Gene Summary

Gene:BTG1; BTG anti-proliferation factor 1
Aliases: APRO2
Summary:This gene is a member of an anti-proliferative gene family that regulates cell growth and differentiation. Expression of this gene is highest in the G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle and downregulated when cells progressed through G1. The encoded protein interacts with several nuclear receptors, and functions as a coactivator of cell differentiation. This locus has been shown to be involved in a t(8;12)(q24;q22) chromosomal translocation in a case of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein BTG1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (19)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Chromosome 12
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Gene Expression
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Western Blotting
  • Survival Rate
  • Drug Resistance
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • DNA Methylation
  • Promoter Regions
  • Adolescents
  • Apoptosis
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • World Health Organization
  • Gene Deletion
  • BTG1
  • Young Adult
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Down-Regulation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Mutation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Disease Progression
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Gene Dosage
  • Transcription Factors
  • Ikaros Transcription Factor
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • RT-PCR
  • Infant
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BTG1 (cancer-related)

Wang Y, Sun W, Yang J, et al.
PUM2 Promotes Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation and Migration via Repressing BTG1 Expression.
Cell Struct Funct. 2019; 44(1):29-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
PUM2, an RNA binding protein, is known to promote stem cell proliferation via repressing expressions of cell cycle genes. Similar with stem cells, malignant cells are characterized by unlimited proliferation and remote migration. However, roles of PUM2 in cancer development are controversial. Here, we investigated PUM2's role in glioblastoma development and its relationship with the cell cycle regulator BTG1. Immunoblotting and RT-qPCR were used to evaluate protein expression level and transcript level, respectively. ShRNAs were designed to knock down PUM2 and BTG1 expression. CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Cell migration assay and evasion assay were used to evaluate metastatic capability of glioblastoma cell. RNA pull-down assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay were used to test the interaction between PUM2 and BTG1 3'UTR. PUM2 expression is elevated in glioblastoma tumor tissues as well as glioblastoma cell lines. PUM2 knockdown remarkably suppresses glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration. In addition, PUM2 knockdown increases BTG1 expression. RNA pull-down assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay show PUM2 binds to BTG1 3'UTR directly. Furthermore, knockdown of BTG1 reverses the effect of PUM2 knockdown on glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration. Our results suggest that PUM2 promote glioblastoma development via repressing BTG1 expression.Key words: PUM2, BTG1, glioblastoma, cell proliferation, metastasis.

Olsson L, Lundin-Ström KB, Castor A, et al.
Improved cytogenetic characterization and risk stratification of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia using single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis: A single center experience of 296 cases.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(11):604-607 [PubMed] Related Publications
Single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A) analyses are increasingly being introduced in routine genetic diagnostics of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Despite this, only few studies that have compared the diagnostic value of SNP-A with conventional chromosome banding have been published. We here report such a comparison of 296 ALL cases, the largest series to date. Only genomic imbalances >5 Mb and microdeletions targeting the BTG1, CDKN2A/B, EBF1, ERG, ETV6, IKZF1, PAX5, and RB1 genes and the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) were ascertained, in agreement with recent guidelines. Of 36 T-cell ALL cases, the karyotypes of 24 cases (67%) were revised by SNP-A analyses that either revealed additional imbalances >5 Mb or better characterized the changes found by G-banding. Of 260 B-cell precursor (BCP) ALL cases, SNP-A analyses identified additional copy number alterations, including the above-mentioned microdeletions, or better characterized the imbalances found by G-banding in 236 (91%) cases. Furthermore, the cytogenetic subtype classification of 41/260 (16%) BCP ALL cases was revised based on the SNP-A findings. Of the subtype revisions, 12/41 (29%) had clinical implications as regards risk stratifying cytogenetic groups or genotype-specific minimal residual disease stratification. We conclude that SNP-A analyses dramatically improve the cytogenetic characterization of both T-cell and BCP ALL and also provide important information pertinent to risk stratification of BCP ALL.

Tomoyasu C, Imamura T, Tomii T, et al.
Copy number abnormality of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines based on their genetic subtypes.
Int J Hematol. 2018; 108(3):312-318 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we performed genetic analysis of 83 B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cell lines. First, we performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis to identify copy number abnormalities (CNAs) in eight genes associated with B-ALL according to genetic subtype. In Ph

Yin P, Song G, Jiang Z
Cisplatin suppresses proliferation, migration and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in vitro by repressing the Wnt/β-catenin/Endothelin-1 axis via activating B cell translocation gene 1.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2018; 81(5):863-872 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide with significantly high prevalence in Southern China. Chemoprevention of cancer with alkylating agent compounds could potentially reverse, suppress, or prevent cancer progression. Cisplatin (CIS) is an antineoplastic or cytotoxic platinum-based drug used for chemotherapy of different types of human cancers such as NPC. Nevertheless, the effects of CIS on the migration and invasion of human NPC cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully scrutinized.
METHODS: In this work, we tested the effect of CIS on the proliferation, migration and invasion of NPC cells. The results exhibited that this drug exerts remarkable inhibitory effects on the proliferation, migration and invasion of NPC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting and real time RT-PCR were used for expression analyses.
RESULTS: We found that CIS treatment led to a dose-dependent inhibition of Endothelin-1 (ET1) expression, at protein as well as mRNA levels in NPC cells. CIS was also found to activate the expression of BTG1 in NPC cells. Moreover, mechanistic analyses revealed that CIS increased the expression of B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) to suppress the expression of ET1. Furthermore, we show that ET1 could not be induced in CIS-resistant cells with suppressed BTG1 expression, and subsequently demote the proliferation, migration and invasion of NPC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings provided compelling evidence of the role of CIS in suppressing NPC metastasis and its underlying molecular mechanisms.

