Gene Summary

Gene:ADAMTS9; ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 9
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. Members of the ADAMTS family have been implicated in the cleavage of proteoglycans, the control of organ shape during development, and the inhibition of angiogenesis. This gene is localized to chromosome 3p14.3-p14.2, an area known to be lost in hereditary renal tumors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms that may undergo similar proteolytic processing. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 9
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

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Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: ADAMTS9 (cancer-related)

Li S, Li T, Li X, et al.
MicroRNA-32 Regulates Development and Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Targeting ADAMTS9 and Affects Its Prognosis.
Med Sci Monit Basic Res. 2018; 24:177-187 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND MicroRNA-32 (miR-32) induces cell proliferation and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the detailed mechanisms of miR-32 in regulating oncogenesis and development of HCC have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of miR-32 on HCC and its clinical pathological significance, as well as to determine the functional connection between miR-32 and ADAMTS9 in HCC. MATERIAL AND METHODS Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the expression levels of miR-32 in HCC tissues, adjacent non-cancerous tissues, and liver cancer cell lines. In vitro cell proliferation, migration, and invasion assays were performed to confirm the biological functions of miR-32. Quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and luciferase reporter assays were used to evaluate the role of miR-32 in the regulation of ADAMTS9. RESULTS miR-32 was highly expressed in HCC tissues compared with corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Over-expression of miR-32 was also found in 3 human liver cancer cell lines: SMMC-7721, Huh7, and HepG2. Moreover, increasing expression of miR-32 in HCC tissues was related to shorter overall survival. In vitro over-expression of miR-32 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; however, the under-expression of miR-32 revealed the opposite effects. Dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that miR-32 can directly bind to the 3'-UTR of ADAMTS9. Western blot analysis showed that over-expression of miR-32 decreased expression of ADAMTS9 protein. Rescue tests further verified the connection between miR-32 and ADAMTS9. CONCLUSIONS Our data indicate that miR-32 accelerates progression in HCC by targeting ADAMTS9, and the abnormal expression of miR-32 is correlated with prognosis and could become a potential therapeutic target.

Fan CN, Ma L, Liu N
Systematic analysis of lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA competing endogenous RNA network identifies four-lncRNA signature as a prognostic biomarker for breast cancer.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):264 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence has underscored the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) acting as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) in the development and progression of tumors. Nevertheless, lncRNA biomarkers in lncRNA-related ceRNA network that can predict the prognosis of breast cancer (BC) are still lacking. The aim of our study was to identify potential lncRNA signatures capable of predicting overall survival (OS) of BC patients.
METHODS: The RNA sequencing data and clinical characteristics of BC patients were obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas database, and differentially expressed lncRNA (DElncRNAs), DEmRNAs, and DEmiRNAs were then identified between BC and normal breast tissue samples. Subsequently, the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA network of BC was established, and the gene oncology enrichment analyses for the DEmRNAs interacting with lncRNAs in the ceRNA network was implemented. Using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses, a four-lncRNA signature was developed and used for predicting the survival in BC patients. We applied receiver operating characteristic analysis to assess the performance of our model.
RESULTS: A total of 1061 DElncRNAs, 2150 DEmRNAs, and 82 DEmiRNAs were identified between BC and normal breast tissue samples. A lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA network of BC was established, which comprised of 8 DEmiRNAs, 48 DElncRNAs, and 10 DEmRNAs. Further gene oncology enrichment analyses revealed that the DEmRNAs interacting with lncRNAs in the ceRNA network participated in cell leading edge, protease binding, alpha-catenin binding, gamma-catenin binding, and adenylate cyclase binding. A univariate regression analysis of the DElncRNAs revealed 7 lncRNAs (ADAMTS9-AS1, AC061992.1, LINC00536, HOTAIR, AL391421.1, TLR8-AS1 and LINC00491) that were associated with OS of BC patients. A multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that 4 of those lncRNAs (ADAMTS9-AS1, LINC00536, AL391421.1 and LINC00491) had significant prognostic value, and their cumulative risk score indicated that this 4-lncRNA signature independently predicted OS in BC patients. Furthermore, the area under the curve of the 4-lncRNA signature associated with 3-year survival was 0.696.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides novel insights into the lncRNA-related ceRNA network in BC and the 4 lncRNA biomarkers may be independent prognostic signatures in predicting the survival of BC patients.

Zhu N, Hou J, Wu Y, et al.
Integrated analysis of a competing endogenous RNA network reveals key lncRNAs as potential prognostic biomarkers for human bladder cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(35):e11887 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. It has high recurrence rates and low-grade malignancy, thus representing an important public health concern. An increasing number of studies suggest that long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in various biological processes and disease pathologies, including cancer.We analyzed the expression profiles of lncRNA, miRNA, and mRNA, along with the clinical information of BCa patients collected from the Cancer Genome Atlas database to identify lncRNA biomarkers for prognosis. We also constructed an lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA global triple network (competitive endogenous RNA network) by bioinformational approach.This BCa lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network consisted of 23 miRNA nodes, 52 mRNA nodes, 59 lncRNA nodes, and 365 edges. Subsequent gene ontology (GO) and pathway analyses were performed using BinGO for Cytoscape and Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integration Discovery, respectively, highlighting important GO terms and pathways that were enriched in the network. Subnetworks were created using 3 key lncRNAs (MAGI2-AS3, ADAMTS9-AS2, and LINC00330), revealing associations with BCa-linked mRNAs and miRNAs. Finally, an analysis of significantly differentiating RNAs found 6 DElncRNAs (AC112721.1, ADAMTS9-AS1, ADAMTS9-AS2, HCG22, MYO16-AS1, and SACS-AS1), 1 DEmiRNA (miRNA-195), and 6 DEmRNAs (CCNB1, FAM129A, MAP1B, TMEM100, AIFM3, and HOXB5) that correlated with BCa patient survival.Our results provide a novel perspective from which to study the lncRNA-related ceRNA network in BCa, contributing to the development of future diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

