Gene Summary

Gene:PDGFRB; platelet derived growth factor receptor beta
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor for members of the platelet-derived growth factor family. These growth factors are mitogens for cells of mesenchymal origin. The identity of the growth factor bound to a receptor monomer determines whether the functional receptor is a homodimer (PDGFB or PDGFD) or a heterodimer (PDGFA and PDGFB). This gene is essential for normal development of the cardiovascular system and aids in rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. This gene is flanked on chromosome 5 by the genes for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and macrophage-colony stimulating factor receptor; all three genes may be implicated in the 5-q syndrome. A translocation between chromosomes 5 and 12, that fuses this gene to that of the ETV6 gene, results in chronic myeloproliferative disorder with eosinophilia. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (11)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PDGFRB (cancer-related)

Zang W, Bian H, Huang X, et al.
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):2739-2747 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the vascular normalization effect of traditional Chinese medicine Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Curcuma wenyujin (CW) on tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: TECs were isolated from the xenografted HCC cell line HepG2 expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP). The effect of AM and CW on TECs proliferation was measured using the CCK8 assay. The vascular normalization potential of AM and CW was assessed using a tube formation assay. Immunocytochemistry was performed to assess the effect of AM and CW on the expression of angiogenic maker CD34 and hypoxia-inducible factor HIF1a.
RESULTS: The isolated TECs and endothelioma (EOMA) cells did not differ with regard to the expression levels of endothelial markers CD34, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β. All AM, CW, AM+CW and Nintedanib (Nin) showed a dose-dependent increasing inhibition effect on either TECs or EOMA cells. AM, CW and AM+CW significantly reduced HIF1a expression, increased CD34 expression and enhanced endothelial network formation in TECs or EOMA cells compared to the control.
CONCLUSION: AM and CW promoted vascular normalization in tumor-derived endothelial cells of HCC, through increased expression of CD34 and reduced expression of HIF1a.

Heo SK, Noh EK, Jeong YK, et al.
Radotinib inhibits mitosis entry in acute myeloid leukemia cells via suppression of Aurora kinase A expression.
Tumour Biol. 2019; 41(5):1010428319848612 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aurora kinases play critical roles in regulating several processes pivotal for mitosis. Radotinib, which is approved in South Korea as a second-line treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia, inhibits the tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL and platelet-derived growth factor receptor. However, the effects of radotinib on Aurora kinase expression in acute myeloid leukemia are not well studied. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity of acute myeloid leukemia cells was increased by radotinib treatment. Radotinib significantly decreased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1, the key regulators of G2/M phase, and inhibited the expression of Aurora kinase A and Aurora kinase B in acute myeloid leukemia cells. In addition, radotinib decreased the expression and binding between p-Aurora kinase A and TPX2, which are required for spindle assembly. Furthermore, it reduced Aurora kinase A and polo-like kinase 1 phosphorylation and suppressed the expression of α-, β-, and γ-tubulin in acute myeloid leukemia cells. Furthermore, radotinib significantly suppressed the key regulators of G2/M phase including cyclin B1 and Aurora kinase A in a xenograft animal model. Therefore, our results suggest that radotinib can abrogate acute myeloid leukemia cell growth both in vitro and in vivo and may serve as a candidate agent or a chemosensitizer for treating acute myeloid leukemia.

Alonso-Gordoa T, García-Bermejo ML, Grande E, et al.
Targeting Tyrosine kinases in Renal Cell Carcinoma: "New Bullets against Old Guys".
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the seventh most frequently diagnosed tumor in adults in Europe and represents approximately 2.5% of cancer deaths. The molecular biology underlying renal cell carcinoma (RCC) development and progression has been a key milestone in the management of this type of tumor. The discovery of Von Hippel Lindau (

Yun JW, Bae YK, Cho SY, et al.
Elucidation of Novel Therapeutic Targets for Acute Myeloid Leukemias with
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Guo Y, Cui W, Pei Y, Xu D
Platelets promote invasion and induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells by TGF-β signaling pathway.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 153(3):639-650 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To test whether platelets could increase invasion potential and initiate EMT in ovarian cancer cells via a TGF-β signaling pathway.
METHODS: Blood samples were collected in 69 patients with ovarian cancer, 16 patients with benign ovarian tumor and 64 healthy donors. SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells were treated with platelets. Transwell assays were used to analyze the invasive capacity, and EMT was assessed by microarray analysis, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting. Activation of TGF-β pathway was examined by ELISA and Western blotting. TGF-β type I receptor (TβR I) inhibitor A83-01 was used to confirm the role of TGF-β pathway in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: Clinical data showed ovarian cancer patients with elevated platelet counts had a higher incidence of advanced stages. Treatment with platelets increased the invasive properties of both cell lines. Mesenchymal markers (snail family transcriptional repressor-1, vimentin, neural cadherin, fibronectin-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2) were up-regulated in platelet-treated cells, while the epithelial marker (epithelial cadherin) was down-regulated. Higher TGF-β level was observed in patients with elevated platelet counts when compared to the subjects. Higher levels of TGF-β were also found in culture medium treated with platelets, and cells treated with platelets also showed increased phosphorylation of Smad2. TβR I inhibitor A83-01 reversed the EMT-like alterations and inhibited platelet-induced invasion in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Platelet increased invasion potential and induced EMT in ovarian cancer cells in a TGF-β dependent pathway. Platelet-derived TGF-β may be useful as a new target treatment for ovarian cancer.