Stanulla M, Dagdan E, Zaliova M, et al.
J Clin Oncol. 2018; 36(12):1240-1249 [PubMed] Related Publications
Purpose Somatic deletions that affect the lymphoid transcription factor-coding gene IKZF1 have previously been reported as independently associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We have now refined the prognostic strength of IKZF1 deletions by analyzing the effect of co-occurring deletions. Patients and Methods The analysis involved 991 patients with BCP ALL treated in the Associazione Italiana Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica-Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster (AIEOP-BFM) ALL 2000 trial with complete information for copy number alterations of IKZF1, PAX5, ETV6, RB1, BTG1, EBF1, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, Xp22.33/Yp11.31 (PAR1 region; CRLF2, CSF2RA, and IL3RA), and ERG; replication of findings involved 417 patients from the same trial. Results IKZF1 deletions that co-occurred with deletions in CDKN2A, CDKN2B, PAX5, or PAR1 in the absence of ERG deletion conferred the worst outcome and, consequently, were grouped as IKZF1

Singh M, Bhatia P, Trehan A, et al.
High frequency of intermediate and poor risk copy number abnormalities in pediatric cohort of B-ALL correlate with high MRD post induction.
Leuk Res. 2018; 66:79-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Copy number abnormalities (CNAs) and recurrent fusion transcripts are important genetic events which define and prognosticate B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL). We evaluated CNAs and fusion transcripts in 67 pediatric B-ALL cases and correlated the data with standard risk factors and early treatment outcome parameters. Common fusion transcripts ETV6-RUNX1, E2A-PBX, BCR-ABL1 and MLL-AF4 were examined by RT-PCR and noted in 15%, 15%, 13% and 1.4% of all cases respectively. CNAs in IKZF1, PAX5, EBF1, BTG1, RB1, CDKN2A/B and genes from PAR1 region viz., CSF2RA, IL3RA,P2RY8, SHOX region and CRLF2 were analyzed by multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification assay and were detected in 70% (47/67) of cases, with predominantly deletions in CDKN2A/B (36%), PAX5 (18%) and IKZF1 (16%). A statistically significant association of intermediate/poor risk CNAs was noted with high WBC count (p = 0.001), NCI group (p = 0.02) and minimal residual disease at Day35 (p < 0.0001). IKZF1 and CDKN2A/B deletion revealed poor EFS of 56% at 24 months as compared to EFS of 80% in rest of the cases (p = 0.05) suggesting their potential role in early risk stratification.

Weng W, Liu N, Toiyama Y, et al.
Novel evidence for a PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) as an oncogenic mediator of disease progression, and a potential prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) may be important epigenetic regulators of gene expression in human cancers; however, their functional and clinical significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown.
METHODS: We performed piRNA expression profiling in paired cancer and normal tissues through small RNA-sequencing. The clinical significance of candidate piRNAs was investigated, and independently validated in 771 CRC patients from three independent cohorts. The biological function of piRNAs was characterized in cell lines, followed by identification and validation of downstream target genes in CRC tissues.
RESULTS: We identified piR-1245 as a novel and frequently overexpressed noncoding RNA in CRC, and its expression significantly correlated with advanced and metastatic disease. Patients with high piR-1245 expression experienced significantly shorter overall survival, and multivariate analysis identified its expression to serve as an independent prognostic biomarker in CRC. Functionally, piR-1245 acts as an oncogene and promotes tumor progression, and gene expression profiling results identified a panel of downstream target-genes involved in regulating cell survival pathway. Based upon piRNA:mRNA sequence complementarity, we identified a panel of tumor suppressor genes (ATF3, BTG1, DUSP1, FAS,NFKBIA, UPP1, SESN2, TP53INP1 and MDX1) as direct targets of piR-1245, and successfully validated an inverse correlation between their expression and piR-1245 in CRC.
CONCLUSIONS: We for the first time have identified the role for a PIWI-interacting noncoding RNA, piR-1245, as a novel oncogene and a potential prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer.

