Gene Summary

Gene:IGF1R; insulin like growth factor 1 receptor
Aliases: IGFR, CD221, IGFIR, JTK13
Summary:This receptor binds insulin-like growth factor with a high affinity. It has tyrosine kinase activity. The insulin-like growth factor I receptor plays a critical role in transformation events. Cleavage of the precursor generates alpha and beta subunits. It is highly overexpressed in most malignant tissues where it functions as an anti-apoptotic agent by enhancing cell survival. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IGF1R (cancer-related)

Yue CH, Liu JY, Chi CS, et al.
Myeloid Zinc Finger 1 (MZF1) Maintains the Mesenchymal Phenotype by Down-regulating IGF1R/p38 MAPK/ERα Signaling Pathway in High-level MZF1-expressing TNBC cells.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4149-4164 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Signaling regulation of myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1) has been implicated in the progression of many human malignancies; however, the mechanistic action of MZF1 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) progression remains elusive. In this study, the aim was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of MZF1 and its functional role in TNBC cellular migration and invasion.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hs578T and MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected to stably express the acidic domain of MZF1 (MZF1
RESULTS: Herein, we found that MZF1 in high-level MZF1-expressing TNBC cells is associated with cell migration, invasion, and mesenchymal phenotype. MZF1 interacted with the promoter region of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) to drive invasion and metastasis of high-level MZF1-expressing TNBC cells. Exogenous expression of the acidic domain of MZF1 repressed the binding of endogenous MZF1 to IGF1R promoter via blocking the interaction with ETS-like gene 1 (ELK1). This blockage not only caused MZF1 protein degradation, but also restrained ELK1 nuclear localization in high-level MZF1-expressing TNBC cells. MZF1, but not ELK1, was necessary for the retention of mesenchymal phenotype by repressing IGF1R promoter activity in TNBC cells expressing high levels of MZF1. Activation of the IGF1R-driven p38MAPK-ERα-slug-E-cadherin signaling axis mediated the conversion of mesenchymal cell to epithelial phenotype, caused by MZF1 destabilization. These results suggest that MZF1 is an oncogenic inducer.
CONCLUSION: Blocking of the MZF1/ELK1 interaction to reduce MZF1 protein stability by saturating the endogenous MZF1/ELK1 binding domains might be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of high-level MZF1-expressing TNBC.

Naghizadeh S, Mohammadi A, Baradaran B, Mansoori B
Overcoming multiple drug resistance in lung cancer using siRNA targeted therapy.
Gene. 2019; 714:143972 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among cancers, lung cancer is the most morbidity and mortality disease that is remaining the fatalist. Generally, there are multiple treatment procedures for lung cancer, such as surgery, immunotherapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. There is, therefore, an urgent need for more specified and efficient methods for treatment of lung cancer such as RNAi, which in combination with traditional therapies could silence genes that are involved in the drug resistance. These genes may either be motivators of apoptosis inhibition, EMT and DNA repair system promoters or a member of intracellular signaling pathways, such as JAK/STAT, RAS/RAF/MEK, PI3K/AKT, NICD, B-catenin/TCF/LEF and their stimulator receptors including IGFR, EGFR, FGFR, VEGFR, CXCR4, MET, INTEGRINS, NOTCH1 and FRIZZLED, so could be considered as appropriate targets. In current review, the results of multiple studies which have employed drug application after one specific gene silencing or more than one gene from distinct pathways also simultaneous drug and RNAi usage in vitro and in vivo in lung cancer were summarized.

Sai E, Miwa Y, Takeyama R, et al.
Identification of candidates for driver oncogenes in scirrhous-type gastric cancer cell lines.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(8):2643-2651 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Scirrhous-type gastric cancer (SGC) is one of the most intractable cancer subtypes in humans, and its therapeutic targets have been rarely identified to date. Exploration of somatic mutations in the SGC genome with the next-generation sequencers has been hampered by markedly increased fibrous tissues. Thus, SGC cell lines may be useful resources for searching for novel oncogenes. Here we have conducted whole exome sequencing and RNA sequencing on 2 SGC cell lines, OCUM-8 and OCUM-9. Interestingly, most of the mutations thus identified have not been reported. In OCUM-8 cells, a novel CD44-IGF1R fusion gene is discovered, the protein product of which ligates the amino-terminus of CD44 to the transmembrane and tyrosine-kinase domains of IGF1R. Furthermore, both CD44 and IGF1R are markedly amplified in the OCUM-8 genome and abundantly expressed. CD44-IGF1R has a transforming ability, and the suppression of its kinase activity leads to rapid cell death of OCUM-8. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the transforming activity of IGF1R fusion genes. However, OCUM-9 seems to possess multiple oncogenic events in its genome. In particular, a novel BORCS5-ETV6 fusion gene is identified in the OCUM-9 genome. BORCS5-ETV6 possesses oncogenic activity, and suppression of its message partially inhibits cell growth. Prevalence of these novel fusion genes among SGC awaits further investigation, but we validate the significance of cell lines as appropriate reagents for detailed genomic analyses of SGC.