Cao B, Liu C, Yang G
Down-regulation of lncRNA ADAMTS9-AS2 contributes to gastric cancer development via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 107:185-193 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the role and regulatory mechanism of lncRNA ADAMTS9-AS2 in the development of gastric cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of lncRNA ADAMTS9-AS2 in gastric cancer tissues and cells was detected. According to the expression level of ADAMTS9-AS2, survival analysis for patients with gastric cancer was performed. In addition, SGC-7901 cells were transfected with pc-ADAMTS9-AS2, si-ADAMTS9-AS2 and scramble RNA (control) to investigate the effects of ADAMTS9-AS2 on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Besides, the expression levels of key molecules involved in PI3K/Akt pathway were detected.
RESULTS: Results showed that lncRNA ADAMTS9-AS2 was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues and cells. Decreased expression of lncRNA ADAMTS9-AS2 was associated with poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. In comparison with control group, the SGC-7901 cell viability and the number of colony, migrated or invaded SGC-7901 cells of pc-ADAMTS9-AS2 group were significantly decreased while markedly increased in si-ADAMTS9-AS2 group. The percentage of apoptotic SGC-7901 cells in pc-ADAMTS9-AS2 group was significantly increased, while significantly decreased in si-ADAMTS9-AS2 group. Additionally, the expressions of p-PI3K and p-Akt were significantly down-regulated in pc-ADAMTS9-AS2 group compared with control group, while up-regulated in si-ADAMTS9-AS2 group. Furthermore, compared with si-ADAMTS9-AS2 group, treatment of an PI3K inhibitor LY294002 markedly reversed the effects of suppression of ADAMTS9-AS2 alone on SGC-7901 cells by inhibiting cell viability, colony-forming ability, migration, invasion, and increasing apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that overexpression of ADAMTS9-AS2 may inhibit gastric cancer cell proliferation, suppress cancer cell migration and invasion, and induce cell apoptosis. Activation of PI3K/Akt pathway may be a key regulatory mechanism of ADAMTS9-AS2 in gastric cancer.

Song J, Ye A, Jiang E, et al.
Reconstruction and analysis of the aberrant lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network based on competitive endogenous RNA in CESC.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(8):6665-6673 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A growing body of studies has demonstrated that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) are regarded as the primary section of the ceRNA network. This is thought to be the case owing to its regulation of protein-coding gene expression by functioning as miRNA sponges. However, functional roles and regulatory mechanisms of lncRNA-mediated ceRNA in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CESC), as well as their use for potential prediction of CESC prognosis, remains unknown. The aberrant expression profiles of mRNA, lncRNA, and miRNA of 306 cervical squamous cancer tissues and three adjacent cervical tissues were obtained from the TCGA database. A lncRNA-mRNA-miRNA ceRNA network in CESC was constructed. Meanwhile, Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis were performed using Cytoscape plug-in BinGo and DAVID database. We identified a total of 493 lncRNA, 70 miRNA, and 1921 mRNA as differentially expressed profiles. An aberrant lncRNA-mRNA-miRNA ceRNA network was constructed in CESC, it was composed of 50 DElncRNA, 18 DEmiRNA, and 81 DEmRNA. According to the overall survival analysis, 3 out of 50 lncRNA, 10 out of 81 mRNA, and 1 out of 18 miRNA functioned as prognostic biomarkers for patients with CESC (P value < 0.05). We extracted the sub-network in the ceRNA network and found that two novel lncRNA were recognized as key genes. These included lncRNA MEG3 and lncRNA ADAMTS9-AS2. The present study provides a new insight into a better understanding of the lncRNA-related ceRNA network in CESC, and the novel recognized ceRNA network will help us to improve our understanding of lncRNA-mediated ceRNA regulatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CESC.

Liu C, Yang Z, Deng Z, et al.
Upregulated lncRNA ADAMTS9-AS2 suppresses progression of lung cancer through inhibition of miR-223-3p and promotion of TGFBR3.
IUBMB Life. 2018; 70(6):536-546 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we aimed at investigating effects of lncRNA ADAMTS9-AS2 on lung cancer progression through regulating miR-223-3p and TGFBR3 expressions. Expressions of ADAMTS9-AS2 in lung cancer tissues and cell lines were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TargetScan and miRcode were used to predict the targeting relationships, respectively. The luciferase reporter system was used to verify that the relationship among ADAMTS9-AS2, TGFBR3 and miR-223-3p. Western blot assay tested the protein level changes in TGFBR3. Cell proliferation was determined by CCK-8 assay. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry assay, and migration and invasion were determined by transwell assay. Tumor xenograft model was developed to study the influence of ADAMTS9-AS2 on tumor growth in vivo. qRT-PCR results demonstrated that lncADAMTS9-AS2 was lowly expressed in lung cancer tissues. High expression of ADAMTS9-AS2 in lung cancer cells significantly reduced proliferation ability and inhibited migration, as well as elevating their apoptosis rate. In vivo assay found that ADAMTS9-AS2 suppressed the lung tumor growth. Bioinformatics predicted that miR-223-3p bound directly to the ADAMTS9-AS2 and TGFBR3, which was later confirmed by luciferase reporter system. ADAMTS9-AS2 transfection increased TGFBR3 mRNA and protein expressions in lung cancer cells, but miR-223-3p transfection significantly decreased them. Besides, our results showed that miR-223-3p induced cellular apoptosis while TGFBR3 group showed the complete opposite effect. It was proved that ADAMTS9-AS2 and TGFBR3 were the direct genes of miR-223-3p. MiR-223-3p promotes proliferation, migration and invasion of lung cancer cells by targeting TGFBR3. Therefore, ADAMTS9-AS2, miR-223-3p and TGFBR3 may provide potential targets for the treatment of lung cancer patients. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 70(6):536-546, 2018.