Jung YY, Sung JY, Kim JY, Kim HS
Down-regulation of B-Cell Translocation Gene 1 by Promoter Methylation in Colorectal Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(2):691-697 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: B-cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) acts as a tumour suppressor in human malignancies. However, the precise mechanism of BTG1 down-regulation in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) remains unclear. We analyzed BTG1 expression in CRC cell lines and tissues and investigated the mechanism underlying the observed alterations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analyses were performed to analyze BTG1 expression in CRC cell lines. The methylation status of the BTG1 promoter region in cell lines was determined by methylation-specific PCR, and the effect of demethylation on BTG1 expression was explored with 5-aza-deoxycytidine treatment. BTG1 protein expression in CRC tissue samples was evaluated using immunostaining.
RESULTS: CRC cell lines and tissue samples expressed lower levels of BTG1 compared to controls, and BTG1 levels were significantly lower in metastatic than primary CRC. In BTG1-down-regulated CRC cell lines, the BTG1 promoter was highly methylated, and 5-aza-deoxycytidine significantly restored BTG1 expression.
CONCLUSION: BTG1 down-regulation in CRC occurs through epigenetic repression, which is involved in the development and progression of CRC.

Pfeifer H, Raum K, Markovic S, et al.
Genomic CDKN2A/2B deletions in adult Ph
Blood. 2018; 131(13):1464-1475 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the role of copy number alterations to refine risk stratification in adult Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph)

Huang Y, Zheng J, Tan T, et al.
BTG1 low expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is associated with a poorer prognosis.
Int J Biol Markers. 2018; 33(2):189-194 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: BTG1 is a member of the TOB/BTG protein family, which is a transducer of ErbB-2 and TOB2. It is known to inhibit tumor genesis, but its role in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of BTG1 protein in PDAC and to determine its prognostic significance.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry is used to determine the protein expression of the BTG1 gene in 79 surgically resected PDAC. The association of BTG1 expression with all the patients' clinicopathologic parameters, including survival, was analyzed using statistical software.
RESULTS: High BTG1 expression was observed in 27.8% (22/79) of the PDAC tissues, which was significantly lower than the 58.2% (46/79) of corresponding normal adjacent noncancerous tissues by immunohistochemical staining (p<0.001).Through the stratified analysis, we found a significant difference of BTG1 expression in peri-neural invasion (p = 0.002), T stage (p = 0.000), N stage (p = 0.018), and tumor, node, and metastasis stage (p = 0.000). Univariate and multivariate Cox analysis revealed that BTG1 expression status was an independent prognostic factor in PDAC (p = 0.027). Moreover, overall survival was better in PDAC cases with higher rather than lower BTG1 expression (p = 0.027).
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated for the first time that lower expression of BTG1 might be involved in the progression of PDAC, suggesting that BTG1 might be a novel prognostic marker and a target for therapy.

Lopes BA, Barbosa TC, Souza BKS, et al.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2017; 10(12):738-744 [PubMed] Related Publications
SNPs in

Bai Y, Qiao L, Xie N, et al.
Expression and prognosis analyses of the Tob/BTG antiproliferative (APRO) protein family in human cancers.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(9):e0184902 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in early diagnosis and treatment, cancer remains the major cause of mortality in the world. The Tob/BTG antiproliferative (APRO) protein family is reported to participate in diverse human diseases. However, there's little known about their expression and prognostic values in most human cancers.
METHODS: We performed a detailed cancer vs. normal analysis. The mRNA expression levels of APRO family in various cancers were analyzed via the Oncomine database. Moreover, the Kaplan-Meier Plotter and PrognScan databases were used to evaluate the prognostic values.
RESULTS: We observed that the mRNA expression levels of TOB1-2 and BTG2 were decreased in most cancers compared with normal tissues, while BTG3 was upregulated in most cancers. In survival analyses based on Kaplan-Meier Plotter, TOB1, BTG1 and BTG4 showed significant associations with survival outcome of different subtypes of breast cancer. Decreased BTG2 was related with poor relapse free survival (RFS) in all subtypes of breast cancer. Especially, besides RFS, reduced BTG2 also indicated worse overall survival and distant metastasis free survival in breast cancer patients who were classified as luminal A. Significant prognostic effects of the whole APRO family were also found in lung adenocarcinoma, but not in squamous cell lung carcinoma. In addition, potential correlations between some APRO family members and survival outcomes were also observed in ovarian, colorectal and brain cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Some members of APRO family showed significant expression differences between cancer and normal tissues, and could be prognostic biomarkers for defined cancer types.

Moafi A, Zojaji A, Salehi R, et al.
The correlation between Pax5 deletion and patients survival in Iranian children with precursor B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2017; 63(8):19-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite advances in treatment, children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) still experience drug resistance and relapse. Several gene mutations are involved in the onset of this disease and resistance to therapy. The present study examines the incidence of IKZF1, CDKN2A/B, PAX5, EBF1, ETV6, BTG1, RB1, JAK2, and Xp22.33 gene deletions/duplications associated with pediatric ALL in Iran and investigates the possible effect of these mutations on drug resistance. Three-year disease-free survival (3DFS) was evaluated for children diagnosed with Philadelphia negative precursor-B-cell ALL hospitalized at Sayed-al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan-Iran, from January 2009 until December 2012. DNA was extracted from bone marrow slides, and ALL correlated gene deletions and duplications were measured using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) method. The correlation between gene mutations and 3DFS was then assessed. Among the nine aforementioned investigated genes, 63% of samples showed at least one gene mutation. At least two concomitant genomic mutations were observed in 42% of samples. Pax5 deletion was the most prevalent gene mutation observed in 45% of cases, and showed significant negative impact on response to treatment. CDKN2A/B (9p21.3) gene deletion, and ETV6 (12p13.2) gene duplication also demonstrated negative effect on patient survival and contributed to a worse prognosis if concomitant with Pax5 gene deletion. ALL patients with one of the gene deletions including Pax5  and CDKN2A/B (9p21.3) or ETV6 (12p13.2) gene duplication are classified as high-risk patients and need more intensified protocols of treatment to improve their chance of survival.

