Research IndicatorsGraph generated 07 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 07 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (3)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: ABCA1 (cancer-related)
Ma Y, Li X, Cheng S, et al.MicroRNA-106a confers cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells by targeting adenosine triphosphatase-binding cassette A1.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(1):625-32 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered to have pivotal roles in regulating the drug resistance of various types of human cancer, including cisplatin (DDP) resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Fewer studies have explored the roles of miR-106a in NSCLC-cell resistance to DDP and its precise molecular mechanism has remained elusive. In the present study, whether miR-106a was able to mediate resistance of the lung cancer cell line A549 to DDP was investigated. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze miR-106a mRNA expression levels. miR-106a expression levels were upregulated in the DDP-resistant cell line A549/DDP compared with its parental cell line, A549. miR-106a-transfection induced DDP-resistance in A549 cells, while repression of miR-106a by anti-miR-106a in A549/DDP resulted in enhanced DDP cytotoxicity. Furthermore, it was discovered that the mechanism of miR-106a-induced DDP resistance involved the expression of adenosine triphosphatase-binding cassette, sub-family A, member 1 (ABCA1), as indicated by transfection of cells with short interfering RNA-ABCA1. The results of the present study suggested a novel mechanism underlying DDP-resistance in NSCLC.
BACKGROUND: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play various roles in cancer biology and drug resistance, but their association with outcomes in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unknown.
METHODS: The relationship between clinical outcomes and ABC transporter gene expression in two independent cohorts of high-grade serous EOC tumors was assessed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, analysis of expression microarray data, and immunohistochemistry. Associations between clinical outcomes and ABCA transporter gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in a genome-wide association study. Impact of short interfering RNA-mediated gene suppression was determined by colony forming and migration assays. Association with survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank tests. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Associations with outcome were observed with ABC transporters of the "A" subfamily, but not with multidrug transporters. High-level expression of ABCA1, ABCA6, ABCA8, and ABCA9 in primary tumors was statistically significantly associated with reduced survival in serous ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of ABCA5 and the C-allele of rs536009 were associated with shorter overall survival (hazard ratio for death = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.26 to 1.79; P = 6.5e-6). The combined expression pattern of ABCA1, ABCA5, and either ABCA8 or ABCA9 was associated with particularly poor outcome (mean overall survival in group with adverse ABCA1, ABCA5 and ABCA9 gene expression = 33.2 months, 95% CI = 26.4 to 40.1; vs 55.3 months in the group with favorable ABCA gene expression, 95% CI = 49.8 to 60.8; P = .001), independently of tumor stage or surgical debulking status. Suppression of cholesterol transporter ABCA1 inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth and migration in vitro, and statin treatment reduced ovarian cancer cell migration.
CONCLUSIONS: Expression of ABCA transporters was associated with poor outcome in serous ovarian cancer, implicating lipid trafficking as a potentially important process in EOC.
Thymiakou E, Kardassis DNovel mechanism of transcriptional repression of the human ATP binding cassette transporter A1 gene in hepatic cells by the winged helix/forkhead box transcription factor A2.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1839(6):526-36 [PubMed
] Related Publications
ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a key role in the biogenesis of HDL by promoting the efflux of cellular cholesterol and phospholipids to lipid free apoA-I. Mutations in the ABCA1 gene cause Tangier disease which is characterized by near or complete absence of circulating plasma HDL. In the present study we show that the winged helix/forkhead box containing transcription factor A2 (FOXA2) shown previously to play a role in glucose and bile acid homeostasis in the liver and in energy utilization in adipose tissue is a negative modulator of ABCA1 gene expression in hepatic cells. We show that the ABCA1 promoter contains three FOXA2 binding elements in the proximal region. Two of the sites are localized in a region of the ABCA1 promoter enriched in binding elements for transcriptional repressor proteins whereas the third site is the core of the TATA element of the ABCA1 promoter. Inhibition of FOXA2 binding to the ABCA1 promoter by site-directed mutagenesis or FOXA2 gene expression by siRNA was associated with increased ABCA1 promoter activity and protein levels. Overexpression of FOXA2 inhibited both the constitutive ABCA1 gene expression as well as ABCA1 gene induction by oxysterols and retinoids via nuclear receptors LXRα/RXRα. In summary, the present study identifies transcription factor FOXA2 as a negative modulator of ABCA1 gene expression in hepatic cells and reveals a novel mechanism of transcriptional repression by FOXA2 which involves the TATA element of the ABCA1 gene.
Huhn S, Bevier M, Pardini B, et al.Colorectal cancer risk and patients' survival: influence of polymorphisms in genes somatically mutated in colorectal tumors.
Cancer Causes Control. 2014; 25(6):759-69 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The first two studies aiming for the high-throughput identification of the somatic mutation spectrum of colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors were published in 2006 and 2007. Using exome sequencing, they described 69 and 140 candidate cancer genes (CAN genes), respectively. We hypothesized that germline variants in these genes may influence CRC risk, similar to APC, which is causing CRC through germline and somatic mutations.
METHODS: After excluding the well-established CRC genes APC, KRAS, TP53, and ABCA1, we analyzed 35 potentially functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 CAN genes (OBSCN, MLL3, PKHD1, SYNE1, ERCC6, FBXW7, EPHB6/TRPV6, ELAC1/SMAD4, EPHA3, and ADAMTSL3) using KBiosciences Competitive Allele-Specific PCR™ genotyping assays. In addition to CRC risk (1,399 CRC cases, 838 controls), we also considered the influence of the SNPs on patients' survival (406 cases).