Xing Y, Zhao Z, Zhu Y, et al.
Comprehensive analysis of differential expression profiles of mRNAs and lncRNAs and identification of a 14-lncRNA prognostic signature for patients with colon adenocarcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(5):2365-2375 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study was to identify potentially significant genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colon cancer for a panel of lncRNA signatures that could be used as prognostic markers for colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) based on the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). RNA-seq V2 exon data of COAD were downloaded from the TCGA data portal for 285 tumor samples and 41 normal tissue samples adjacent to tumors. Differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs were identified. A functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed mRNAs was performed, followed by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction and significant module selection. Additionally, the regulatory relationships in differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs were assessed, and an lncRNA-lncRNA co-regulation and functional synergistic analysis were performed. Furthermore, the risk score model and Cox regression analysis based on the expression levels of lncRNAs were used to develop a prognostic lncRNA signature. A total of 976 differentially expressed mRNAs and 169 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified. MDFI and MEOX2 were the PPI network hubs. We found these lncRNAs to be mainly involved in vascular smooth muscle contraction and the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway. Several lncRNA-lncRNA pairs had co-regulatory relationships or functional synergistic effects, including BVES-AS1/MYLK-AS1, ADAMTS9-AS1/MYLK-AS1 and FENDRR/MYLK-AS1. The differential expression profile analysis of four candidate lncRNAs (MYLK-AS1, BVES-AS1, ADAMTS9-AS1, and FENDRR) in COAD tumors were confirmed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Moreover, this study identified a 14-lncRNA signature that could predict the survival for COAD patients.

Shao B, Feng Y, Zhang H, et al.
The 3p14.2 tumour suppressor ADAMTS9 is inactivated by promoter CpG methylation and inhibits tumour cell growth in breast cancer.
J Cell Mol Med. 2018; 22(2):1257-1271 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosome region 3p12-14 is an important tumour suppressor gene (TSG) locus for multiple cancers. ADAMTS9, a member of the metalloprotease large family, has been identified as a candidate 3p14.2 TSG inactivated by aberrant promoter CpG methylation in several carcinomas, but little known about its expression and function in breast cancer. In this report, ADAMTS9 expression and methylation was analysed in breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples. ADAMTS9 RNA was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer cell lines (6/8). After treating the cells with demethylation agent Aza and TSA, ADAMTS9 expression was dramatically increased. Bisulphite genomic sequencing and methylation-specific PCR detected promoter methylation, which was associated with decreased ADAMTS9 expression. Hypermethylation was also detected in 130/219 (59.4%) of primary tumours but only in 4.5% (2/44) of paired surgical margin tissues. Ectopic expression of ADAMTS9 in tumor cells induced significant growth suppression, cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, enhanced apoptosis and reduced cell migration and invasion. Conditioned culture medium from ADAMTS9-transfected BT549 cells markedly disrupted tube formation ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) in Matrigel. Furthermore, ADAMTS9 inhibited AKT signaling and its downstream targets (MDM2, p53, p21, p27, E-cadherin, VIM, SNAIL, VEGFA, NFκB-p65 and MMP2). In addition, we demonstrated, for the first time, that ADAMTS9 inhibits AKT signaling, through suppressing its upstream activators EGFR and TGFβ1/TβR(I/II) in breast cancer cells. Our results suggest that ADAMTS9 is a TSG epigenetically inactivated in breast cancer, which functions through blocking EGFR- and TGFβ1/TβR(I/II)-activated AKT signaling.

Chen L, Tang J, Feng Y, et al.
ADAMTS9 is Silenced by Epigenetic Disruption in Colorectal Cancer and Inhibits Cell Growth and Metastasis by Regulating Akt/p53 Signaling.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017; 44(4):1370-1380 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: ADAMTS (disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) proteins are extracellular zinc metalloproteinases that play an important role in extracellular matrix assembly and degradation, connective tissue structuring, angiogenesis, and cell migration. Multiple studies suggest that ADAMTS proteins (e.g. ADAMTS9) can act as tumor suppressors. In gastric, esophageal, and nasopharyngeal carcinomas ADAMTS9 is frequently down-regulated by promoter methylation. Whether ADAMTS9 can function as a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in colorectal cancer is still unclear.
METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and qRT-PCR, to examine the expression of ADAMTS9 in colorectal cancer cell lines and primary colorectal cancer tissues. Methylation-specific PCR was also carried out to investigate the promoter methylation status of ADAMTS9. We also explored the functions of ADAMTS9 in colorectal cancer cell lines through in vitro experiments.
RESULTS: ADAMTS9 expression was down-requlated or silenced in 83.3% (5/6) of colorectal cancer cell lines, and frequently repressed in 65.6% (21/32) of colorectal cancer tissues. Down-regulation of ADAMTS9 was partially due to promoter methylation. Exogenous expression of ADAMTS9 in colorectal cancer cell lines inhibited cell proliferation and migration through the regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. In addition, ADAMTS9 prevented the activation of Akt, and its downstream targets in colorectal cancer cell lines.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest ADAMTS9 is a TSG in colorectal cancer.

Wang H, Fu Z, Dai C, et al.
LncRNAs expression profiling in normal ovary, benign ovarian cyst and malignant epithelial ovarian cancer.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:38983 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has been recognized as a regulator of gene expression, and the dysregulation of lncRNAs is involved in the progression of many types of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). To explore the potential roles of lncRNAs in EOC, we performed lncRNA and mRNA microarray profiling in malignant EOC, benign ovarian cyst and healthy control tissues. In this study, 663 transcripts of lncRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in malignant EOC compared with benign and normal control tissues. We also selected 18 altered lncRNAs to confirm the validity of the microarray analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses demonstrated that these altered transcripts were involved in multiple biological processes, especially the cell cycle. Furthermore, Series Test of Cluster (STC) and lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network analyses were conducted to predict lncRNA expression trends and the potential target genes of lncRNAs. We also determined that two antisense lncRNAs (RP11-597D13.9 and ADAMTS9-AS1) were associated with their nearby coding genes (FAM198B, ADAMTS9), which participated in cancer progression. This study offers helpful information to understand the initiation and development mechanisms of EOC.

