Gene Summary

Gene:GPX3; glutathione peroxidase 3
Aliases: GPx-P, GSHPx-3, GSHPx-P
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the glutathione peroxidase family, members of which catalyze the reduction of organic hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by glutathione, and thereby protect cells against oxidative damage. Several isozymes of this gene family exist in vertebrates, which vary in cellular location and substrate specificity. This isozyme is secreted, and is abundantly found in plasma. Downregulation of expression of this gene by promoter hypermethylation has been observed in a wide spectrum of human malignancies, including thyroid cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic myeloid leukemia. This isozyme is also a selenoprotein, containing the rare amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) at its active site. Sec is encoded by the UGA codon, which normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTRs of selenoprotein mRNAs contain a conserved stem-loop structure, designated the Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element, that is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon, rather than as a stop signal. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:glutathione peroxidase 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Prostate Cancer
  • GPX3
  • Azacitidine
  • Gene Silencing
  • Research Design
  • Decitabine
  • Selenium
  • Lung Cancer
  • Down-Regulation
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Epigenetics
  • Serum Amyloid P-Component
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • DNA Methylation
  • CpG Islands
  • Up-Regulation
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Thioredoxin Reductase 1
  • Survival Rate
  • Selenoproteins
  • Chromosome 5
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Troglitazone
  • Taiwan
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Transcription Factors
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • beta Catenin
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Genotype
  • Uterine Myomectomy
  • Promoter Regions
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: GPX3 (cancer-related)

Zhou C, Pan R, Li B, et al.
GPX3 hypermethylation in gastric cancer and its prognostic value in patients aged over 60.
Future Oncol. 2019; 15(11):1279-1289 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: This study investigated the association between GPX3 methylation and gastric cancer (GC), and explored its prognostic value in patients undergoing radical gastrectomy.
MATERIALS & METHODS: The methylation levels of tumor and paracancerous tissues were detected by quantitative methylation-specific PCR method.
RESULTS: GPX3 was hypermethylated in GC (p = 4E-4), and was specific for patients with lymphatic metastasis (+), tumor invasion depth >3 cm and patients with poor differentiation. Additionally, GPX3 hypermethylation predicts a tumor recurrence in patients aged >60 (p = 0.019). Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) further confirmed GPX3 hypermethylation (cg21504918: -0.08 vs -0.25, p = 0.001). Additionally, TCGA showed an inverse correlation between GPX3 methylation and expression (p = 7E-18, r = -0.427). Data analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database showed that 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine demethylating agent increased GPX3 expression (fold-change >2.19, p = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Our results indicated GPX3 hypermethylation in GC, and predicted a shorter tumor recurrence time in patients aged >60.

Choi JY, An BC, Jung IJ, et al.
MiR-921 directly downregulates GPx3 in A549 lung cancer cells.
Gene. 2019; 700:163-167 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), a major antioxidant enzyme in plasma, catalyzes the reduction of H

Hughes DJ, Kunická T, Schomburg L, et al.
Expression of Selenoprotein Genes and Association with Selenium Status in Colorectal Adenoma and Colorectal Cancer.
Nutrients. 2018; 10(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dietary selenium (Se) intake is essential for synthesizing selenoproteins that are important in countering oxidative and inflammatory processes linked to colorectal carcinogenesis. However, there is limited knowledge on the selenoprotein expression in colorectal adenoma (CRA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, or the interaction with Se status levels. We studied the expression of seventeen Se pathway genes (including fifteen of the twenty-five human selenoproteins) in RNA extracted from disease-normal colorectal tissue pairs, in the discovery phase of sixty-two CRA/CRC patients from Ireland and a validation cohort of a hundred and five CRC patients from the Czech Republic. Differences in transcript levels between the disease and paired control mucosa were assessed by the Mann-Whitney U-test.

An BC, Choi YD, Oh IJ, et al.
GPx3-mediated redox signaling arrests the cell cycle and acts as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer cell lines.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(9):e0204170 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), a major scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plasma, acts as a redox signal modulator. However, the mechanism underlying GPx3-mediated suppression of cancer cell growth is unclear. The aim of this study was to identify these mechanisms with respect to lung cancer. To enhance the redox modulating properties of GPx3, lung cancer cells were subjected to serum starvation for 12 h, resulting in ROS generation in the absence of oxidant treatment. We then investigated whether suppression of tumorigenesis under conditions of oxidative stress was dependent on GPx3. The results showed that GPx3 effectively suppressed proliferation, migration, and invasion of lung cancer cells under oxidative stress. In addition, GPx3 expression led to a significant reduction in ROS production by cancer cells and induced G2/M phase arrest. We also found that inactivation of cyclin B1 significantly suppressed by nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) inactivation in lung cancer cells was dependent on GPx3 expression. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying GPx3-medited suppression of tumor proliferation, we next examined the effect of GPx3-mediated redox signaling on the ROS-MKP3-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)-NF-κB-cyclin B1 pathway and found that GPx3 strongly suppressed activation of the Erk-NF-κB-cyclin B1 signaling cascade by protecting MKP3 (an Erk-specific phosphatase) from the effects of ROS. Thus, this study demonstrates for the first time that the GPx3 suppresses proliferation of lung cancer cells by modulating redox-mediated signals.

