Gene Summary

Gene:GPX3; glutathione peroxidase 3
Aliases: GPx-P, GSHPx-3, GSHPx-P
Summary:This gene product belongs to the glutathione peroxidase family, which functions in the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide. It contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue at its active site. The selenocysteine is encoded by the UGA codon, which normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of Sec-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), which is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:glutathione peroxidase 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • GPX3
  • Chromosome 5
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Serum Amyloid P-Component
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Taiwan
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Logistic Models
  • Down-Regulation
  • Selenium
  • CpG Islands
  • Promoter Regions
  • Research Design
  • Uterine Myomectomy
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Thioredoxin Reductase 1
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Azacitidine
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Linkage Disequilibrium
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Up-Regulation
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Epigenetics
  • Carcinoma
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genotype
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Gene Silencing
  • Prostate Cancer
  • DNA Methylation
  • Tumor Markers
Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: GPX3 (cancer-related)

Gerstenberger JP, Bauer SR, Van Blarigan EL, et al.
Selenoprotein and antioxidant genes and the risk of high-grade prostate cancer and prostate cancer recurrence.
Prostate. 2015; 75(1):60-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest an inverse association between selenium and risk of prostate cancer. However, randomized controlled trials of selenium supplementation have reported conflicting results. Thus, we examined plasma selenium and selenium-related genes in relation to risk of high-grade prostate cancer and prostate cancer recurrence among men initially diagnosed with non-metastatic disease.
METHODS: We measured plasma selenium and genotyped 73 single nucleotide polymorphisms in TXNRD1, TXNRD2, GPX1, GPX3, GPX4, SEP15, SEPP1, SELENBP1, OGG1, and CAT among 568 men with non-metastatic prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy. We examined associations between plasma selenium, genotypes, and risk of high-grade prostate cancer (Gleason grade ≥8 or 7 with primary score ≥4; n = 111) using logistic regression, and risk of prostate cancer recurrence (61 events; 3.8 y median follow-up) using Cox proportional hazards regression.
RESULTS: Plasma selenium was not associated with risk of high-grade prostate cancer or prostate cancer recurrence. Less common alleles of rs11913319 in TXNRD2 and rs125701 in OGG1 were associated with an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer. We observed associations between the risk of prostate cancer recurrence and multiple SNPs in TXNRD1, TXNRD2, GPX3, and SEP15. These associations were no longer statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons.
CONCLUSIONS: Among men with non-metastatic prostate cancer, there is suggestive evidence that genetic variation in selenoproteins and related antioxidant enzymes may be associated with risk of high-grade disease at diagnosis and prostate cancer recurrence.

Tuft Stavnes H, Nymoen DA, Hetland Falkenthal TE, et al.
APOA1 mRNA expression in ovarian serous carcinoma effusions is a marker of longer survival.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2014; 142(1):51-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We previously described the overexpression of APOA1 and GPX3 in ovarian/peritoneal serous carcinoma compared with breast carcinoma effusions using gene expression array analysis. The objective of the present study was to validate this finding and to analyze the association between these genes and clinicopathologic parameters, including survival, in advanced-stage ovarian serous carcinoma.
METHODS: APOA1 and GPX3 mRNA expression using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was analyzed in 121 effusions (101 ovarian, 20 breast carcinomas) and 85 solid ovarian carcinoma specimens (43 primary carcinomas, 42 metastases).
RESULTS: APOA1 and GPX3 transcript levels were significantly higher in ovarian carcinoma at all anatomic sites compared with breast carcinoma effusions (P < .001). GPX3 mRNA levels were significantly higher in primary carcinomas and solid metastases from patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared with chemo-naïve tumors (P = .016). APOA1 and GPX3 mRNA levels in the entire effusion series were unrelated to clinicopathologic parameters. However, higher APOA1 mRNA levels in primary diagnosis pre-chemotherapy effusions were significantly related to better overall survival (P = .045), a finding that retained its significance in Cox multivariate analysis (P = .016).
CONCLUSIONS: APOA1 and GPX3 mRNA levels on qRT-PCR effectively differentiate ovarian from breast carcinoma. APOA1 may be a novel prognostic marker in metastatic serous carcinoma.

Mohamed MM, Sabet S, Peng DF, et al.
Promoter hypermethylation and suppression of glutathione peroxidase 3 are associated with inflammatory breast carcinogenesis.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2014; 2014:787195 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in breast cancer initiation, promotion, and progression. Inhibition of antioxidant enzymes that remove ROS was found to accelerate cancer growth. Studies showed that inhibition of glutathione peroxidase-3 (GPX3) was associated with cancer progression. Although the role of GPX3 has been studied in different cancer types, its role in breast cancer and its epigenetic regulation have not yet been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate GPX3 expression and epigenetic regulation in carcinoma tissues of breast cancer patients' in comparison to normal breast tissues. Furthermore, we compared GPX3 level of expression and methylation status in aggressive phenotype inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) versus non-IBC invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). We found that GPX3 mRNA and protein expression levels were downregulated in the carcinoma tissues of IBC compared to non-IBC. However, we did not detect significant correlation between GPX3 and patients' clinical-pathological prosperities. Promoter hypermethylation of GPX3 gene was detected in carcinoma tissues not normal breast tissues. In addition, IBC carcinoma tissues showed a significant increase in the promoter hypermethylation of GPX3 gene compared to non-IBC. Our results propose that downregulation of GPX3 in IBC may play a role in the disease progression.