Sandberg TP, Stuart MPME, Oosting J, et al.
Increased expression of cancer-associated fibroblast markers at the invasive front and its association with tumor-stroma ratio in colorectal cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):284 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment has a critical role in regulating cancer cell behavior. Tumors with high stromal content are associated with poor patient outcome. The tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) identifies colorectal cancers (CRC) with poor patient prognosis based on hematoxylin & eosin stained sections. The desmoplastic reaction consists to a great extent of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of which different subtypes are known. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify CAFs present in the tumor stroma of CRC stratified by the TSR to possibly add prognostic significance to the TSR.
METHODS: The expression of established CAF markers was compared between stroma-low and stroma-high tumors using transcriptomic data of 71 stage I - III CRC. Based on literature, fibroblast and stromal markers were selected to perform multiplex immunofluorescent staining on formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor sections of patients diagnosed with stage III colon cancer. Antibodies against the following markers were used: αSMA, PDGFR -β, FAP, FSP1 and the stromal markers CD45 and CD31 as reference. The markers were subsequently quantified in the stroma using the Vectra imaging microscope.
RESULTS: The transcriptomic data showed that all CAF markers except one were higher expressed in stroma-high compared to stroma-low tumors. Histologically, stroma-high tumors showed a decreased number of FSP1
CONCLUSIONS: The increased expression of FAP at the invasive part and in stroma-high tumors might contribute to the invasive behavior of cancer cells. Future functional experiments should investigate the contribution of FAP to cancer cell invasion. Combining the quantity of the stroma as defined by the TSR with the activity level of CAFs using the expression of FAP may result in an expanded stroma-based tool for patient stratification.

Moustaka K, Maleskou E, Lambrianidou A, et al.
Docosahexaenoic Acid Inhibits Proliferation of EoL-1 Leukemia Cells and Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Differentiation.
Nutrients. 2019; 11(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Τhe effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) upon the proliferation of EoL-1 (Eosinophilic leukemia) cell line was assessed, while additional cellular events during the antiproliferative action were recorded. DHA inhibited EoL-1 cells growth dose-dependently by inducing growth arrest at G0/1 phase of the cell cycle. After DHA addition to the cells, the expression of

McDonald ME, Salinas EA, Devor EJ, et al.
Molecular Characterization of Non-responders to Chemotherapy in Serous Ovarian Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nearly one-third of patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) do not respond to initial treatment with platinum-based therapy. Genomic and clinical characterization of these patients may lead to potential alternative therapies. Here, the objective is to classify non-responders into subsets using clinical and molecular features. Using patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset with platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory HGSC, we performed a genome-wide unsupervised cluster analysis that integrated clinical data, gene copy number variations, gene somatic mutations, and DNA promoter methylation. Pathway enrichment analysis was performed for each cluster to identify the targetable processes. Following the unsupervised cluster analysis, three distinct clusters of non-responders emerged. Cluster 1 had overrepresentation of the stage IV disease and suboptimal debulking, under-expression of miRNAs and mRNAs, hypomethylated DNA, "loss of function"

Wang G, Shi B, Fu Y, et al.
Hypomethylated gene NRP1 is co-expressed with PDGFRB and associated with poor overall survival in gastric cancer patients.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 111:1334-1341 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) has been an increasingly serious problem in public health. However, there is still a lack of efficient approach to diagnosis and treatment in time, especially in the field of targeted therapy. Increasing evidences demonstrated that DNA methylation plays an essential role in tumorigenesis and progression of GC. Thus the present study aims to identify DNA methylation-based prognostic biomarkers in GC. Two methylation array datasets (GSE25869 and GSE30601) and RNA-seq based gene profiling dataset (TCGA-STAD) were employed for exploring candidate DNA methylation-based biomarkers. Univariate Cox regression analysis was used to select the most efficient prognostic genes in GC patients. Weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to screen the cluster of co-expressed genes. As a result, our data proved that NRP1 was a hypomethylated / upregulated gene in GC tissues, and PDGFRB was strongly co-expressed with it. Both of them were significantly associated with the overall survival of patients. More importantly, high expression levels of NRP1 and PDGFRB were associated with malignant phenotypes in GC patients, including Laurén histological diffuse type and higher histological grade. Patients carrying high expression level of NRP1 and PDGFRB had a nearly two-fold increased death risk than others. In summary, the hypomethylated gene, NRP1, and its co-expressed gene, PDGFRB, were significantly correlated with tumor malignant phenotypes, which might serve as potential prognostic biomarkers for GC patients.