Zhang H, Zhao W, Gu D, et al.
Association of Antioxidative Enzymes Polymorphisms with Efficacy of Platin and Fluorouracil-Based Adjuvant Therapy in Gastric Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(6):2247-2257 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Imbalance of oxidative/antioxidative enzymes in cells is associated with carcinogenesis and cancer cell chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical significance of potentially functional single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) in antioxidative enzymes, GPxs and CAT, in stages II and III gastric cancer patients.
METHODS: A total of 591 gastric cancer patients who had radical gastrectomy were recruited. 207 patients received platinum and fluorouracil-based (PF-based) adjuvant chemotherapy and 384 patients were untreated. GPx1 rs1050450, GPx2 rs4902346, GPx3 rs736775, rs3828599 and CAT rs769218 were genotyped in the DNA samples extracted from paraffin-embedded tumor tissue.
RESULTS: CAT rs769218 was significantly correlated with the overall survival (OS) in the dominant model (P = 0.014). Multivariate analysis revealed that CAT rs769218 GA/AA (HR, 0.715; 95%CI, 0.562-0.910, P = 0.006) was an independent prognostic marker indicating improved survival. After adjustments, GPx3 rs736775 TC/CC was significantly associated with improved OS (HR, 0.621; 95%CI, 0.399-0.965; P=0.034) in patients treated with PF-based adjuvant chemotherapy, and CAT rs769218 GA/AA was significantly associated with improved OS (HR, 0.646; 95% CI, 0.482-0.864; P = 0.003) in the untreated patients. PF-based chemotherapy significantly decreased risk of death for patients carrying GPx3 rs736775 TC/CC and age ≤ 60 years or with diffused type adenocarcinoma compared to surgery alone.
CONCLUSION: our findings suggested CAT rs769218 and GPx3 rs736775 may be considered as prognostic markers in gastric cancer. Patient stratification by GPx3 rs736775 and conventional pathological parameters may provide additional predictive information in treatment decision-making.

Pedro NF, Biselli JM, Maniglia JV, et al.
Candidate Biomarkers for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Differential Expression of Oxidative Stress-Related Genes
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(5):1343-1349 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Alteration in the biotransformation of exogenous compounds can result in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can predispose cells to malignant transformation in the head and neck. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of genes involved in antioxidant metabolism in the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: The expression of eighty-four genes was evaluated in OSCC and non-tumor tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using the TaqMan Gene Expression Array. The biological mechanisms related to the differentially expressed genes were investigated using Gene – NCBI, KEGG, UNIPROT and REACTOME databases. Results: Twenty-one genes encoding enzymes involved in antioxidant metabolism were differentially expressed in the OSCC case. Four genes (ATOX1, PRDX4, PRNP, and SOD2) were up-regulated, and seventeen (ALOX12, CAT, CSDE1, DHCR24, DUOX1, DUOX2, EPHX2, GLRX2, GPX3, GSR, GSTZ1, MGST3, PRDX1, OXR1, OXSR1, SOD1, and SOD3) were down-regulated. We identified 14 possible novel biomarkers for OSCC. The differentially expressed genes appeared related to important biological processes involved in carcinogenesis, such as inflammation, angiogenesis, apoptosis, genomic instability, invasion, survival, and cell proliferation. Conclusions: Our study identified novel biomarkers which might warrant further investigation regarding OSCC pathogenesis since the altered expression in the genes can modulate biological processes related to oxidative stress and predispose cells to malignant transformation in the oral cavity.

Gong Y, Pu W, Jin H, et al.
Quantitative proteomics of CSF reveals potential predicted biomarkers for extranodal NK-/T-cell lymphoma of nasal-type with ethmoidal sinus metastasis.
Life Sci. 2018; 198:94-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Extranodal natural killer cell/T-cell lymphoma of nasal-type (NKTCL) is an aggressive human lymphoma, but its predicted biomarkers after chemotherapy are less known. The aim of this study is to find some potential predicted biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of NKTCL patients with ethmoidal sinus metastasis (NESM).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CSF samples were obtained from NKTCL patients with NESM before and after chemotherapy from Cancer Center of West China Hospital. Comparative proteomic profiling using label-free method was performed to characterize the fold change of proteins in NESM patients.
KEY FINDING: In this study, 102 proteins with <1% false discovery rate in CSF of NKTCL with NESM patients were quantified. Furthermore, significantly reduced IGFBP2, SERP1NC1, AMBP and GPX3, as well as dramatically increased CPE levels were observed in the CSF of NKTCL patients after cytarabine chemotherapy.
SIGNIFICANCE: IGFBP2, SERP1NC1, AMBP, GPX3 and CPE together or alone have a potential to be predicted indicators of NKTCL with NESM in response to chemotherapy.

Li SM, Chen CH, Chen YW, et al.
Upregulation of CISD2 augments ROS homeostasis and contributes to tumorigenesis and poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):11893 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CISD2 is a redox-sensitive gene critical for normal development and mitochondrial integrity. CISD2 was known to have aberrant expression in several types of human cancers. However, its relation with lung cancer is still not clear. In this study we found CISD2 mRNA was significantly upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) samples, compared with their adjacent normal counterparts, and was correlated with tumor stage, grade, and prognosis based on analysis of clinical specimens-derived expression data in public domain and our validation assay. Cell based assay indicated that CISD2 expression regulated accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), polarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as cell viability, apoptosis, invasiveness, and tumorigenicity. In addition, CISD2 expression was found significantly correlated with stress response/redox signaling genes such as EGR1 and GPX3, while such correlations were also found valid in many public domain data. Taken together, upregulation of CISD2 is involved in an increased antioxidant capacity in response to elevated ROS levels during the formation and progression of lung ADC. The molecular mechanism underlying how CISD2 regulates ROS homeostasis and augments malignancy of lung cancer warrants further investigations.