Zhang SQ, Yang Z, Cai XL, et al.
miR-511 promotes the proliferation of human hepatoma cells by targeting the 3'UTR of B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) mRNA.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2017; 38(8):1161-1170 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant expression of miR-511 is involved in the development of cancer, but the role of miR-511 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not well documented. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanisms of miR-511 in hepatocarcinogenesis. Our results of bioinformatics analysis suggested that B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1), a member of anti-proliferative gene family, was one of the putative targets of miR-511. The expression levels of miR-511 were significantly higher in 30 clinical HCC tissues than in corresponding peritumor tissues, and were negatively correlated with those of BTG1 in the HCC tissues (r=-0.6105, P<0.01). In human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and H7402, overexpression of miR-511 dose-dependently inhibited the expression of BTG1, whereas knockdown of miR-511 dose-dependently increased the expression of BTG1. Luciferase reporter gene assays verified that miR-511 targeted the 3'UTR of BTG1 mRNA. In the hepatoma cells, overexpression of miR-511 significantly decreased BTG1-induced G

Bhandari P, Ahmad F, Das BR
Molecular profiling of gene copy number abnormalities in key regulatory genes in high-risk B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia: frequency and their association with clinicopathological findings in Indian patients.
Med Oncol. 2017; 34(5):92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genes related to key cellular pathways are frequently altered in B cell ALL and are associated with poor survival especially in high-risk (HR) subgroups. We examined gene copy number abnormalities (CNA) in 101 Indian HR B cell ALL patients and their correlation with clinicopathological features by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Overall, CNA were detected in 59 (59%) cases, with 26, 10 and 23% of cases harboring 1, 2 or +3 CNA. CNA were more prevalent in BCR-ABL1 (60%), pediatric (64%) and high WCC (WBC count) (63%) patients. Frequent genes deletions included CDNK2A/B (26%), IKZF1 (25%), PAX5 (14%), JAK2 (7%), BTG1 (6%), RB1 (5%), EBF1 (4%), ETV6 (4%), while PAR1 region genes were predominantly duplicated (20%). EBF1 deletions selectively associated with adults, IKZF1 deletions occurred frequently in high WCC and BCR-ABL1 cases, while PAR1 region gains significantly associated with MLL-AF4 cases. IKZF1 haploinsufficiency group was predominant, especially in adults (65%), high WCC (60%) patients and BCR-ABL1-negative (78%) patients. Most cases harbored multiple concurrent CNA, with IKZF1 concomitantly occurring with CDNK2A/B, PAX5 and BTG1, while JAK2 occurred with CDNK2A/B and PAX5. Mutually exclusive CNA included ETV6 and IKZF1/RB1, and EBF1 and JAK2. Our results corroborate with global reports, aggregating molecular markers in Indian HR B-ALL cases. Integration of CNA data from rapid methods like MLPA, onto background of existing gold-standard methods detecting significant chromosomal abnormalities, provides a comprehensive genetic profile in B-ALL.

de Smith AJ, Kaur M, Gonseth S, et al.
Correlates of Prenatal and Early-Life Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Frequency of Common Gene Deletions in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(7):1674-1683 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tobacco smoke exposure has been associated with risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Understanding the relationship between tobacco exposures and specific mutations may yield etiologic insights. We carried out a case-only analysis to explore whether prenatal and early-life tobacco smoke exposure influences the formation of leukemogenic genomic deletions. Somatic copy number of 8 genes frequently deleted in ALL (

