Gene Summary

Gene:ETV6; ETS variant transcription factor 6
Aliases: TEL, THC5, TEL/ABL
Summary:This gene encodes an ETS family transcription factor. The product of this gene contains two functional domains: a N-terminal pointed (PNT) domain that is involved in protein-protein interactions with itself and other proteins, and a C-terminal DNA-binding domain. Gene knockout studies in mice suggest that it is required for hematopoiesis and maintenance of the developing vascular network. This gene is known to be involved in a large number of chromosomal rearrangements associated with leukemia and congenital fibrosarcoma. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor ETV6
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (7)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (13)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), childt(12;21) in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia
The t(12;21)(p13;q22), RUNX1-ETV6 (TEL-AML1) translocation, is observed in approximately 20-25% of childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases in both Asian and Caucasian populations (Kobayashi et al, 1997). It is the most frequent known genetic abnormality in childhood B-cell ALL.
View Publications259
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML)ETV6 and Acute Myeloid Leukaemia View Publications78
Salivary Gland CancerETV6 and Salivary Gland Cancer View Publications59
Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL)t(12;21) in Adult Lyphocytic Leukaemia
The t(12;21)(p13;q22), RUNX1-ETV6 (TEL-AML1) translocation, is observed in aproximately 3% of adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (ALL) while it occurs in about a quarter of childhood B-cell ALL cases (Aguiar et al, 1996 and Kwong et al 1999).
View Publications38
Leukaemiat(9;12)(p24;p13) ETV6-JAK2 fusion in lymphoid and myeloid leukemia View Publications33
Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL)t(1;12)(q25;p13) in Leukaemia (AML & ALL)
The ETV6 (TEL) gene is frequently rearranged to various translocation partners in human leukemias. In a small number of cases the ETV6 gene is translocated with the ABL2 gene. In a RT-PCR study of samples from 176 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Zhou et al, 2012) found 15 had ETV6 gene rearrangements and of these 2 were ETV6/ABL1 translocations.
View Publications25
Soft Tissue Sarcoma, Childhoodt(12;15)(p13;q25) ETV6-NTRK3 in Congenital Fibrosarcoma
The t(12;15)(p13;q25) fusing the ETV6 and NTRK3 genes has been reported in congenital (infantile) fibrosarcoma. In an RT-PCR study of paediatric tumours (Bourgeois, 2000), the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcripts were detected in 10/11 congenital fibrosarcomas compared to 0/13 other malignant spindle cell tumours and 0/38 benign spindle cell tumours. The authors suggest RT-PCR assays to detect the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion will be useful in the diagnosis of congenital fibrosarcoma and in particular to differentiation from more aggressive spindle cell sarcomas including adult-type fibrosarcoma.
View Publications25
Soft Tissue SarcomaETV6 and Soft Tissue Cancers View Publications23
-t(12;15)(p13;q25) ETV6-NTRK3 in congenital mesoblastic nephroma View Publications11
Breast Cancert(12;15)(p13;q25) ETV6-NTRK3 in Breast Cancer View Publications8
Testicular CancerETV6 and Testicular Cancer View Publications2
Leukaemiat(5;12)(q33;p13) in Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia
Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) is a myelodysplastic syndrome and is characterized dysplastic monocytosis, hypercellular bone marrow, splenomegaly, and progression to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). A sub-set of CMMLs have a t(5;12)(q33;p13) balanced translocation involving the PDGFRB and ETV6 (TEL) genes.
View Publications1

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ETV6 (cancer-related)

Sai E, Miwa Y, Takeyama R, et al.
Identification of candidates for driver oncogenes in scirrhous-type gastric cancer cell lines.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(8):2643-2651 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Scirrhous-type gastric cancer (SGC) is one of the most intractable cancer subtypes in humans, and its therapeutic targets have been rarely identified to date. Exploration of somatic mutations in the SGC genome with the next-generation sequencers has been hampered by markedly increased fibrous tissues. Thus, SGC cell lines may be useful resources for searching for novel oncogenes. Here we have conducted whole exome sequencing and RNA sequencing on 2 SGC cell lines, OCUM-8 and OCUM-9. Interestingly, most of the mutations thus identified have not been reported. In OCUM-8 cells, a novel CD44-IGF1R fusion gene is discovered, the protein product of which ligates the amino-terminus of CD44 to the transmembrane and tyrosine-kinase domains of IGF1R. Furthermore, both CD44 and IGF1R are markedly amplified in the OCUM-8 genome and abundantly expressed. CD44-IGF1R has a transforming ability, and the suppression of its kinase activity leads to rapid cell death of OCUM-8. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the transforming activity of IGF1R fusion genes. However, OCUM-9 seems to possess multiple oncogenic events in its genome. In particular, a novel BORCS5-ETV6 fusion gene is identified in the OCUM-9 genome. BORCS5-ETV6 possesses oncogenic activity, and suppression of its message partially inhibits cell growth. Prevalence of these novel fusion genes among SGC awaits further investigation, but we validate the significance of cell lines as appropriate reagents for detailed genomic analyses of SGC.

Yang M, Vesterlund M, Siavelis I, et al.
Proteogenomics and Hi-C reveal transcriptional dysregulation in high hyperdiploid childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1519 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hyperdiploidy, i.e. gain of whole chromosomes, is one of the most common genetic features of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but its pathogenetic impact is poorly understood. Here, we report a proteogenomic analysis on matched datasets from genomic profiling, RNA-sequencing, and mass spectrometry-based analysis of >8,000 genes and proteins as well as Hi-C of primary patient samples from hyperdiploid and ETV6/RUNX1-positive pediatric ALL. We show that CTCF and cohesin, which are master regulators of chromatin architecture, display low expression in hyperdiploid ALL. In line with this, a general genome-wide dysregulation of gene expression in relation to topologically associating domain (TAD) borders were seen in the hyperdiploid group. Furthermore, Hi-C of a limited number of hyperdiploid childhood ALL cases revealed that 2/4 cases displayed a clear loss of TAD boundary strength and 3/4 showed reduced insulation at TAD borders, with putative leukemogenic effects.