Liu Z, He F, OuYang S, et al.
miR-140-5p could suppress tumor proliferation and progression by targeting TGFBRI/SMAD2/3 and IGF-1R/AKT signaling pathways in Wilms' tumor.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):405 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wilms' tumor is also called nephroblastoma and is the most common pediatric renal cancer. Several genetic and epigenetic factors have been found to account for the development of Wilms' tumor. MiRNAs play important roles in this tumorigenic process. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-140-5p in nephroblastoma by identifying its targets, as well as its underlying molecular mechanism of action.
METHODS: The miRNA expression profile of nephroblastoma samples was investigated and the targets of miR-140-5p were predicted and validated using the miRNA luciferase reporter method. Moreover, the roles of miR-140-5p in regulating nephroblastoma cell proliferation, migration and cell cycle were analyzed by the CCK8, migration and flow cytometry assays, respectively. The downstream protein of the direct target of miR-140-5p was also identified.
RESULTS: miR-140-5p was downregulated in Wilms' tumor tissues, whereas in the nephroblastoma cell lines G401 and WT-CLS1 that exhibited high levels of miRNA-140-5p, inhibition of cellular proliferation and metastasis were noted as well as cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase. TGFBRI and IGF1R were identified as direct target genes for miRNA-140-5p. In addition, SMAD2/3 and p-AKT were regulated by TGFBRI and IGF1R separately and participated in the miRNA-140-5p regulatory network. Ectopic expression of TGFBR1 and IGF-1R could abrogate the inhibitory effect of miR-140-5p.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that miRNA-140-5p participates in the progression of Wilms' tumor by targeting the TGFBRI/SMAD2/3 and the IGF-1R/AKT signaling pathways.

Lin JF, Tsai TF, Lin YC, et al.
Benzyl isothiocyanate suppresses IGF1R, FGFR3 and mTOR expression by upregulation of miR-99a-5p in human bladder cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(6):2106-2116 [PubMed] Related Publications
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is known for its pharmacological properties against malignant neoplasm, including bladder cancer (BC). The current study investigated microRNAs (miRNA or miR) expression profiles with an emphasis on the role of miR‑99a‑5p in BITC‑treated BC cells. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) microarray containing 79 aberrantly expressed miRNAs in BC was used to detect miRNA expression in BITC‑treated cells. Several dysregulated miRNAs were identified and further confirmed using miRNA stem‑loop reverse transcription (RT)‑qPCR in 5637 cells. Insulin‑like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression were determined by RT‑qPCR and western blotting. Cell viability was evaluated using WST‑1 reagent and apoptosis was monitored by determining the levels of cleaved‑poly ADP‑ribose polymerase and cleaved‑caspase‑3. BITC treatment significantly upregulated miR‑99a‑5p levels in a dose‑dependent manner. miR‑99a‑5p overexpression decreased IGF1R, mTOR and FGFR3 expression, predicted targets of miR‑99a‑5p. In addition, antisense miR‑99a‑5p sequences inhibited BITC‑induced miR‑99a‑5p overexpression, resulting in the restoration of protein expression and decreased cell viability. The current study identified multiple miRNAs responsive to BITC treatment, including miR‑99a‑5p. In addition, the induction of miR‑99a‑5p decreased IGF1R, mTOR and FGFR3 expression in BITC‑treated BC cells. The current study provided novel insight into the antitumor mechanism by which BITC restores miR‑99a‑5p expression and decreases cancer cell survival.

Velinovic M, Jankovic R, Jovanovic D, et al.
Tumor characteristics, expressions of ERCC1, Bax, p53, IGF1R, Bcl2, Bcl2/Bax and prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with lung carcinoid.
J BUON. 2019 Jan-Feb; 24(1):256-266 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Neuroendocrine lung tumors (NET) include typical carcinoids (TC), atypical carcinoids (AC), large cell NE carcinoma (LCNEC) and small-cell carcinoma (SCLC), with different clinicopathological profiles and relative grades of malignancy. Although differences between carcinoids and high grade carcinomas are recognized, precise differences and behavior of TC and AC have not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to better define the differences in the clinical behavior of TC and AC, and to establish new prognostic factors of overall survival (OS), by determining the levels of genetic expression of IGF1R, ERCC1, Bax, p53, Bcl2 and Bcl2/Bax ratio.
METHODS: The histopathological diagnosis of 52 surgically resected pulmonary carcinoid tumors was made according to the WHO classification. Gene expressions were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR.
RESULTS: The confirmed prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) were pTNM T (p<0.01), pTNM N (p<0.05), clinical stage (p<0.05), type of surgery (p<0.01) and histopathological (HP) tumor type (p<0.05). Bcl2 mRNA level and Bcl2/Bax ratio were found to have a potential for discrimination of the HP type of tumor (AC vs TC, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) cut-off values 0.1451 and 0.3015, respectively), but without statistically significant impact on OS.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NETs, smaller primary tumor, absence of positive lymph nodes, and TC type of tumor predicted longer OS. Type of resection has influence on OS. Bcl2 expression and Bcl2/Bax ratio might be valuable as independent diagnostic parametars in lung carcinoids. Therapeutic approaches using attenuation of Bcl2 or upregulation of Bax might prove useful in lung NETs.

Zhang H, Lin J, Hu T, et al.
Effect of miR-132 on bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cell line.
J Pharmacol Sci. 2019; 139(3):186-192 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Local anesthetics (LAs) may generate neurotoxicity in neurons. In the current study, we explored the mechanisms by which microRNA-132 (miR-132) regulated the neurotoxicity of human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) induced by bupivacaine (BUP).
METHODS: CCK-8, flow cytometry, EdU detection, qRT-PCR and western blotting were used to explore the cell viability, apoptosis and gene expression, respectively.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that 600 μM BUP dramatically inhibited SH-SY5Y cells viability. In addition, BUP induced cell apoptosis and neurotoxicity via increasing active caspase-3 and cleaved PARP1 levels. More importantly, the level of miR-132 was significantly up-regulated in BUP-treated cells, which was significantly reversed by miR-132 inhibitor. In addition, dual-luciferase assay indicated IGF1R was the directly binding target of miR-132 in cells. Our study further indicated that the level of IGF1R was markedly decreased by BUP interference, while miR-132 inhibitor exerted the opposite effect. Furthermore, BUP induced apoptosis and neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells were attenuated by IGF1, which further confirmed IGF1R was the downstream target of BUP in SH-SY5Y cells.
CONCLUSION: In the present study, miR-132 played important roles in regulating BUP-induced neurotoxicity through IGF1R and may act as a promising molecular target for the treatment of human neurotoxicity induced by BUP.