He C, Yu T, Shi Y, et al.
MicroRNA 301A Promotes Intestinal Inflammation and Colitis-Associated Cancer Development by Inhibiting BTG1.
Gastroenterology. 2017; 152(6):1434-1448.e15 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal tissues from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer have increased expression of microRNA-301a (MIR301A) compared with tissues from patients without IBD. We studied the mechanisms of MIR301A in the progression of IBD in human tissues and mice.
METHODS: We isolated intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from biopsy samples of the colon from 153 patients with different stages of IBD activity, 6 patients with colitis-associated cancer (CAC), and 35 healthy individuals (controls), enrolled in the study in Shanghai, China. We measured expression of MIR301A and BTG anti-proliferation factor 1 (BTG1) by IECs using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Human colon cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and SW480) were transfected with a lentivirus that expresses MIR301A; expression of cytokines and tight junction proteins were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence staining. We generated mice with disruption of the microRNA-301A gene (MIR301A-knockout mice), and also studied mice that express a transgene-encoding BTG1. Colitis was induced in knockout, transgenic, and control (C57BL/B6) mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), and mice were given azoxymethane to induce colorectal carcinogenesis. Colons were collected and analyzed histologically and by immunohistochemistry; tumor nodules were counted and tumor size was measured. SW480 cells expressing the MIR301A transgene were grown as xenograft tumors in nude mice.
RESULTS: Expression of MIR301A increased in IECs from patients with IBD and CAC compared with controls. MIR301A-knockout mice were resistant to the development of colitis following administration of DSS; their colon tissues expressed lower levels of interleukin 1β (IL1β), IL6, IL8, and tumor necrosis factor than colons of control mice. Colon tissues from MIR301A-knockout mice had increased epithelial barrier integrity and formed fewer tumors following administration of azoxymethane than control mice. Human IECs expressing transgenic MIR301A down-regulated expression of cadherin 1 (also called E-cadherin or CDH1). We identified BTG1 mRNA as a target of MIR301A; levels of BTG1 mRNA were reduced in inflamed mucosa from patients with active IBD compared with controls. There was an inverse correlation between levels of BTG1 mRNA and levels of MIR301A in inflamed mucosal tissues from patients with active IBD. Human colon cancer cell lines that expressed a MIR301A transgene increased proliferation; they had increased permeability and decreased expression of CDH1 compared with cells transfected with a control vector, indicating reduced intestinal barrier function. BTG1 transgenic mice developed less severe colitis than control mice following administration of DSS. SW480 cells expressing anti-MIR301A formed fewer xenograft tumors in nude mice than cells expressing a control vector.
CONCLUSIONS: Levels of MIR301A are increased in IECs from patients with active IBD. MIR301A reduces expression of BTG1 to reduce epithelial integrity and promote inflammation in mouse colon and promotes tumorigenesis. Strategies to decrease levels of MIR301A in colon tissues might be developed to treat patients with IBD and CAC.

Zhao LM, Pang AX
Iodine-131 treatment of thyroid cancer cells leads to suppression of cell proliferation followed by induction of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by regulation of B-cell translocation gene 2-mediated JNK/NF-κB pathways.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 2017; 50(1):e5933 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Iodine-131 (131I) is widely used for the treatment of thyroid-related diseases. This study aimed to investigate the expression of p53 and BTG2 genes following 131I therapy in thyroid cancer cell line SW579 and the possible underlying mechanism. SW579 human thyroid squamous carcinoma cells were cultured and treated with 131I. They were then assessed for 131I uptake, cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, p53 expression, and BTG2 gene expression. SW579 cells were transfected with BTG2 siRNA, p53 siRNA and siNC and were then examined for the same aforementioned parameters. When treated with a JNK inhibitor of SP600125 and 131I or with a NF-κB inhibitor of BMS-345541 and 131I, non-transfected SW579 cells were assessed in JNK/NFκB pathways. It was observed that 131I significantly inhibited cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Both BTG2 and p53 expression were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. An increase in cell viability by up-regulation in Bcl2 gene, a decrease in apoptosis by enhanced CDK2 gene expression and a decrease in cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase were also observed in SW579 cell lines transfected with silenced BTG2 gene. When treated with SP600125 and 131I, the non-transfected SW579 cell lines significantly inhibited JNK pathway, NF-κB pathway and the expression of BTG2. However, when treated with BMS-345541 and 131I, only the NF-κB pathway was suppressed. 131I suppressed cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and promoted cell cycle arrest of thyroid cancer cells by up-regulating B-cell translocation gene 2-mediated activation of JNK/NF-κB pathways.

Russell LJ, Jones L, Enshaei A, et al.
Characterisation of the genomic landscape of CRLF2-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(5):363-372 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deregulated expression of the type I cytokine receptor, CRLF2, is observed in 5-15% of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL). We aimed to determine the clinical and genetic landscape of those with IGH-CRLF2 or P2RY8-CRLF2 (CRLF2-r) using multiple genomic approaches. Clinical and demographic features of CRLF2-r patients were characteristic of B-ALL. Patients with IGH-CRLF2 were older (14 y vs. 4 y, P < .001), while the incidence of CRLF2-r among Down syndrome patients was high (50/161, 31%). CRLF2-r co-occurred with primary chromosomal rearrangements but the majority (111/161, 69%) had B-other ALL. Copy number alteration (CNA) profiles were similar to B-other ALL, although CRLF2-r patients harbored higher frequencies of IKZF1 (60/138, 43% vs. 77/1351, 24%) and BTG1 deletions (20/138, 15% vs. 3/1351, 1%). There were significant differences in CNA profiles between IGH-CRLF2 and P2RY8-CRLF2 patients: IKZF1 (25/35, 71% vs. 36/108, 33%, P < .001), BTG1 (11/35, 31% vs. 10/108, 9%, P =.004), and ADD3 deletions (9/19, 47% vs. 5/38, 13%, P =.008). A novel gene fusion, USP9X-DDX3X, was discovered in 10/54 (19%) of patients. Pathway analysis of the mutational profile revealed novel involvement for focal adhesion. Although the functional relevance of many of these abnormalities are unknown, they likely activate additional pathways, which may represent novel therapeutic targets.