Shin J, Song SY, Ahn HS, et al.
Integrative analysis for the discovery of lung cancer serological markers and validation by MRM-MS.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(8):e0183896 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes approximately 80% of all diagnosed lung cancers, and diagnostic markers detectable in the plasma/serum of NSCLC patients are greatly needed. In this study, we established a pipeline for the discovery of markers using 9 transcriptome datasets from publicly available databases and profiling of six lung cancer cell secretomes. Thirty-one out of 312 proteins that overlapped between two-fold differentially expressed genes and identified cell secretome proteins were detected in the pooled plasma of lung cancer patients. To quantify the candidates in the serum of NSCLC patients, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) was performed for five candidate biomarkers. Finally, two potential biomarkers (BCHE and GPx3; AUC = 0.713 and 0.673, respectively) and one two-marker panel generated by logistic regression (BCHE/GPx3; AUC = 0.773) were identified. A validation test was performed by ELISA to evaluate the reproducibility of GPx3 and BCHE expression in an independent set of samples (BCHE and GPx3; AUC = 0.630 and 0.759, respectively, BCHE/GPx3 panel; AUC = 0.788). Collectively, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using our pipeline for marker discovery and our MRM-MS platform for verifying potential biomarkers of human diseases.

Wieczorek E, Jablonowski Z, Tomasik B, et al.
Different Gene Expression and Activity Pattern of Antioxidant Enzymes in Bladder Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):841-848 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role in and contribution of antioxidant enzymes to bladder cancer (BC) etiology and recurrence after transurethral resection (TUR). We enrolled 40 patients with BC who underwent TUR and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The analysis was performed at diagnosis and recurrence, taking into account the time of recurrence. Gene expression of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) was determined in peripheral blood leukocytes. The activity of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) was examined in plasma, and GPX1 and copper-zinc containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in erythrocytes. SOD2 and GPX1 expression and GPX1 and SOD1 activity were significantly higher in patients at diagnosis of BC in comparison to controls. In patients who had recurrence earlier than 1 year from TUR, CAT and SOD2 expression was lower (at diagnosis p=0.024 and p=0.434, at recurrence p=0.022 and p=0.010), while the GPX1 and GPX3 activity was higher (at diagnosis p=0.242 and p=0.394, at recurrence p=0.019 and p=0.025) compared to patients with recurrence after 1 year from TUR. This study revealed that the gene expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes are elevated in blood of patients with BC, although a low expression of CAT might contribute to the recurrence of BC, in early prognosis.

Lan X, Xing J, Gao H, et al.
Decreased Expression of Selenoproteins as a Poor Prognosticator of Gastric Cancer in Humans.
Biol Trace Elem Res. 2017; 178(1):22-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to analyze the selenoprotein expression levels in gastric cancer patients. We enrolled 40 patients (29 males, 11 females) who were recently diagnosed with gastric cancer and 50 healthy people (30 males, 20 females) as controls. The expression of 25 selenoprotein genes (Dio1, Dio2, Dio3, Gpx1, Gpx2, Gpx3, Gpx4, Gpx6, SelH, SelI, SelK, SelM, SelN, SelO, SelP, SelS, SelT, SelV, SelW, SelX, Sel15, Sps2, TR1, TR2, and TR3) in human gastric cancer tissues, para-carcinoma tissues, adjacent normal gastric tissues, erythrocytes, and lymphocytes in the gastric cancer group and healthy control group was analyzed by qRT-PCR. Here, we showed that among the 25 selenoproteins, 13 selenoproteins in erythrocytes (Gpx1, Gpx4, Sel15, TR1, TR2, SelH, SelK, SelM, SelO, SelS, SelV, SelW, and Sps2), 15 selenoproteins in lymphocytes (Gpx1, Gpx4, Sel15, TR1, TR2, SelH, SelK, SelN, SelO, SelS, SelT, SelV, SelX, SelW, and Sps2) and 13 selenoproteins in gastric cancer and para-carcinoma tissues (Dio1, Dio2, Dio3, Gpx1, Gpx4, Sel15, SelH, SelK, SelM, SelS, SelT, SelW, and Sps2) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the gastric cancer group compared to the control group. In summary, the decreasing expression of selenoprotein genes in gastric cancer patients play an important role in the gastric cancer, although further studies are needed to better understand our findings.

Pelosof L, Yerram S, Armstrong T, et al.
GPX3 promoter methylation predicts platinum sensitivity in colorectal cancer.
Epigenetics. 2017; 12(7):540-550 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic control of gene expression is a major determinant of tumor phenotype and has been found to influence sensitivity to individual chemotherapeutic agents. Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3, plasma glutathione peroxidase) is a key component of cellular antioxidant regulation and its gene has been reported to be methylated in specific tumor types. GPX3 role in oxidative damage has been associated with sensitivity to platinums in other tumors but its importance in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been determined. We examined the role of GPX3 methylation in colorectal carcinoma in determining sensitivity to platinum drugs using primary tumor specimens, cell lines, knockdown cell lines, and tumor cell line xenografts. We find GPX3 promoter region methylation in approximately one third of CRC samples and GPX3 methylation leads to reduced GPX3 expression and increased oxaliplatin and cisplatin sensitivity. In contrast, in cell lines with high baseline levels of GPX3 expression or with the ability to increase GPX3 expression, platinum resistance is increased. The cisplatin IC