Zhang X, Zheng Z, Yingji S, et al.
Downregulation of glutathione peroxidase 3 is associated with lymph node metastasis and prognosis in cervical cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(6):2587-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) is a member of the glutathione peroxidase family of selenoproteins and is one of the key defensive enzymes against oxidative damages to host cells. Downregulation of GPX3 due to its promoter hypermethylation has been documented in several different types of cancer, indicating that GPX3 functions as a possible tumor suppressor. In the present study, we showed that GPX3 is also significantly downregulated in cervical cancer tissues compared to normal cervical tissues by qRT-PCR analyses and immunohistostainings. GPX3 expression was significantly related to lymph node metastasis and prognosis in cervical cancer patients. Treatment of cervical cancer cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored the expression of GPX3 and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) confirmed the CpG methylation of the GPX3 gene. Our results indicate that promoter methylation is one of the major causes of GPX3 downregulation in cervical cancer and GPX3 could serve as a predictive biomarker for lymph node metastasis and prognosis of cervical cancer.

Maldonado L, Brait M, Loyo M, et al.
GSTP1 promoter methylation is associated with recurrence in early stage prostate cancer.
J Urol. 2014; 192(5):1542-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Recurrent prostate cancer remains a major problem. Staging, grading and prostate specific antigen level at surgery are helpful but still imperfect predictors of recurrence. For this reason there is an imperative need for additional biomarkers that add to the prediction of currently used prognostic factors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the extent of promoter methylation of genes previously reported as aberrantly methylated in prostate cancer (AIM1, APC, CCND2, GPX3, GSTP1, MCAM, RARβ2, SSBP2 and TIMP3) by quantitative fluorogenic methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. We used cancer tissue from a nested case-control study of 452 patients surgically treated for prostate cancer. Recurrence cases and controls were compared and the association between methylation extent and recurrence risk was estimated by logistic regression adjusting for patient age at prostatectomy, prostatectomy year, stage, grade, surgical margins and preprostatectomy prostate specific antigen. All statistical tests were 2-sided with p ≤0.05 considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: The extent of GSTP1 methylation was higher in patients with recurrence than in controls (p = 0.01), especially patients with early disease, ie organ confined or limited extraprostatic extension (p = 0.001). After multivariate adjustment GSTP1 promoter methylation at or above the median was associated with an increased risk of recurrence, including in men with early disease (each p = 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Greater GSTP1 promoter methylation in cancer tissue was independently associated with the risk of recurrence in patients with early prostate cancer. This suggests that GSTP1 promoter methylation may be a potential tissue based recurrence marker.

Farimani Sanoee M, Alizamir T, Faramarzi S, et al.
Effect of myomectomy on endometrial glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) and glycodelin mRNA expression at the time of the implantation window.
Iran Biomed J. 2014; 18(2):60-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In fertile women, glycodelin and glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) genes expression rises during the luteal phase, with a peak occurring during the implantation window. The expression of these genes decreases in women with myomas. To determine whether myomectomy would reverse glycodelin and GPx3 expression, we evaluated the transcript levels of these genes in the endometrium of patients before and after myomectomy.
METHODS: Expression of glycodelin and GPx3 genes were examined prospectively during the midluteal phase in the endometrium obtained from infertile women with myoma (n = 12) before and three months after myomectomy. Endometrial expression of these genes was evaluated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR.
RESULTS: Endometrial glycodelin mRNA expression levels (normalized to 18S rRNA expression) were increased significantly in endometrium of patients after myomectomy (P = 0.02). GPx3 mRNA expression was increased insignificantly after myomectomy (P = 0.43).
CONCLUSION: The results showed that myomectomy increased endometrial glycodelin (significantly) and GPx3 (not significantly) gene expression after 3 months. Study at different times and detecting expression of these genes can reveal more details.

Huang X, Hao C, Shen X, et al.
RUNX2, GPX3 and PTX3 gene expression profiling in cumulus cells are reflective oocyte/embryo competence and potentially reliable predictors of embryo developmental competence in PCOS patients.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013; 11:109 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women. The developmental competence of oocytes and embryos in PCOS patients is reduced to a certain extent (comparing to non-PCOS patients, the high quality embryo rate was decreased by 16% from the data of our centre) during the in vitro fertilization (IVF) process. Cross-talk between the oocyte and cumulus cells is critical for oocyte maturation and embryo competence. In this study, we have evaluated the transcription of specific genes in cumulus cells harvested from pre-ovulatory follicles of PCOS patients before IVF, according to individual oocyte nuclear maturity and developmental competence. Seven genes (RUNX2, PSAT1, ADAMTS9, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and ITGB5) were targeted from our previous cDNA microarray data which isolated genes related to oocyte nuclear maturation in PCOS patients. Two additional genes which had been found to be associated with oocyte maturation or embryo quality in non-PCOS patients (GPX3 and PTX3) were also studied.
METHODS: The mRNA expression levels of cumulus cells were detected by qRT- PCR.
RESULTS: Consistent with our previous cDNA microarray data, with the exception of GPX3 and PTX3, the selected 7 genes were related to oocyte nuclear maturation in PCOS patients. Noticeably, the expression level of RUNX2 was lower in cumulus cells derived from oocytes that could develop into blastocysts than the level of expression from oocytes that could not. The PTX3 expression level was significantly lower in cumulus cells from oocytes with two normal pronuclei than that from oocytes that formed >2 pronuclei (MPN) after fertilization. GPX3 mRNA levels were decreased in cumulus cells isolated from oocytes that developed into blastocysts with high potential development competence.
CONCLUSIONS: Several cumulus cell genes were associated with oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo quality in PCOS patients. RUNX2 and GPX3 are candidate genetic markers in the monitoring of embryo quality for PCOS patients, whereas PTX3 mainly played a role in fertilization process. Together with morphological evaluation, cumulus cells genes may serve as biomarkers of oocyte and embryo selection during the IVF process for PCOS patients and may advance our understanding of PCOS.