RESULTS: In spite of the fact that our in silico analyses suggested functional relevance for the studied genes and SNPs, our data did not support a strong influence of the studied germline variants on CRC risk and survival. The strongest association with CRC risk and survival was found for MLL3 (rs6464211, OR 1.50, p = 0.002, dominant model; HR 2.12, p = 0.020, recessive model). Two SNPs in EPHB6/TRPV6 (dominant model) showed marginal associations with survival (rs4987622 HR 0.58 p = 0.028 and rs6947538 HR 0.64, p = 0.036, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Although somatic mutations in the CAN genes have been related to the development and progression of various types of cancers in several next-generation sequencing or expression analyses, our study suggests that the studied potentially functional germline variants are not likely to affect CRC risk or survival.
Oiso S, Takayama Y, Nakazaki R, et al.Factors involved in the cisplatin resistance of KCP‑4 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(2):719-26 [PubMed
] Related Publications
KCP-4 is a cisplatin-resistant cell line established from human epidermoid carcinoma KB-3-1 cells. Although our previous study revealed that one of the mechanisms for cisplatin resistance in KCP-4 cells is the activation of NF-κB, its high resistance is considered to be induced by multiple mechanisms. In the present study, we explored other factors involved in the development of cisplatin resistance in KCP-4 cells. Since it has been reported that an unknown efflux pump exports cisplatin from KCP-4 cells in an ATP-dependent manner, we examined 48 types of ATP-binding cassette proteins as candidate cisplatin efflux transporters. The mRNA expression levels of ABCA1, ABCA3, ABCA7 and ABCB10 in KCP-4 cells were higher when compared to those in KB-3-1 cells. These expression levels in cisplatin-sensitive revertant KCP-4 cells (KCP-4R cells), were reduced in parallel with the sensitivity of these cells to cisplatin and their intracellular accumulation of cisplatin. Next, we investigated the occurrence of mutations in p53 in KCP-4 cells. We found a heterozygous missense mutation at codon 72 (p.Pro72Arg) in p53 of both KCP-4 and KB-3-1 cells, but the protein expression level of p53 in KCP-4 cells was higher when compared to that in KB-3-1. These results suggest that ABCA1, ABCA3, ABCA7 and ABCB10 are candidate genes for the cisplatin efflux transporter that is involved in the cisplatin resistance of KCP-4 cells, and that the mutation at codon 72 of p53 may contribute to the development of cisplatin resistance.
Szabó DR, Baghy K, Szabó PM, et al.Antitumoral effects of 9-cis retinoic acid in adrenocortical cancer.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2014; 71(5):917-32 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The currently available medical treatment options of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) are limited. In our previous meta-analysis of adrenocortical tumor genomics data, ACC was associated with reduced retinoic acid production and retinoid X receptor-mediated signaling. Our objective has been to study the potential antitumoral effects of 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cisRA) on the ACC cell line NCI-H295R and in a xenograft model. Cell proliferation, hormone secretion, and gene expression have been studied in the NCI-H295R cell line. A complex bioinformatics approach involving pathway and network analysis has been performed. Selected genes have been validated by real-time qRT-PCR. Athymic nude mice xenografted with NCI-H295R have been used in a pilot in vivo xenograft model. 9-cisRA significantly decreased cell viability and steroid hormone secretion in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in the NCI-H295R cell line. Four major molecular pathways have been identified by the analysis of gene expression data. Ten genes have been successfully validated involved in: (1) steroid hormone secretion (HSD3B1, HSD3B2), (2) retinoic acid signaling (ABCA1, ABCG1, HMGCR), (3) cell-cycle damage (GADD45A, CCNE2, UHRF1), and the (4) immune response (MAP2K6, IL1R2). 9-cisRA appears to directly regulate the cell cycle by network analysis. 9-cisRA also reduced tumor growth in the in vivo xenograft model. In conclusion, 9-cisRA might represent a promising new candidate in the treatment of hormone-secreting adrenal tumors and adrenocortical cancer.
Mohelnikova-Duchonova B, Brynychova V, Oliverius M, et al.Differences in transcript levels of ABC transporters between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and nonneoplastic tissues.
Pancreas. 2013; 42(4):707-16 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate transcript levels of all 49 human ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABCs) in one of the most drug-resistant cancers, namely, the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Association of ABCs levels with clinical-pathologic characteristics and KRAS mutation status was followed as well.
METHODS: Tumors and adjacent nonneoplastic tissues were obtained from 32 histologically verified PDAC patients. The transcript profile of ABCs was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction with a relative standard curve. KRAS mutations in exon 2 were assessed by high-resolution melting analysis and sequencing.
RESULTS: Most ABCs were deregulated in PDAC and 10 ABCs were associated with clinical-pathologic characteristics. KRAS mutations did not change the global expression profile of ABCs.
CONCLUSIONS: The expression of ABC transporters was significantly deregulated in PDAC tumors when compared to nonmalignant tissues. The observed up-regulation of ABCB4, ABCB11, ABCC1, ABCC3, ABCC5, ABCC10, and ABCG2 in tumors may contribute to the generally poor treatment response of PDAC. The up-regulation of ABCA1, ABCA7, and ABCG1 implicates a serious impairment of cellular cholesterol homeostasis in PDAC. On the other hand, the observed down-regulation of ABCA3, ABCC6, ABCC7, and ABCC8 suggests a possible role of stem cells in the development and progression of PDAC.