Zhou JD, Lin J, Zhang TJ, et al.
GPX3 methylation in bone marrow predicts adverse prognosis and leukemia transformation in myelodysplastic syndrome.
Cancer Med. 2017; 6(1):267-274 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic inactivation of GPX3 has been identified in various cancers including leukemia. Moreover, aberrant DNA methylation was also found as a dominant mechanism of disease progression in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). This study intended to explore GPX3 promoter methylation and its clinical relevance in 110 patients with MDS. GPX3 methylation was examined by real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR (RQ-MSP) and bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP). GPX3 methylation was identified in 15% (17/110) MDS patients, and significantly higher than controls, and lower than acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients (P = 0.024 and 0.041). GPX3 methylated patients had older age and higher frequency of DNMT3A mutation (P = 0.015 and 0.066). Cases with GPX3 methylation showed significantly shorter overall survival (OS) time than those with GPX3 unmethylation analyzed with Kaplan-Meier analysis (P = 0.012). Moreover, Cox regression analysis revealed that GPX3 methylation might act as an independent prognostic indicator in MDS (HR = 1.847, P = 0.072). GPX3 methylation density was significantly increased during the progression from MDS to secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) in three follow-up paired patients. Our study concludes that GPX3 methylation in bone marrow is associated with adverse prognosis and leukemia transformation in MDS.

Kalatskaya I
Overview of major molecular alterations during progression from Barrett's esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016; 1381(1):74-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) develops in the sequential transformation of normal epithelium into metaplastic epithelium, called Barrett's esophagus (BE), then to dysplasia, and finally cancer. BE is a common condition in which normal stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus is replaced with an intestine-like columnar epithelium, and it is the most prominent risk factor for EAC. This review aims to impartially systemize the knowledge from a large number of publications that describe the molecular and biochemical alterations occurring over this progression sequence. In order to provide an unbiased extraction of the knowledge from the literature, a text-mining methodology was used to select genes that are involved in the BE progression, with the top candidate genes found to be TP53, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, CDH1, GPX3, and NOX5. In addition, sample frequencies across analyzed patient cohorts at each stage of disease progression are summarized. All six genes are altered in the majority of EAC patients, and accumulation of alterations correlates well with the sequential progression of BE to cancer, indicating that the text-mining method is a valid approach for gene prioritization. This review discusses how, besides being cancer drivers, these genes are functionally interconnected and might collectively be considered a central hub of BE progression.

Chen H, Zheng Z, Kim KY, et al.
Hypermethylation and downregulation of glutathione peroxidase 3 are related to pathogenesis of melanoma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2737-2744 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a crucial antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) has been found to be frequently repressed in many cancers due to promoter hypermethylation and is known as a possible tumor suppressor gene. In the present study, we investigated whether promoter hypermethylation of GPX3 and its repression are present in melanoma and, if so, whether GPX3 downregulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of melanoma. Our results revealed methylation of GPX3 and downregulation of its expression in both melanoma cell lines and surgical melanoma tissue samples. In melanoma cell lines, GPX3 expression was restored by treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine both in mRNA and protein levels. Depletion of GPX3 was found to increase the proliferative ability, motility, and invasiveness of melanoma cells. Moreover, negative expression of GPX3 was related to poor prognosis in melanoma patients. These results suggest that methylation-mediated GPX3 repression may have critical implications for melanoma pathogenesis.

Guilleret I, Losi L, Chelbi ST, et al.
DNA methylation profiling of esophageal adenocarcinoma using Methylation Ligation-dependent Macroarray (MLM).
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016; 479(2):231-237 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most types of cancer cells are characterized by aberrant methylation of promoter genes. In this study, we described a rapid, reproducible, and relatively inexpensive approach allowing the detection of multiple human methylated promoter genes from many tissue samples, without the need of bisulfite conversion. The Methylation Ligation-dependent Macroarray (MLM), an array-based analysis, was designed in order to measure methylation levels of 58 genes previously described as putative biomarkers of cancer. The performance of the design was proven by screening the methylation profile of DNA from esophageal cell lines, as well as microdissected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Using the MLM approach, we identified 32 (55%) hypermethylated promoters in EAC, and not or rarely methylated in normal tissues. Among them, 21promoters were found aberrantly methylated in more than half of tumors. Moreover, seven of them (ADAMTS18, APC, DKK2, FOXL2, GPX3, TIMP3 and WIF1) were found aberrantly methylated in all or almost all the tumor samples, suggesting an important role for these genes in EAC. In addition, dysregulation of the Wnt pathway with hypermethylation of several Wnt antagonist genes was frequently observed. MLM revealed a homogeneous pattern of methylation for a majority of tumors which were associated with an advanced stage at presentation and a poor prognosis. Interestingly, the few tumors presenting less methylation changes had a lower pathological stage. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of MLM for DNA methylation profiling of FFPE tissue samples.