Scheijen B, Boer JM, Marke R, et al.
Tumor suppressors BTG1 and IKZF1 cooperate during mouse leukemia development and increase relapse risk in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.
Haematologica. 2017; 102(3):541-551 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deletions and mutations affecting lymphoid transcription factor IKZF1 (IKAROS) are associated with an increased relapse risk and poor outcome in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, additional genetic events may either enhance or negate the effects of

Kridel R, Chan FC, Mottok A, et al.
Histological Transformation and Progression in Follicular Lymphoma: A Clonal Evolution Study.
PLoS Med. 2016; 13(12):e1002197 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent, yet incurable B cell malignancy. A subset of patients experience an increased mortality rate driven by two distinct clinical end points: histological transformation and early progression after immunochemotherapy. The nature of tumor clonal dynamics leading to these clinical end points is poorly understood, and previously determined genetic alterations do not explain the majority of transformed cases or accurately predict early progressive disease. We contend that detailed knowledge of the expansion patterns of specific cell populations plus their associated mutations would provide insight into therapeutic strategies and disease biology over the time course of FL clinical histories.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a combination of whole genome sequencing, targeted deep sequencing, and digital droplet PCR on matched diagnostic and relapse specimens, we deciphered the constituent clonal populations in 15 transformation cases and 6 progression cases, and measured the change in clonal population abundance over time. We observed widely divergent patterns of clonal dynamics in transformed cases relative to progressed cases. Transformation specimens were generally composed of clones that were rare or absent in diagnostic specimens, consistent with dramatic clonal expansions that came to dominate the transformation specimens. This pattern was independent of time to transformation and treatment modality. By contrast, early progression specimens were composed of clones that were already present in the diagnostic specimens and exhibited only moderate clonal dynamics, even in the presence of immunochemotherapy. Analysis of somatic mutations impacting 94 genes was undertaken in an extension cohort consisting of 395 samples from 277 patients in order to decipher disrupted biology in the two clinical end points. We found 12 genes that were more commonly mutated in transformed samples than in the preceding FL tumors, including TP53, B2M, CCND3, GNA13, S1PR2, and P2RY8. Moreover, ten genes were more commonly mutated in diagnostic specimens of patients with early progression, including TP53, BTG1, MKI67, and XBP1.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results illuminate contrasting modes of evolution shaping the clinical histories of transformation and progression. They have implications for interpretation of evolutionary dynamics in the context of treatment-induced selective pressures, and indicate that transformation and progression will require different clinical management strategies.

Zhao S, Chen SR, Yang XF, et al.
BTG1 might be employed as a biomarker for carcinogenesis and a target for gene therapy in colorectal cancers.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(5):7502-7520 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Here, BTG1 overexpression inhibited proliferation, induced differentiation, autophagy, and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells (p<0.05). BTG1 overexpression reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and caused senescence in HCT-116 transfectants (p<0.05). BTG1-induced G2 arrest might be related to Cyclin B1 and Cdc25B hypoexpression in HCT-15 transfectants, while G1 arrest in HCT-116 transfectants overexpressing p21 and p27. BTG1 overexpression decreased the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP, Akt1 or survivin and increased the expression of Bax or p53 in colorectal cancer cells. BTG1-induced autophagy was dependent on Beclin-1 expression. BTG1 overexpression might weaken β-catenin pathway in colorectal cancer cells. The chemosensitivity of BTG1 transfectants to paclitaxel, cisplatin, MG132 or SAHA was positively correlated with its apoptotic induction. There was a lower expression level of BTG1 in cancer than matched non-neoplastic mucosa by RT-PCR (p<0.05), while versa for Western blot and immunohistochemical data (p<0.05). BTG1 overexpression significantly suppressed the growth of HCT-15 and HCT-116 via inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and autophagy in nude mice. Up-regulated BTG1 expression plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis as a potential biomarker. BTG1 expression might reverse aggressive phenotypes, so it might be employed as a target of gene therapy for colorectal cancer.

Gupta SK, Bakhshi S, Kumar L, et al.
Gene copy number alteration profile and its clinical correlation in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2017; 58(2):333-342 [PubMed] Related Publications
The genes related to B-cell development are frequently altered in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). One hundred sixty-two newly diagnosed B-ALL cases, median age 8.5 years (2 months-67 years), were prospectively analyzed for copy number alterations (CNAs) in CDKN2A/B, IKZF1, PAX5, RB1, ETV6, BTG1, EBF1, and pseudoautosomal region genes (CRLF2, CSF2RA, IL3RA) using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. The CNAs were detected in 114 (70.4%) cases; most commonly affected genes being CDKN2A/B-55 (34%), PAX5-51 (31.5%), and IKZF1-43 (26.5%). IKZF1 and RB1 deletions correlated with higher induction failure. Patients classified as good-risk, according to the integrated CNA profile and cytogenetic criteria, had lower induction failure [5 (8.6%) vs. 20 (25.3%); p = 0.012]. Those classified as good-risk, based on CNA profile irrespective of cytogenetics, also showed lower induction failure [6 (9.4%) vs. 19 (26%); p = 0.012]. The CNA profile identified patients with better induction outcome and has a potential role in better risk stratification of B-ALL.

