five of six DMBs and four of five classic medulloblastomas investigated. Finally, CGH analysis of microdissected pale islands and desmoplastic areas showed common chromosomal imbalances in five of six informative tumours. In summary, we have identified several novel genetic alterations in DMBs and provide genetic evidence for a monoclonal origin of their different tissue components.

Hu N, Wang C, Hu Y, et al.
Genome-wide association study in esophageal cancer using GeneChip mapping 10K array.
Cancer Res. 2005; 65(7):2542-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Whole genome association studies of complex human diseases represent a new paradigm in the postgenomic era. In this study, we report application of the Affymetrix, Inc. (Santa Clara, CA) high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array containing 11,555 SNPs in a pilot case-control study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) that included the analysis of germ line samples from 50 ESCC patients and 50 matched controls. The average genotyping call rate for the 100 samples analyzed was 96%. Using the generalized linear model (GLM) with adjustment for potential confounders and multiple comparisons, we identified 37 SNPs associated with disease, assuming a recessive mode of transmission; similarly, 48 SNPs were identified assuming a dominant mode and 53 SNPs in a continuous mode. When the 37 SNPs identified from the GLM recessive mode were used in a principal components analysis, the first principal component correctly predicted 46 of 50 cases and 47 of 50 controls. Among all the SNPs selected from GLMs for the three modes of transmission, 39 could be mapped to 1 of 33 genes. Many of these genes are involved in various cancers, including GASC1, shown previously to be amplified in ESCCs, and EPHB1 and PIK3C3. In conclusion, we have shown the feasibility of the Affymetrix 10K SNP array in genome-wide association studies of common cancers and identified new candidate loci to study in ESCC.

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