An BC, Jung NK, Park CY, et al.
Epigenetic and Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Glutathione Peroxidase 3 in Lung Cancer Cells.
Mol Cells. 2016; 39(8):631-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), an antioxidant enzyme, acts as a modulator of redox signaling, has immunomodulatory function, and catalyzes the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). GPx3 has been identified as a tumor suppressor in many cancers. Although hyper-methylation of the GPx3 promoter has been shown to down-regulate its expression, other mechanisms by which GPx3 expression is regulated have not been reported. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the mechanisms of GPx3 regulation. GPx3 gene analysis predicted the presence of ten glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) on the GPx3 gene. This result prompted us to investigate whether GPx3 expression is regulated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is implicated in tumor response to chemotherapy. The corticosteroid dexamethasone (Dex) was used to examine the possible relationship between GR and GPx3 expression. Dex significantly induced GPx3 expression in H1299, H1650, and H1975 cell lines, which exhibit low levels of GPx3 expression under normal conditions. The results of EMSA and ChIP-PCR suggest that GR binds directly to GRE 6 and 7, both of which are located near the GPx3 promoter. Assessment of GPx3 transcription efficiency using a luciferase reporter system showed that blocking formation of the GR-GRE complexes reduced luciferase activity by 7-8-fold. Suppression of GR expression by siRNA transfection also induced down-regulation of GPx3. These data indicate that GPx3 expression can be regulated independently via epigenetic or GR-mediated mechanisms in lung cancer cells, and suggest that GPx3 could potentiate glucocorticoid (GC)-mediated anti-inflammatory signaling in lung cancer cells.

Xie W, Yang M, Chan J, et al.
Association of genetic variations of selenoprotein genes, plasma selenium levels, and prostate cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis.
Prostate. 2016; 76(7):691-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic variations in some of the selenoprotein genes, alone or together with an individual's selenium status, may influence risk or progression of prostate cancer. We investigated the impact of genetic variants of selenoproteins on plasma selenium levels and cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis in men with localized prostate cancer (PCa).
METHODS: The study cohort comprised 722 patients seen at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute who had localized/locally advanced PCa (i.e., stage T3 or less, N0, and M0) from 1994 to 2001. Fifty-five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from six selenoprotein genes (TXNRD1, TXNRD2, SEP15, GPX3, SELENBP1, and SEPP1) were analyzed. Logistic regression is used to examine associations of genotypes and plasma selenium levels with risk of aggressive disease, defined as D'Amico intermediate/high risk categories. Step down permutation was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons.
RESULTS: Three hundred and forty-eight patients (48%) had aggressive disease at diagnosis. Two SNPs were associated with cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis (unadjusted P = 0.017 and 0.018, respectively). The odds ratio for aggressive disease in patients carrying TXNRD2 rs1005873-AG/GG genotypes or SELENBP1 rs10788804-AG/AA genotypes was 1.54 (95% CI = 1.08, 2.20) and 1.45 (95% CI = 1.07, 1.98), respectively, compared to TXNRD2 rs1005873-AA or SELENBP1 rs10788804-GG carriers. Four SNPs in TXNRD2 (rs1005873, rs13054371, rs3788310, and rs9606174) and the rs230820 in SEPP1 were associated with plasma selenium levels (unadjusted P < 0.05). Permutation adjusted P-values were not statistically significant for all these comparisons at the cut-off point of 0.05.
CONCLUSION: We identified polymorphisms in selenoproteins that may influence the plasma selenium levels and may be associated with the risk of presenting with aggressive PCa in men with localized or locally advanced PCa. These results should be validated in other independent datasets.

Zmorzyński S, Świderska-Kołacz G, Koczkodaj D, Filip AA
Significance of Polymorphisms and Expression of Enzyme-Encoding Genes Related to Glutathione in Hematopoietic Cancers and Solid Tumors.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:853573 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Antioxidant compounds such as glutathione and its enzymes have become the focus of attention of medical sciences. Glutathione, a specific tripeptide, is involved in many intercellular processes. The glutathione concentration is determined by the number of GAG repeats in gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. GAG polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, berylliosis, diabetes, lung cancer, and nasopharyngeal tumors. Cancer cells with high glutathione concentration are resistant to chemotherapy treatment. The oxidized form of glutathione is formed by glutathione peroxidases (GPXs). The changes in activity of GPX1, GPX2, and GPX3 isoforms may be associated with the development of cancers, for example, prostate cancer or even colon cancer. Detoxification of glutathione conjugates is possible due to activity of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTO1 enzymes increase the risk of developing breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidases (GGTs) are responsible for glutathione degradation. Increased activity of GGT correlates with adverse prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Studies on genes encoding glutathione enzymes are continued in order to determine the correlation between DNA polymorphisms in cancer patients.

Jablonska E, Gromadzinska J, Peplonska B, et al.
Lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity relationship in breast cancer depends on functional polymorphism of GPX1.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:657 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Since targeting oxidative stress markers has been recently recognized as a novel therapeutic target in cancer, it is interesting to investigate whether genetic susceptibility may modify oxidative stress response in cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether genetic polymorphism in the antioxidant enzymes is associated with lipid peroxidation in breast cancer.
METHODS: We conducted a study among Polish women, including 136 breast cancer cases and 183 healthy controls. The analysis included genetic polymorphisms in five redox related genes: GPX1 (rs1050450), GPX4 (rs713041), SOD2 (rs4880), SEPP1 (rs3877899) and SEP15 (rs5859), lipid peroxidation, the activities of antioxidant enzymes determined in blood compartments as well as plasma concentration of selenium - an antioxidant trace element involved in cancer. Genotyping was performed using the Real Time PCR. Lipid peroxidation was expressed as plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and measured with the spectrofluorometric method. Glutathione peroxidase activity was spectrophotometrically determined in erythrocytes (GPx1) and plasma (GPx3) by the use of Paglia and Valentine method. Spectrophotometric methods were employed to measure activity of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in erythrocytes (Beauchamp and Fridovich method) and ceruloplasmin (Cp) in plasma (Sunderman and Nomoto method). Plasma selenium concentration was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
RESULTS: Breast cancer risk was significantly associated with GPX1 rs1050450 (Pro198Leu) polymorphism, showing a protective effect of variant (Leu) allele. As compared to the control subjects, lipid peroxidation and GPx1 activity were significantly higher in the breast cancer cases, whereas ceruloplasmin activity was decreased. After genotype stratification, both GPx1 activity and TBARS concentration were the highest in GPX1 Pro/Pro homozygotes affected by breast cancer. At the same time, there was a significant correlation between the level of lipid peroxidation and GPx1 activity among the cancer subjects possessing GPX1 Pro/Pro genotype (r = 0.3043; p = 0.0089), whereas such a correlation was completely absent in the cases carrying at least one GPX1 Leu allele as well as in the controls (regardless of GPX1 genotype).
CONCLUSIONS: GPX1 polymorphism may be an important factor modifying oxidative stress response in breast cancer subjects. Further studies are needed to elucidate its potential clinical significance.