Recent epidemiologic data show that low serum cholesterol level as well as statin use is associated with a decreased risk of developing aggressive or advanced prostate cancer, suggesting a role for cholesterol in aggressive prostate cancer development. Intracellular cholesterol promotes prostate cancer progression as a substrate for de novo androgen synthesis and through regulation of AKT signaling. By conducting next-generation sequencing-based DNA methylome analysis, we have discovered marked hypermethylation at the promoter of the major cellular cholesterol efflux transporter, ABCA1, in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. ABCA1 promoter hypermethylation renders the promoter unresponsive to transactivation and leads to elevated cholesterol levels in LNCaP. ABCA1 promoter hypermethylation is enriched in intermediate- to high-grade prostate cancers and not detectable in benign prostate. Remarkably, ABCA1 downregulation is evident in all prostate cancers examined, and expression levels are inversely correlated with Gleason grade. Our results suggest that cancer-specific ABCA1 hypermethylation and loss of protein expression direct high intracellular cholesterol levels and hence contribute to an environment conducive to tumor progression.
Although molecular classification brings interesting insights into breast cancer taxonomy, its implementation in daily clinical care is questionable because of its expense and the information supplied in a single sample allocation is not sufficiently reliable. New approaches, based on a panel of small molecules derived from the global or targeted analysis of metabolic profiles of cells, have found a correlation between activation of de novo lipogenesis and poorer prognosis and shorter disease-free survival for many tumors. We hypothesized that the lipid content of breast cancer cells might be a useful indirect measure of a variety of functions coupled to breast cancer progression. Raman microspectroscopy was used to characterize metabolism of breast cancer cells with different degrees of malignancy. Raman spectra from MDA-MB-435, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, SKBR3, MCF7 and MCF10A cells were acquired with an InVia Raman microscope (Renishaw) with a backscattered configuration. We used Principal Component Analysis and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analyses to assess the different profiling of the lipid composition of breast cancer cells. Characteristic bands related to lipid content were found at 3014, 2935, 2890 and 2845 cm(-1), and related to lipid and protein content at 2940 cm(-1). A classificatory model was generated which segregated metastatic cells and non-metastatic cells without basal-like phenotype with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 82.1%. Moreover, expression of SREBP-1c and ABCA1 genes validated the assignation of the lipid phenotype of breast cancer cells. Indeed, changes in fatty acid unsaturation were related with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype. Raman microspectroscopy is a promising technique for characterizing and classifying the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells on the basis of their lipid profiling. The algorithm for the discrimination of metastatic ability is a first step towards stratifying breast cancer cells using this rapid and reagent-free tool.
Vaughan CA, Frum R, Pearsall I, et al.Allele specific gain-of-function activity of p53 mutants in lung cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012; 428(1):6-10 [PubMed
] Related Publications
p53 mutations are mostly single amino acid changes resulting in expression of a stable mutant protein with "gain of function" (GOF) activity having a dominant oncogenic role rather than simple loss of function of wild-type p53. Knock-down of mutant p53 in human lung cancer cell lines with different endogenous p53 mutants results in loss of GOF activity as shown by lowering of cell growth rate. Two lung cancer cell lines, ABC1 and H1437, carrying endogenous mutants p53-P278S and -R267P, show reduction in growth rate on knock-down on p53 levels. However, whereas reduction of the p53 level induces loss of tumorigenicity in nude mice for ABC1 cells, it escalates tumorigenicity for H1437 cells. We have tested their transactivation potential on p53 target gene promoters by performing transient transcriptional assays in the p53-null H1299 lung cancer cell line. Interestingly, while the mutant p53 target promoter Axl was activated by both the mutants, the p21 promoter was activated by p53-R267P and wild-type p53 but not by p53-P278S; showing a clear difference in transcriptional activity between the two mutants. Our results demonstrate allele specificity between GOF p53 mutants and attempt to show that the specificity is dependent on the transactivation property of GOF p53; it also suggests importance of p21 activation in tumor suppression by p53.
El Roz A, Bard JM, Huvelin JM, Nazih HLXR agonists and ABCG1-dependent cholesterol efflux in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: relation to proliferation and apoptosis.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(7):3007-13 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Liver X receptor (LXR) plays a key role in reverse cholesterol transport by inducing the expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, implicated in cholesterol efflux. Recent data showed that LXR agonists inhibit the proliferation of multiple types of human cancer cells. However, whether these effects are related to cholesterol efflux has not yet been elucidated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Effects of two LXR agonists (TO901317 and 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol [22(R)-HC]) on proliferation, apoptosis and cholesterol efflux were examined in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
RESULTS: Treatment with LXR agonists (TO901317 at 20 μM and 22(R)-HC at 2 μg/ml) inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, LXR activation resulted in an increase in gene and protein levels of ABCG1 transporters and in cholesterol efflux to isolated high-density lipoprotein (HDL), without affecting the ABCA1/APOA-I mediated efflux. Under these conditions, a remarkable reduction of intracellular and membrane-associated cholesterol levels was observed.
CONCLUSION: LXR activation in MCF-7 cells could deprive cells of cholesterol, required for their growth, by stimulating its efflux, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation and in stimulation of apoptosis.
Yang CM, Lu YL, Chen HY, Hu MLLycopene and the LXRα agonist T0901317 synergistically inhibit the proliferation of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells via the PPARγ-LXRα-ABCA1 pathway.