Pellatt AJ, Wolff RK, John EM, et al.
SEPP1 influences breast cancer risk among women with greater native american ancestry: the breast cancer health disparities study.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e80554 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Selenoproteins are a class of proteins containing a selenocysteine residue, many of which have been shown to have redox functions, acting as antioxidants to decrease oxidative stress. Selenoproteins have previously been associated with risk of various cancers and redox-related diseases. In this study we evaluated possible associations between breast cancer risk and survival and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the selenoprotein genes GPX1, GPX2, GPX3, GPX4, SELS, SEP15, SEPN1, SEPP1, SEPW1, TXNRD1, and TXNRD2 among Hispanic/Native American (2111 cases, 2597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) (1481 cases, 1586 controls) women in the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study. Adaptive Rank Truncated Product (ARTP) analysis was used to determine both gene and pathway significance with these genes. The overall selenoprotein pathway PARTP was not significantly associated with breast cancer risk (PARTP = 0.69), and only one gene, GPX3, was of borderline significance for the overall population (PARTP =0.09) and marginally significant among women with 0-28% Native American (NA) ancestry (PARTP=0.06). The SEPP1 gene was statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk among women with higher NA ancestry (PARTP=0.002) and contributed to a significant pathway among those women (PARTP=0.04). GPX1, GPX3, and SELS were associated with Estrogen Receptor-/Progesterone Receptor+ status (PARTP = 0.002, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively). Four SNPs (GPX3 rs2070593, rsGPX4 rs2074451, SELS rs9874, and TXNRD1 rs17202060) significantly interacted with dietary oxidative balance score after adjustment for multiple comparisons to alter breast cancer risk. GPX4 was significantly associated with breast cancer survival among those with the highest NA ancestry (PARTP = 0.05) only. Our data suggest that SEPP1 alters breast cancer risk among women with higher levels of NA ancestry.

Lau A, Kollara A, St John E, et al.
Altered expression of inflammation-associated genes in oviductal cells following follicular fluid exposure: implications for ovarian carcinogenesis.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2014; 239(1):24-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Evidence indicates that high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) may originate from lesions within the distal fallopian tube epithelium (FTE). Our previous studies indicate that fallopian tube epithelial cells from carriers of germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes exhibit a pro-inflammatory gene expression signature during the luteal phase, suggesting that delayed resolution of postovulatory inflammatory signaling may contribute to predisposition to this ovarian cancer histotype. To determine whether exposure of tubal epithelial cells to periovulatory follicular fluid alters expression of inflammation-associated genes, we used an ex vivo culture system of bovine oviductal epithelial cells. Oviductal cells grown on collagen IV-coated transwell membranes assumed a cobblestone appearance and immunocytochemistry for FoxJ1 and Pax8 indicated that both ciliated and secretory epithelial cells were maintained in the cultures. Oviductal cells were exposed to human follicular fluid or culture medium for 24 h following which total cellular RNA was extracted at various time points. Expression of genes associated with inflammation was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Exposure to follicular fluid transiently increased the transcript levels of interleukin 8 (IL8) and cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2), and decreased the expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), disabled homolog 2 (DAB2), and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL6 levels were also decreased while those of nicotinomide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) were unaffected. This study demonstrates that periovulatory follicular fluid can act directly upon oviductal epithelial cells to alter gene expression that might contribute to early carcinogenic events. Furthermore, these findings illustrate the potential use of bovine oviductal cells to study signaling events implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis.

Yang ZL, Yang L, Zou Q, et al.
Positive ALDH1A3 and negative GPX3 expressions are biomarkers for poor prognosis of gallbladder cancer.
Dis Markers. 2013; 35(3):163-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancers (GBCs) are highly aggressive cancers with high mortality. However, biological markers for the progression and prognosis of GBC are currently unavailable in the clinic.
OBJECTIVE: To identify biomarkers for predicting GBC metastasis and prognosis.
METHODS: We examined ALDH1A3 and GPX3 expressions in 46 squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinomas (SC/ASC) and 80 adenocarcinomas (AC) by using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Positive ALDH1A3 and negative GPX3 expressions were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and invasion of SC/ASCs and ACs. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that either positive ALDH1A3 (P < 0.001) or negative GPX3 (P < 0.001) expression significantly correlated with decreased overall survival in both SC/ASC and AC patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that positive ALDH1A3 expression or negative GPX3 expression was an independent poor-prognostic predictor in both SC/ASC and AC patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that positive ALDH1A3 and negative GPX3 expressions are closely associated with clinical pathological behaviors and poor prognosis of gallbladder cancer.

de Melo CF, Gigek CO, da Silva JN, et al.
Association of COX2 gene hypomethylation with intestinal type gastric cancer in samples of patients from northern Brazil.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(2):1107-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
To verify the methylation status of THBS1, GPX3, and COX2 genes and to evaluate their association with Helicobacter pylori in gastric adenocarcinomas. Methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme PCR assay was performed in 16 diffuse type gastric cancer samples, 23 intestinal type, and 15 normal stomach tissue. The presence of H. pylori was performed by amplification of the fragment of the 16S rRNA. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's exact test. The hypermethylation of GPX3, THBS1, and COX2 occurred in 18 (n = 7), 5 (n = 2), and 36 % (n = 14) of gastric cancer samples, respectively, whereas in normal samples, it was found in 13, 7, and 67 %. The presence of H. pylori was detected in 67 % of gastric cancer samples and 67 % in normal gastric samples. The methylation of THBS1 and GPX3 was not significantly different between the types of tumors, normal sample, the presence of H. pylori, or clinicopathological variables studied (P > 0.05). However, the methylation status of the gene COX2 is significantly different between normal tissue and intestinal type gastric cancer (P = 0.02). Therefore, our results suggest that the methylation status of the gene COX2 is associated with the intestinal type of gastric cancer.