Lee CH, Pan KL, Tang YC, et al.
LDOC1 silenced by cigarette exposure and involved in oral neoplastic transformation.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):25188-201 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previously, we identified global epigenetic aberrations in smoking-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We hypothesized that cigarette exposure triggers OSCC through alteration of the methylome of oral cells. Here we report that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) significantly changes the genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content and nuclear accumulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNMT3A in human untransformed oral cells. By using integrated analysis of cDNA and methylation arrays of the smoking-associated dysplastic oral cell line and OSCC tumors, respectively, we identified four epigenetic targets--UCHL1, GPX3, LXN, and LDOC1--which may be silenced by cigarette. Results of quantitative methylation-specific PCR showed that among these four genes, LDOC1 promoter was the most sensitive to CSC. LDOC1 promoter hypermethylation and gene silencing followed 3 weeks of CSC treatment. LDOC1 knockdown led to a proliferative response and acquired clonogenicity of untransformed oral cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that LDOC1 was downregulated in 53.3% (8/15) and 57.1% (20/35) of premalignant oral tissues and early stage OSCCs, respectively, whereas 76.5% (13/17) of normal oral tissues showed high LDOC1 expression. Furthermore, the microarray data showed that LDOC1 expression had decreased in the lung tissues of current smokers compared with that in those of never smokers and had significantly decreased in the lung tumors of smokers compared with that in normal lung tissues. Our data suggest that CSC-induced promoter methylation may contribute to LDOC1 downregulation, thereby conferring oncogenic features to oral cells. These findings also imply a tumor suppressor role of LDOC1 in smoking-related malignancies such as OSCC and lung cancer.

Yao DM, Zhou JD, Zhang YY, et al.
GPX3 promoter is methylated in chronic myeloid leukemia.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(6):6450-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypermethylation of GPX3 (glutathione peroxidase 3) promoter has been identified in various cancers. However, the pattern of GPX3 promoter methylation in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) remains unknown. Our study was aimed to investigate the methylation status of GPX3 promoter and its clinical relevance in CML. Real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing PCR was performed to detect the level of GPX3 methylation in 80 CML patients and 44 controls. GPX3 promoter in CML patients was significantly methylated compared with controls (P = 0.007). GPX3 highly methylated patients showed significantly older age than GPX3 lowly methylated patients (P = 0.037). However, patients with GPX3 methylation had significantly lower white blood cells than those with low GPX3 methylation (P = 0.006). BCR-ABL transcript in GPX3 highly methylated patients was a little lower than that in GPX3 lowly methylated patients (P = 0.161). No significant differences were observed in the frequency of GPX3 methylation in the different stages of CML (P = 1.000). Significantly negative correlation was observed between GPX3 expression and GPX3 methylation (R = -0.442, P = 0.004). GPX3 mRNA level in K562 cell line was significantly increased after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment, and GPX3 methylation level was decreased. GPX3 hypermethylation is frequent in CML and is negatively associated with its expression.

Nymoen DA, Hetland Falkenthal TE, Holth A, et al.
Expression and clinical role of chemoresponse-associated genes in ovarian serous carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 139(1):30-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To validate our earlier observation that 11 chemoresistance-associated mRNAs are molecular markers of poor overall survival in ovarian serous carcinoma.
METHODS: Ovarian serous carcinomas (n=112) and solid metastases (n=63; total=175) were analyzed for mRNA expression of APC, BAG3, EGFR, S100A10, ITGAE, MAPK3, TAP1, BNIP3, MMP9, FASLG and GPX3 using quantitative real-time PCR. mRNA expression was studied for association with clinicopathologic parameters and survival. Tumor heterogeneity was assessed in 20 cases with >1 specimen per patient. APC, BAG3, S100A10 and ERK1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry was analyzed in 58 specimens (38 primary carcinomas, 20 metastases).
RESULTS: BAG3 (p=0.013), TAP1 (p=0.014), BNIP3 (p<0.001) and MMP9 (p=0.036) were overexpressed in primary tumors, whereas S100A10 (p=0.027) and FASLG (p=0.006) were overexpressed in metastases. Analysis of patient-matched primary carcinomas and metastases showed overexpression of APC (p=0.022), MAPK3 (p=0.002) and BNIP3 (p=0.004) in the former. In primary carcinomas, higher APC (p=0.003) and MAPK3 (p=0.005) levels were related to less favorable chemoresponse. Higher S100A10 (p=0.029) and MAPK3 (p=0.041) levels were related to primary chemoresistance. Higher BAG3 (p=0.026) and APC (p=0.046) levels in primary carcinomas were significantly related to poor overall survival in univariate, though not in multivariate survival analysis. S100A10 protein expression was related to poor chemoresponse (p=0.002) and shorter overall (p=0.005) and progression-free (p<0.001) survival, the latter finding retained in multivariate analysis (p=0.035).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide evidence of heterogeneity in ovarian serous carcinoma and identify APC, MAPK3, BAG3 and S100A10 as potential biomarkers of poor chemotherapy response and/or poor outcome in this cancer.