Olsen RS, Dimberg J, Geffers R, Wågsäter D
Possible Role and Therapeutic Target of PDGF-D Signalling in Colorectal Cancer.
Cancer Invest. 2019; 37(2):99-112 [PubMed] Related Publications
Platelet-derived growth factor D (PDGF-D) has been shown to mediate cellular processes of importance in cancer progression. This study aimed to investigate the expression and putative involvement of PDGF-D signaling in colorectal carcinogenesis. PDGF-D was expressed in vascular endothelial cells in tumor and normal tissues. PDGF-D stimulation of cells altered genes of importance in carcinogenic processes. In addition, PDGF-D increased the proliferation rate while imatinib inhibited these effects. PDGF-D and its PDGF receptor beta (PDGFR-β) are expressed in colorectal cancer and blockage of PDGF-D/PDGFR-β signaling using tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib, might be important in inhibiting tumor-promoting actions.

Hoeman CM, Cordero FJ, Hu G, et al.
ACVR1 R206H cooperates with H3.1K27M in promoting diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma pathogenesis.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1023 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an incurable pediatric brain tumor, with approximately 25% of DIPGs harboring activating ACVR1 mutations that commonly co-associate with H3.1K27M mutations. Here we show that in vitro expression of ACVR1 R206H with and without H3.1K27M upregulates mesenchymal markers and activates Stat3 signaling. In vivo expression of ACVR1 R206H or G328V with H3.1K27M and p53 deletion induces glioma-like lesions but is not sufficient for full gliomagenesis. However, in combination with PDGFA signaling, ACVR1 R206H and H3.1K27M significantly decrease survival and increase tumor incidence. Treatment of ACVR1 R206H mutant DIPGs with exogenous Noggin or the ACVR1 inhibitor LDN212854 significantly prolongs survival, with human ACVR1 mutant DIPG cell lines also being sensitive to LDN212854 treatment. Together, our results demonstrate that ACVR1 R206H and H3.1K27M promote tumor initiation, accelerate gliomagenesis, promote a mesenchymal profile partly due to Stat3 activation, and identify LDN212854 as a promising compound to treat DIPG.

Hsu YL, Yen MC, Chang WA, et al.
CXCL17-derived CD11b
Breast Cancer Res. 2019; 21(1):23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the major cause of death from breast cancer. Colonization and adaption of metastatic cells in distant organs is a rate-limiting step of the cancer spreading. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the colonization of breast cancer to lung metastatic niches are not fully understood.
METHODS: Specific gene contributions to lung metastasis were identified by comparing gene profiles of 4T1 tumors metastasizing to various organs via microarray. The oncogenic properties CXCL17 were examined by in vivo spontaneous metastasis mouse model. The chemotactic activity of CXCL17 on CD11b
RESULTS: Here, we demonstrate that breast cancer cells secrete CXCL17, which increases the accumulation of CD11b
CONCLUSION: Our study reveals that MDSCs derived by CXCL17 contribute to the establishment of a lung metastatic niche by PDGF-BB secretion and provide a rationale for development of CXCL17 or PDGF-BB antagonists to inhibit or prevent lung metastasis in cases of breast cancer.

Song EJ, Ashcraft KA, Lowery CD, et al.
Investigating a chimeric anti-mouse PDGFRα antibody as a radiosensitizer in primary mouse sarcomas.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 40:224-230 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Olaratumab (LY3012207/IMC-3G3/Lartruvo™) is a fully human monoclonal antibody specific for platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα). Phase Ib/II trial results of olaratumab plus doxorubicin in adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) supported accelerated FDA approval of this regimen. Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used for high-risk localized STS. However, olaratumab has not been tested with concurrent RT. Here, we evaluate the chimeric anti-mouse PDGFRα antibody 1E10Fc as a radiosensitizer in a primary mouse model of STS.
METHODS: Primary STS were initiated in mice. When tumors reached 70 mm
FINDINGS: RT significantly delayed time to tumor quintupling compared to no RT (p < 0·0001) [two-way ANOVA], but no difference in tumor growth was seen between mice receiving isotype or 1E10Fc treatment regardless of concurrent RT. Lower microvessel density was observed in the 1E10Fc + RT group. Fewer mice treated with 1E10Fc had micrometastases, but this difference was not statistically significant (p < 0·09).
INTERPRETATION: 1E10Fc did not act as a radiosensitizer in this primary STS model.
FUNDING: This study was funded by a research agreement from Eli Lilly and Company.