Kraus S, Hummler S, Toriola AT, et al.
Impact of genetic polymorphisms on adenoma recurrence and toxicity in a COX2 inhibitor (celecoxib) trial: results from a pilot study.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2013; 23(8):428-37 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Chemoprevention trials have shown that celecoxib reduces adenoma recurrence but can cause cardiovascular toxicity. In this pilot study, we evaluated associations between genetic variation in several candidate pathways (e.g. prostaglandin synthesis) and adenoma recurrence and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal toxicities.
METHODS: Genotyping analysis was carried out on 117 Israeli colorectal adenoma patients who participated in the Prevention of Colorectal Sporadic Adenomatous Polyps trial. Reassessment followed after 3 years on celecoxib and after 2 years from termination of treatment with celecoxib. Efficacy (absence of colorectal adenomas) was measured by colonoscopy at years 1, 3, and 5. Toxicities were assessed by investigators during celecoxib treatment and by self-report post-treatment. A linkage disequilibrium-based selection algorithm (r2≥0.90, MAF≥4%) identified 255 tagSNPs in 25 analyzed candidate genes. Genotyping was performed by using Illumina GoldenGate technology.
RESULTS: Multiple genetic variants were associated with adenoma recurrence and toxicity. Genetic variability in COX1, COX2, and ALOX12/15 genes played a role in adenoma recurrence, particularly among patients on placebo. More gene variants (especially variants in PGES, CRP, SRC, and GPX3) were associated with increased risk for cardiovascular toxicity and symptoms, compared with gastrointestinal toxicity and symptoms. The increased risk for cardiovascular toxicity/symptoms associated with the SRC gene variants (rs6017996, rs6018256, rs6018257) ranged from 6.61 (95% confidence interval 1.66-26.36, P<0.01) to 10.71 (95% confidence interval 1.96-58.60, P<0.01).
CONCLUSION: Genetic polymorphisms in multiple inflammation-related genes appear to interact with celecoxib on adenoma recurrence and its attendant toxicity, particularly cardiovascular toxicity/symptoms. Larger studies validating these pharmacogenetic relationships are needed.

Kaiser MF, Johnson DC, Wu P, et al.
Global methylation analysis identifies prognostically important epigenetically inactivated tumor suppressor genes in multiple myeloma.
Blood. 2013; 122(2):219-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Outcome in multiple myeloma is highly variable and a better understanding of the factors that influence disease biology is essential to understand and predict behavior in individual patients. In the present study, we analyzed combined genomewide DNA methylation and gene expression data of patients treated in the Medical Research Council Myeloma IX trial. We used these data to identify epigenetically repressed tumor suppressor genes with prognostic relevance in myeloma. We identified 195 genes with changes in methylation status that were significantly associated with prognosis. Combining DNA methylation and gene expression data led to the identification of the epigenetically regulated tumor modulating genes GPX3, RBP1, SPARC, and TGFBI. Hypermethylation of these genes was associated with significantly shorter overall survival, independent of age, International Staging System score, and adverse cytogenetics. The 4 differentially methylated and expressed genes are known to mediate important tumor suppressive functions including response to chemotherapy (TGFBI), interaction with the microenvironment (SPARC), retinoic acid signaling (RBP1), and the response to oxidative stress (GPX3), which could explain the prognostic impact of their differential methylation. Assessment of the DNA methylation status of the identified genes could contribute to the molecular characterization of myeloma, which is prerequisite for an individualized treatment approach.

Qu Y, Dang S, Hou P
Gene methylation in gastric cancer.
Clin Chim Acta. 2013; 424:53-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.

Wu M, Tu T, Huang Y, Cao Y
Suppression subtractive hybridization identified differentially expressed genes in lung adenocarcinoma: ERGIC3 as a novel lung cancer-related gene.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To understand the carcinogenesis caused by accumulated genetic and epigenetic alterations and seek novel biomarkers for various cancers, studying differentially expressed genes between cancerous and normal tissues is crucial. In the study, two cDNA libraries of lung cancer were constructed and screened for identification of differentially expressed genes.
METHODS: Two cDNA libraries of differentially expressed genes were constructed using lung adenocarcinoma tissue and adjacent nonmalignant lung tissue by suppression subtractive hybridization. The data of the cDNA libraries were then analyzed and compared using bioinformatics analysis. Levels of mRNA and protein were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR) and western blot respectively, as well as expression and localization of proteins were determined by immunostaining. Gene functions were investigated using proliferation and migration assays after gene silencing and gene over-expression.
RESULTS: Two libraries of differentially expressed genes were obtained. The forward-subtracted library (FSL) and the reverse-subtracted library (RSL) contained 177 and 59 genes, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that these genes were involved in a wide range of cellular functions. The vast majority of these genes were newly identified to be abnormally expressed in lung cancer. In the first stage of the screening for 16 genes, we compared lung cancer tissues with their adjacent non-malignant tissues at the mRNA level, and found six genes (ERGIC3, DDR1, HSP90B1, SDC1, RPSA, and LPCAT1) from the FSL were significantly up-regulated while two genes (GPX3 and TIMP3) from the RSL were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). The ERGIC3 protein was also over-expressed in lung cancer tissues and cultured cells, and expression of ERGIC3 was correlated with the differentiated degree and histological type of lung cancer. The up-regulation of ERGIC3 could promote cellular migration and proliferation in vitro.
CONCLUSIONS: The two libraries of differentially expressed genes may provide the basis for new insights or clues for finding novel lung cancer-related genes; several genes were newly found in lung cancer with ERGIC3 seeming a novel lung cancer-related gene. ERGIC3 may play an active role in the development and progression of lung cancer.