Piskunova IS, Obukhova TN, Parovichnikova EN, et al.
Structure and significance of cytogenetic abnormalities in adult patients with Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Ter Arkh. 2018; 90(7):30-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To evaluate occurrence, variety, structural peculiarities and prognostic meaning of cytogenetic abnormalities in adult patients with Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receiving therapy according to ALL-2009 protocol.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 115 adult patients with firstly diagnosed Ph-negative ALL: 58 male and 57 female aged from 15 to 61 years (mean age 26.5 years), who underwent treatment from September 2009 to September 2015 in National Medical Research Center for Hematology MH RF (n=101) and in hematology departments of regional hospitals (n=14). All patients received therapy of ALL-2009 protocol (, NCT01193933). The median follow-up was 24.5 months (0.2-94.4 months). As a part of the study results of a standard cytogenetic assay (SCA) were analyzed and fluorescence hybridization in situ (FISH) with the use of DNA-probes was performed on archived biological material for structural changes in gene locuses MLL/t(11q23), с-MYC/t(8q24), TP53/ deletion 17p13, CDKN2A/ deletion 9p21, translocation t(1;19)/E2A-PBX1 и t(12;21)/ETV6-RUNX1; iAMP21 identification.
RESULTS: Karyotype was defined using SCA in 86% of patients. Normal karyotype was found in 48.5% of them, chromosome aberrations in 51.5% (structural changes were found in 19.2%, hyperploidy in 27.2%, and hypoploidy in 5.1%). In 17.2% of patients complex karyotype abnormalities were found. With the use of FISH technique aberrations were found in 67% of patients: 9p21/CDKN2A deletion in 24.3%, MLL/t(11q23) gene abnormalities in 7.8%, 17p13/TP53 deletion in 5.2%, abnormalities of c-MYC/t(8q24) in 1.7%, t(1;19)/E2A-PBX1 in 0.8%, and iAMP21 in 0.8%, other abnormalities (additional signals/absence of signals from gene locuses) in 26.4%, t(12;21)/ETV6-RUNX1 was not found. FISH technique use in addition to SCA allows to increase aberrant karyotype location from 51.5 to 67%. A statistically significant correlation of 9p21/CDKN2A deletion with high serum lactate dehydrogenase activity (p=0.02); MLL/t(11q23) gene abnormalities - with leucocytosis and high blast cells level in blood (p=0.0016), hyperploidy - with normal leukocyte count (p=0.02) was shown. In groups with different cytogenetic abnormalities no statistically significant differences of treatment with ALL-2009 protocol were found (in terms of complete remission, early mortality and treatment resistance). When connection of cytogenetic abnormalities and their combinations with long-term results were analyzed according to ALL-2009 protocol, only two characteristics - MLL/t(11q23) and c MYC/t(8q24) gene abnormalities had a statistically significant influence on disease-free survival (HR - 176.9; p<0.0001) and chance of recurrence (HR - 6.4; p=0.02).
CONCLUSION: Adverse prognostic factors in terms of therapeutic management provided in ALL-2009 protocol were MLL/t(11q23) and с-MYC/t(8q24) genes abnormalities. CDKN2A/9p21 and TP53/17p13 genes deletions, quantative and complex karyotype abnormalities were not prognostic factors in adult patients with Ph-negative ALL in ALL-2009 protocol use.

van der Tuin K, Ventayol Garcia M, Corver WE, et al.
Targetable gene fusions identified in radioactive iodine refractory advanced thyroid carcinoma.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2019; 180(4):235-241 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective Gene alterations leading to activation of the MAPK pathway are of interest for targeted therapy in patients with advanced radioactive iodine refractory (RAI-R) thyroid carcinoma. Due to technical reasons gene fusion analysis in RNA isolated from formalin-fixed tumor tissues has till now been limited. The objective of the present study was to identify targetable gene rearrangements in RNA isolated from formalin-fixed RAI-R thyroid carcinomas. Design Retrospective study in 132 patients with RAI-R thyroid carcinoma (59 papillary-, 24 follicular-, 35 Hürthle cell- and 14 anaplastic thyroid carcinoma). Methods Total nucleic acid (undivided DNA and RNA) was isolated from formalin-fixed tissue. Extensive gene fusion analysis was performed in all samples that tested negative for pathogenic BRAF, NRAS, HRAS and KRAS variants. Results Seven targetable gene fusions were identified in the remaining 60 samples without known DNA variants. This includes frequently reported gene fusions such as CCDC6/RET (PTC1), PRKAR1A/RET (PTC2) and ETV6/NTRK3 , and gene fusions that are less common in thyroid cancer (TPM3/NTRK1, EML4/ALK and EML4/NTRK3). Of note, most gene fusions were detected in papillary thyroid carcinoma and MAPK-associated alterations in Hürthle cell carcinomas are rare (2/35). Conclusion Targetable gene fusions were found in 12% of RAI-R thyroid carcinoma without DNA variants and can be effectively identified in formalin-fixed tissue. These gene fusions might provide a preclinical rationale to include specific kinase inhibitors in the treatment regimen for these patients. The latter intends to restore iodine transport and/or take advantage of the direct effect on tumor cell vitality once progressive disease is seen.

Li JF, Dai YT, Lilljebjörn H, et al.
Transcriptional landscape of B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on an international study of 1,223 cases.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(50):E11711-E11720 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL) can be classified into known major genetic subtypes, while a substantial proportion of BCP ALL remains poorly characterized in relation to its underlying genomic abnormalities. We therefore initiated a large-scale international study to reanalyze and delineate the transcriptome landscape of 1,223 BCP ALL cases using RNA sequencing. Fourteen BCP ALL gene expression subgroups (G1 to G14) were identified. Apart from extending eight previously described subgroups (G1 to G8 associated with

Khoury JD
Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep. 2018; 13(6):477-483 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare malignancy derived from plasmacyoid dendritic cells whose biology, clinical features, and treatment options are increasingly better understood.
RECENT FINDINGS: TCF4 is a master regulator that drives donwstream transcriptional programs in BPDCN. In turn, TCF4 activity is dependent on the bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) protein BRD4 whose inhibition provides a promising therapeutic vulnerability. Notably, TCF4 expression is a highly sensitive marker for BPDCN and augments diagnostic specificity alongside CD4, CD56, CD123, and TCL1. The gene expression profile of BPDCN is characterized by aberrant NF-kappaB pathway activation, while its genomic landscape is dominated by structural chromosomal alterations involving ETV6, MYC, and NR3C1, as well as mutations in epigenetic regulators particularly TET2. Advances in elucidating the biological characteristics of BPDCN are resulting in a more refined diagnostic approach and are opening novel therapeutic avenues for patients with this disease.