Wang F, Diao XY, Zhang X, et al.
Identification of genetic alterations associated with primary resistance to EGFR-TKIs in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR sensitive mutations.
Cancer Commun (Lond). 2019; 39(1):7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Identification of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and application of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have greatly changed the therapeutic strategies of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the long-term efficacy of EGFR-TKI therapy is limited due to the development of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the aberrant alterations of 8 driver genes and the primary resistance to EGFR-TKIs in advanced NSCLC patients with activated EGFR mutations.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data from 416 patients with stage III/IV or recurrent NSCLC who received an initial EGFR-TKI treatment, from April 2004 and March 2011, at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. Several genetic alterations associated with the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs, including the alterations in BIM, ALK, KRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, MET, IGF1R, and ROS1, were detected by the routine clinical technologies. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between different groups using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with the log-rank test. A Cox regression model was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) associated with the PFS and OS.
RESULTS: Among the investigated patients, 169 NSCLC patients harbored EGFR-sensitive mutations. EGFR-mutant patients having PTEN deletion had a shorter PFS and OS than those with intact PTEN (P = 0.003 for PFS, and P = 0.034 for OS). In the combined molecular analysis of EGFR signaling pathway and resistance genes, we found that EGFR-mutant patients coexisted with aberrant alterations in EGFR signaling pathway and those having resistant genes had a statistically poorer PFS than those without such alterations (P < 0.001). A Cox proportional regression model determined that PTEN deletion (HR = 4.29,95% CI = 1.72-10.70) and low PTEN expression (HR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.22-3.13), MET FISH + (HR = 2.83,95% CI = 1.37-5.86) were independent predictors for PFS in patients with EGFR-TKI treatment after adjustment for multiple factor.
CONCLUSIONS: We determined that the coexistence of genetic alterations in cancer genes may explain primary resistance to EGFR-TKIs.

Park C, Yoon KA, Kim J, et al.
Integrative molecular profiling identifies a novel cluster of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in very young women.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(5):1760-1770 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Very young breast cancer patients are more common in Asian countries than Western countries and are thought to have worse prognosis than older patients. The aim of the current study was to identify molecular characteristics of young patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer by analyzing mutations and copy number variants (CNV), and by applying expression profiling. The whole exome and transcriptome of 47 Korean young breast cancer (KYBR) patients (age <35) were analyzed. Genomic profiles were constructed using mutations, CNV and differential gene expression from sequencing data. Pathway analyses were also performed using gene sets to identify biological processes. Our data were compared with young ER+ breast cancer patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3 were highly recurrent somatic mutation genes. APOBEC-associated mutation signature was more frequent in KYBR compared with young TCGA patients. Integrative profiling was used to classify our patients into 3 subgroups based on molecular characteristics. Group A showed luminal A-like subtype and IGF1R signal dysregulation. Luminal B patients were classified into groups B and C, which showed chromosomal instability and enrichment for APOBEC3A/B deletions, respectively. Group B was characterized by 11q13 (CCND1) amplification and activation of the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathway. Group C showed 17q12 (ERBB2) amplification and lower ER and progesterone receptor expression. Group C was also distinguished by immune activation and lower epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) degree compared with group B. This study showed that integrative genomic profiling could classify very young patients with breast cancer into molecular subgroups that are potentially linked to different clinical characteristics.

Kopantzev EP, Kopantseva MR, Grankina EV, et al.
Activation of IGF/IGF-IR signaling pathway fails to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.
Pancreatology. 2019; 19(2):390-396 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer stromal cells produce various protein factors, which presumably provide cancer cells with drug resistance and may influence their ability to form metastasis via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (ЕМТ). The goal of our project was to study the effects of IGF-I on expression of protein markers of epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation, and on expression of transcriptional regulators of EMT in pancreatic cancer cell lines.
METHODS: We used Western blot analysis to study the expression patterns of epithelial and mesenchymal protein markers in pancreatic cancer cell lines, which have been stimulated with IGF-I for various periods of time. The ELISA technique was employed to determine the concentration of IGF-I in conditioned media. Additionally, the effect of IGF-I on proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells was measured via MTS technique.
RESULTS: We investigated the effect of IGF/IGF-IR signaling pathway activation on expression levels of cell differentiation markers in five pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Capan-2, MiaPaCa-2 and Panc1). The IGF-I stimulation led to phosphorylation of IGF-IR and activation of PI-3K/Akt signaling cascade. At the same time our results reveal that the activation of IGF/IGF-IR signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer cells does not induce a significant shift in cell phenotype towards mesenchymal differentiation and does not induce a decrease in expression levels of epithelial protein markers.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that IGF-I does not function as an effective inductor of EMT in pancreatic cancer cell lines and that stimulation of IGF-I/IGF-IR signaling pathway does not lead to EMT associated changes in cell differentiation.