Barrett CW, Ning W, Chen X, et al.
Tumor suppressor function of the plasma glutathione peroxidase gpx3 in colitis-associated carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(3):1245-55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
The glutathione peroxidases, a family of selenocysteine-containing redox enzymes, play pivotal roles in balancing the signaling, immunomodulatory, and deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The glutathione peroxidase GPX3 is the only extracellular member of this family, suggesting it may defend cells against ROS in the extracellular environment. Notably, GPX3 hypermethylation and underexpression occur commonly in prostate, gastric, cervical, thyroid, and colon cancers. We took a reverse genetics approach to investigate whether GPX3 would augment inflammatory colonic tumorigenesis, a process characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, comparing Gpx3(-/-) mice in an established two-stage model of inflammatory colon carcinogenesis. Gpx3-deficient mice exhibited an increased tumor number, though not size, along with a higher degree of dysplasia. In addition, they exhibited increased inflammation with redistribution toward protumorigenic M2 macrophage subsets, increased proliferation, hyperactive WNT signaling, and increased DNA damage. To determine the impact of acute gene loss in an established colon cancer line, we silenced GPX3 in human Caco2 cells, resulting in increased ROS production, DNA damage and apoptosis in response to oxidative stress, combined with decreased contact-independent growth. Taken together, our results suggested an immunomodulatory role for GPX3 that limits the development of colitis-associated carcinoma.

Geybels MS, Hutter CM, Kwon EM, et al.
Variation in selenoenzyme genes and prostate cancer risk and survival.
Prostate. 2013; 73(7):734-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: While several studies showed that selenium may prevent prostate cancer (PCa), few studies have evaluated variation in selenoenzyme genes in relation to PCa risk and survival.
METHODS: We studied common variants in seven selenoenzymes genes in relation to risk of PCa and PCa-specific mortality (PCSM). In a population-based case-control study of men of European ancestry (1,309 cases, 1,266 controls), we evaluated 35 common, tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GPX1 (n = 2), GPX2 (n = 4), GPX3 (n = 6), GPX4 (n = 6), SEP15 (n = 4), SEPP1 (n = 6), and TXNRD1 (n = 7) in relation to PCa risk, and among cases, associations between these variants and risk of PCSM. We used logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the relative risk of PCa and PCSM, respectively.
RESULTS: Of the SNPs examined, only GPX1 rs3448 was associated with overall PCa risk with an odds ratio of 0.62 for TT versus CC (95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.88). SNPs in GPX2, GPX3, GPX4, SEP15, and SEPP1 had different risk estimates for PCa in subgroups based on stage and grade. We observed associations between SNPs in GPX4, and TXNRD1 and risk of PCSM. None of these associations, however, remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons.
CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that genetic variation in a subset of selenoenzyme genes may alter risk of PCa and PCSM. These results need validation in additional subsets.

Peng DF, Hu TL, Schneider BG, et al.
Silencing of glutathione peroxidase 3 through DNA hypermethylation is associated with lymph node metastasis in gastric carcinomas.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e46214 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. H. pylori infection, a major risk factor for gastric cancer, generates high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), a plasma GPX member and a major scavenger of ROS, catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides by reduced glutathione. To study the expression and gene regulation of GPX3, we examined GPX3 gene expression in 9 gastric cancer cell lines, 108 primary gastric cancer samples and 45 normal gastric mucosa adjacent to cancers using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Downregulation or silencing of GPX3 was detected in 8 of 9 cancer cell lines, 83% (90/108) gastric cancers samples, as compared to non-tumor adjacent normal gastric samples (P<0.0001). Examination of GPX3 promoter demonstrated DNA hypermethylation (≥ 10% methylation level determined by Bisulfite Pyrosequencing) in 6 of 9 cancer cell lines and 60% of gastric cancer samples (P = 0.007). We also detected a significant loss of DNA copy number of GPX3 in gastric cancers (P<0.001). Treatment of SNU1 and MKN28 cells with 5-Aza-2' Deoxycytidine restored the GPX3 gene expression with a significant demethylation of GPX3 promoter. The downregulation of GPX3 expression and GPX3 promoter hypermethylation were significantly associated with gastric cancer lymph node metastasis (P = 0.018 and P = 0.029, respectively). We also observed downregulation, DNA copy number losses, and promoter hypermethylation of GPX3 in approximately one-third of tumor-adjacent normal gastric tissue samples, suggesting the presence of a field defect in areas near tumor samples. Reconstitution of GPX3 in AGS cells reduced the capacity of cell migration, as measured by scratch wound healing assay. Taken together, the dysfunction of GPX3 in gastric cancer is mediated by genetic and epigenetic alterations, suggesting impairment of mechanisms that regulate ROS and its possible involvement in gastric tumorigenesis and metastasis.

Min SY, Kim HS, Jung EJ, et al.
Prognostic significance of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) down-regulation and correlation with aberrant promoter methylation in human gastric cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(8):3169-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aimed at examining the association of gene silencing and promoter methylation of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) in gastric cancer cells and determined the clinical significance of GPX1 and GPX3 expression loss in gastric cancer tissue.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of mRNA expression was carried out by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Methylation of the GPX1 promoter region was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing, and that of the GPX3 promoter region was analyzed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry of GPX1 and GPX3 in 1,163 resected gastric cancer specimens was performed to assess the associations with clinicopathological parameters.
RESULTS: Reduced GPX1 and GPX3 mRNA expression was associated with promoter methylation in gastric cancer cell lines. A correlation between DNA promoter methylation and loss of GPX1 expression was noted in 16 gastric cancer tissue samples (p=0.005). Loss of GPX1 and GPX3 proteins was found in 24.4% and 30.8% of gastric cancer tissues. Loss of GPX1 expression was significantly associated with advanced gastric cancer (p=0.039) and lymphatic invasion (p=0.010); loss of GPX3 expression was associated with advanced gastric cancer (p<0.001) and lymph node metastasis (p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that low expression of GPX1 was associated with poor cancer-specific survival (p=0.010).
CONCLUSION: Data from this study implicate aberrant hypermethylation of promoter regions of GPX1 and GPX3 as a mechanism for down-regulation of GPX1 and GPX3 mRNA expression in gastric cancer cells. Loss of GPX1 expression was associated with aggressiveness and poor survival in patients with gastric cancer.