Iriyama N, Takahashi H, Naruse H, et al.
A novel fusion gene involving PDGFRB and GCC2 in a chronic eosinophilic leukemia patient harboring t(2;5)(q37;q31).
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(4):e00591 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) rearrangement has been reported in a number of patients with chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myeloproliferative neoplasms, and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Here, we report a case of CEL carrying a novel fusion gene involving PDGFRB and GRIP and coiled-coil domain containing 2 (GCC2).
PATIENT AND METHODS: A 54-year-old man presenting with a cough and dyspnea was diagnosed with acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow revealed the presence of t(2;5)(q37;q31). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis in the peripheral blood leukocytes revealed the presence of a split signal at PDGFRB gene. Imatinib treatment was effective, and disappearance of t(2;5)(q37;q31) in the bone marrow was confirmed after three months of imatinib therapy. Whole-genome sequencing was performed in peripheral blood leukocytes collected before imatinib therapy.
RESULTS: A novel fusion gene between exon 22 of GCC2 and exon 12 of PDGFRB was detected and the presence of GCC2-PDGFRB was confirmed by PCR.
CONCLUSION: This is the first case report demonstrating the GCC2 gene as a partner of PDGFRB in the pathogenesis of CEL.

Habel N, Stefanovska B, Carène D, et al.
CYR61 triggers osteosarcoma metastatic spreading via an IGF1Rβ-dependent EMT-like process.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most prevalent primary bone malignancy in children and young adults. These tumors are highly metastatic, leading to poor outcome. We previously demonstrated that Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61/CCN1) expression level is correlated to osteosarcoma aggressiveness in preclinical model and in patient tumor samples. The aim of the present study was to investigate the CYR61-induced intracellular mechanisms leading to the acquisition of an invasive phenotype by osteosarcoma cells.
METHODS: Modified murine and human osteosarcoma cell lines were evaluated for cell adhesion, aggregation (spheroid), motility (wound healing assay), phenotypic markers expression (RT-qPCR, western blot). Cell-derived xenograft FFPE samples and patients samples (TMA) were assessed by IHC.
RESULTS: CYR61 levels controlled the expression of markers related to an Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like process, allowing tumor cells to migrate acquiring a competent morphology, and to be able to invade the surrounding stroma. This phenotypic shift indeed correlated with tumor grade and aggressiveness in patient samples and with the metastatic dissemination potential in cell-derived xenograft models. Unlike EGFR or PDGFR, IGF1Rβ levels correlated with CYR61 and N-cadherin levels, and with the aggressiveness of osteosarcoma and overall survival. The expression levels of IGF1Rβ/IGF1 axis were controlled by CYR61, and anti-IGF1 neutralizing antibody prevented the CYR61-induced phenotypic shift, aggregation, and motility abilities.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our study provides new evidence that CYR61 acts as a key inducing factor in the metastatic progression of osteosarcoma by playing a critical role in primary tumor dissemination, with a process associated with IGF1/IGFR stimulation. This suggests that CYR61 may represent a potential pivotal target for therapeutic management of metastases spreading in osteosarcoma, in correlation with IGF1/IGFR pathway.

Salaritabar A, Berindan-Neagoe I, Darvish B, et al.
Targeting Hedgehog signaling pathway: Paving the road for cancer therapy.
Pharmacol Res. 2019; 141:466-480 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Hedgehog pathway is essential for embryonic development but also for tissue and organ homeostasis in adult organisms. Activation of this pathway leads to the expression of target genes involved in proliferation, angiogenesis and stem cell self-renewal. Moreover, abnormal persistence of Hedgehog signaling is directly involved in a wide range of human cancers. Development of novel strategies targeting the Hedgehog pathway has become a subject of increased interest in anticancer therapy. These data are sustained by pre-clinical studies demonstrating that Hedgehog pathway inhibitors could represent an effective strategy against a heterogeneous panel of malignancies. Limited activity in other tumor types could be explained by the existence of crosstalk between the Hedgehog pathway and other signaling pathways that can compensate for its function. This review describes the Hedgehog pathway in detail, with its physiological roles during embryogenesis and adult tissues, and summarizing the preclinical evidence on its inhibition, the crosstalk between Hedgehog and other cancer-related pathways and finally the potential therapeutic effects of emerging compounds.

Ricci R, Martini M, Ravegnini G, et al.
Preferential MGMT methylation could predispose a subset of KIT/PDGFRA-WT GISTs, including SDH-deficient ones, to respond to alkylating agents.
Clin Epigenetics. 2019; 11(1):2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) constitute a small KIT/PDGFRA-WT GIST subgroup featuring DNA methylation which, although pervasive, appears nevertheless not randomly distributed. Although often indolent, these tumors are mostly chemorefractory in aggressive cases. Promoter methylation-induced O
RESULTS: Nine GISTs of our series were SDH-deficient, revealing significantly enriched in MGMT-methylated cases (6/9-67%-, vs. 6/39-15%- of SDH-proficient GISTs; p = 0.004). The pathogenetically heterogeneous KIT/PDGFRA-WT GISTs were also significantly MGMT-methylated (11/24-46%-, vs. 1/24-4%- of KIT/PDGFRA-mutant cases, p = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: A subset of KIT/PDGFRA-WT GISTs, including their largest pathogenetically characterized subgroup (i.e., SDH-deficient ones), is preferentially MGMT-methylated. This finding could foster a reappraisal of alkylating agents for treating malignant cases occurring among these overall chemorefractory tumors.