Shen J, Li L, Yang T, et al.
Drug Sensitivity Screening and Targeted Pathway Analysis Reveal a Multi-Driver Proliferative Mechanism and Suggest a Strategy of Combination Targeted Therapy for Colorectal Cancer Cells.
Molecules. 2019; 24(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Treatment of colorectal cancer mostly relies on traditional therapeutic approaches, such as surgery and chemotherapy. Limited options of targeted therapy for colorectal cancer narrowly focus on blocking cancer-generic targets VEGFR and EGFR. Identifying the oncogenic drivers, understanding their contribution to proliferation, and finding inhibitors to block such drivers are the keys to developing targeted therapy for colorectal cancer. In this study, ten colorectal cancer cell lines were screened against a panel of protein kinase inhibitors blocking key oncogenic signaling pathways. The results show that four of the 10 cell lines did not respond to any kinase inhibitors significantly, the other six were mildly inhibited by AZD-6244, BMS-754807, and/or dasatinib. Mechanistic analyses demonstrate that these inhibitors independently block the MAP kinase pathway, IR/IGF-1R/AKT pathway, and Src kinases, suggesting a multi-driver nature of proliferative signaling in these cells. Most of these cell lines were potently and synergistically inhibited by pair-wise combinations of these drugs. Furthermore, seven of the 10 cell lines were inhibited by the triple combination of AZD-6244/BMS-754807/dasatinib with IC

De Giovanni C, Nanni P, Landuzzi L, et al.
Immune targeting of autocrine IGF2 hampers rhabdomyosarcoma growth and metastasis.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor-1 (IGF1R) system sustains the genesis of rhabdomyosarcoma through IGF2 autocrine overexpression. While several IGF1R-targeted strategies have been investigated to interphere with rhabdomyosarcoma growth, no attempt to neutralize IGF2 has been reported. We therefore studied the possibility to hamper rhabdomyosarcoma growth with passive and active immune approaches targeting IGF2.
METHODS: A murine model developing IGF2-overexpressing pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma, along with IGF2-independent salivary carcinoma, was used to investigate the efficacy and specificity of passive anti-IGFs antibody treatment. Active vaccinations with electroporated DNA plasmids encoding murine or human IGF2 were performed to elicit autochthonous anti-IGF2 antibodies. Vaccinated mice received the intravenous injection of rhabdomyosarcoma cells to study the effects of anti-IGF2 antibodies against developing metastases.
RESULTS: Passive administration of antibodies neutralizing IGFs delayed the onset of IGF2-overexpressing rhabdomyosarcoma but not of IGF2-independent salivary carcinoma. A DNA vaccine against murine IGF2 did not elicit antibodies, even when combined with Treg-depletion, while a DNA vaccine encoding the human IGF2 gene elicited antibodies crossreacting with murine IGF2. Mice with anti-IGF2 antibodies were partially protected against the metastatic growth of IGF2-addicted rhabdomyosarcoma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Immune targeting of autocrine IGF2 inhibited rhabdomyosarcoma genesis and metastatic growth.

Lautem A, Simon F, Hoppe-Lotichius M, et al.
Expression and prognostic significance of insulin‑like growth factor-2 receptor in human hepatocellular carcinoma and the influence of transarterial chemoembolization.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(4):2299-2310 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common human malignancies, the incidence of which is growing worldwide. The prognosis of HCC is very poor and it is often accompanied by a high rate of recurrence. Conventional chemotherapeutic approaches are largely inefficient. In order to develop novel effective methods for the early detection and prognosis of HCC, novel markers and therapeutic targets are urgently required. The present study focused on the effects of the expression of the tumor suppressor gene insulin‑like growth factor‑2 receptor (IGF2R) on patient survival and tumor recurrence in patients with HCC; this study paid specific attention to the influence of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) prior to surgery. The mRNA expression levels of IGF2R were measured in primary human HCC and corresponding non‑neoplastic tumor‑surrounding tissue (TST) by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) (n=92). Subsequently, the associations between IGF2R expression and clinicopathological parameters, outcomes of HCC and TACE pretreatment prior to surgery were determined. Furthermore, the effects of the IGF2R gene polymorphisms rs629849 and rs642588 on susceptibility and on clinicopathological features of HCC were investigated. RT‑PCR demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of IGF2R were downregulated in HCC compared with in TST samples (P=0.004), which was associated with a worse recurrence‑free survival of patients with HCC (P=0.002) and a lower occurrence of cirrhosis (P=0.05). TACE‑pretreated patients with HCC (n=26) exhibited significantly higher IGF2R mRNA expression in tumor tissues (P=0.019). In addition, significantly more patients with HCC in the TACE‑pretreated group exhibited upregulated IGF2R mRNA expression compared with in the non‑treated patients (P=0.032). The IGF2R SNPs rs629849 and rs642588 were not significantly associated with HCC risk, whereas a homozygous IGF2R rs629849 GG genotype was associated with a significantly elevated risk of non‑viral liver cirrhosis (P=0.05). In conclusion, these data suggested an important role for IGF2R expression in HCC, particularly with regards to TACE treatment prior to surgery.