J Nutr Biochem. 2012; 23(9):1155-62 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In our previous study, we demonstrated that lycopene can inhibit the proliferation of androgen-dependent prostate LNCaP cancer cells through the activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)-liver X receptor alpha (LXRα)-ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) pathway. However, it is still unclear whether lycopene possesses similar effects in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells DU145 and PC-3. As lycopene inhibited the proliferation of both cell types to a similar extent, we chose DU145 cells for most of the subsequent studies. We show that lycopene significantly increased protein and mRNA expression of PPARγ, LXRα and ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux (i.e., decreased cellular cholesterol and increased cholesterol in culture medium). Lycopene (10 μM) in the presence of a specific antagonist of PPARγ (GW9662) or of LXRα (GGPP) restored the proliferation of DU145 cells and significantly suppressed lycopene-induced protein and mRNA expression of PPARγ and LXRα and cholesterol efflux. Liver X receptor α knockdown by siRNA against LXRα significantly promoted the proliferation of DU145 cells, whereas si-LXRα knockdown followed by incubation with lycopene (10 μM) restored the proliferation to the control level. Furthermore, lycopene in combination with the LXRα agonist T0901317 exhibited synergistic effects on cell proliferation and protein expression of PPARγ, LXRα and ABCA1. These results demonstrate that lycopene can inhibit DU145 cell proliferation via PPARγ-LXRα-ABCA1 pathway and that lycopene and T0901317 exhibit synergistic effects.
Karadeniz M, Erdoğan M, Ayhan Z, et al.Effect Of G2706A and G1051A polymorphisms of the ABCA1 gene on the lipid, oxidative stress and homocystein levels in Turkish patients with polycystıc ovary syndrome.
Lipids Health Dis. 2011; 10:193 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Obesity, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism, crucial parameters of Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) play significant pathophysiological roles in lipidemic aberrations associated within the syndrome. Parts of the metabolic syndrome (low HDL and insulin resistance) appeared to facilitate the association between PCOS and coronary artery disease, independently of obesity. ABCA1 gene polymorphism may be altered this components in PCOS patients.In this study, we studied 98 PCOS patients and 93 healthy controls. All subjects underwent venous blood drawing for complete hormonal assays, lipid profile, glucose, insulin, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, disulfide levels and ABCA genetic study.
RESULTS: In PCOS group fasting glucose, DHEAS, 17-OHP, free testosterone, total-cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and fibrinogen were significantly different compare to controls. The genotype ABCA G2706A distribution differed between the control group (GG 60.7%, GA 32.1%, AA 7.1%) and the PCOS patients (GG 8.7%, GA 8.7%, AA 76.8%). The frequency of the A allele (ABCAG2706A) was higher in PCOS patients than control group with 13,0% and 23,2%, respectively. In this study, the homocystein and insulin levels were significantly higher in PCOS patients with ABCA G1051A mutant genotype than those with heterozygote and wild genotypes.
CONCLUSIONS: We found higher percentage of AA genotype and A allele of ABCA G2706A in PCOS patients compare to controls. The fasting insulin and homocystein levels were significantly higher in PCOS patients with ABCA G1051A mutant genotype than those with heterozygote and wild genotypes.
Borel F, Han R, Visser A, et al.Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter genes up-regulation in untreated hepatocellular carcinoma is mediated by cellular microRNAs.
Hepatology. 2012; 55(3):821-32 [PubMed
] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are drug efflux pumps responsible for the multidrug resistance phenotype causing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment failure. Here we studied the expression of 15 ABC transporters relevant for multidrug resistance in 19 paired HCC patient samples (16 untreated, 3 treated by chemotherapeutics). Twelve ABC transporters showed up-regulation in HCC compared with adjacent healthy liver. These include ABCA2, ABCB1, ABCB6, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC4, ABCC5, ABCC10, ABCC11, ABCC12, and ABCE1. The expression profile and function of some of these transporters have not been associated with HCC thus far. Because cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in posttranscriptional gene silencing, we hypothesized that regulation of ABC expression in HCC might be mediated by miRNAs. To study this, miRNAs were profiled and dysregulation of 90 miRNAs was shown in HCC compared with healthy liver, including up-regulation of 11 and down-regulation of 79. miRNA target sites in ABC genes were bioinformatically predicted and experimentally verified in vitro using luciferase reporter assays. In total, 13 cellular miRNAs were confirmed that target ABCA1, ABCC1, ABCC5, ABCC10, and ABCE1 genes and mediate changes in gene expression. Correlation analysis between ABC and miRNA expression in individual patients revealed an inverse relationship, providing an indication for miRNA regulation of ABC genes in HCC.
CONCLUSION: Up-regulation of ABC transporters in HCC occurs prior to chemotherapeutic treatment and is associated with miRNA down-regulation. Up-regulation of five ABC genes appears to be mediated by 13 cellular miRNAs in HCC patient samples. miRNA-based gene therapy may be a novel and promising way to affect the ABC profile and overcome clinical multidrug resistance.
The schweinfurthins, a family of natural products derived from the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway (IBP), have marked growth inhibitory activity. However, the biochemical basis for the schweinfurthins cellular effects has remained ill-defined. Here, the effects of the synthetic schweinfurthin, 3-deoxyschweinfurthin (3dSB) on multiple aspects of isoprenoid homeostasis are explored. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrate a synergistic interaction between 3dSB and the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin but not with other IBP inhibitors in a variety of human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic effects of 3dSB were enhanced in cells incubated in lipid-depleted serum. 3dSB was found to enhance the lovastatin-induced decrease in protein prenylation. In addition, 3dSB decreases intracellular farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate levels in both established cell lines and primary cells. To determine whether 3dSB alters the regulation of expression of genes involved in isoprenoid homeostasis, real-time PCR studies were performed in human cell lines cultured in either lipid-replete or -deplete conditions. These studies demonstrate that 3dSB abrogates lovastatin-induced upregulation of sterol regulatory element-containing genes and lovastatin-induced downregulation of ABCA1. In aggregate, these studies are the first to demonstrate that a schweinfurthin exerts pleiotropic effects on isoprenoid homeostasis.