Kim J, Kim JH, Kang HG, et al.
Integrated molecular characterization of adult soft tissue sarcoma for therapeutic targets.
BMC Med Genet. 2018; 19(Suppl 1):216 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated the molecular drivers and therapeutic targets in adult soft tissue sarcomas. However, such studies are limited by the genomic heterogeneity and rarity of sarcomas, particularly in those with complex and unbalanced karyotypes. Additional biomarkers are needed across sarcoma types to improve therapeutic strategies. To investigate the molecular characteristics of complex karyotype sarcomas (CKSs) for therapeutic targets, we performed genomic profiling.
RESULTS: The mutational landscape showed that TP53, ATRX, and PTEN genes were highly mutated. CKS samples were categorized into three groups based on copy number variations that were associated with CDK4 and RB1 signatures. Integrated analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data revealed several pathways related to PDGFR, which could be a strategic target for anti-sarcoma therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a detailed molecular classification of CKSs and proposes several therapeutic targets. Targeted or combinational therapies for treating CKS should be considered before chemotherapy.

He L, Wang X, Liu K, et al.
Integrative PDGF/PDGFR and focal adhesion pathways are downregulated in ERCC1-defective non-small cell lung cancer undergoing sodium glycididazole-sensitized cisplatin treatment.
Gene. 2019; 691:70-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemoresistance to cisplatin in lung cancer treatment remains prevalent. Since targeting excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1) may be a viable strategy to reestablish the therapeutic sensitivity to platinum-based agents in chemoresistant cases, and low ERCC1 level is beneficial to metastatic lung cancer patients undergoing platinum-based chemotherapy, we hypothesized that metastasis-associated process is involved in ERCC1-dependent cisplatin-resistance in lung adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: We performed an RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis to identify differentially expressed genes in ERCC1-deficient cells co-treated with cisplatin and sodium glycididazole (CMNa). Differentially expressed genes and the hub genes in the cisplatin/CMNa-treated cells were identified by systematic network analysis. Oncomine expression analysis was also performed to evaluate the clinical implication of the identified hub gene.
RESULTS: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGF/PDGFR) and focal adhesion genes were downregulated in ERCC1-defective non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells undergoing combined cisplatin/CMNa treatment. Consistent with the finding, cell migration was reduced in these cells. PDGFRB was identified as the hub gene in the process by differential expressed gene network analysis. Importantly, elevated PDGFRB level was observed in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients with metastases.
CONCLUSION: PDGF/PDGFR and focal adhesion signaling may serve as another mechanism in addition to ERCC1-mediated cisplatin-resistance in lung adenocarcinoma. Multiple pro-invasion/pro-migration/proliferation and DNA damage repair pathways may be integrated to confer growth advantages on tumor cells.

Kou Y, Yang R, Wang Q
Serum miR-518e-5p is a potential biomarker for secondary imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
J Biosci. 2018; 43(5):1015-1023 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumor of the intestinal tract. Imatinib is used as first-line therapy for GIST patients; however, secondary imatinib resistance poses a significant clinical challenge. Here, we analyzed serum miRNA expression profiles to identify specific serum miRNAs that could be used as early diagnostic markers. Candidate miRNAs were validated using Taqman quantitative PCR with serum samples from secondary imatinibresistant GIST patients (n = 39), imatinib-sensitive GIST patients (n = 37), and healthy controls (n = 28). Serum miR- 518e-5p and miR-548e levels were higher in secondary imatinib-resistant GIST than imatinib-sensitive GIST patients or healthy controls (P less than 0.0001). However, ROC analysis indicated that only miR-518e-5p could distinguish imatinibresistant GIST. To discriminate imatinib-resistant from imatinib-sensitive GIST patients, the AUC for serum miR-518e-5p was 0.9938, with 99.8% sensitivity and 82.1% specificity. Serum miR-518e-5p could also discriminate imatinib-resistant GIST patients from healthy controls with 99.9% sensitivity and 97.4% specificity. These data indicate that serum miR-518e- 5p is a potentially promising non-invasive biomarker for early detection and diagnosis of secondary imatinib-resistant GIST.