Wang F, Li H, Lou Y, et al.
Insulin‑like growth factor I promotes adipogenesis in hemangioma stem cells from infantile hemangiomas.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(4):2825-2830 [PubMed] Related Publications
Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are the most common infantile neoplasms and are characterized by initial proliferation during infancy and subsequent spontaneous regression within the next 5‑10 years, frequently leaving fibrous fat residues. However, the specific mechanisms underlying the differentiation of hemangioma stem cells (HemSCs) into adipocytes are not clear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of insulin‑like growth factor I (IGF‑1) on HemSCs from patients with IH and to determine the signaling mechanisms involved. Treatment of HemSCs with IGF‑1 led to upregulation of the protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ (PPARγ). By contrast, inhibition of the IGF‑1 receptor (IGF‑1R) or phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K) activity decreased the expression of PPARγ, in addition to that of CCAAT/enhancer‑binding protein (C/EBP)α, C/EBPβ, and adiponectin. IGF‑1 upregulated the expression of phosphorylated RAC‑α serine/threonine‑protein kinase in IH cells, whereas a specific PI3K inhibitor or IGF‑1R antibody blocked this effect. These results indicated that IGF‑1 is a pro‑proliferative and pro‑lipogenic factor in IH HemSCs. Taken together, these findings indicated that IGF‑1 is able to upregulate PPARγ by activating the IGF‑1R and PI3K pathways, thereby accelerating lipogenesis and enhancing IH HemSC adipogenesis.

Gurdal H, Tuglu MM, Bostanabad SY, Dalkiliç B
Partial agonistic effect of cetuximab on epidermal growth factor receptor and Src kinase activation in triple‑negative breast cancer cell lines.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(4):1345-1356 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody developed to inhibit the binding of growth factors and the subsequent activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Triple‑negative breast cancer (TNBC) is resistant to cetuximab treatment. The aim of the present study was to examine the partial agonistic properties of cetuximab, which not only blocks ligand binding, but also partially triggers EGFR activation, which may lead to cetuximab resistance in TNBC. The phosphorylation of growth factor receptors and their signalling pathways were evaluated by determining the phosphorylation of EGFR, insulin‑like growth factor receptor (IGF‑1R), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)‑2, Src kinase, phosphoinositide‑3‑kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and serine/threonine‑specific protein kinase (Akt) and the degradation of EGFR, and by assessing the morphology and proliferation of MDA‑MB‑231 and MDA‑MB‑468 cells. Cetuximab treatment led to the phosphorylation of EGFR, VEGFR‑2, IGF‑1R and downstream signalling molecules, Src kinase and PI3K in these cells, as well as Akt in the MDA‑MB‑231 cells. The cetuximab‑mediated phosphorylation of IGF‑1R, VEGFR‑2 and Akt was inhibited by the EGFR kinase inhibitor, AG1478, and the Src kinase inhibitor, PP2. Cetuximab treatment led to the degradation of EGFR. The cetuximab‑induced phosphorylation and EGFR degradation were less prominent compared with those induced by EGF. Cetuximab partially inhibited EGF‑mediated responses. Cetuximab, similar with EGF, altered cellular morphology in a serum‑free medium. In both cell lines, the Src kinase inhibitor enhanced the cetuximab‑induced anti‑proliferative response. These results indicate that cetuximab exerts a partial agonistic effect on EGFR, which activates Src kinase and subsequently transactivates IGF‑1R and VEGFR‑2. This partial agonistic property is likely one of the mechanisms underlying the resistance of TNBC to cetuximab.

Guo L, Bai Y, Ji S, Ma H
MicroRNA‑98 suppresses cell growth and invasion of retinoblastoma via targeting the IGF1R/k‑Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(3):807-820 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accumulating evidence has indicated that the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the pathogenesis o retinoblastoma (RB); however, the potential role of miR‑98 in RB remains elusive. In the present study, it was demonstrated that miR‑98 is downregulated in RB tissues and cell lines, and its expression significantly associated with clinicopathological features, including differentiation, N classification and largest tumor base; patients with low miR‑98 expression levels exhibited significantly poorer overall survival. Overexpression of miR‑98 was suggested to suppress RB cell growth, migration and invasion. In addition, insulin‑like growth factor‑1 receptor (IGF1R), a well‑reported oncogene, was identified as a potential target of miR‑98 via a luciferase assay, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Correlation analysis revealed a significantly negative correlation between miR‑98 and IGF1R expression in tumor tissues (n=60). In addition, the results of the present study demonstrated that IGF1R function as an oncogene by promoting RB cell viability, migration and invasion. Furthermore, restoration of IGF1R was observed to reverse the anticancer effects of miR‑98 on RB cell viability, migration and invasion. Importantly, the findings of the present study indicated that miR‑98 suppressed RB cell growth and metastasis by inhibiting the IGF1R/k‑Ras/Raf/mitogen activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal‑regulated kinase signaling pathway. Collectively, the present study proposed that miR‑98 may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in the treatment of RB.

Habel N, Stefanovska B, Carène D, et al.
CYR61 triggers osteosarcoma metastatic spreading via an IGF1Rβ-dependent EMT-like process.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most prevalent primary bone malignancy in children and young adults. These tumors are highly metastatic, leading to poor outcome. We previously demonstrated that Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61/CCN1) expression level is correlated to osteosarcoma aggressiveness in preclinical model and in patient tumor samples. The aim of the present study was to investigate the CYR61-induced intracellular mechanisms leading to the acquisition of an invasive phenotype by osteosarcoma cells.
METHODS: Modified murine and human osteosarcoma cell lines were evaluated for cell adhesion, aggregation (spheroid), motility (wound healing assay), phenotypic markers expression (RT-qPCR, western blot). Cell-derived xenograft FFPE samples and patients samples (TMA) were assessed by IHC.
RESULTS: CYR61 levels controlled the expression of markers related to an Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like process, allowing tumor cells to migrate acquiring a competent morphology, and to be able to invade the surrounding stroma. This phenotypic shift indeed correlated with tumor grade and aggressiveness in patient samples and with the metastatic dissemination potential in cell-derived xenograft models. Unlike EGFR or PDGFR, IGF1Rβ levels correlated with CYR61 and N-cadherin levels, and with the aggressiveness of osteosarcoma and overall survival. The expression levels of IGF1Rβ/IGF1 axis were controlled by CYR61, and anti-IGF1 neutralizing antibody prevented the CYR61-induced phenotypic shift, aggregation, and motility abilities.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our study provides new evidence that CYR61 acts as a key inducing factor in the metastatic progression of osteosarcoma by playing a critical role in primary tumor dissemination, with a process associated with IGF1/IGFR stimulation. This suggests that CYR61 may represent a potential pivotal target for therapeutic management of metastases spreading in osteosarcoma, in correlation with IGF1/IGFR pathway.