Li Q, Dai Y, Wang F, Hou S
Differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs and the prognostic potential in colorectal cancer.
Neoplasma. 2016; 63(6):977-983 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease with high incidence, especially in developed countries. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are new research hotspots for their vital roles in regulating gene expression. This study aims to investigate the prognostic value of lncRNAs in CRC patients. A total of 21 cancer-related lncRNAs were detected by PCR array to reveal their expression changes in CRC tissue. A 120-week-long follow-up was performed in 30 CRC patients to analyze the relationship between lncRNA levels and CRC prognosis. Most of the 21 lncRNAs were differentially expressed in CRC tissue compared to the adjacent normal tissue, among which seven lncRNAs were significantly changed: AFAP1-AS1, BCAR4, H19, HOXA-AS2, MALAT1 and PVT1 were up-regulated, and ADAMTS9-AS2 was down-regulated in CRC tissue samples. No obvious correlation was found between lncRNA levels and the age, gender, tumor size or TNM stage of these patients. Log-rank test indicated that higher levels of AFAP1-AS1, BCAR4, H19, HOXA-AS2, MALAT1 or PVT1 and lower level of ADAMTS9-AS2 might predict the poor prognosis of CRC patients. This study suggests the potential value of the seven lncRNAs in the prognosis of CRC, providing reference information for future research on CRC prognostic and treatment strategy.

Luo X, Huang R, Sun H, et al.
Methylation of a panel of genes in peripheral blood leukocytes is associated with colorectal cancer.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:29922 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The relationship between the DNA methylation status of the CpG islands of multiple genes in blood leukocytes in CRC susceptibility and prognosis, as well as possible interactions with dietary factors on CRC risk are unclear. We carried out a case-control study including 421 CRC patients and 506 controls to examine the associations between six genes (AOX-1, RARB2, RERG, ADAMTS9, IRF4, and FOXE-1), multiple CpG site methylation (MCSM) and susceptibility to CRC. High-level MCSM (MCSM-H) was defined as methylation of greater than or equal to 2 of 5 candidate genes (except for RARB2); low-level MCSM (MCSM-L) was when 1 candidate gene was methylated; non-MCSM was when none of the candidate genes were methylated. Blood cell-derived DNA methylation status was detected using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis. The hypermethylation status of each individual gene was statistically significantly associated with CRC. MCSM status was also associated with CRC (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.15-2.05, P = 0.004). We observed interactions between a high level of dietary intake of cereals, pungent food, and stewed fish with brown sauce, age (older than 60 yrs), smoking and hypermethylation on risk of CRC. MCSM in peripheral blood DNA may be an important biomarker for susceptibility to CRC.

Lando M, Fjeldbo CS, Wilting SM, et al.
Interplay between promoter methylation and chromosomal loss in gene silencing at 3p11-p14 in cervical cancer.
Epigenetics. 2015; 10(10):970-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Loss of 3p11-p14 is a frequent event in epithelial cancer and a candidate prognostic biomarker in cervical cancer. In addition to loss, promoter methylation can participate in gene silencing and promote tumor aggressiveness. We have performed a complete mapping of promoter methylation at 3p11-p14 in two independent cohorts of cervical cancer patients (n = 149, n = 121), using Illumina 450K methylation arrays. The aim was to investigate whether hyperm-ethylation was frequent and could contribute to gene silencing and disease aggressiveness either alone or combined with loss. By comparing the methylation level of individual CpG sites with corresponding data of normal cervical tissue, 26 out of 41 genes were found to be hypermethylated in both cohorts. The frequency of patients with hypermethylation of these genes was found to be higher at tumor stages of 3 and 4 than in stage 1 tumors. Seventeen of the 26 genes were transcriptionally downregulated in cancer compared to normal tissue, whereof 6 genes showed a significant correlation between methylation and expression. Integrated analysis of methylation, gene dosage, and expression of the 26 hypermethylated genes identified 3 regulation patterns encompassing 8 hypermethylated genes; a methylation driven pattern (C3orf14, GPR27, ZNF717), a gene dosage driven pattern (THOC7, PSMD6), and a combined methylation and gene dosage driven pattern (FHIT, ADAMTS9, LRIG1). In survival analysis, patients with both hypermethylation and loss of LRIG1 had a worse outcome compared to those harboring only hypermethylation or none of the events. C3orf14 emerged as a novel methylation regulated suppressor gene, for which knockdown was found to promote invasive growth in human papilloma virus (HPV)-transformed keratinocytes. In conclusion, hypermethylation at 3p11-p14 is common in cervical cancer and may exert a selection pressure during carcinogenesis alone or combined with loss. Information on both events could lead to improved prognostic markers.

Altuntas A, Halacli SO, Cakmak O, et al.
Interleukin-1β induced nuclear factor-κB binds to a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 9 promoter in human chondrosarcoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(1):595-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is involved in the regulation of inflammation‑associated genes. NF-κB forms dimers which bind with sequences referred to as NF-κB sites (9-11 bp). A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 9 (ADAMTS9) is a type of proteoglycanase, which proteolytically cleaves versican and aggrecan. ADAMTS9 is a cytokine-inducible gene that contains binding sites for NF-κB within its promoter region. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) affects cartilage metabolism and is involved in the NF-κB pathway. It is therefore hypothesized that NF-κB binding with ADAMTS9 promoters may activate IL-1β, thereby promoting chondrocytic cell growth. In the present study, the OUMS-27 chondrocytic human chondrosarcoma cell line was treated with IL-1β with or without inhibitors of NF-κB signaling pathways. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electromobility shift assays (EMSA) were conducted order to analyze the binding of NF-κB with the ADAMTS9 promoter region. NF-κB-p65 subunit phosphorylation was promoted in IL-1β-treated cells, which were not treated with inhibitors of NF-κB signaling pathways. By contrast, NF-κB-p65 subunit phosphorylation was inhibited in cells that had been treated with BAY-117085, an NF-κB pathway inhibitor. ChIP and EMSA assays demonstrated that, following treatment with IL-1β, NF-κB‑p65 bound to elements located at -1177 and -1335 in the ADAMTS9 promoter region, in contrast to the untreated samples. The results of the present study suggested that NF-κB may be involved in IL-1β-induced activation of ADAMTS9 in human chondrocytes.