Xiao F, Deng J, Guo Y, et al.
BTG1 ameliorates liver steatosis by decreasing stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) abundance and altering hepatic lipid metabolism.
Sci Signal. 2016; 9(428):ra50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver steatosis, a condition in which lipid accumulates in liver cells, is a leading cause of many liver diseases. The livers of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, a cancer characterized by liver steatosis, have decreased abundance of the transcription cofactor BTG1 (B cell translocation gene 1). We showed that the livers of db/db mice, which are a genetic model of obesity, had decreased BTG1 mRNA and protein abundance. BTG1 overexpression ameliorated liver steatosis in db/db mice, whereas knockdown of BTG1 induced liver steatosis in wild-type mice. Consistent with these changes, we found that BTG1 decreased triglyceride accumulation in cultured hepatocytes. BTG1 overexpression inhibited the expression of the gene encoding stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, by suppressing the activity of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Knockdown of SCD1 prevented liver steatosis in wild-type mice induced by knockdown of BTG1. Conversely, the ability of BTG1 overexpression to ameliorate liver steatosis in db/db mice was negated by ATF4 overexpression. Moreover, BTG1 transgenic mice were resistant to liver steatosis induced by a high-carbohydrate diet. BTG1 abundance was decreased by this diet through a pathway that involved mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Together, our study identifies a role of BTG1 in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and specifically in preventing ATF4 and SCD1 from inducing liver steatosis.

La Starza R, Barba G, Demeyer S, et al.
Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 5 define subgroups of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2016; 101(8):951-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recurrent deletions of the long arm of chromosome 5 were detected in 23/200 cases of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Genomic studies identified two types of deletions: interstitial and terminal. Interstitial 5q deletions, found in five cases, were present in both adults and children with a female predominance (chi-square, P=0.012). Interestingly, these cases resembled immature/early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia showing significant down-regulation of five out of the ten top differentially expressed genes in this leukemia group, including TCF7 which maps within the 5q31 common deleted region. Mutations of genes known to be associated with immature/early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, i.e. WT1, ETV6, JAK1, JAK3, and RUNX1, were present, while CDKN2A/B deletions/mutations were never detected. All patients had relapsed/resistant disease and blasts showed an early differentiation arrest with expression of myeloid markers. Terminal 5q deletions, found in 18 of patients, were more prevalent in adults (chi-square, P=0.010) and defined a subgroup of HOXA-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia characterized by 130 up- and 197 down-regulated genes. Down-regulated genes included TRIM41, ZFP62, MAPK9, MGAT1, and CNOT6, all mapping within the 1.4 Mb common deleted region at 5q35.3. Of interest, besides CNOT6 down-regulation, these cases also showed low BTG1 expression and a high incidence of CNOT3 mutations, suggesting that the CCR4-NOT complex plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HOXA-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with terminal 5q deletions. In conclusion, interstitial and terminal 5q deletions are recurrent genomic losses identifying distinct subtypes of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Yuniati L, van der Meer LT, Tijchon E, et al.
Tumor suppressor BTG1 promotes PRMT1-mediated ATF4 function in response to cellular stress.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(3):3128-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cells are frequently exposed to physiological stress conditions such as hypoxia and nutrient limitation. Escape from stress-induced apoptosis is one of the mechanisms used by malignant cells to survive unfavorable conditions. B-cell Translocation Gene 1 (BTG1) is a tumor suppressor that is frequently deleted in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and recurrently mutated in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Moreover, low BTG1 expression levels have been linked to poor outcome in several solid tumors. How loss of BTG1 function contributes to tumor progression is not well understood. Here, using Btg1 knockout mice, we demonstrate that loss of Btg1 provides a survival advantage to primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) under stress conditions. This pro-survival effect involves regulation of Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4), a key mediator of cellular stress responses. We show that BTG1 interacts with ATF4 and positively modulates its activity by recruiting the protein arginine methyl transferase PRMT1 to methylate ATF4 on arginine residue 239. We further extend these findings to B-cell progenitors, by showing that loss of Btg1 expression enhances stress adaptation of mouse bone marrow-derived B cell progenitors. In conclusion, we have identified the BTG1/PRMT1 complex as a new modifier of ATF4 mediated stress responses.