Yang CM, Lu IH, Chen HY, Hu MLLycopene inhibits the proliferation of androgen-dependent human prostate tumor cells through activation of PPARγ-LXRα-ABCA1 pathway.
J Nutr Biochem. 2012; 23(1):8-17 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The activation of nuclear receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), has been shown to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells. This study examined whether the anti-proliferative effect of lycopene on androgen-dependent human prostate cancer (LNCaP) cells involves the up-regulation of the expression of PPARγ and LXRα. As expected, lycopene treatment (2.5-10 μM) significantly inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP cells during incubation for 96 h. Lycopene significantly increased the protein and mRNA expression of PPARγ and LXRα at 24 and 48 h, while the increased in the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) was only evident 96 h. In addition, lycopene significantly decreased cellular total cholesterol levels and increased apoA1 protein expression at 96 h. Incubation of LNCaP cells with lycopene (10 μM) in the presence (20 μM) of a specific antagonist of PPARγ (GW9662) and LXRα (GGPP) restored the proliferation of LNCaP cells to the control levels and significantly suppressed protein expression of PPARγ and LXRα as well as increased cellular total cholesterol levels. LXRα knockdown by siRNA against LXRα significantly enhanced the proliferation of LNCaP cells, whereas si-LXRα knockdown followed by incubation with lycopene (10 μM) restored the proliferation to the control level. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the anti-proliferative effect of lycopene on LNCaP cells involves the activation of the PPARγ-LXRα-ABCA1 pathway, leading to reduced cellular total cholesterol levels.
Johnson DC, Corthals SL, Walker BA, et al.Genetic factors underlying the risk of thalidomide-related neuropathy in patients with multiple myeloma.
J Clin Oncol. 2011; 29(7):797-804 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To indentify genetic variation that can modulate and predict the risk of developing thalidomide-related peripheral neuropathy (TrPN).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed DNA from 1,495 patients with multiple myeloma. Using a custom-built single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, we tested the association of TrPN with 3,404 SNPs. The SNPs were selected in predicted functional regions within 964 genes spanning 67 molecular pathways thought to be involved in the pathogenesis, treatment response, and adverse effects associated with myeloma and its therapy. Patient cases and controls were derived from two large clinical trials that compared thalidomide with conventional-based treatment in myeloma patients (Medical Research Council Myeloma-IX and HOVON-50/GMMG-HD3).
RESULTS: We report TrPN associations with SNPs-ABCA1 (rs363717), ICAM1 (rs1799969), PPARD (rs2076169), SERPINB2 (rs6103), and SLC12A6 (rs7164902)-where we show cross validation of the associations in both trials. To investigate whether TrPN SNP associations were related to exposure to thalidomide only or general drug-related peripheral neuropathy, we performed a second analysis on patients treated with vincristine. We report SNPs associated with vincristine neuropathy, with a seemingly distinct underlying genetic mechanism.
CONCLUSION: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that an individual's risk of developing a peripheral neuropathy after thalidomide treatment can be mediated by polymorphisms in genes governing repair mechanisms and inflammation in the peripheral nervous system. These findings will contribute to the development of future neuroprotective strategies with thalidomide therapy and the better use of this important compound.
BACKGROUND: Malignant mesotheliomas (MM) have a poor prognosis, largely because of their chemoresistance to anti-cancer drugs such as doxorubicin (Dox). Here we show using human MM lines that Dox activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and 2), causally linked to increased expression of ABC transporter genes, decreased accumulation of Dox, and enhanced MM growth. Using the MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126 and stably transfected shERK1 and shERK2 MM cell lines, we show that inhibition of both ERK1 and 2 sensitizes MM cells to Dox.
RESULTS: U0126 significantly modulated endogenous expression of several important drug resistance (BCL2, ABCB1, ABCC3), prosurvival (BCL2), DNA repair (BRCA1, BRCA2), hormone receptor (AR, ESR2, PPARγ) and drug metabolism (CYP3A4) genes newly identified in MM cells. In comparison to shControl lines, MM cell lines stably transfected with shERK1 or shERK2 exhibited significant increases in intracellular accumulation of Dox and decreases in cell viability. Affymetrix microarray analysis on stable shERK1 and shERK2 MM lines showed more than 2-fold inhibition (p ≤ 0.05) of expression of ATP binding cassette genes (ABCG1, ABCA5, ABCA2, MDR/TAP, ABCA1, ABCA8, ABCC2) in comparison to shControl lines. Moreover, injection of human MM lines into SCID mice showed that stable shERK1 or shERK2 lines had significantly slower tumor growth rates in comparison to shControl lines after Dox treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: These studies suggest that blocking ERK1 and 2, which play critical roles in multi-drug resistance and survival, may be beneficial in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of MMs and other tumors.
Sekine Y, Demosky SJ, Stonik JA, et al.High-density lipoprotein induces proliferation and migration of human prostate androgen-independent cancer cells by an ABCA1-dependent mechanism.
Mol Cancer Res. 2010; 8(9):1284-94 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer leads to a significant increase of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which is generally viewed as beneficial, particularly for cardiovascular disease, but the effect of HDL on prostate cancer is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of HDL on prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration, intracellular cholesterol levels, and the role of cholesterol transporters, namely ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI in these processes. HDL induced cell proliferation and migration of the androgen-independent PC-3 and DU145 cells by a mechanism involving extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and Akt, but had no effect on the androgen-dependent LNCaP cell, which did not express ABCA1 unlike the other cell lines. Treatment with HDL did not significantly alter the cholesterol content of the cell lines. Knockdown of ABCA1 but not ABCG1 or SR-BI by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited HDL-induced cell proliferation, migration, and ERK1/2 and Akt signal transduction in PC-3 cells. Moreover, after treatment of LNCaP cells with charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum, ABCA1 was induced ∼10-fold, enabling HDL to induce ERK1/2 activation, whereas small interfering RNA knockdown of ABCA1 inhibited HDL-induced ERK1/2 activation. Simvastatin, which inhibited ABCA1 expression in PC-3 and DU145 cells, attenuated HDL-induced PC-3 and DU145 cell proliferation, migration, and ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. In human prostate biopsy samples, ABCA1 mRNA expression was ∼2-fold higher in the androgen deprivation therapy group than in subjects with benign prostatic hyperplasia or pretreatment prostate cancer groups. In summary, these results suggest that HDL by an ABCA1-dependent mechanism can mediate signal transduction, leading to increased proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells.