Tang Z, Li Y, Wang W, et al.
Genomic aberrations involving 12p/ETV6 are highly prevalent in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms and might represent early clonal events.
Leuk Res. 2018; 73:86-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chromosomal aberrations at the ETV6 gene locus on 12p13.2 are common in bone marrow samples involved by blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN). However, their pathogenic role, incidence in cutaneous BPDCN lesions, and clinical significance have not been assessed systematically.
RESULTS: The study group included 30 BPDCN patients, 25 men and 5 women, with a median age of 64 years. Conventional cytogenetic analysis demonstrated karyotypic aberrancies in 15 cases, of which 8 had chromosomal lesions involving 12p. In addition, 2 cases with normal diploid karyotype had cryptic 12p/ETV6 deletion by ETV6 FISH test. Notably, 2 bone marrow samples with ETV6 rearrangement had no detectable BPDCN involvement, but otherwise dynamic changes in the detection of 12p/ETV6 aberrations correlated with the presence of morphologically and/or immunophenotypically detectable disease. Tissue specimens from 6 patients with cutaneous BPDCN all tested positive for homozygous or heterozygous ETV6 deletions.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that monoallelic and biallelic 12p/ETV6 deletions are highly prevalent in BPDCN, and their detection is enhanced by the use of FISH and aCGH. In addition, 12p/ETV6 may be present in the bone marrow of BPDCN patients in the absence of detectable disease suggesting that such alterations might represent an early pathogenic event.

Ziegler DS, Wong M, Mayoh C, et al.
Brief Report: Potent clinical and radiological response to larotrectinib in TRK fusion-driven high-grade glioma.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 119(6):693-696 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genes encoding TRK are oncogenic drivers in multiple tumour types including infantile fibrosarcoma, papillary thyroid cancer and high-grade gliomas (HGG). TRK fusions have a critical role in tumourigenesis in 40% of infant HGG. Here we report the first case of a TRK fusion-driven HGG treated with larotrectinib-the first selective pan-TRK inhibitor in clinical development. This 3-year-old girl had failed multiple therapies including chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Tumour profiling confirmed an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion. Treatment with larotrectinib led to rapid clinical improvement with near total resolution of primary and metastatic lesions on MRI imaging. This is the first report of a TRK fusion glioma successfully treated with a TRK inhibitor.

Olsson L, Lundin-Ström KB, Castor A, et al.
Improved cytogenetic characterization and risk stratification of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia using single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis: A single center experience of 296 cases.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(11):604-607 [PubMed] Related Publications
Single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A) analyses are increasingly being introduced in routine genetic diagnostics of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Despite this, only few studies that have compared the diagnostic value of SNP-A with conventional chromosome banding have been published. We here report such a comparison of 296 ALL cases, the largest series to date. Only genomic imbalances >5 Mb and microdeletions targeting the BTG1, CDKN2A/B, EBF1, ERG, ETV6, IKZF1, PAX5, and RB1 genes and the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) were ascertained, in agreement with recent guidelines. Of 36 T-cell ALL cases, the karyotypes of 24 cases (67%) were revised by SNP-A analyses that either revealed additional imbalances >5 Mb or better characterized the changes found by G-banding. Of 260 B-cell precursor (BCP) ALL cases, SNP-A analyses identified additional copy number alterations, including the above-mentioned microdeletions, or better characterized the imbalances found by G-banding in 236 (91%) cases. Furthermore, the cytogenetic subtype classification of 41/260 (16%) BCP ALL cases was revised based on the SNP-A findings. Of the subtype revisions, 12/41 (29%) had clinical implications as regards risk stratifying cytogenetic groups or genotype-specific minimal residual disease stratification. We conclude that SNP-A analyses dramatically improve the cytogenetic characterization of both T-cell and BCP ALL and also provide important information pertinent to risk stratification of BCP ALL.

Tallegas M, Fraitag S, Binet A, et al.
Novel KHDRBS1-NTRK3 rearrangement in a congenital pediatric CD34-positive skin tumor: a case report.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 474(1):111-115 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cutaneous spindle-cell neoplasms in adults as well as children represent a frequent dilemma for pathologists. Along this neoplasm spectrum, the differential diagnosis with CD34-positive proliferations can be challenging, particularly concerning neoplasms of fibrohistiocytic and fibroblastic lineages. In children, cutaneous and superficial soft-tissue neoplasms with CD34-positive spindle cells are associated with benign to intermediate malignancy potential and include lipofibromatosis, plaque-like CD34-positive dermal fibroma, fibroblastic connective tissue nevus, and congenital dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Molecular biology has been valuable in showing dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and infantile fibrosarcoma that are characterized by COL1A1-PDGFB and ETV6-NTRK3 rearrangements respectively. We report a case of congenital CD34-positive dermohypodermal spindle-cell neoplasm occurring in a female infant and harboring a novel KHDRBS1-NTRK3 fusion. This tumor could belong to a new subgroup of pediatric cutaneous spindle-cell neoplasms, be an atypical presentation of a plaque-like CD34-positive dermal fibroma, of a fibroblastic connective tissue nevus, or represent a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with an alternative gene rearrangement.