Lin HY, Kuo YC, Weng YI, et al.
Activation of silenced tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer cells by a novel energy restriction-mimetic agent.
Prostate. 2012; 72(16):1767-78 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Targeting tumor metabolism by energy restriction-mimetic agents (ERMAs) has emerged as a strategy for cancer therapy/prevention. Evidence suggests a mechanistic link between ERMA-mediated antitumor effects and epigenetic gene regulation.
METHODS: Microarray analysis showed that a novel thiazolidinedione-derived ERMA, CG-12, and glucose deprivation could suppress DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1 expression and reactivate DNA methylation-silenced tumor suppressor genes in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Thus, we investigated the effects of a potent CG-12 derivative, CG-5, vis-à-vis 2-deoxyglucose, glucose deprivation and/or 5-aza-deoxycytidine, on DNMT isoform expression (Western blotting, RT-PCR), DNMT1 transcriptional activation (luciferase reporter assay), and expression of genes frequently hypermethylated in prostate cancer (quantitative real-time PCR). Promoter methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing analysis. SiRNA-mediated knockdown and ectopic expression of DNMT1 were used to validate DNMT1 as a target of CG-5.
RESULTS: CG-5 and glucose deprivation upregulated the expression of DNA methylation-silenced tumor suppressor genes, including GADD45a, GADD45b, IGFBP3, LAMB3, BASP1, GPX3, and GSTP1, but also downregulated methylated tumor/invasion-promoting genes, including CD44, S100A4, and TACSTD2. In contrast, 5-aza-deoxycytidine induced global reactivation of these genes. CG-5 mediated these epigenetic effects by transcriptional repression of DNMT1, which was associated with reduced expression of Sp1 and E2F1. SiRNA-mediated knockdown and ectopic expression of DNMT1 corroborated DNMT1's role in the modulation of gene expression by CG-5. Pyrosequencing revealed differential effects of CG-5 versus 5-aza-deoxycytidine on promoter methylation in these genes.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal a previously uncharacterized epigenetic effect of ERMAs on DNA methylation-silenced tumor suppressor genes, which may foster novel strategies for prostate cancer therapy.

Herault O, Hope KJ, Deneault E, et al.
A role for GPx3 in activity of normal and leukemia stem cells.
J Exp Med. 2012; 209(5):895-901 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
The determinants of normal and leukemic stem cell self-renewal remain poorly characterized. We report that expression of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) positively correlates with the frequency of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in Hoxa9+Meis1-induced leukemias. Compared with a leukemia with a low frequency of LSCs, a leukemia with a high frequency of LSCs showed hypomethylation of the Gpx3 promoter region, and expressed high levels of Gpx3 and low levels of ROS. LSCs and normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) engineered to express Gpx3 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were much less competitive in vivo than control cells. However, progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation was not affected by Gpx3 shRNA. Consistent with this, HSCs overexpressing Gpx3 were significantly more competitive than control cells in long-term repopulation experiments, and overexpression of the self-renewal genes Prdm16 or Hoxb4 boosted Gpx3 expression. In human primary acute myeloid leukemia samples, GPX3 expression level directly correlated with adverse prognostic outcome, revealing a potential novel target for the eradication of LSCs.

Wang H, Luo K, Tan LZ, et al.
p53-induced gene 3 mediates cell death induced by glutathione peroxidase 3.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(20):16890-902 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Expression of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) is down-regulated in a variety of human malignancies. Both methylation and deletion of GPx3 gene underlie the alterations of GPx3 expression in prostate cancer. A strong correlation between the down-regulation of GPx3 expression and progression of prostate cancer and the suppression of prostate cancer xenografts in SCID mice by forced expression of GPx3 suggests a tumor suppression role of GPx3 in prostate cancer. However, the mechanism of GPx3-mediated tumor suppression remains unclear. In this report, GPx3 was found to interact directly with p53-induced gene 3 (PIG3). Forced overexpression of GPx3 in prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC3 as well as immortalized prostate epithelial cells RWPE-1 increased apoptotic cell death. Expression of GPx3(x73c), a peroxidase-negative OPAL codon mutant, in DU145 and PC3 cells also increased cell death. The induced expression of GPx3 in DU145 and PC3 cells resulted in an increase in reactive oxygen species and caspase-3 activity. These activities were abrogated by either knocking down PIG3 or mutating the PIG3 binding motif in GPx3 or binding interference from a peptide corresponding to PIG3 binding motif in GPx3. In addition, UV-treated RWPE-1 cells underwent apoptotic death, which was partially prevented by knocking down GPx3 or PIG3, suggesting that GPx3-PIG3 signaling is critical for UV-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results reveal a novel signaling pathway of GPx3-PIG3 in the regulation of cell death in prostate cancer.