Kim WS, Bhatia S, Elliott DA, et al.Increased ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 expression in Alzheimer's disease hippocampal neurons.
J Alzheimers Dis. 2010; 21(1):193-205 [PubMed
] Related Publications
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) reduces amyloid-beta burden in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Associations between ABCA1 polymorphisms and AD risk are also established. Little is known regarding the regulation of ABCA1 expression in the brain and how this may be affected by AD. In the present study we assessed ABCA1 mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus of AD cases compared to controls. ABCA1 was clearly expressed in hippocampal neurons and expression was increased two- to three-fold in AD cases. The increased hippocampal ABCA1 expression was associated with increased APOE and PUMA gene expression, implying an association with neuronal stress. Consistent with this, treatment of SK-N-SH neurons with amyloid-beta peptide resulted in a 48% loss in survival and a significant upregulation of ABCA1, APOE, and PUMA gene expression. Studies in young (2 month) and old (12 month) transgenic mice expressing a familial AD form of human amyloid-beta protein precursor and presenilin-1 revealed a significant age-dependent upregulation of hippocampal Abca1 compared to wild-type control mice. However, hippocampal Apoe and Puma gene expression were not correlated with increased Abca1 expression in mice. Our data indicate that ABCA1 is upregulated in AD hippocampal neurons potentially via an amyloid-beta-mediated pathway.
BACKGROUND: Curcumin induces apoptosis in many cancer cells and it reduces xenograft growth and the formation of lung metastases in nude mice. Moreover, the plant derived polyphenol has been reported to be able to overcome drug resistance to classical chemotherapy. These features render the drug a promising candidate for tumor therapy especially for cancers known for their high rates concerning therapy resistance like melanoma.
RESULTS: We show here that the melanoma cell line M14 is resistant to Curcumin induced apoptosis, which correlates with the absence of any effect on NFkappaB signaling. We show that CXCL1 a chemokine that is down regulated in breast cancer cells by Curcumin in an NFkappaB dependent manner is expressed at variable levels in human melanomas. Yet in M14 cells, CXCL1 expression did not change upon Curcumin treatment. Following the hypothesis that Curcumin is rapidly removed from the resistant cells, we analyzed expression of known multi drug resistance genes and cellular transporters in M14 melanoma cells and in the Curcumin sensitive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1, a gene involved in the cellular lipid removal pathway is over-expressed in resistant M14 melanoma as compared to the sensitive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Gene silencing of ABCA1 by siRNA sensitizes M14 cells to the apoptotic effect of Curcumin most likely as a result of reduced basal levels of active NFkappaB. Moreover, ABCA1 silencing alone also induces apoptosis and reduces p65 expression.
CONCLUSION: Resistance to Curcumin thus follows classical pathways and ABCA1 expression should be considered as response marker.
BACKGROUND: Advancement in gene profiling techniques makes it possible to measure expressions of thousands of genes and identify genes associated with development and progression of cancer. The identified cancer-associated genes can be used for diagnosis, prognosis prediction, and treatment selection. Most existing cancer microarray studies have been focusing on the identification of genes associated with a specific type of cancer. Recent biomedical studies suggest that different cancers may share common susceptibility genes. A comprehensive description of the associations between genes and cancers requires identification of not only multiple genes associated with a specific type of cancer but also genes associated with multiple cancers.
RESULTS: In this article, we propose the Mc.TGD (Multi-cancer Threshold Gradient Descent), an integrative analysis approach capable of analyzing multiple microarray studies on different cancers. The Mc.TGD is the first regularized approach to conduct "two-dimensional" selection of genes with joint effects on cancer development. Simulation studies show that the Mc.TGD can more accurately identify genes associated with multiple cancers than meta analysis based on "one-dimensional" methods. As a byproduct, identification accuracy of genes associated with only one type of cancer may also be improved. We use the Mc.TGD to analyze seven microarray studies investigating development of seven different types of cancers. We identify one gene associated with six types of cancers and four genes associated with five types of cancers. In addition, we also identify 11, 9, 18, and 17 genes associated with 4 to 1 types of cancers, respectively. We evaluate prediction performance using a Leave-One-Out cross validation approach and find that only 4 (out of 570) subjects cannot be properly predicted.
CONCLUSION: The Mc.TGD can identify a short list of genes associated with one or multiple types of cancers. The identified genes are considerably different from those identified using meta analysis or analysis of marginal effects.