Huang X, Hao C, Shen X, et al.
RUNX2, GPX3 and PTX3 gene expression profiling in cumulus cells are reflective oocyte/embryo competence and potentially reliable predictors of embryo developmental competence in PCOS patients.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013; 11:109 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women. The developmental competence of oocytes and embryos in PCOS patients is reduced to a certain extent (comparing to non-PCOS patients, the high quality embryo rate was decreased by 16% from the data of our centre) during the in vitro fertilization (IVF) process. Cross-talk between the oocyte and cumulus cells is critical for oocyte maturation and embryo competence. In this study, we have evaluated the transcription of specific genes in cumulus cells harvested from pre-ovulatory follicles of PCOS patients before IVF, according to individual oocyte nuclear maturity and developmental competence. Seven genes (RUNX2, PSAT1, ADAMTS9, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and ITGB5) were targeted from our previous cDNA microarray data which isolated genes related to oocyte nuclear maturation in PCOS patients. Two additional genes which had been found to be associated with oocyte maturation or embryo quality in non-PCOS patients (GPX3 and PTX3) were also studied.
METHODS: The mRNA expression levels of cumulus cells were detected by qRT- PCR.
RESULTS: Consistent with our previous cDNA microarray data, with the exception of GPX3 and PTX3, the selected 7 genes were related to oocyte nuclear maturation in PCOS patients. Noticeably, the expression level of RUNX2 was lower in cumulus cells derived from oocytes that could develop into blastocysts than the level of expression from oocytes that could not. The PTX3 expression level was significantly lower in cumulus cells from oocytes with two normal pronuclei than that from oocytes that formed >2 pronuclei (MPN) after fertilization. GPX3 mRNA levels were decreased in cumulus cells isolated from oocytes that developed into blastocysts with high potential development competence.
CONCLUSIONS: Several cumulus cell genes were associated with oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo quality in PCOS patients. RUNX2 and GPX3 are candidate genetic markers in the monitoring of embryo quality for PCOS patients, whereas PTX3 mainly played a role in fertilization process. Together with morphological evaluation, cumulus cells genes may serve as biomarkers of oocyte and embryo selection during the IVF process for PCOS patients and may advance our understanding of PCOS.

Ocak Z, Acar M, Gunduz E, et al.
Effect of hypericin on the ADAMTS-9 and ADAMTS-8 gene expression in MCF7 breast cancer cells.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013; 17(9):1185-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the effects of hypericin which is obtained from the plant Hypericum perforatum on the expression and the regulation of ADAMTS8 and ADAMTS9 genes in MCF7 breast cancer cells and on the viability of these cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: MCF7 cells were cultured and were separately exposed to 2, 10 and 50 µl/mL of hypericin. After 24 hours, RNA was isolated from these cells and converted to cDNA. The expression levels of ADAMTS8 and ADAMTS9 genes were evaluated using the Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction. XTT (2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide, disodium salt) cell viability assay was used to determine cytotoxicity.
RESULTS: ADAMTS9 expression in MCF7 cells were increased 1.8 and 3.6 fold with the use of 2 and 10 µl/mL of hypericin, respectively; and decreased 0.7 fold with the use of 50 µl/mL of hypericin. There was no significant change in the ADAMTS8 expression. Rapid cell death was observed in the cancer cells when hypericin was used at a dose of ≥ 50 µl/mL.
CONCLUSIONS: The increase in ADAMTS9 expression can be a useful factor in the prevention of possible metastasis in breast cancer and for the occurrence of a tumor suppressive effect. Hypericin increases the expression of ADAMTS9, therefore, it may show its antitumoral and antiapoptotic effects by means of ADAMTS9.

Qu Y, Dang S, Hou P
Gene methylation in gastric cancer.
Clin Chim Acta. 2013; 424:53-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.

Peng L, Yang Z, Tan C, et al.
Epigenetic inactivation of ADAMTS9 via promoter methylation in multiple myeloma.
Mol Med Rep. 2013; 7(3):1055-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
A disintegrin‑like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type Ⅰ motifs (ADAMTS) are a family of 19 secreted mammalian metalloproteases. ADAMTS9 was reported to be a novel tumor suppressor gene and is downregulated in various types of human cancer due to hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands. In the present study, the silencing mechanism of the ADAMTS9 gene was analyzed in the multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines, KM3 and RPMI‑8226. Control and MM samples were obtained by conventional bone marrow (BM) biopsy of normal and MM adult BM, respectively. RT‑PCR revealed a high expression of the ADAMTS9 gene in normal samples and RPMI‑8226 cells while marked gene silencing of ADAMTS9 was observed in MM patients and KM3 cells. Promoter methylation of ADAMTS9 was detected in the KM3 cell line and 66% (37/56) MM patients by methylation‑specific PCR. In addition, the DNA demethylating agent, 5‑aza‑2'‑deoxycytidine and trichostatin A restored ADAMTS9 expression by suppressing promoter methylation in KM3 cells. Ectopic expression of ADAMTS9 in ADAMTS9‑silenced MM cells was found to significantly suppress cell colony formation and proliferation. In the present study, DNA methylation was found to play a key role in ADAMTS9 gene silencing and the biological behavior of myeloma cells. The results demonstrate that ADAMTS9 silencing by methylation may be a novel tumor marker for MM and the applicability of demethylating agents in the treatment of MM.

Du W, Wang S, Zhou Q, et al.
ADAMTS9 is a functional tumor suppressor through inhibiting AKT/mTOR pathway and associated with poor survival in gastric cancer.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(28):3319-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Using genome-wide promoter methylation analysis, we identified a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif 9 (ADAMTS9) is methylated in cancer. We aim to clarify its epigenetic inactivation, biological function and clinical implication in gastric cancer. ADAMTS9 was silenced in 6 out of 8 gastric cancer cell lines. The loss of ADAMTS9 expression was regulated by promoter hypermethylation and could be restored by demethylation agent. Ectopic expression of ADAMTS9 in gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, BGC823) inhibited cell growth curve in both the cell lines (P<0.0001), suppressed colony formation (P<0.01) and induced apoptosis (P<0.001 in AGS, P<0.01 in BGC823). Moreover, conditioned culture medium from ADAMTS9-transfected cell lines significantly disrupted the human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation capacity on Matrigel (P<0.01 in AGS, P<0.001 in BGC823). The in vivo growth of ADAMTS9 cells in nude mice was also markedly diminished after stable expression of ADAMTS9 (P<0.001). On the other hand, ADAMTS9 knockdown promoted cell proliferation (P<0.001). We further revealed that ADAMTS9 inhibited tumor growth by blocking activation of Akt and its downstream target the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). ADAMTS9 also reduced phosphorylation of mTOR downstream targets p70 ribosomal S6 kinase, eIF4E-binding protein and downregulated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Therefore, this is the first demonstration that ADAMTS9 is a critical tumor suppressor of gastric cancer progression at least in part through suppression of oncogenic AKT/mTOR signaling. Moreover, promoter methylation of ADAMTS9 was detected in 29.2% (21/72) of primary gastric tumors. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with ADAMTS9 methylation had a poorer overall survival (relative risk (RR)=2.788; 95% confidence interval, 1.474-5.274; P=0.002). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that ADAMTS9 methylation was significantly associated with shortened survival in gastric cancer patients (P=0.001, log-rank test). In conclusion, ADAMTS9 acts as a functional tumor suppressor in gastric cancer through inhibiting oncogenic AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Methylation of ADAMTS9 is an independent prognostic factor of gastric cancer.