Chen X, Wang F, Zhang Y, et al.
Retrospective analysis of 36 fusion genes in 2479 Chinese patients of de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2018; 72:99-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fusion genes are major molecular biological abnormalities in hematological malignancies. To depict the common recurrent gene-fusion landscape in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 36 recurrent fusion genes in hematologic malignancies were assessed using multiplex-nested RT-PCR in 2479 patients with de novo ALL. 17 kinds of distinct fusion genes were detected in 712 (28.72%) cases. Co-occurrence of different fusion genes was observed in 6 (0.24%) patients. Incidence of fusion genes in B-ALL was significantly higher than in T-ALL (31.40% vs. 14.50%, P < 0.001). Pediatric ALL had higher prevalence of ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, and STIL-TAL1, while BCR-ABL1 and SET-NUP214 were more common in adult ALL. BCR-ABL1, TCF3-PBX1, KMT2A-AFF1 and ETV6-RUNX1 were more frequent in B-ALL. On the contrary, KMT2A-MLLT4, SET-NUP214 and STIL-TAL1 were of higher incidence in T-ALL. In comparison with Western cohorts, the incidence of BCR-ABL1 (5.94%) was much higher in our series, while the occurrence of ETV6-RUNX1 (13.19%) was significantly lower in pediatric B-ALL patients in our study than in Western reports. This study provides a genetic landscape of common fusion genes in ALL patients and may serve as a foundation for further improvement of a fusion gene screening panel for clinical applications.

Wang Y, Zeng HM, Zhang LP
ETV6/RUNX1-positive childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in China: excellent prognosis with improved BFM protocol.
Ital J Pediatr. 2018; 44(1):94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In childhood B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), the ETV6/RUNX1 fusion transcript is considered to have an excellent outcome. However, few studies of children with ETV6/RUNX1-positive ALL from China have been conducted. It is largely unknown whether clinical outcomes for patients with this genotype and important factors that influence such outcomes are similar to those reported in other countries. Therefore, it is important to analyze the outcomes of children with ETV6/RUNX1-positive ALL treated at our institution with the aim of identifying significant prognostic variables in a Chinese population.
METHODS: We studied the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes for 77 pediatric patients diagnosed with ETV6/RUNX1-positive ALL between 2005 and 2015 at our institution.
RESULTS: The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and the disease-free survival (DFS) were reported to be 90% ± 3% and 96% ± 3% respectively. Two patients had a relapse at a median of 42 months from diagnosis and the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 2.1%. Despite intensive chemotherapy or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, the 2 relapsed patients succumbed to the disease progression and the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 97% ± 2%. Multivariate analysis for EFS revealed that the minimal residual disease (MRD) ≥10
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, patients with ETV6/RUNX1 fusion transcript can achieve a high rate of complete remission and the long-term curative effect was excellent under risk-stratified treatment. In case of relapse, the MRD level at the end of induction therapy should be taken into consideration while deciding the appropriate chemotherapy dosage.

Bortz JG, Zhang PJL, Eagle RC, et al.
Secretory Carcinoma of the Lacrimal Gland: A Rare Case Report.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2018 Sep/Oct; 34(5):e154-e157 [PubMed] Related Publications
Secretory carcinoma is a salivary gland malignancy that recapitulates secretory carcinoma of the breast, along with its shared ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Characterization of histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features of this neoplasm has led to reclassification of a heterogeneous group of salivary gland carcinomas as secretory carcinoma and to identification of this neoplasm in other gland-containing tissues. The authors describe a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2-week history of diplopia and a well-circumscribed right orbital mass. The tumor was resected via lateral orbitotomy approach. Pathologic evaluation demonstrated secretory carcinoma, previously not described in the main lacrimal gland. Recognition of lacrimal gland secretory carcinoma may lead to reappraisal of morphologically similar, but biologically heterogeneous lacrimal gland neoplasms, providing an insight into this tumor's clinical presentation and prognosis. Accurate diagnosis of this malignancy has important management and prognostic implications, particularly with emergence of targeted therapies.

Roberts KG, Reshmi SC, Harvey RC, et al.
Genomic and outcome analyses of Ph-like ALL in NCI standard-risk patients: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
Blood. 2018; 132(8):815-824 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL;

Liu Z, Meng J, Li X, et al.
Identification of Hub Genes and Key Pathways Associated with Two Subtypes of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Based on Gene Expression Profiling via Integrated Bioinformatics.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:3574534 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is a significant difference in prognosis between the germinal center B-cell (GCB) and activated B-cell (ABC) subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the signaling pathways and driver genes involved in these disparate subtypes are ambiguous. This study integrated three cohort profile datasets, including 250 GCB samples and 250 ABC samples, to elucidate potential candidate hub genes and key pathways involved in these two subtypes. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. After Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis of the DEGs, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and sub-PPI network analyses were conducted using the STRING database and Cytoscape software. Subsequently, the Oncomine database and the cBioportal online tool were employed to verify the alterations and differential expression of the 8 hub genes (MME, CD44, IRF4, STAT3, IL2RA, ETV6, CCND2, and CFLAR). Gene set enrichment analysis was also employed to identify the intersection of the key pathways (JAK-STAT, FOXO, and NF-

Hyrcza MD, Andreasen S, Melchior LC, et al.
Primary Secretory Carcinoma of the Lacrimal Gland: Report of a New Entity.
Am J Ophthalmol. 2018; 193:178-183 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Secretory carcinoma has been described in the breast, salivary glands, skin, and other organs, but has not been reported in the lacrimal gland to date. Since lacrimal and salivary glands show similar tumors, we hypothesized that lacrimal secretory carcinoma may exist but has been misclassified in the past.
DESIGN: We undertook a retrospective review of all lacrimal gland tumors at 2 tertiary institutions with centralized ocular pathology practices.
METHODS: A total of 350 lacrimal tumors were reviewed by the authors. Candidate tumors were tested for ETV-NTRK rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization and the presence of the translocation was confirmed by next-generation sequencing.
RESULTS: We identified a single case of secretory carcinoma. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstrating specific immunohistochemical profile and the presence of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion, which is characteristic of secretory carcinoma of other sites. The tumor occurred in a young man who was treated with surgery alone with no recurrence during 12 years of follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Secretory carcinoma is a new lacrimal gland carcinoma type that should be added to the spectrum of low-grade lacrimal gland tumors.