Haug U, Poole EM, Xiao L, et al.
Glutathione peroxidase tagSNPs: associations with rectal cancer but not with colon cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012; 51(6):598-605 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are selenium-dependent enzymes that reduce and, thus, detoxify hydrogen peroxide and a wide variety of lipid hydroperoxides. We investigated tagSNPs in GPX1-4 in relation to colorectal neoplasia in three independent study populations capturing the range of colorectal carcinogenesis from adenoma to cancer. A linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based tagSNP selection algorithm (r(2) ≥ 0.90, MAF ≥ 4%) identified 21 tagSNPs. We used an identical Illumina platform to genotype GPX SNPs in three population-based case-control studies of colon cancer (1,424 cases/1,780 controls), rectal cancer (583 cases/775 controls), and colorectal adenomas (485 cases/578 controls). For gene-level associations, we conducted principal component analysis (PCA); multiple logistic regression was used for single SNPs. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and study center and restricted to non-Hispanic white participants. Analyses of cancer endpoints were stratified by molecular subtypes. Without correction for multiple testing, one polymorphism in GPX2 and three polymorphisms in GPX3 were associated with a significant risk reduction for rectal cancer at α = 0.05, specifically for rectal cancers with TP53 mutations. The associations regarding the three polymorphisms in GPX3 remained statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. The PCA confirmed an overall association of GPX3 with rectal cancer (P = 0.03). No other statistically significant associations were observed. Our data provide preliminary evidence that genetic variability in GPX3 contributes to risk of rectal cancer but not of colon cancer and thus provide additional support for differences in underlying pathogenetic mechanisms for colon and rectal cancer.

Chen B, Rao X, House MG, et al.
GPx3 promoter hypermethylation is a frequent event in human cancer and is associated with tumorigenesis and chemotherapy response.
Cancer Lett. 2011; 309(1):37-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), a plasma antioxidant enzyme, maintains genomic integrity by inactivating reactive oxygen species (ROS), known DNA-damaging agents and mediators of cancer chemotherapy response. In this study, we demonstrate that loss of GPx3 expression by promoter hypermethylation is frequently observed in a wide spectrum of human malignancies. Furthermore, GPx3 methylation correlates with head and neck cancer (HNC) chemoresistance and may serve as a potential prognostic indicator for HNC patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Our findings support the hypothesis that defects in the antioxidant system may contribute to tumorigenesis of a wide spectrum of human malignancies. GPx3 methylation may have implications in chemotherapy response and clinical outcome of HNC patients.

Sekine Y, Osei-Hwedieh D, Matsuda K, et al.
High fat diet reduces the expression of glutathione peroxidase 3 in mouse prostate.
Prostate. 2011; 71(14):1499-509 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High fat diets are known to be a risk factor for prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of high fat diet on mouse prostate gene expression.
METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or high fat diet for 12 weeks. Microarray analyses were performed on mouse ventral prostate (VP) and dorsolateral prostate (DLP), followed by canonical pathway analysis and regulatory network identification. mRNA changes were confirmed by real time PCR.
RESULTS: Approximately 2,125, and 1,194 genes responded significantly to the high fat diet in VP, DLP, respectively. Pathways and networks related to oxidative stress, glutathione metabolism, NRF-mediated oxidative stress response and NF-kappaB were all differentially regulated by high fat diet. Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) mRNA levels were decreased by approximately twofold by high fat diet in all three prostate lobes. In human non-transformed prostate cells (PrSC, PrEC, and BPH-1), cholesterol loading decreased GPx3 expression, and increased H2 O2 levels of culture medium. Troglitazone increased GPx3 expression in three normal prostate cells, and decreased H2 O2 levels. In addition, troglitazone attenuated cholesterol-induced H2 O2 increase. Tissue from prostate cancer biopsies had decreased GPx3 mRNA and its level was inversely related to the Gleason score.
CONCLUSIONS: High fat diet alters pathways related to many genes concerned with oxidative stress. GPx3, a gene identified by this analysis, was found to be down-regulated by high fat diet and appears be decreased in human prostate cancers, suggesting that GPx3 may have a possible role in modulating carcinogenesis. Prostate 71:1499-1509, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Steinbrecher A, Méplan C, Hesketh J, et al.
Effects of selenium status and polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes on prostate cancer risk in a prospective study of European men.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010; 19(11):2958-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between selenium status and prostate cancer risk is still inconclusive. Anticarcinogenic effects of selenium are supposedly mediated through cellular protective and redox properties of selenoenzymes in vivo. We evaluated the association between serum selenium status and prostate cancer risk in a population with relative low selenium concentrations considering effect modification by genetic variants in selenoprotein genes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study of 248 incident prostate cancer cases and 492 matched controls was nested within the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort. Baseline blood samples were analyzed for serum selenium and selenoprotein P concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity. Genotyping was carried out for SEP15 (rs5859, rs540049), SEPP1 (rs3877899, rs7579), GPX1 (rs1050450), and GPX4 (rs713041). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).
RESULTS: The OR for prostate cancer was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79-1.01) per 10 μg/L increase of serum selenium concentration. This association was modified by rs1050450 (C>T) in GPX1 (P(interaction) = 0.03), with carriers of one or two T alleles having a significantly reduced OR of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76-0.99). Furthermore, there was an association between rs7579 genotype in SEPP1 and prostate cancer risk (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.99-2.98).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a role of selenium and polymorphisms in selenoenzymes in prostate cancer etiology, which warrants confirmation in future studies.
IMPACT: These findings might help to explain biological effects of selenium in prostate cancer development in order to overcome inconsistencies arising from former studies.