Nakada S, Sasagawa Y, Tachibana O, et al.
The clinicopathological analysis of receptor tyrosine kinases in meningiomas: the expression of VEGFR-2 in meningioma was associated with a higher WHO grade and shorter progression-free survival.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2019; 36(1):7-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
WHO grade II/III meningiomas recur frequently and there is currently no established molecular target therapy for meningioma. No previous studies have revealed the association between receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and the recurrence of meningiomas. This study aims to elucidate the association between RTKs and the clinicopathological characteristics and recurrence of meningioma. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of RTKs (VEGFR-1/2/3, PDGFR-alpha/beta and c-Kit) in 81 meningiomas (WHO grade I, n = 64, WHO grade II/III, n = 17) in 74 patients. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 29 WHO grade I (45%), 10 WHO grade II (77%), and 4 WHO grade III (100%) tumors were VEGFR-2-positive, and that the VEGFR-2 expression was significantly correlated with the WHO grade. In univariate analyses to investigate the clinicopathological factors associated with recurrence, Simpson grade IV/V resection, a larger tumor size, a high VEGFR-2 expression level, WHO grade II/III, a high Ki-67 expression level, and the non-expression of PgR were identified as significant factors. Furthermore, patients with VEGFR-2-positive meningiomas showed significantly shorter progression-free survival. In the multivariate analysis, WHO grade II/III and the location were significantly associated with recurrence. In conclusion, our study suggests that VEGFR-2 inhibitors might be one of the best candidates for molecular therapy against recurrent meningiomas.

Kanlikilicer P, Bayraktar R, Denizli M, et al.
Exosomal miRNA confers chemo resistance via targeting Cav1/p-gp/M2-type macrophage axis in ovarian cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 38:100-112 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Circulating miRNAs are known to play important roles in intercellular communication. However, the effects of exosomal miRNAs on cells are not fully understood.
METHODS: To investigate the role of exosomal miR-1246 in ovarian cancer (OC) microenvironment, we performed RPPA as well as many other in vitro functional assays in ovarian cancer cells (sensitive; HeyA8, Skov3ip1, A2780 and chemoresistant; HeyA8-MDR, Skov3-TR, A2780-CP20). Therapeutic effect of miR-1246 inhibitor treatment was tested in OC animal model. We showed the effect of OC exosomal miR-1246 uptake on macrophages by co-culture experiments.
FINDINGS: Substantial expression of oncogenic miR-1246 OC exosomes was found. We showed that Cav1 gene, which is the direct target of miR-1246, is involved in the process of exosomal transfer. A significantly worse overall prognosis were found for OC patients with high miR-1246 and low Cav1 expression based on TCGA data. miR-1246 expression were significantly higher in paclitaxel-resistant OC exosomes than in their sensitive counterparts. Overexpression of Cav1 and anti-miR-1246 treatment significantly sensitized OC cells to paclitaxel. We showed that Cav1 and multi drug resistance (MDR) gene is involved in the process of exosomal transfer. Our proteomic approach also revealed that miR-1246 inhibits Cav1 and acts through PDGFβ receptor at the recipient cells to inhibit cell proliferation. miR-1246 inhibitor treatment in combination with chemotherapy led to reduced tumor burden in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated that when OC cells are co-cultured with macrophages, they are capable of transferring their oncogenic miR-1246 to M2-type macrophages, but not M0-type macrophages.
INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that cancer exosomes may contribute to oncogenesis by manipulating neighboring infiltrating immune cells. This study provide a new mechanistic therapeutic approach to overcome chemoresistance and tumor progression through exosomal miR-1246 in OC patients.

Ishaque N, Abba ML, Hauser C, et al.
Whole genome sequencing puts forward hypotheses on metastasis evolution and therapy in colorectal cancer.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4782 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Incomplete understanding of the metastatic process hinders personalized therapy. Here we report the most comprehensive whole-genome study of colorectal metastases vs. matched primary tumors. 65% of somatic mutations originate from a common progenitor, with 15% being tumor- and 19% metastasis-specific, implicating a higher mutation rate in metastases. Tumor- and metastasis-specific mutations harbor elevated levels of BRCAness. We confirm multistage progression with new components ARHGEF7/ARHGEF33. Recurrently mutated non-coding elements include ncRNAs RP11-594N15.3, AC010091, SNHG14, 3' UTRs of FOXP2, DACH2, TRPM3, XKR4, ANO5, CBL, CBLB, the latter four potentially dual protagonists in metastasis and efferocytosis-/PD-L1 mediated immunosuppression. Actionable metastasis-specific lesions include FAT1, FGF1, BRCA2, KDR, and AKT2-, AKT3-, and PDGFRA-3' UTRs. Metastasis specific mutations are enriched in PI3K-Akt signaling, cell adhesion, ECM and hepatic stellate activation genes, suggesting genetic programs for site-specific colonization. Our results put forward hypotheses on tumor and metastasis evolution, and evidence for metastasis-specific events relevant for personalized therapy.