Wang F, Tian X, Zhou J, et al.
A three‑lncRNA signature for prognosis prediction of acute myeloid leukemia in patients.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(2):1473-1484 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts characterized by >200 nucleotides, without validated protein production. Previous studies have demonstrated that certain lncRNAs have a critical role in the initiation and development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the present study, the subtype‑specific lncRNAs in AML was identified. Following the exclusion of the subtype‑specific lncRNAs, the prognostic value of lncRNAs was investigated and a three‑lncRNA expression‑based risk score [long intergenic non‑protein coding RNA 926, family with sequence similarity 30 member A and LRRC75A antisense RNA 1 (LRRC75A‑AS1)] was developed for AML patient prognosis prediction by analyzing the RNA‑seq data of AML patients from Therapeutically Available Research to Generate Effective Treatments (TARGET) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) projects. In the training set obtained from TARGET, patients were divided into poor and favorable prognosis groups by the median risk score. The prognostic effectiveness of this lncRNA risk score was confirmed in the validation set obtained from TCGA by the same cut‑off. Furthermore, the lncRNA risk score was identified as an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis. As further verification of the independent prognostic power of the lncRNA risk score, stratified analysis was performed by a cytogenetics risk group and revealed a consistent result. The prognostic predictive ability of the risk score was compared with the cytogenetics risk group by time‑dependent receiver operating characteristic curves analysis. It was revealed that the combination of the lncRNA risk score and cytogenetics risk group provided a higher prognostic value than a single prognostic factor. The present study also performed co‑expression analysis to predict the potential regulatory mechanisms of these lncRNAs in a cis/trans/competing endogenous RNA manner. The results suggested that LRRC75A‑AS1 was highly associated with the target genes of transcription factors tumor protein 53 and ETS variant 6. Overall, these results highlighted the use of the three‑lncRNA expression‑based risk score as a potential molecular biomarker to predict the prognosis in AML patients.

Takahashi A, Kurosawa M, Uemura M, et al.
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative uterine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor containing the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene: a case report.
J Int Med Res. 2018; 46(8):3498-3503 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are neoplasms with low malignant potential, and the most common tumor in the lung and orbit. Their occurrence in the uterus is rare. Approximately 50% of IMT patients have anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene ( ALK) rearrangements. Recent studies described novel fusions involving ROS1, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta ( PDGFR-β), and ETS translocation variant ( ETV6) genes in a subset of ALK-negative patients. We report a 44-year-old woman with anemia and uterine IMT. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a myxoid degenerative myoma-like mass, 7.4 cm in maximum diameter, on the left uterine side wall. Hysterectomy was performed as a definitive treatment. Microscopic examination revealed spindle cell proliferation with numerous lymphocytes and plasma cells. Immunohistochemically, the spindle cells were negative for ALK-1, desmin, and smooth muscle actin. The pathological diagnosis was IMT arising from the uterus. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated an ETV6-neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3 gene ( NTRK3) translocation but no ALK, ROS1, or PDGFR-β translocations. Lung and abdomen computed tomography at 31 months postoperatively revealed no disease recurrence. This association of an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion oncogene with an ALK-negative uterine IMT increases our understanding of this neoplasm, which may help the development of specific therapies.

Zhou F, Chen B
Acute myeloid leukemia carrying ETV6 mutations: biologic and clinical features.
Hematology. 2018; 23(9):608-612 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: E26 transformation-specific variant 6 gene (ETV6) is one of the most consistently rearranged genes in acute leukaemia. It encodes a principal hematopoietic transcription factor.
METHODS: We performed a systematic review focusing on the mechanisms responsible for etv6 acquisition, and its effect on the development of AML. We also review the Characteristics of ETV6 mutations and its fusion genes. Finally, for using ETV6 as a molecular target, we discuss future therapeutic approaches available to mitigate the associated disease.
RESULTS: ETV6 rearrangements often accompany other molecular mutations. Thirty-three distinct partner bands of ETV6 that contain various fusion genes were detected which plays a vital role in obtaining information about leukaemia genesis. RXDX-101 and PKC412 were reported to be inhibitors of ETV6-NTRK3.
DISCUSSION: Future researches are needed to explain how ETV6 mutations act within the microenvironment of leukemic cells and how it affects the progression of leukaemia.

Hiemcke-Jiwa LS, Leguit RJ, Snijders TJ, et al.
Molecular analysis in liquid biopsies for diagnostics of primary central nervous system lymphoma: Review of literature and future opportunities.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2018; 127:56-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive lymphoma with a poor prognosis, for which accurate and timely diagnosis is of utmost importance. Unfortunately, diagnosis of PCNSL can be challenging and a brain biopsy (gold standard for diagnosis) is an invasive procedure with the risk of major complications. Thus, there is an urgent need for an alternative strategy to diagnose and monitor these lymphomas. Currently, liquid biopsies from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are used for cytomorphologic and flow cytometric analysis. Recently, new biomarkers such as genetic mutations and interleukins have been identified in these liquid biopsies, further expanding the diagnostic armamentarium. In this review we present an overview of genetic aberrations (>70) reported in this unique lymphoma. Of these genes, we have selected those that are reported in ≥3 studies. Half of the selected genes are implicated in the NFκB pathway (CARD11, CD79B, MYD88, TBL1XR1 and TNFAIP3), while the other half are not related to this pathway (CDKN2A, ETV6, PIM1, PRDM1 and TOX). Although this underlines the crucial role of the NFκB pathway in PCNSL, CD79B and MYD88 are at present the only genes mentioned in liquid biopsy analysis. Finally, a stepwise approach is proposed for minimally invasive liquid biopsy analysis and work-up of PCNSL, incorporating molecular analysis. Prioritization and refinements of this approach can be constructed based upon multidisciplinary collaboration as well as novel scientific insights.