Chisaki I, Kobayashi M, Itagaki S, et al.Liver X receptor regulates expression of MRP2 but not that of MDR1 and BCRP in the liver.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009; 1788(11):2396-403 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Liver X receptors (LXRs) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) play an important role in the efflux of a broad range of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds from hepatocytes. Since the effects of LXR activation on there transporters have been obscure, we investigated the effects of LXR agonists, TO901317 and 25-hydroxycholesterol, on MRP2, MDR1, BCRP expression in HepG2 cells and the rat liver. In an in vitro study, TO901317 increased ABCA1, an LXR target gene, and MRP2 mRNA and protein levels. On the other hand, TO901317 had little effect on MDR1 and BCRP mRNA levels. In an in vivo study, Abca1 and Mrp2 mRNA and protein levels were increased by TO901317, but TO901317 had no effect on Mdr1a and Bcrp mRNA levels in the rat liver. Moreover, TO901317-induced MRP2 mRNA expression was blocked by LXRalpha knockdown. In this study, we demonstrated that LXR activation induced expression of MRP2 but not that of MDR1 and BCRP in hepatocytes. The results suggest that agonists for LXR activate transcription of the MRP2 gene in order to promote excretion of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds from hepatocytes into bile.
Trasino SE, Kim YS, Wang TTLigand, receptor, and cell type-dependent regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA in prostate cancer epithelial cells.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2009; 8(7):1934-45 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Recent evidence suggests that the liver X receptor (LXR) is a potential anticancer target in prostate carcinoma. There is little characterization, however, of which of the two LXR isoforms, LXRalpha or LXRbeta, regulates the LXR-responsive genes ATP-binding cassette subfamily members A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1) in transformed prostatic epithelial cells. In this study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to determine whether LXRalpha or LXRbeta is involved in regulating ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA expression in LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Treatment of both cell lines with the synthetic LXR ligand T0901317 and oxysterols: 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) and 24(S), 25-epoxycholesterol (24,25EC), resulted in more than a 10-fold increase of ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA expression. Transfection of LNCaP cells with siRNA against either LXRbeta or LXRalpha failed to inhibit T0901317 and 25HC-mediated increase of ABCA1 mRNA. siRNA silencing of LXRbeta did, however, inhibit ABCA1 mRNA expression in 24,25EC-treated LNCaP cells. In contrast, LXRbeta siRNA inhibited T0901317, 25HC, and 24,25EC induction of ABCA1 mRNA in PC-3 cells and ABCG1 mRNA in both LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Additional experiments revealed that T0901317 and 25HC induction of ABCA1 mRNA expression was significantly inhibited by the p38 stress kinase antagonist SB202190 and PKA inhibitor H89. Our study is the first to show that LXRbeta, but not LXRalpha, is the major regulatory isoform of ABCG1 mRNA expression in LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Our study also reveals that ABCA1 gene expression is differentially regulated by synthetic and natural LXR ligands, possibly involving kinase mediated signal transduction.
Bao Y, Yang Y, Wang L, et al.Identification of trichostatin A as a novel transcriptional up-regulator of scavenger receptor BI both in HepG2 and RAW 264.7 cells.
Atherosclerosis. 2009; 204(1):127-35 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and its human homologue CLA-1 plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Using a previously established cell-based CLA-1 up-regulator screening assay, one of the positive strains, 04-9179, presented potent activity in elevating CLA-1 transcriptional level. We report here the identification of an active compound 9179A as a known compound trichostatin A (TSA), and its effects on CLA-1/SR-BI expression both in HepG2 human hepatoma cells and RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells in vitro. The results showed that the mRNA and protein level of CLA-1/SR-BI were significantly up-regulated by 9179A both in HepG2 and RAW 264.7 cells. Corresponding to this, the uptake of DiI-HDL by both cells and the efflux of [(3)H]cholesterol by RAW 264.7 cells were increased by 9179A in dose-dependent manner. ABCA1 was also increased but SR-A decreased by 9179A in RAW 264.7 cells. Using a combination of reporter assays with various deletion in CLA-1 promoter and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we demonstrated that -419/-232 bp fragment of the CLA-1 promoter mediated the effects of 9179A (i.e., TSA). Together, these studies identified TSA as a novel up-regulator of CLA-1/SR-BI both in HepG2 and RAW 264.7 cells.
Isomura M, Oya N, Tachiiri S, et al.IL12RB2 and ABCA1 genes are associated with susceptibility to radiation dermatitis.
Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14(20):6683-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Severe acute radiation dermatitis is observed in approximately 5% to 10% of patients who receive whole-breast radiotherapy. Several factors, including treatment-related and patient-oriented factors, are involved in susceptibility to severe dermatitis. Genetic factors are also thought to be related to a patient's susceptibility to severe dermatitis. To elucidate genetic polymorphisms associated with a susceptibility to radiation-induced dermatitis, a large-scale single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis using DNA samples from 156 patients with breast cancer was conducted.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients were selected from more than 3,000 female patients with early breast cancer who received radiotherapy after undergoing breast-conserving surgery. The dermatitis group was defined as patients who developed dermatitis at a National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria grade of > or =2. For the SNP analysis, DNA samples from each patient were subjected to the genotyping of 3,144 SNPs covering 494 genes.
RESULTS: SNPs that mapped to two genes, ABCA1 and IL12RB2, were associated with radiation-induced dermatitis. In the ABCA1 gene, one of these SNPs was a nonsynonymous coding SNP causing R219K (P = 0.0065). As for the IL12RB2 gene, the strongest association was observed at SNP-K (rs3790568; P = 0.0013). Using polymorphisms of both genes, the probability of severe dermatitis was estimated for each combination of genotypes. These analyses showed that individuals carrying a combination of genotypes accounting for 14.7% of the Japanese population have the highest probability of developing radiation-induced dermatitis.
CONCLUSION: Our results shed light on the mechanisms responsible for radiation-induced dermatitis. These results may also contribute to the individualization of radiotherapy.
Cheng D, Kim WS, Garner BRegulation of alpha-synuclein expression by liver X receptor ligands in vitro.