Bret C, Hose D, Reme T, et al.
Gene expression profile of ADAMs and ADAMTSs metalloproteinases in normal and malignant plasma cells and in the bone marrow environment.
Exp Hematol. 2011; 39(5):546-557.e8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases) and the related ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases with thrombospondin) motifs metalloproteinases are membrane-anchored and secreted proteins exhibiting key roles in mediating cell adhesion, proteolytic shedding, and cell signaling. Dysregulation of these proteins has been observed in some pathologic states, including cancers. Their contribution to multiple myeloma, a plasma-cell neoplasia strongly dependent on bone marrow environment, has been poorly characterized.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression of genes encoding for these proteins and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases [TIMP], reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs) in normal B-cell differentiation, primary malignant plasma cells, human myeloma cell lines, and various bone marrow environment cells. The prognostic value of the expression of these genes was analyzed in two independent series of newly diagnosed patients.
RESULTS: ADAM28 and ADAMTS6 were overexpressed in normal memory B cells, ADAM10 and ADAM19 in plasmablasts, and TIMP1 and TIMP2 in normal bone marrow plasma cells. ADAMTS9 was aberrantly expressed by primary malignant plasma cells and ADAM23 expression was associated with a bad prognosis, its expression being spiked in some primary myeloma cell samples. Bone marrow environment cells displayed distinct expression profiles for genes encoding for ADAMs and their inhibitors. They expressed ADAMTSs genes at a low level, with the exception of bone marrow stromal cells.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an overview of expression data related to ADAMs and ADAMTSs genes potentially involved in myeloma pathogenesis.

Lo PH, Lung HL, Cheung AK, et al.
Extracellular protease ADAMTS9 suppresses esophageal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumor formation by inhibiting angiogenesis.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(13):5567-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ADAMTS metalloprotease family member ADAMTS9 maps to 3p14.2 and shows significant associations with the aerodigestive tract cancers esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the functional impact of ADAMTS9 on cancer development has not been explored. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesized antiangiogenic and tumor-suppressive functions of ADAMTS9 in ESCC and NPC, in stringent tumorigenicity and Matrigel plug angiogenesis assays. ADAMTS9 activation suppressed tumor formation in nude mice. Conversely, knockdown of ADAMTS9 resulted in clones reverting to the tumorigenic phenotype of parental cells. In vivo angiogenesis assays revealed a reduction in microvessel numbers in gel plugs injected with tumor-suppressive cell transfectants. Similarly, conditioned medium from cell transfectants dramatically reduced the tube-forming capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These activities were associated with a reduction in expression levels of the proangiogenic factors MMP9 and VEGFA, which were consistently reduced in ADAMTS9 transfectants derived from both cancers. Taken together, our results indicate that ADAMTS9 contributes an important function in the tumor microenvironment that acts to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth in both ESCC and NPC.

Koo BH, Coe DM, Dixon LJ, et al.
ADAMTS9 is a cell-autonomously acting, anti-angiogenic metalloprotease expressed by microvascular endothelial cells.
Am J Pathol. 2010; 176(3):1494-504 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The metalloprotease ADAMTS9 participates in melanoblast development and is a tumor suppressor in esophageal and nasopharyngeal cancer. ADAMTS9 null mice die before gastrulation, but, ADAMTS9+/- mice were initially thought to be normal. However, when congenic with the C57Bl/6 strain, 80% of ADAMTS9+/- mice developed spontaneous corneal neovascularization. beta-Galactosidase staining enabled by a lacZ cassette targeted to the ADAMTS9 locus showed that capillary endothelial cells (ECs) in embryonic and adult tissues and in capillaries growing into heterotopic tumors expressed ADAMTS9. Heterotopic B.16-F10 melanomas elicited greater vascular induction in ADAMTS9+/- mice than in wild-type littermates, suggesting a potential inhibitory role in tumor angiogenesis. Treatment of cultured human microvascular ECs with ADAMTS9 small-interfering RNA resulted in enhanced filopodial extension, decreased cell adhesion, increased cell migration, and enhanced formation of tube-like structures on Matrigel. Conversely, overexpression of catalytically active, but not inactive, ADAMTS9 in ECs led to fewer tube-like structures, demonstrating that the proteolytic activity of ADAMTS9 was essential. However, unlike the related metalloprotease ADAMTS1, which exerts anti-angiogenic effects by cleavage of thrombospondins and sequestration of vascular endothelial growth factor165, ADAMTS9 neither cleaved thrombospondins 1 and 2, nor bound vascular endothelial growth factor165. Taken together, these data identify ADAMTS9 as a novel, constitutive, endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor that operates cell-autonomously in ECs via molecular mechanisms that are distinct from those used by ADAMTS1.