Hung YP, Fletcher CDM, Hornick JL
Evaluation of pan-TRK immunohistochemistry in infantile fibrosarcoma, lipofibromatosis-like neural tumour and histological mimics.
Histopathology. 2018; 73(4):634-644 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Infantile fibrosarcoma is characterised by intersecting fascicles of spindle cells and ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion in most cases. Given histological overlap with other spindle-cell tumours, the diagnosis can be challenging and often requires molecular confirmation. A recently developed pan-TRK antibody shows promise for identifying tumours with NTRK fusions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential diagnostic utility of pan-TRK immunohistochemistry for infantile fibrosarcoma.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated whole-tissue sections from 210 cases, including 15 infantile fibrosarcomas; five each lipofibromatosis-like neural tumour and lipofibromatosis; 10 each primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumour of infancy (PMMTI) and low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma; 15 each fibrous hamartoma of infancy (FHI), myofibroma/myofibromatosis and desmoid-type fibromatosis; and 20 each low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, synovial sarcoma, spindle-cell rhabdomyosarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour, fibrosarcomatous dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (F-DFSP) and nodular fasciitis. Immunohistochemistry was performed using a rabbit monoclonal pan-TRK antibody. Immunoreactivity for pan-TRK was observed in all 15 (100%) infantile fibrosarcomas, including diffuse immunoreactivity (>50% of cells) in 14 (93%) cases. Pan-TRK was positive in all five (100%) lipofibromatosis-like neural tumours. Of the 190 histological mimics, diffuse pan-TRK immunoreactivity was noted in 16 (8%) cases, including five PMMTI, five FHI (highlighting predominantly the primitive myxoid spindle-cell components), three F-DFSP, one low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma, one myofibroma and one spindle-cell rhabdomyosarcoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Diffuse pan-TRK immunoreactivity is a highly sensitive but not entirely specific diagnostic marker for infantile fibrosarcoma, and may be helpful in selecting patients for TRK-targeted therapy. As expected, lipofibromatosis-like neural tumours, which harbour NTRK1 fusions, also show diffuse pan-TRK immunoreactivity.

VandenBoom T, Quan VL, Zhang B, et al.
Genomic Fusions in Pigmented Spindle Cell Nevus of Reed.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(8):1042-1051 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent molecular studies of spitzoid neoplasms have identified mutually exclusive kinase fusions involving ROS1, ALK, RET, BRAF, NTRK1, MET, and NTRK3 as early initiating genomic events. Pigmented spindle cell nevus (PSCN) of Reed is a morphologic variant of Spitz and may be very diagnostically challenging, having histologic features concerning for melanoma. Their occurrence in younger patients, lack of association to sun exposure, and rapid early growth phase similar to Spitz nevi suggest fusions may also play a significant role in these lesions. However, to date, there is little data in the literature focused on the molecular characterization of PSCN of Reed with next-generation sequencing. We analyzed a total of 129 melanocytic neoplasms with RNA sequencing including 67 spitzoid neoplasms (10 Spitz nevi, 44 atypical Spitz tumors, 13 spitzoid melanomas) and 23 PSCN of Reed. Although only 2 of 67 (3.0%) of spitzoid lesions had NTRK3 fusions, 13 of 23 (57%) of PSCN of Reed harbored NTRK3 fusions with 5' partners ETV6 (12p13) in 2 cases and MYO5A (15q21) in 11 cases. NTRK3 fusions were confirmed with a fluorescent in situ hybridization break-apart probe. The presence of a NTRK3 fusion correlated with younger age (P=0.021) and adnexal extension (P=0.001). Other minor fusions identified in PSCN of Reed included MYO5A-MERTK (2), MYO5A-ROS1, MYO5A-RET, and ETV6-PITX3 leading to a total of 78% with fusions. Our study suggests that the majority of PSCN of Reed are the result of genomic fusions, and the most frequent and characteristic genomic aberration is an NTRK3 fusion.

Tomoyasu C, Imamura T, Tomii T, et al.
Copy number abnormality of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines based on their genetic subtypes.
Int J Hematol. 2018; 108(3):312-318 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we performed genetic analysis of 83 B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cell lines. First, we performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis to identify copy number abnormalities (CNAs) in eight genes associated with B-ALL according to genetic subtype. In Ph

Greaves M
A causal mechanism for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2018; 18(8):471-484 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this Review, I present evidence supporting a multifactorial causation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), a major subtype of paediatric cancer. ALL evolves in two discrete steps. First, in utero initiation by fusion gene formation or hyperdiploidy generates a covert, pre-leukaemic clone. Second, in a small fraction of these cases, the postnatal acquisition of secondary genetic changes (primarily V(D)J recombination-activating protein (RAG) and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-driven copy number alterations in the case of ETS translocation variant 6 (ETV6)-runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1)

Ampatzidou M, Papadhimitriou SI, Paterakis G, et al.
ETV6/RUNX1-positive childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL): The spectrum of clonal heterogeneity and its impact on prognosis.
Cancer Genet. 2018; 224-225:1-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognostic significance of the ETV6/RUNX1-fusion and of the accompanying aberrations is disputable; whether co-existing sub-clones are responsible for delayed MRD-clearance and thus, moderate outcome, remains to be clarified. We studied, in a paediatric cohort of 119 B-ALLs, the relation between the ETV6/RUNX1 aberration and the co-existing subclones with (a) presenting clinical/biological features, (b) early response to treatment(MRD) and (c) long-term outcome over a 12-year period. Patients were homogeneously treated according to BFM-based-protocols. 27/119 patients (22.7%) were ETV6/RUNX1-positive; 19/27 (70.4%) harbored additional genetic abnormalities while 9/19 (33.3%) presented with clonal heterogeneity. The most common abnormalities were del12p13 (37%), 3-6×21q22 (22.2%), del9p21 (18.5%) and 2-3xETV6/RUNX1 (18.5%). MRD