Faiyaz-Ul-Haque M, Al-Dayel F, Tulba A, et al.
Spectrum of the KIT Gene Mutations in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors in Arab Patients
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(10):2905-2910 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, which originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal. These tumors are characterized by expression of CD117 and CD34 antigens and activating mutations in the KIT and PDGFRA genes. While KIT and PDGFRA mutations have been extensively studied in other populations, the spectrum of mutations in Arab patients remains unknown. The study aimed at determining the distribution of KIT and PDGFRA mutations and phenotypic characterization of the gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Arab patients. Methods: Sanger sequencing was used to analyze 52 archived gastrointestinal stromal tumors for mutations in the KIT and the PDGFRA genes. Tumor descriptions were obtained from the clinical reports of patients. Results: In these patients, most tumors occur in the stomach, followed by the rest of the digestive tract. A vast majority of tumors express the CD117 and CD34 antigens. Sequencing of the KIT and PDGFRA genes identified five non-synonymous mutations and 26 deletions (25 novel) in exon 11 of the KIT gene. All non-synonymous mutations and deletions affect the juxta-membrane domain, which is known to inhibit ligand-independent activation of the KIT receptor. No mutations were found in the PDGFRA gene. Conclusions: Molecular profiling of the gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Arab patients identified a unique spectrum of mutations in exon 11 of the KIT gene. These data are important for the diagnosis and management of patients of Arab ethnic origin.

Siekmann IK, Dierck K, Prall S, et al.
Combined inhibition of receptor tyrosine and p21-activated kinases as a therapeutic strategy in childhood ALL.
Blood Adv. 2018; 2(19):2554-2567 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-dependent signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) of childhood. However, the RTK-dependent signaling state and its interpretation with regard to biological behavior are often elusive. To decipher signaling circuits that link RTK activity with biological output in vivo, we established patient-derived xenograft ALL (PDX-ALL) models with dependencies on fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRB), which were interrogated by phosphoproteomics using iTRAQ mass spectrometry. Signaling circuits were determined by receptor type and cellular context with few generic features, among which we identified group I p21-activated kinases (PAKs) as potential therapeutic targets. Growth factor stimulation markedly increased catalytic activities of PAK1 and PAK2. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated or pharmacological inhibition of PAKs using allosteric or adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-competitive compounds attenuated cell growth and increased apoptosis in vitro. Notably, PAK1- or PAK2-directed RNAi enhanced the antiproliferative effects of the type III RTK and protein kinase C inhibitor midostaurin. Treatment of FLT3- or PDGFRB-dependent ALLs with ATP-competitive PAK inhibitors markedly decreased catalytic activities of both PAK isoforms. In FLT3-driven ALL, this effect was augmented by coadministration of midostaurin resulting in synergistic effects on growth inhibition and apoptosis. Finally, combined treatment of

Ordoni Aval F, Askarian Amiri S, Azadmehr A, et al.
Gene Silencing of TGFβRII Can Inhibit Glioblastoma Cell Growth
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(9):2681-2686 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant and aggressive type of glioma, associated with a high rate of mortality. The transforming growth factor-β receptor II (TGFβ RII) is involved in glioma initiation and progression. On the other hand, TGFβ RII silencing is critical to the inhibition of GBM. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of specific TGFβ RII siRNA on the survival of U-373MG cells. Methods: TGFβ RII siRNA was transfected, and qRT-PCR was performed to examine TGFβ RII mRNA expression. Cell survival was determined using colorimetric MTT assay, and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) level was measured in the culture supernatant using ELISA assay. Result: Our findings indicated that specific siRNAs could dose-dependently suppress TGFβ RII mRNA expression after 48 hours. In addition, treatment with TGFβ RII siRNA significantly reduced tumor cell survival and decreased the amount of PDGF-BB protein in the cell culture supernatant. Conclusion: Our results suggest that TGFβ RII silencing can be a promising complementary treatment for glioma.

Amr AEE, Abo-Ghalia MH, Moustafa GO, et al.
Design, Synthesis and Docking Studies of Novel Macrocyclic Pentapeptides as Anticancer Multi-Targeted Kinase Inhibitors.
Molecules. 2018; 23(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A series of macrocyclic pyrido-pentapeptide candidates

Wang WJ, Li HT, Yu JP, et al.
Identification of key genes and associated pathways in KIT/PDGFRA wild‑type gastrointestinal stromal tumors through bioinformatics analysis.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(5):4499-4515 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common type of mesenchymal tumor in the gastrointestinal tract. The present study aimed to identify the potential candidate biomarkers that may be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of v‑kit Hardy‑Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT)/platelet‑derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) wild‑type GISTs. A joint bioinformatics analysis was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in wild‑type GIST samples compared with KIT/PDGFRA mutant GIST samples. Gene Ontology function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs was conducted using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery and KEGG Orthology‑Based Annotation System (KOBAS) online tools, respectively. Protein‑protein interaction (PPI) networks of the DEGs were constructed using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes online tool and Cytoscape, and divided into sub‑networks using the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plug‑in. Furthermore, enrichment analysis of DEGs in the modules was analyzed with KOBAS. In total, 546 DEGs were identified, including 238 upregulated genes primarily enriched in 'cell adhesion', 'biological adhesion', 'cell‑cell signaling', 'PI3K‑Akt signaling pathway' and 'ECM‑receptor interaction', while the 308 downregulated genes were predominantly involved in 'inflammatory response', 'sterol metabolic process' and 'fatty acid metabolic process', 'small GTPase mediated signal transduction', 'cAMP signaling pathway' and 'proteoglycans in cancer'. A total of 25 hub genes were obtained and four modules were mined from the PPI network, and sub‑networks also revealed these genes were primarily involved in significant pathways, including 'PI3K‑Akt signaling pathway', 'proteoglycans in cancer', 'pathways in cancer', 'Rap1 signaling pathway', 'ECM‑receptor interaction', 'phospholipase D signaling pathway', 'ras signaling pathway' and 'cGMP‑PKG signaling pathway'. These results suggested that several key hub DEGs may serve as potential candidate biomarkers for wild‑type GISTs, including phosphatidylinositol‑4,5‑bisphosphate 3‑kinase, catalytic subunit γ, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor, hepatocyte growth factor, thrombospondin 1, Erb‑B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 and matrix metallopeptidase 2. However, further experiments are required to confirm these results.