Ceccarelli M, Micheli L, D'Andrea G, et al.
Altered cerebellum development and impaired motor coordination in mice lacking the Btg1 gene: Involvement of cyclin D1.
Dev Biol. 2015; 408(1):109-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cerebellar granule neurons develop postnatally from cerebellar granule precursors (GCPs), which are located in the external granule layer (EGL) where they massively proliferate. Thereafter, GCPs become postmitotic, migrate inward to form the internal granule layer (IGL), further differentiate and form synapses with Purkinje cell dendrites. We previously showed that the Btg family gene, Tis21/Btg2, is required for normal GCP migration. Here we investigated the role in cerebellar development of the related gene, Btg1, which regulates stem cell quiescence in adult neurogenic niches, and is expressed in the cerebellum. Knockout of Btg1 in mice caused a major increase of the proliferation of the GCPs in the EGL, whose thickness increased, remaining hyperplastic even after postnatal day 14, when the EGL is normally reduced to a few GCP layers. This was accompanied by a slight decrease of differentiation and migration of the GCPs and increase of apoptosis. The GCPs of double Btg1/Tis21-null mice presented combined major defects of proliferation and migration outside the EGL, indicating that each gene plays unique and crucial roles in cerebellar development. Remarkably, these developmental defects lead to a permanent increase of the adult cerebellar volume in Btg1-null and double mutant mice, and to impairment in all mutants, including Tis21-null, of the cerebellum-dependent motor coordination. Gain- and loss-of-function strategies in a GCP cell line revealed that Btg1 regulates the proliferation of GCPs selectively through cyclin D1. Thus, Btg1 plays a critical role for cerebellar maturation and function.

Zhu R, Li W, Xu Y, et al.
Upregulation of BTG1 enhances the radiation sensitivity of human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(6):3017-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
X-ray-based radiotherapy is one of the most effective therapeutic strategies for breast cancer patients. However, radioresistance and side-effects continue to be the most challenging issues. B-cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) is a member of the BTG/Tob family, which inhibits cancer growth and promotes apoptosis. We, therefore, hypothesized that BTG1 plays an important role in the radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells. In the present study, breast cancer cell lines that stably overexpressed BTG1 were used to investigate the effects of BTG1 on cell radiosensitivity in vitro. We found that overexpression of BTG1 enhanced the radiosensitivity both of p53-mutant breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and p53 wild-type breast cancer MCF-7 cells. We also found that overexpression of BTG1 along with irradiation induced cell cycle G2/M phase arrest, promoted the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased the rate of chromosomal aberrations and increased cell apoptosis. Further investigation indicated that BTG1 overexpression along with irradiation was involved in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Importantly, the finding that BTG1 promoted ionizing radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells in vitro was confirmed in an animal model. Taken together, our data suggest that BTG1 overexpression combined with radiation therapy increases the therapeutic efficacy of breast cancer treatment via regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis-related signaling pathways.

Zhu J, Zhao C, Zhuang T, et al.
RING finger protein 31 promotes p53 degradation in breast cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(15):1955-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The atypical E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF31 is highly expressed in human breast cancer, the most frequent neoplastic lethality among women. Here, RNF31 depletion in breast cancer cells in combination with global gene expression profiling revealed p53 (TP53) signaling as a potential RNF31 target. Interestingly, RNF31 decreased p53 stability, whereas depletion of RNF31 in breast cancer cells caused cell cycle arrest and cisplatin-induced apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, RNF31 associated with the p53/MDM2 complex and facilitated p53 polyubiquitination and degradation by stabilizing MDM2, suggesting a molecular mechanism by which RNF31 regulates cell death. Analysis of publically available clinical data sets displayed a negative correlation between RNF31 and p53 target genes, including IGFBP3 and BTG1, consistent with RNF31 regulating p53 function in vivo as well. Together, our findings suggest RNF31 as a potential therapeutic target to restore p53 function in breast cancer.

Zheng HC, Li J, Shen DF, et al.
BTG1 expression correlates with pathogenesis, aggressive behaviors and prognosis of gastric cancer: a potential target for gene therapy.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(23):19685-705 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Here, we found that BTG1 overexpression inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion, induced G2/M arrest, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis in BGC-823 and MKN28 cells (p < 0.05). BTG1 transfectants showed a higher mRNA expression of Cyclin D1 and Bax, but a lower mRNA expression of cdc2, p21, mTOR and MMP-9 than the control and mock (p < 0.05). After treated with cisplatin, MG132, paclitaxel and SAHA, both BTG1 transfectants showed lower mRNA viability and higher apoptosis than the control in both time- and dose-dependent manners (p < 0.05) with the hypoexpression of chemoresistance-related genes (slug, CD147, GRP78, GRP94, FBXW7 TOP1, TOP2 and GST-π). BTG1 expression was restored after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment in gastric cancer cells. BTG1 expression was statistically lower in gastric cancer than non-neoplastic mucosa and metastatic cancer in lymph node (p < 0.05). BTG1 expression was positively correlated with depth of invasion, lymphatic and venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, TNM staging and worse prognosis (p < 0.05). The diffuse-type carcinoma showed less BTG1 expression than intestinal- and mixed-type ones (p < 0.05). BTG1 overexpression suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasis of gastric cancer cells by inhibiting proliferation, enhancing autophagy and apoptosis in xenograft models. It was suggested that down-regulated BTG1 expression might promote gastric carcinogenesis partially due to its promoter methylation. BTG1 overexpression might reverse the aggressive phenotypes and be employed as a potential target for gene therapy of gastric cancer.

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