Schraw JM, Yiu TT, Lupo PJ, et al.
Maternal folate genes and aberrant DNA hypermethylation in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(5):e0197408 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that maternal genotypes in folate-related genes are associated with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) independent of offspring genotype. We evaluated the relationship between maternal genotypes in methionine synthase (MTR) and DNA methylation status in ALL to better characterize the molecular mechanism underlying this association.
PROCEDURE: We obtained bone marrow samples from 51 patients with ALL at diagnosis and from 6 healthy donors. Mothers of patients provided a saliva sample and were genotyped at 11 tagSNPs in MTR. DNA methylation was measured in bone marrow mononuclear cells of patients and six healthy marrow donors. We used hierarchical clustering to identify patients with a hypermethylator phenotype based on 281 differentially methylated promoter CpGs. We used logistic regression to estimate the effects of maternal genotype on the likelihood of DNA hypermethylation in ALL and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify networks enriched for differentially methylated genes.
RESULTS: Twenty-two cases (43%) demonstrated promoter hypermethylation, which was more frequent among those with ETV6-RUNX1 fusion and initial white blood cell count < 50 x 109/L. Maternal rs12759827 was associated with aberrant DNA methylation (odds ratio [OR] 4.67, 95% confidence interval 1.46-16.31); non-significantly elevated ORs were observed for all other SNPs. Aberrantly methylated promoter CpGs aligned to genes with known cancer-related functions.
DISCUSSION: Maternal folate metabolic genotype may be associated with DNA methylation patterns in ALL in their offspring. Therefore, the effect of maternal genotypes on ALL susceptibility may act through aberrant promoter methylation, which may contribute to the in utero origins of ALL.

Zhong Y, Liu L, Qi B, et al.
The screening and electron microscopy observation of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma in Chinese.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2018; 46(6):893-897 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland (MASC) is a tumor with histopathologic and immunophenotypic features mimicking secretory carcinoma of the breast harboring the ETV6 split. The expression of mammaglobin, S-100, Ki-67, P63 and ETV6 split were detected in twelve cases of acinar cell carcinoma and fourteen cases of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization respectively. The expression of ETV6 gene split was detected in fourteen mammary analogue secretory carcinomas of salivary gland with positive expression of mammaglobin. Eight of mammary analogue secretory carcinomas of salivary gland also tested positive for the ETV6 gene split via fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). The concordance rate of the immunohistochemistry and FISH was 72.3%. Mammaglobin and ETV6 gene split detection could help to distinguish mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland. The mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland specimens were also examined under transmission electron microscope. And apical junctional complexes were observed in the loosely connected tumor cells.

Lukes J, Potuckova E, Sramkova L, et al.
Two novel fusion genes, AIF1L-ETV6 and ABL1-AIF1L, result together with ETV6-ABL1 from a single chromosomal rearrangement in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with prenatal origin.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(9):471-477 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fusion genes resulting from chromosomal rearrangements represent a hallmark of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Unlike more common fusion genes generated via simple reciprocal chromosomal translocations, formation of the ETV6-ABL1 fusion gene requires 3 DNA breaks and usually results from an interchromosomal insertion. We report a child with ALL in which a single interchromosomal insertion led to the formation of ETV6-ABL1 and 2 novel fusion genes: AIF1L-ETV6 and ABL1-AIF1L. We demonstrate the prenatal origin of this complex chromosomal rearrangement, which apparently initiated the leukemogenic process, by successful backtracking of the ETV6-ABL1 fusion into the patient's archived neonatal blood. We cloned coding sequences of AIF1L-ETV6 and ABL1-AIF1L in-frame fusion transcripts from the patient's leukemic blasts and we show that the chimeric protein containing the DNA binding domain of ETV6 is expressed from the AIF1L-ETV6 transcript and localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of transfected HEK293T cells. Transcriptomic and genomic profiling of the diagnostic bone marrow sample revealed Ph-like gene expression signature and loss of the IKZF1 and CDKN2A/B genes, the typical genetic lesions accompanying ETV6-ABL1-positive ALL. The prenatal origin of the rearrangement confirms that ETV6-ABL1 is not sufficient to cause overt leukemia, even when combined with the 2 novel fusions. We did not find the AIF1L-ETV6 and ABL1-AIF1L fusions in other ETV6-ABL1-positive ALL. Nevertheless, functional studies would be needed to establish the biological role of AIF1L-ETV6 and ABL1-AIF1L and to determine whether they contribute to leukemogenesis and/or to the final leukemia phenotype.

Rudzinski ER, Lockwood CM, Stohr BA, et al.
Pan-Trk Immunohistochemistry Identifies NTRK Rearrangements in Pediatric Mesenchymal Tumors.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(7):927-935 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activating neurotrophic receptor kinase (NTRK) fusions define certain pediatric mesenchymal tumors, including infantile fibrosarcoma and cellular mesoblastic nephroma. Traditionally, molecular confirmation of these fusions has included either fluorescent in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangements or reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the classic ETV6-NTRK3 fusion. However, these methods overlook variant NTRK rearrangements, which are increasingly appreciated as recurrent events in a subset of pediatric mesenchymal tumors. New therapeutic agents successfully target these fusions and may prevent morbid surgeries in very young children, making recognition of tumors harboring NTRK rearrangements of increasing importance. We evaluated the performance of immunohistochemical (IHC) staining using pan-Trk and TrkA antibodies in 79 pediatric mesenchymal tumors. Negative controls included pediatric mesenchymal tumors not harboring (n=28) or not expected to harbor (n=22) NTRK fusions. NTRK rearrangements were detected predominantly by DNA-based next-generation sequencing assays, specifically UW OncoPlex and UCSF500 Cancer Gene Panel. Pan-Trk IHC (EPR17341) was 97% sensitive and 98% specific for the presence of an NTRK rearrangement, and TrkA IHC (EP1058Y) was 100% sensitive and 63% specific for the presence of an NTRK rearrangement. Tumors with NTRK1 or NTRK2 rearrangements showed cytoplasmic staining, whereas tumors with NTRK3 rearrangements showed nuclear +/- cytoplasmic staining. We conclude that pan-Trk IHC is a highly sensitive and specific marker for NTRK rearrangements in pediatric mesenchymal tumors.