You GR, Cheng AJ, Lee LY, et al.
Prognostic signature associated with radioresistance in head and neck cancer via transcriptomic and bioinformatic analyses.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is an indispensable treatment modality in head and neck cancer (HNC), while radioresistance is the major cause of treatment failure. The aim of this study is to identify a prognostic molecular signature associated with radio-resistance in HNC for further clinical applications.
METHODS: Affymetrix cDNA microarrays were used to globally survey different transcriptomes between HNC cell lines and isogenic radioresistant sublines. The KEGG and Partek bioinformatic analytical methods were used to assess functional pathways associated with radioresistance. The SurvExpress web tool was applied to study the clinical association between gene expression profiles and patient survival using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) dataset (n = 283). The Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were further validated after retrieving clinical data from the TCGA-HNSCC dataset (n = 502) via the Genomic Data Commons (GDC)-Data-Portal of National Cancer Institute. A panel maker molecule was generated to assess the efficacy of prognostic prediction for radiotherapy in HNC patients.
RESULTS: In total, the expression of 255 molecules was found to be significantly altered in the radioresistant cell sublines, with 155 molecules up-regulated 100 down-regulated. Four core functional pathways were identified to enrich the up-regulated genes and were significantly associated with a worse prognosis in HNC patients, as the modulation of cellular focal adhesion, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, the HIF-1 signaling pathway, and the regulation of stem cell pluripotency. Total of 16 up-regulated genes in the 4 core pathways were defined, and 11 over-expressed molecules showed correlated with poor survival (TCGA-HNSCC dataset, n = 283). Among these, 4 molecules were independently validated as key molecules associated with poor survival in HNC patients receiving radiotherapy (TCGA-HNSCC dataset, n = 502), as IGF1R (p = 0.0454, HR = 1.43), LAMC2 (p = 0.0235, HR = 1.50), ITGB1 (p = 0.0336, HR = 1.46), and IL-6 (p = 0.0033, HR = 1.68). Furthermore, the combined use of these 4 markers product an excellent result to predict worse radiotherapeutic outcome in HNC (p < 0.0001, HR = 2.44).
CONCLUSIONS: Four core functional pathways and 4 key molecular markers significantly contributed to radioresistance in HNC. These molecular signatures may be used as a predictive biomarker panel, which can be further applied in personalized radiotherapy or as radio-sensitizing targets to treat refractory HNC.

Shu S, Liu X, Xu M, et al.
MicroRNA-320a acts as a tumor suppressor in endometrial carcinoma by targeting IGF-1R.
Int J Mol Med. 2019; 43(3):1505-1512 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRs) is implicated in the carcinogenesis of various types of malignant tumor by manipulating cell growth and apoptosis. Abnormal expression of miR‑320a is involved in tumorigenesis of many types of cancer. The potential association of miR‑320a and the possible regulatory mechanisms in endometrial carcinoma is rarely elucidated. In the present study, it was demonstrated that miR‑320a expression was decreased in endometrial carcinoma tissues and cell lines. The present results also indicated that overexpression of miR‑320a suppressed cell proliferation through inducing G2/M phrase arrest and apoptosis. Insulin‑like growth factor receptror‑1 (IGF‑1R) was verified to be the potential target of miR‑320a by computational analysis and luciferase reporter assays. In addition, overexpression of miR‑320a reduced endogenous IGF‑1R expression in cells. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that upregulation of miR‑320a inhibited phosphorylated (p)‑protein kinase B and p‑mechanistic target of rapamycin activation and promoted B cell lymphoma‑2‑associated death promoter expression. Reintroduction of IGF‑1R into miR‑320a‑overexpressed cells antagonized the impact of miR‑320a on its downstream protein, which demonstrated that the tumor suppressive role of miR‑320a in endometrial carcinoma is exerted by the signal pathway mediated by IGF‑1R. It was therefore concluded that miR‑320a served an anti‑tumor role on endometrial carcinoma through the regulation of IGF‑1R, and miR‑320a may be used as the target for the gene therapy of endometrial carcinoma.

He T, Liu Y, Zhao S, et al.
Comprehensive assessment the expression of core elements related to IGFIR/PI3K pathway in granulosa cells of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2019; 233:134-140 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common multisystem endocrinopathy in women, characterized by chronic hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. But its etiology remains elusive. A plethora of information suggests phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is key to the pathogenesis of PCOS but little is known about the expression pattern and possible role of insulin like growth factor 1 receptor (IGFIR)/PI3K pathway in PCOS. The goal of this study was to determine whether the core elements of the IGF1R/PI3K pathway were differentially expressed in GCs isolated from PCOS.
STUDY DESIGN: Western blot (WB) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for IGF1R, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) related to IGFIR/PI3K pathway were performed in GCs isolated from 60 PCOS patients and 60 controls.
RESULTS: Compared to controls, body mass index (BMI), the levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), testosterone (T), luteotropic hormone (LH), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), antral follicle count (AFC) were markedly elevated while follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) decreased (p < 0.05). Furthermore, at both mRNA and protein levels, the expression of IGF1R, IRS1, IRS2 were significantly increased whereas PTEN was dramatically decreased in PCOS patients (p <  0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that IGFIR/PI3K pathway is differently expressed in PCOS GCs compared with controls, with IGFIR, IRS1, IRS2 significantly increased while PTEN decreased. Thus, our study probably provides new evidences about the pathogenesis of PCOS in term of molecular mechanism.