Lee HJ, Do JH, Bae S, et al.
Immunohistochemical evidence for the over-expression of Glutathione peroxidase 3 in clear cell type ovarian adenocarcinoma.
Med Oncol. 2011; 28 Suppl 1:S522-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) is a member of glutathione peroxidase family, exerting one of the most important cellular defense mechanisms against stress signals, including oxidative damage. In this study, the expression of GPX3 mRNA and protein was analyzed for ovarian cancer tissues to test its applicability as a biomarker that can distinguish the four major histologic types of epithelial ovarian cancer. A public microarray dataset containing 99 ovarian cancer and 4 normal ovary samples was downloaded, and GPX3 mRNA expression was analyzed. The expression of GPX3 protein was measured by immunohistochemical staining in 40 epithelial ovarian cancer tissues, 10 for each of the serous, endometrioid, mucinous, and clear cell type. Histoscores were made from the immunohistostaining, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to quantitate the differences in protein level. Analysis of genomic dataset confirms a GPX3 overexpression in clear cell type ovarian adenocarcinoma compared with normal ovary and 3 other subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer at mRNA level. GPX3 also shows the highest average antibody staining intensities in clear cell type ovarian adenocarcinomas over the other 3 types in immunostaining on tissue arrays. This is the first validation of GPX3 as a clear cell type-specific biomarker in ovarian cancer patients' tissues by immunostaining. GPX3 may serve as an important molecular marker for the diagnosis and molecular understanding of clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.

He Y, Wang Y, Li P, et al.
Identification of GPX3 epigenetically silenced by CpG methylation in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Dig Dis Sci. 2011; 56(3):681-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality in the gastrointestinal tract. Promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes contributes to gene inactivation during development of ESCC.
AIM: To identify novel methylation-silenced genes in ESCC.
METHODS: Genome-wide microarrays were applied to search for genes that were markedly upregulated after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) and that were markedly decreased in tumor tissue compared with paired adjacent nontumor tissue. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, methylation-specific PCR, and bisulfite genomic sequencing were employed to investigate expression and methylation of candidate genes in five human ESCC cell lines, two human immortalized normal esophageal epithelial cell lines, primary ESCC tumor tissues, and paired adjacent nontumor tissues.
RESULTS: GPX3 was selected as a novel candidate hypermethylated gene in ESCC through microarray analysis. In most ESCC cell lines, GPX3 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was downregulated and the CpG island of GPX3 promoter was methylated. Demethylation treatment with 5-Aza-dC restored GPX3 mRNA expression. Methylation of GPX3 promoter was more frequent in ESCC tumor tissues (71.4%) than in adjacent nontumor tissues (10.7%) (P < 0.001), and methylation of GPX3 promoter correlated significantly with GPX3 mRNA downregulation. Finally, GPX3 protein expression was also significantly lower in ESCC tumor tissues than in adjacent nontumor tissues.
CONCLUSION: GPX3 is downregulated through promoter hypermethylation in ESCC, which may be a potential biomarker of ESCC.

Wang JY, Yang IP, Wu DC, et al.
Functional glutathione peroxidase 3 polymorphisms associated with increased risk of Taiwanese patients with gastric cancer.
Clin Chim Acta. 2010; 411(19-20):1432-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) can enhance an antioxidant's capacity and reduce genomic damage caused by oxidants and thus influence tumorigenesis. We investigated the role of GPX3 as a risk of gastric cancer.
METHODS: We first conducted a case-control study to test for the association between 5 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GPX3 and the risk of gastric cancer in Chinese. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the genetic effect with adjustments for age and sex. Functional studies were performed by using the luciferase reporter assay to assess functional consequences of the significant SNPs.
RESULTS: Among five SNPs (rs3763013, rs8177412, rs3805435, rs3828599, and rs2070593) genotyped in 227 cases and 844 controls, 3 SNPs were significant: intronic SNP rs3805435 (OR=0.70, P=0.037), intronic SNP 3828599 (OR=0.68, P=0.025), and 3' UTR SNP rs2070593 (OR=0.48, P=0.001). The two intronic SNPs rs3805435 and SNP rs3828599 were in linkage disequilibrium (D'=0.91).
CONCLUSIONS: The reporter assays showed significant difference in the luciferase expression between protective and risk alleles of 2o intronic SNPs (P=0.004), whereas the 3'UTR SNP did not influence the luciferase expression. The intronic SNPs at GPX3 can influence gene expression leading to an alteration of gastric cancer risk.

Sreekanthreddy P, Srinivasan H, Kumar DM, et al.
Identification of potential serum biomarkers of glioblastoma: serum osteopontin levels correlate with poor prognosis.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010; 19(6):1409-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify serum biomarkers with classification and prognosis utility for astrocytoma, in particular glioblastoma (GBM).
METHODS: Our previous glioma microarray database was mined to identify genes that encode secreted or membrane-localized proteins. Subsequent analysis was done using significant analysis of microarrays, followed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemical validation in tumor tissues, ELISA and Western blot validation in sera, and correlation with survival of GBM patients.
RESULTS: Significant analysis of microarrays identified 31 upregulated and 3 downregulated genes specifically in GBMs. RT-qPCR validation on an independent set of samples confirmed the GBM-specific differential expression of several genes, including three upregulated (CALU, CXCL9, and TIMP1) and two downregulated (GPX3 and TIMP3) novel genes. With respect to osteopontin (OPN), we show the GBM-specific upregulation by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissues. Elevated serum OPN levels in GBM patients were also shown by ELISA and Western blot. GBM patients with high serum OPN levels had poorer survival than those with low serum OPN levels (median survival 9 versus 22 months respectively; P = 0.0001). Further, we also show high serum TIMP1 levels in GBM patients compared with grade II/III patients by ELISA and downregulation of serum GPX3 and TIMP3 proteins in GBMs compared with normal control by Western blot analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Several novel potential serum biomarkers of GBM are identified and validated. High serum OPN level is found as a poor prognostic indicator in GBMs.
IMPACT: Identified serum biomarkers may have potential utility in astrocytoma classification and GBM prognosis.

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