Sramek M, Neradil J, Macigova P, et al.
Effects of Sunitinib and Other Kinase Inhibitors on Cells Harboring a
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Infantile myofibromatosis represents one of the most common proliferative fibrous tumors of infancy and childhood. More effective treatment is needed for drug-resistant patients, and targeted therapy using specific protein kinase inhibitors could be a promising strategy. To date, several studies have confirmed a connection between the p.R561C mutation in gene encoding platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR-beta) and the development of infantile myofibromatosis. This study aimed to analyze the phosphorylation of important kinases in the NSTS-47 cell line derived from a tumor of a boy with infantile myofibromatosis who harbored the p.R561C mutation in PDGFR-beta. The second aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selected protein kinase inhibitors on cell signaling and the proliferative activity of NSTS-47 cells. We confirmed that this tumor cell line showed very high phosphorylation levels of PDGFR-beta, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 and several other protein kinases. We also observed that PDGFR-beta phosphorylation in tumor cells is reduced by the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib. In contrast, MAPK/ERK kinases (MEK) 1/2 and ERK1/2 kinases remained constitutively phosphorylated after treatment with sunitinib and other relevant protein kinase inhibitors. Our study showed that sunitinib is a very promising agent that affects the proliferation of tumor cells with a p.R561C mutation in PDGFR-beta.

Mazzio EA, Soliman KFA
Whole-transcriptomic Profile of SK-MEL-3 Melanoma Cells Treated with the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor: Trichostatin A.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2018 Sep-Oct; 15(5):349-364 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma cells can rapidly acquire phenotypic properties making them resistant to radiation and mainline chemotherapies such as decarbonize or kinase inhibitors that target RAS-proto-oncogene independent auto-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/through dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK). Both drug resistance and inherent transition from melanocytic nevi to malignant melanoma involve the overexpression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and a B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) mutation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this work, the effects of an HDAC class I and II inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on the whole transcriptome of SK-MEL-3 cells carrying a BRAF mutation was examined.
RESULTS: The data obtained show that TSA was an extremely potent HDAC inhibitor within SK-MEL-3 nuclear lysates, where TSA was then optimized for appropriate sub-lethal concentrations for in vitro testing. The whole-transcriptome profile shows a basic phenotype dominance in the SK-MEL-3 cell line for i) synthesis of melanin, ii) phagosome acidification, iii) ATP hydrolysis-coupled proton pumps and iv) iron transport systems. While TSA did not affect the aforementioned major systems, it evoked a dramatic change to the transcriptome: reflected by a down-regulation of 810 transcripts and up-regulation of 833, with fold-change from -15.27 to +31.1 FC (p<0.00001). Largest differentials were found for the following transcripts: Up-regulated: Tetraspanin 13 (TSPAN13), serpin family i member 1 (SERPINI1), ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit beta 2 (ATP1B2), nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyl transferase 2 (NMNAT2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-like (PDGFRL), cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A member 1 (CYP1A1), prostate androgen-regulated mucin-like protein 1 (PARM1), secretogranin II (SCG2), SYT11 (synaptotagmin 11), rhophilin associated tail protein 1 like (ROPN1L); down-regulated: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3), carbonic anhydrase 14 (CAXIV), BCL2-related protein A1 (BCL2A1), protein kinase C delta (PRKCD), transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 1 (TRPM1), ubiquitin associated protein 1 like (UBAP1L), glutathione peroxidase 8 (GPX8), interleukin 16 (IL16), tumor protein p53 (TP53), and serpin family H member 1 (SERPINH1). There was no change to any of the HDAC transcripts (class I, II and IV), the sirtuin HDAC family (1-6) or the BRAF proto-oncogene v 599 transcripts. However, the data showed that TSA down-regulated influential transcripts that drive the BRAF-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 oncogenic pathway (namely PRKCD and MYC proto-oncogene which negatively affected the cell-cycle distribution. Mitotic inhibition was corroborated by functional pathway analysis and flow cytometry confirming halt at the G
CONCLUSION: TSA does not alter HDAC transcripts nor BRAF itself, but down-regulates critical components of the MAPK/MEK/BRAF oncogenic pathway, initiating a mitotic arrest.

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