Zhang L, Hao C, Zhai R, et al.
Downregulation of exosomal let-7a-5p in dust exposed- workers contributes to lung cancer development.
Respir Res. 2018; 19(1):235 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Either chronic or acute exposure to dust particles may lead to pneumoconiosis and lung cancer, and lung cancer mortality among patients diagnosed with pneumoconiosis is increasing. Utilizing genome-wide sequencing technology, this study aimed to identify methods to decrease the number of patients with pneumoconiosis who die from lung cancer.
METHODS: One hundred fifty-four subjects were recruited, including 54 pneumoconiosis patients and 100 healthy controls. Exosomes were isolated from the venous blood of every subject. Distinctive miRNAs were identified using high throughput sequencing technology, and bioinformatics analysis predicted target genes involved in lung cancer as well as their corresponding biological functions. Moreover, cross-cancer alterations of genes related to lung cancer were investigated, and survival analysis was performed using 2437 samples with an average follow-up period of 49 months.
RESULTS: Let-7a-5p was revealed to be downregulated by 21.67% in pneumoconiosis. Out of the 683 let-7a-5p target genes identified from bioinformatics analysis, four genes related to five signaling pathways were confirmed to be involved in lung cancer development. Alterations in these four target genes were then explored in 4105 lung cancer patients, and BCL2L1 and IGF1R were demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed. Survival analysis further revealed that high expression of BCL2L1 corresponded to reduced survival of lung cancer patients (HR (95%CI) = 1.75(1.33~2.30)), while patient survival time was unaffected by expression of IGF1R (HR (95%CI) = 1.15 (0.98~1.36)).
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with lung adenocarcinoma, simultaneous downregulation of exosomal let-7a-5p and elevated expression of BCL2L1 are useful as predictive biomarkers for poor survival.

Li Z, Lu Q, Zhu D, et al.
Lnc-SNHG1 may promote the progression of non-small cell lung cancer by acting as a sponge of miR-497.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 506(3):632-640 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lnc-SNHG1 (small nucleolar RNA host gene 1) is considered an important regulating factor in several types of cancers. However, the biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms in which lnc-SNHG1 is involved in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) still need to be explored. In this study, we investigated the detailed effects and possible molecular mechanisms. The transcript level of lnc-SNHG1 was higher in lung adenocarcinoma specimens and NSCLC cell lines than in noncancer tissue and cells. The level of expression was positively correlated with invasiveness and was negatively correlated with the level of miR-497 in vivo and in vitro. In exploring the regulatory mechanism, we found that lnc-SNHG1 might modulate tumor growth by sponging miR-497. The inhibitory effect of si-lnc-SNHG1 on NSCLC cell proliferation, migration and invasion could be rescued by miR-497 inhibition, while the overexpression of miR-497 could reverse the effect of lnc-SNHG1 overexpression. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that the lnc-SNHG1 regulated the expression of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1-R) by acting as a sponge of miR-497 in NSCLC. lnc-SNHG1 could be a novel biomarker as well as a curative target.

Karimabad MN, Mahmoodi M, Jafarzadeh A, et al.
Molecular Targets, Anti-cancer Properties and Potency of Synthetic Indole-3-carbinol Derivatives.
Mini Rev Med Chem. 2019; 19(7):540-554 [PubMed] Related Publications
The indole-3-carbinol (I3C) displays anti-cancer/proliferative activities against human cancer cells. Cellular proliferation is an event associated with the progress and its continuation. This manifest is described by variation in expression and/or functions of genes that are related with cell cycle relevant proteins. The constitutive activation of several signal transduction pathways stimulates cells proliferation as well. The immediate stages in cancer development are accompanied by a fibrogenic response and the progression of the hypoxic environment is in favor of survival and proliferatory functions of cancer stem cells. A main part for prevention of in cancer cells death may manifest through altering cell metabolism. Cellular proliferation and metastasis are reported to be supported with increased generation of responsible hormones (in hormone dependent malignancies), and further promotion the angiogenesis, with epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This may be facilitated by progression of autophagy phenomenon, as well as via taking cues from neighboring stromal cells. Several signaling pathways in association with various factors specific for cellular viability, including hypoxia inducible factor 1, NF-κB, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor, Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF-1), phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt, Wnt, cell cycle related protein, with androgen and estrogen receptor signaling are reported to be inhibited by I3C. These evidences, in association with bioinformatics data represent very important information for describing signaling pathways in parallel with molecular targets that may serve as markers for early diagnosis and/or critical targets for designing and development of novel therapeutic regimes alone or combined with drugs, to prevent tumor formation and further progression. In particular, I3C and DIM have been extensively investigated for their importance against numbers human cancers both in vitro and in vivo. We aimed the present manuscript, current study, to review anticancer properties and the miscellaneous mechanisms underlying the antitumorigenicity in an in-depth study for broadening the I3C treating marvel.