Rooper LM, Karantanos T, Ning Y, et al.
Salivary Secretory Carcinoma With a Novel ETV6-MET Fusion: Expanding the Molecular Spectrum of a Recently Described Entity.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(8):1121-1126 [PubMed] Related Publications
Secretory carcinoma of the salivary glands, also known as mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, is a recently described tumor characterized by generally indolent clinical behavior and recurrent ETV6-NTRK3 fusions. However, a small subset of recent cases with high-grade histology, aggressive behavior, or alternate molecular findings are expanding the spectrum of this entity. In this case, a 59-year-old female presented with an infiltrative submandibular gland tumor that was originally classified as a high-grade acinic cell carcinoma, papillary-cystic variant. She developed persistent local disease and, 11 years after initial presentation, was found to have widespread metastases. Rereview of her primary tumor highlighted microcystic, papillary, and solid architecture, eosinophilic cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei with prominent nucleoli, abundant mitotic figures, and necrosis. Immunostains showed the tumor cells to be positive for S100 and mammaglobin and negative for DOG-1, and fluorescence in situ hybridization highlighted an ETV6 rearrangement, supporting a diagnosis of high-grade secretory carcinoma. Finally, next-generation sequencing demonstrated a novel ETV6-MET fusion. To our knowledge, this is the first ETV6-MET fusion reported in secretory carcinoma. This finding further expands the definition of secretory carcinoma while carrying implications for selecting appropriate targeted therapy.

Further References

Kobayashi H, Satake N, Kaneko Y
Detection of the Der (21)t(12;21) chromosome forming the TEL-AML1 fusion gene in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 1997; 28(1-2):43-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
The t(12;21) (p13;q22) is observed in approximately 20-25% of childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases in both Asian and Caucasian populations. This translocation results in the fusion of TEL, a recently described ETS-like gene on 12p13, and AML1, which was shown to be involved in the formation of fusion genes with ETO and EVI1 in myeloid leukemias. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis are useful in detecting this translocation which is not readily identified with routine cytogenetic techniques. The t(12;21) is associated with a distinct subgroup of patients characterized by an age between 1 and 10 years, an early B immunophenotype, and a good prognosis. A high incidence of the deletion of non-translocated TEL is another characteristic of leukemic cells with this translocation. TEL-AML1 hybrid protein thought to be critical in leukemogenesis possesses the HLH domain of TEL fused to almost the entire AML1 protein, although the detailed mechanisms of leukemogenesis remain obscure. RT-PCR combined with FISH analysis of posttreatment samples appears to be useful in detecting early relapse or minimal residual disease and thus, is expected to optimize the treatment strategy for patients with t(12;21).

Aguiar RC, Sohal J, van Rhee F, et al.
TEL-AML1 fusion in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia of adults. M.R.C. Adult Leukaemia Working Party.
Br J Haematol. 1996; 95(4):673-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
A number of fusion genes have been identified by study of acquired chromosomal translocations. Their detailed characterization has provided insights into mechanisms of leukaemogenesis and has enabled the development of molecular methods to assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of residual disease after treatment. The TEL-AML1 fusion gene is associated with a cryptic t(12:21)(p12:q22) translocation, and is the commonest known genetic abnormality in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), occurring in about 25% of cases. We have used RT-PCR, followed by Southern blotting and direct sequencing, to establish the incidence of TEL-AML1 rearrangement in 131 adults with acute leukaemia (101 with ALL and 30 with chronic myeloid leukaemia in blastic crisis). Three patients were positive for TEL-AML1 transcripts. All three had common-ALL. All other patients were negative for TEL-AML1. We conclude that the TEL-AML1 fusion gene is found in adult ALL, though less commonly than in children.

Kwong YL, Wong KF
Low frequency of TEL/AML1 in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1997; 98(2):137-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Translocation (12;21)(p13;q22) is a recently characterized aberration in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and results in the fusion of the TEL and the AML1 genes. It is the most common translocation in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), occurring in about one third of the cases. To determine the frequency of TEL/AML1 in adult ALL, we studied 4 cases of T lineage ALL and 26 cases of B lineage ALL. Only one positive case was identified, giving a very low frequency of 3.3%. In this patient, TEL/AML1 was still detectable in complete hematologic remission. The apparent age predilection of t(12;21) warrants further investigations.

Zhou MH, Gao L, Jing Y, et al.
Detection of ETV6 gene rearrangements in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Ann Hematol. 2012; 91(8):1235-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETV6 is an important hematopoietic regulatory factor and ETV6 gene rearrangement is involved in a wide variety of hematological malignancies. In this study, we sought to investigate the incidence of ETV6-associated fusion genes in B- and T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by multiplex-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 176 adult ALL patients. Total RNA was extracted from bone marrow samples of ALL patients including 136 B- and 40 T-lineage ALL, and ETV6 fusion genes were detected by multiplex-nested RT-PCR. Changes of ETV6 fusion gene mRNA transcript levels were examined by real-time RT-PCR. We detected a total of 15 ETV6 gene rearrangements with a positive rate of 8.5%, involving seven ETV6-associated fusion genes in 13 B-ALL (13/136, 9.6%) and 2 T-ALL patients (2/40, 5.0%). ETV6-RUNX1 were observed in six cases (3.4%), ETV6-JAK2 in three cases (1.7%), ETV6-ABL1 in two cases (1.1%), and ETV6-ABL2, ETV6-NCOA2, ETV6-SYK, and PAX5-ETV6 each in one case (0.6%). ETV6-JAK2 was found in both B-ALL and T-ALL patients. Furthermore, real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that the ETV6-RUNX1 mRNA transcript levels decreased during conventional chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study shows that multiplex-nested RT-PCR is an effective and accurate tool to identify ETV6 rearrangements in adult ALL, which provides some clues into the diagnosis and prognosis of ALL but also molecular markers for the detection of minimal residual disease in adult ALL.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. ETV6 (TEL), Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999