Rudenko E, Kondratov O, Gerashchenko G, et al.
Aberrant expression of selenium-containing glutathione peroxidases in clear cell renal cell carcinomas.
Exp Oncol. 2015; 37(2):105-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To find putative diagnostic markers for clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR), bisulfite treatment, methylation-specific PCR, analysis on cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics.
RESULTS: We have found that expression of GPX1, GPX3, and GPX4 genes was decreased in ccRCC. We have shown that the number of alanine (GCG) repeats at the amino terminus of the GPX1 protein is variable. It was reported earlier that an allele that possess 5 alanine repeats is associated with the increased cancer risk. According to the obtained data, the allele with the 5 alanine repeats was also present in a group of healthy donors. Moreover, the frequency of alleles with repeats was similar among ccRCC patients and healthy individuals. We found that decreased expression of GPXs genes was not associated with promoter methylation. To provide other explanation, an analysis on the gene copy number was performed. We have found the heterozygous deletions for GPX1 gene, amplification for GPX3 gene, and no change in gene copy number for GPX4.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis that GPX1, GPX3, and GPX4 genes may play a role in ccRCC cancerogenesis and therefore they might be considered as putative diagnostic markers for ccRCC.

Liu Q, Jin J, Ying J, et al.
Frequent epigenetic suppression of tumor suppressor gene glutathione peroxidase 3 by promoter hypermethylation and its clinical implication in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2015; 16(5):10636-49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The goal of this study is to identify novel tumor suppressor genes silenced by promoter methylation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and discover new epigenetic biomarkers for early cancer detection. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a major cause of DNA damage that correlates with cancer initiation and progression. Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), the only known extracellular glycosylated enzyme of GPXs, is a major scavenger of ROS. GPX3 has been identified as a tumor suppressor in many cancers. However, the role of GPX3 in ccRCC remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate its epigenetic alteration in ccRCC and possible clinicopathological association. In our study, GPX3 methylation and down-regulation were detected in 5 out of 6 ccRCC cell lines and the GPX3 mRNA and protein expression level in ccRCC tumors was significantly lower than in adjacent non-malignant renal tissues (p<0.0001). Treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored GPX3 expression in ccRCC cells. Aberrant methylation was further detected in 77.1% (162/210) of RCC primary tumors, but only 14.6% (7/48) in adjacent non-malignant renal tissues. GPX3 methylation status was significantly associated with higher tumor nuclear grade (p=0.014). Thus, our results showing frequent GPX3 inactivation by promoter hypermethylation in ccRCC may reveal the failure in the cellular antioxidant system in ccRCC and may be associated with renal tumorigenesis. GPX3 tumor specific methylation may serve as a biomarker for early detection and prognosis prediction of ccRCC.

Zhao H, Li J, Li X, et al.
Silencing GPX3 Expression Promotes Tumor Metastasis in Human Thyroid Cancer.
Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2015; 16(4):316-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
The incidence of thyroid cancer has been increased in the past few decades. GPX3 gene is located in 5q23, which is frequently deleted in prostate cancer. Methylation of GPX3 was found frequently in prostate, esophagus, gastric and breast cancers. To detect the expression and analyze the mechanism of GPX3 in human thyroid cancer, 94 cases of primary papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) which coupled with adjacent tissue samples, as well as 15 cases of normal thyroid epithelial tissue samples were collected. Methylation specific PCR (MSP), immunohistochemistry staining, transwell assay and siRNA knockdown technique were employed. GPX3 was methylated in 46.8% (44 of 94) of PTC and methylation of GPX3 was associated with tumor size (P<0.05) and regional lymph node metastasis (P<0.01) significantly. Consistent expression of GPX3 was observed in the adjacent tissue samples and absent/reduced expression of GPX3 was found frequently in primary PTC samples. In 44 cases of methylated cancer samples, loss of/ reduced expression was found in 36 cases and expression of GPX3 was found in 8 cases. In 50 cases of unmethylated PTC samples, loss of/ reduced expression was found in 31 cases and expression of GPX3 was found in 19 cases. Lost/ reduced expression of GPX3 is associated with promoter region hypermethylation (P<0.05). Wnt signaling was inhibited by GPX3 in TPC-1 and FTC133 cells. In conclusion, GPX3 is frequently methylated in human papillary thyroid cancer and the expression of GPX3 was regulated by promoter region methylation. Methylation of GPX3 is related to tumor size and lymph node metastasis. Metastasis of thyroid cancer was suppressed by GPX3 through inhibition Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