Neuroreport. 2008; 19(17):1685-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Alpha-synuclein is a lipid-binding protein expressed in neurons and oligodendrocytes which is increased in Parkinson's disease. We identified two putative liver X receptor (LXR) response elements in the human alpha-synuclein gene and used synthetic (TO901317, GW3695) and physiological (27-hydroxycholesterol) LXR activators to assess regulation of alpha-synuclein. LXR ligands upregulated alpha-synuclein mRNA by two-five-fold in human SK-N-SH neurons and three-six-fold in human MO3.13 oligodendrocytes. Significant 50% to four-fold induction of alpha-synuclein protein was also detected. Under these conditions, mRNA for LXR-responsive gene ABCA1 was significantly upregulated 15-40-fold and 5-25-fold in neurons and oligodendrocytes, respectively. LXR may, therefore, contribute to the regulation of alpha-synuclein expression in neurons and oligodendrocytes.
Ma KL, Ruan XZ, Powis SH, et al.Inflammatory stress exacerbates lipid accumulation in hepatic cells and fatty livers of apolipoprotein E knockout mice.
Hepatology. 2008; 48(3):770-81 [PubMed
] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The prevailing theory in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the "two-hit" hypothesis. The first hit mainly consists of lipid accumulation, and the second is subsequent systemic inflammation. The current study was undertaken to investigate whether inflammatory stress exacerbates lipid accumulation in liver and its underlying mechanisms. We used interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulation in human hepatoblastoma cell line (HepG2) cells and primary hepatocytes in vitro, and casein injection in apolipoprotein E knockout mice in vivo to induce inflammatory stress. The effects of inflammatory stress on cholesterol accumulation were examined by histochemical staining and a quantitative intracellular cholesterol assay. The gene and protein expressions of molecules involved in cholesterol trafficking were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. Cytokine production in the plasma of apolipoprotein E knockout mice was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that inflammatory stress increased cholesterol accumulation in hepatic cells and in the livers of apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Further analysis showed that inflammatory stress increased the expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLr), sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage activating protein (SCAP), and SREBP-2. Confocal microscopy showed that IL-1beta increased the translocation of SCAP/SREBP-2 complex from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi in HepG2 cells, thereby activating LDLr gene transcription. IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and systemic inflammation induced by casein injection also inhibited expression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha), and liver X receptor-alpha (LXRalpha). This inhibitory effect may cause cholesterol efflux reduction.
CONCLUSION: Inflammatory stress up-regulates LDLr-mediated cholesterol influx and down-regulates ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux in vivo and in vitro. This may exacerbate the progression of NAFLD by disrupting cholesterol trafficking control, especially during the second hit phase of liver damage.
Tao Y, Zhang P, Frascogna V, et al.Enhancement of radiation response by inhibition of Aurora-A kinase using siRNA or a selective Aurora kinase inhibitor PHA680632 in p53-deficient cancer cells.
Br J Cancer. 2007; 97(12):1664-72 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of Aurora-A kinase has been correlated with cancer susceptibility and poor prognosis in several human cancers. In this study, we evaluated the effect of inhibition of Aurora-A kinase on cell cycle progression and tumour cell survival after exposure to ionising radiation (IR). Combined IR and Aurora-A inhibition by short interfering RNA (siRNA) or by PHA680632 (a selective Aurora kinase inhibitor with submicromolar activity against Aurora-A) prior to IR led to an enhancement of radiation-induced annexin V positive cells, micronuclei formation, and Brca1 foci formation only in cells with deficient p53. However, the drug brought about additive to sub-additive interaction with radiation with regard to in vitro clonogenic survival. Cell cycle analysis revealed a high >4N DNA content 24 h after PHA680632 exposure. DNA content >4N was reduced dramatically when cells were irradiated combined with PHA680632 simultaneously. In vivo xenografts (p53-/- HCT116) of a mice study showed enhanced tumour growth delay (TGD) after the PHA680632-IR combinatorial treatment compared with IR alone. These results demonstrate that PHA680632 in association with radiation leads to an additive effect in cancer cells, especially in the p53-deficient cells, but does not act as a radiosensitiser in vitro or in vivo.
Sigruener A, Buechler C, Orsó E, et al.Human aldehyde oxidase 1 interacts with ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 and modulates its activity in hepatocytes.
Horm Metab Res. 2007; 39(11):781-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AOX1, a member of the cytosolic molybdenum hydroxylase family, has been identified by us earlier as an ABCA1-interacting protein. AOX1 is well-described as xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme, which upon oxidation of acetaldehyde and retinaldehyde to acetic acid and retinoic acid generates reactive oxygen species. Here we show that knock-down of AOX1 in HepG2 by small interfering RNA significantly reduced ABCA1-dependent lipid efflux and enhanced phagocytic uptake of microspheres similar to ABCA1 deficiency, without affecting ABCA1 mRNA and protein levels. ABCA1 and AOX1 are coexpressed in human hepatocytes, kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells, Leydig, and adrenocortical cells. Expression of ABCA1 and AOX1 was investigated by immunohistochemistry in liver tissue arrays. A strong AOX1 expression was found in normal liver, and in cirrhosis. In contrast, hepatocellular carcinomas showed either a complete loss or reduced expression of AOX1. Significant correlations were found between reduced AOX1 expression and tumor stage, or metastatic or regional lymph node states. Deregulation was also observed for ABCA1 expression but to a lesser extent. Our findings show that the interaction of ABCA1 with AOX1 modulates ABCA1-linked cellular functions such as lipid efflux and phagocytosis in hepatocytes, and the reduced expression of AOX1 in malignant transformed hepatocytes supports the differentiation dependent upregulation of AOX1.