Zhang C, Shao Y, Zhang W, et al.
High-resolution melting analysis of ADAMTS9 methylation levels in gastric, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 196(1):38-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs) is a family of proteins characterized by the presence of a metalloproteinase domain linked to a variety of specialized ancillary domains. The ADAMTS9 gene (ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 9); has been characterized as a novel tumor suppressor gene in and epigenetically silenced in association with lymph node metastases in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis has been used as a tool for analysis of promoter methylation. Here, we report HRM analysis used to detect the methylation levels of ADAMTS9 gene in 100 gastric cancers, 100 colorectal cancers, 70 pancreatic cancers, and an equal number of adjacent normal tissues. The frequency of ADAMTS9 methylation in all three types of cancers was significantly higher than in normal tissues. Consistent with previous reports, expression levels of ADAMTS9 were inversely correlated with methylation levels. There was no significant association between ADAMTS9 methylation status and tumor-node-metastasis staging in all three types of cancers. In summary, application of HRM analysis to large numbers of clinical samples is a rapid and high-throughput way to investigate the epigenetic status of ADAMTS9. The present study is novel in evaluating the prevalence of ADAMTS9 methylation based on a large number of tumor samples and showing that epigenetic regulation of ADAMTS9 was associated with carcinogenesis.

Sheu JJ, Lee CH, Ko JY, et al.
Chromosome 3p12.3-p14.2 and 3q26.2-q26.32 are genomic markers for prognosis of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18(10):2709-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is an epithelial malignancy with a remarkable racial and geographic distribution. Previous cytogenetic studies have shown nasopharyngeal carcinoma to be characterized by gross genomic aberrations. However, identification of susceptible gene loci in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been poorly discussed.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A genome-wide survey of gene copy number changes was initiated with two nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines by array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis. These alterations were confirmed by a parallel analysis with the data from the gene expression microarray and were validated by quantitative PCR. Clinical association of the defined target genes was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization on 48 metastatic tumors.
RESULTS: A high percentage of genes were consistently altered in dosage and expression levels with gain on 3q26.2-q26.32 and losses on 3p12.3-p14.2 and 9p21.3-p23. Six candidate genes, GPR160 (3q26.2-q27), SKIL (3q26), ADAMTS9 (3p14.2-p14.3), LRIG1 (3p14), MPDZ (9p22-p24), and ADFP (9p22.1) were validated by quantitative PCR. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies revealed amplification of GPR160 (in 25% of cases) and SKIL (33%); and deletion of ADAMTS9 (30%), LRIG1 (35%), MPDZ (15%), and ADFP (15%). Clinical association analyses indicated a poor survival rate with genetic alterations at the defined 3p deletion (P = 0.0012) and the 3q amplification regions (P = 0.0114).
CONCLUSION: The combined microarray technologies suggested novel candidate oncogenes, amplification of GPR160 and SKIL at 3q26.2-q26.32, and deletion of tumor suppressor genes ADAMTS9 and LRIG1 at 3p12.3-p14.2. Altered expression of these genes may be responsible for malignant progression and could be used as potential markers for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Viloria CG, Obaya AJ, Moncada-Pazos A, et al.
Genetic inactivation of ADAMTS15 metalloprotease in human colorectal cancer.
Cancer Res. 2009; 69(11):4926-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinases have been traditionally linked to cancer dissemination through their ability to degrade most extracellular matrix components, thus facilitating invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. However, recent functional studies have revealed that some metalloproteases, including several members of the ADAMTS family, also exhibit tumor suppressor properties. In particular, ADAMTS1, ADAMTS9, and ADAMTS18 have been found to be epigenetically silenced in malignant tumors of different sources, suggesting that they may function as tumor suppressor genes. Herein, we show that ADAMTS15 is genetically inactivated in colon cancer. We have performed a mutational analysis of the ADAMTS15 gene in human colorectal carcinomas, with the finding of four mutations in 50 primary tumors and 6 colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, functional in vitro and in vivo studies using HCT-116 and SW-620 colorectal cancer cells and severe combined immunodeficient mice have revealed that ADAMTS15 restrains tumor growth and invasion. Furthermore, the presence of ADAMTS15 in human colorectal cancer samples showed a negative correlation with the histopathologic differentiation grade of the corresponding tumors. Collectively, these results provide evidence that extracellular proteases, including ADAMTS15, may be targets of inactivating mutations in human cancer and further validate the concept that secreted metalloproteases may show tumor suppressor properties.

Yaykasli KO, Oohashi T, Hirohata S, et al.
ADAMTS9 activation by interleukin 1 beta via NFATc1 in OUMS-27 chondrosarcoma cells and in human chondrocytes.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2009; 323(1-2):69-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
ADAMTS9 is a member of the disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) genes, with aggrecan-degrading activity. It has also been characterized to be reactive and highly activated ADAMTS by IL-1 beta in both chondrosarcoma cells and human chondrocytes (Demircan et al. Arthritis Rheum 52:1451-1460, 2005). In order to understand the regulation of ADAMTS9 gene expression a functional 3.0 kb human ADAMTS9 promoter has been cloned and characterized. A sequence analysis of the promoter revealed the presence of putative binding sites for Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT), which is commonly found in the ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 promoters. NFATc1 was up-regulated in an activated form by IL-1 beta in human chondrocytes. The IL-1 beta inducible ADAMTS9 expression was inhibited by NFAT inhibitors, FK506 and 11Arg (11R)-VIVIT. Furthermore, direct binding of NFATc1 on distal and proximal promoters of ADAMTS9 was demonstrated by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Promoter-reporter assays supported those results. These findings may provide a better understanding of the regulation of ADAMTS9 expression induced by inflammatory cytokines.

Lung HL, Lo PHY, Xie D, et al.
Characterization of a novel epigenetically-silenced, growth-suppressive gene, ADAMTS9, and its association with lymph node metastases in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2008; 123(2):401-408 [PubMed] Related Publications
By using a functional complementation approach, suppression of tumorigenicity was observed after transfer of intact or truncated copies of chromosome 3 into a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) HONE1 cell line. The extra exogenous chromosome 3 in the microcell hybrids (MCHs) significantly extended the lag period of tumor formation, which may be associated with loss or inactivation of wild type alleles from the normal donor chromosome 3. Representative tumors, which grew in nude mice were reconstituted into culture and expanded as tumor segregants (TSs). In our study, a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif 9 (ADAMTS9), a gene mapping to 3p14.2, was identified to be critically associated with tumor suppression in NPC. Gene expression analysis showed that ADAMTS9 was either not expressed or was downregulated in HONE1 cells, TSs and NPC cell lines. The mechanism of ADAMTS9 gene inactivation in the NPC cell lines and tissues was attributed to promoter hypermethylation. Using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemical staining, 31 of 66 (47%) of the NPC cases showed downregulated or absence of ADAMTS9 expression. ADAMTS9 expression was downregulated or lost in 17 of 23 (73.9%) lymph node metastatic NPC specimens, which was significantly higher than in 14 of 43 (32.6%) primary tumors. After transfection of the ADAMTS9 gene into 7 NPC cell lines, a dramatic reduction of colony forming ability was observed. These findings support ADAMTS9 as a putative tumor suppressor gene in vivo in NPC that is significantly associated with lymph node metastases.