Zhao H, Tang J, Xu J, et al.
Selenoprotein Genes Exhibit Differential Expression Patterns Between Hepatoma HepG2 and Normal Hepatocytes LO2 Cell Lines.
Biol Trace Elem Res. 2015; 167(2):236-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to compare messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of selenoprotein genes between hepatoma HepG2 and normal hepatocytes LO2 cell lines. Liver HepG2 and LO2 cells were cultured in 12-well plates under the same condition until cells grew to complete confluence, and then cells were harvested for total RNA and protein extraction. The qPCRs were performed to compare gene expression of 14 selenoprotein genes and 5 cancer signaling-related genes. Enzyme activities were also assayed. The results showed that human hepatoma HepG2 cells grew faster than normal hepatocytes LO2 cells. Among the genes investigated, 10 selenoprotein genes (Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, Selx, Sepp, Sepw1, Sepn1, Selt, Seli, Selh) and 3 cancer signaling-related genes (Bcl-2A, caspase-3, and P38) were upregulated (P < 0.05), while Selo and Bcl-2B were downregulated (P < 0.05) in hepatoma HepG2 cells compared to LO2 cells. Significant correlations were found between selenoprotein genes and the cancer signaling-related genes Caspase3, P53, Bc1-2A, and Bc1-2B. Our results revealed that selenoprotein genes were aberrantly expressed in hepatoma HepG2 cells compared to normal liver LO2 cells, which indicated that those selenoprotein genes may play important roles in the occurrence and development of liver carcinogenesis.

de Cubas AA, Korpershoek E, Inglada-Pérez L, et al.
DNA Methylation Profiling in Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Reveals Diagnostic and Prognostic Markers.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(13):3020-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors, associated with highly variable postoperative evolution. The scarcity of reliable PPGL prognostic markers continues to complicate patient management. In this study, we explored genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the context of PPGL malignancy to identify novel prognostic markers.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We retrospectively investigated DNA methylation patterns in PPGL with and without metastases using high-throughput DNA methylation profiling data (Illumina 27K) from two large, well-characterized discovery (n = 123; 24 metastatic) and primary validation (n = 154; 24 metastatic) series. Additional validation of candidate CpGs was performed by bisulfite pyrosequencing in a second independent set of 33 paraffin-embedded PPGLs (19 metastatic).
RESULTS: Of the initial 86 candidate CpGs, we successfully replicated 52 (47 genes), associated with metastatic PPGL. Of these, 48 CpGs showed significant associations with time to progression even after correcting for SDHB genotype, suggesting their value as prognostic markers independent of genetic background. Hypermethylation of RDBP (negative elongation factor complex member E) in metastatic tumors was further validated by bisulfite pyrosequencing [Δβmetastatic-benign = 0.29, P = 0.003; HR, 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.0; P = 0.018] and may alter transcriptional networks involving (RERG, GPX3, and PDZK1) apoptosis, invasion, and maintenance of DNA integrity.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale study of DNA methylation in metastatic PPGL that identifies and validates prognostic markers, which could be used for stratifying patients according to risk of developing metastasis. Of the three CpGs selected for further validation, one (RDBP) was clearly confirmed and could be used for stratifying patients according to the risk of developing metastases.

Cao S, Yan B, Lu Y, et al.
Methylation of promoter and expression silencing of GPX3 gene in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2015; 39(2):198-204 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Accumulating evidence has identified transcriptional silencing by aberrant methylation of CpG islands as a potential mechanism for the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. The role of aberrant methylation of the GPX3 promoter in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not yet clear. We investigated the association of the status of GPX3 promoter methylation and GPX3 protein expression with the clinicopathological progression of HCC.
METHODOLOGY: Sixty HCC tumor and matched non-cancerous tissues were included in this study, and methylation was examined using MSP. GPX3 mRNA and protein levels were evaluated using RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Clinicopathological data were compiled for correlation analyses.
RESULTS: Among the 60 HCC cases, 76.7% (46/60) showed at elevated DNA methylation and displayed significantly lower levels of GPX3 mRNA and protein expression. Low or undetectable GPX3 protein expression was observed in 10 of 60 tumors. GPX3 promoter methylation was detected in 46 of 60 (76.7%) tumors, while no GPX3 gene promoter methylation was observed in the matched non-cancerous specimens. There was a negative correlation between promoter methylation and GPX3 mRNA levels (P<0.05). Analysis of clinicopathological data revealed that both mRNA and protein were significantly associated with portal tumor thrombosis, metastasis and differentiation. In additional, GPX3 methylation showed a relationship with portal tumor thrombosis, metastasis and differentiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that promoter methylation may be a mechanism for inactivation of GPX3, possibly leading to subsequent carcinogenesis and progression of HCC.

Qi X, Ng KT, Lian QZ, et al.
Clinical significance and therapeutic value of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(22):11103-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: We aimed to investigate the clinical significance of GPx3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to characterize its tumor suppressive role.
METHODS: HCC patients (113) who underwent hepatectomy were recruited to examine the clinical relevance of GPx3. The tumor suppressive role of GPx3 was studied by administration of recombinant GPx3 (rGPx3) or over-expression of GPx3 in HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic value of GPx3 for HCC was further investigated using human induced pluripotent stem cell derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) as its delivery vehicle.
RESULTS: Down-regulation of GPx3 significantly correlated with advanced tumor stage (P = 0.024), venous infiltration (P = 0.043) and poor overall survival (P = 0.007) after hepatectomy. Lower plasma GPx3 in HCC patients was significantly associated with larger tumor size (P = 0.011), more tumor nodules (P = 0.032) and higher recurrence (P = 0.016). Over-expression of GPx3 or administration of rGPx3 significantly inhibited proliferation and invasiveness of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Tumor suppressive activity of GPx3 was mediated through Erk-NFκB-SIP1 pathway. GPx3 could be delivered by hiPSC-MSCs into the tumor and exhibited tumor suppressive activity in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: GPx3 is a tumor suppressor gene in HCC and may possess prognostic and therapeutic value for HCC patients.

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