Keating DT, Sadlier DM, Patricelli A, et al.
Microarray identifies ADAM family members as key responders to TGF-beta1 in alveolar epithelial cells.
Respir Res. 2006; 7:114 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The molecular mechanisms of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) remain elusive. Transforming Growth Factor beta 1(TGF-beta1) is a key effector cytokine in the development of lung fibrosis. We used microarray and computational biology strategies to identify genes whose expression is significantly altered in alveolar epithelial cells (A549) in response to TGF-beta1, IL-4 and IL-13 and Epstein Barr virus. A549 cells were exposed to 10 ng/ml TGF-beta1, IL-4 and IL-13 at serial time points. Total RNA was used for hybridisation to Affymetrix Human Genome U133A microarrays. Each in vitro time-point was studied in duplicate and an average RMA value computed. Expression data for each time point was compared to control and a signal log ratio of 0.6 or greater taken to identify significant differential regulation. Using normalised RMA values and unsupervised Average Linkage Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, a list of 312 extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins or modulators of matrix turnover was curated via Onto-Compare and Gene-Ontology (GO) databases for baited cluster analysis of ECM associated genes. Interrogation of the dataset using ontological classification focused cluster analysis revealed coordinate differential expression of a large cohort of extracellular matrix associated genes. Of this grouping members of the ADAM (A disintegrin and Metalloproteinase domain containing) family of genes were differentially expressed. ADAM gene expression was also identified in EBV infected A549 cells as well as IL-13 and IL-4 stimulated cells. We probed pathologenomic activities (activation and functional activity) of ADAM19 and ADAMTS9 using siRNA and collagen assays. Knockdown of these genes resulted in diminished production of collagen in A549 cells exposed to TGF-beta1, suggesting a potential role for these molecules in ECM accumulation in IPF.

Lo PH, Leung AC, Kwok CY, et al.
Identification of a tumor suppressive critical region mapping to 3p14.2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and studies of a candidate tumor suppressor gene, ADAMTS9.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(1):148-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
A gene critical to esophageal cancer has been identified. Functional studies using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer of intact and truncated donor chromosomes 3 into an esophageal cancer cell line and nude mouse tumorigenicity assays were used to identify a 1.61 Mb tumor suppressive critical region (CR) mapping to chromosome 3p14.2. This CR is bounded by D3S1600 and D3S1285 microsatellite markers. One candidate tumor suppressor gene, ADAMTS9, maps to this CR. Further studies showed normal expression levels of this gene in tumor-suppressed microcell hybrids, levels that were much higher than observed in the recipient cells. Complete loss or downregulation of ADAMTS9 gene expression was found in 15 out of 16 esophageal carcinoma cell lines. Promoter hypermethylation was detected in the cell lines that do not express this gene. Re-expression of ADAMTS9 was observed after demethylation drug treatment, confirming that hypermethylation is involved in gene downregulation. Downregulation of ADAMTS9 was also found in 43.5 and 47.6% of primary esophageal tumor tissues from Hong Kong and from the high-risk region of Henan, respectively. Thus, this study identifies and provides functional evidence for a CR associated with tumor suppression on 3p14.2 and provides the first evidence that ADAMTS9, mapping to this region, may contribute to esophageal cancer development.

Demircan K, Hirohata S, Nishida K, et al.
ADAMTS-9 is synergistically induced by interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha in OUMS-27 chondrosarcoma cells and in human chondrocytes.
Arthritis Rheum. 2005; 52(5):1451-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To compare induction of the aggrecanases (ADAMTS-1, ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5, ADAMTS-8, ADAMTS-9, and ADAMTS-15) by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in chondrocyte-like OUMS-27 cells and human chondrocytes, and to determine the mechanism of induction of the most responsive aggrecanase gene.
METHODS: OUMS-27 cells were stimulated for different periods of time and with various concentrations of IL-1beta and/or TNFalpha. Human chondrocytes obtained from osteoarthritic joints and human skin fibroblasts were also stimulated with IL-1beta and/or TNFalpha. Total RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed, and analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Northern blotting. ADAMTS-9 protein was examined by Western blotting, and the role of the MAPK signaling pathway for ADAMTS9 induction in IL-1beta-stimulated OUMS-27 cells was investigated.
RESULTS: IL-1beta increased messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of ADAMTS4, ADAMTS5, and ADAMTS9 but not ADAMTS1 and ADAMTS8. The fold increase for ADAMTS9 mRNA was greater than that for mRNA of the other aggrecanase genes. The increase of ADAMTS9 mRNA by IL-1beta stimulation was greater in chondrocytes than in fibroblasts. The combination of IL-1beta and TNFalpha had a synergistic effect, resulting in a considerable elevation in the level of ADAMTS9 mRNA. ADAMTS-9 protein was also induced in IL-1beta-stimulated OUMS-27 cells. The MAPK inhibitors SB203580 and PD98059 decreased ADAMTS9 up-regulation in OUMS-27 cells.
CONCLUSION: ADAMTS9 is an IL-1beta- and TNFalpha-inducible gene that appears to be more responsive to these proinflammatory cytokines than are other aggrecanase genes. Furthermore, these cytokines had a synergistic effect on ADAMTS9. Together with the known ability of ADAMTS-9 to proteolytically degrade aggrecan and its potential to cleave other cartilage molecules, the data suggest that ADAMTS-9 may have a pathologic role in arthritis.

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