Xu YH, Tu JR, Zhao TT, et al.
Overexpression of lncRNA EGFR‑AS1 is associated with a poor prognosis and promotes chemotherapy resistance in non‑small cell lung cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(1):295-305 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemoresistance is one of the most important biological elements affecting the progression and prognosis of cancer. Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators and are aberrantly expressed in various types of cancer in humans, including non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The present study aimed to investigate the effect of lncRNAs on NSCLC resistance to chemotherapy. The relative expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor antisense RNA 1 (EGFR‑AS1) was quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis in NSCLC tissues, paired adjacent normal tissues, patient plasma and NSCLC cell lines, and its association with prognosis was assessed by multivariate analysis. The biological functions of EGFR‑AS1 in NSCLC cells were determined in vitro. It was found that EGFR‑AS1 was abnormally upregulated in NSCLC tissues compared with adjacent normal lung tissues. Furthermore, patients with NSCLC with increased expression of EGFR‑AS1 had a poor prognosis. EGFR‑AS1 knockdown significantly inhibited NSCLC malignancy in vitro, including cell proliferation and chemoresistance. Furthermore, the expression levels of EGFR‑AS1 were increased in plasma samples from patients with cisplatin-based chemotherapy resistance. Bioinformatics analysis and a luciferase reporter assay confirmed that EGFR‑AS1 mediated cell proliferation and chemoresistance through directly binding to microRNA‑223. Therefore, EGFR‑AS1 overexpression-induced chemoresistance can contribute to poor prognosis in NSCLC.

Sin STK, Li Y, Liu M, et al.
TROP-2 exhibits tumor suppressive functions in cervical cancer by dual inhibition of IGF-1R and ALK signaling.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 152(1):185-193 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes promotes initiation and progression of cervical cancer. This study aims to investigate the tumor suppressive effects of TROP-2 in cervical cancer cells and to explain the underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: The tumor suppressive functions of TROP-2 in cervical cancer cells were examined by in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic functional assays. Downstream factors of TROP-2 were screened using Human Phospho-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Array. Small molecule inhibitors were applied to HeLa cells to test the TROP-2 effects on the oncogenicity of IGF-1R and ALK. Protein interactions between TROP-2 and the ligands of IGF-1R and ALK were detected via immunoprecipitation assay and protein-protein affinity prediction.
RESULTS: In vitro and in vivo functional assays showed that overexpression of TROP-2 significantly inhibited the oncogenicity of cervical cancer cells; while knockdown of TROP-2 exhibited opposite effects. Human Phospho-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Array showed that the activity of IGF-1R and ALK was stimulated by TROP-2 knockdown. Small molecule inhibitors AG1024 targeting IGF-1R and Crizotinib targeting ALK were treated to HeLa cells with and without TROP-2 overexpression, and results from cell viability and migration assays indicated that the oncogenicity of vector-transfected cells was repressed to a greater extent by the inhibition of either IGF-1R or ALK than that of the TROP-2-overexpressed cells. Immunoprecipitation assay and protein-protein affinity prediction suggested protein interactions between TROP-2 and the ligands of IGF-1R and ALK.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results support that TROP-2 exhibits tumor suppressor functions in cervical cancer through inhibiting the activity of IGF-1R and ALK.

Jones RA, Franks SE, Moorehead RA
Comparative mRNA and miRNA transcriptome analysis of a mouse model of IGFIR-driven lung cancer.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0206948 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mouse models of cancer play an important role in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that contribute to tumorigenesis. The extent to which these models resemble one another and their human counterparts at the molecular level is critical in understanding tumorigenesis. In this study, we carried out a comparative gene expression analysis to generate a detailed molecular portrait of a transgenic mouse model of IGFIR-driven lung cancer. IGFIR-driven tumors displayed a strong resemblance with established mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma, particularly EGFR-driven models highlighted by elevated levels of the EGFR ligands Ereg and Areg. Cross-species analysis revealed a shared increase in human lung adenocarcinoma markers including Nkx2.1 and Napsa as well as alterations in a subset of genes with oncogenic and tumor suppressive properties such as Aurka, Ret, Klf4 and Lats2. Integrated miRNA and mRNA analysis in IGFIR-driven tumors identified interaction pairs with roles in ErbB signaling while cross-species analysis revealed coordinated expression of a subset of conserved miRNAs and their targets including miR-21-5p (Reck, Timp3 and Tgfbr3). Overall, these findings support the use of SPC-IGFIR mice as a model of human lung adenocarcinoma and provide a comprehensive knowledge base to dissect the molecular pathogenesis of tumor initiation and progression.

Geng Y, Sui C, Xun Y, et al.
MiRNA-99a can regulate proliferation and apoptosis of human granulosa cells via targeting IGF-1R in polycystic ovary syndrome.
J Assist Reprod Genet. 2019; 36(2):211-221 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the regulation of miR-99a to the biological functions of granulosa cells in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) via targeting IGF-1R.
METHODS: We collected aspirated follicular fluid in both patients with and without PCOS. Granulosa cells (GCs) were isolated through Percoll differential centrifugation to detect both miR-99a and IGF-1R expressions. We further transfected COV434 cells with miR-99a mimics to establish a miRNA-99a (miR-99a) overexpression model. We explored the regulation of miR-99a to the proliferation and apoptosis of human GCs via IGF-1R in COV434. The effect of different insulin concentrations on miR-99a expression was also evaluated.
RESULTS: MiR-99a was significantly downregulated while IGF-1R was upregulated in patients with PCOS. MiR-99a can regulate IGF-1R on a post-transcriptional level. After transfection of miR-99a mimics, the proliferation rate was decreased and apoptosis rate was increased significantly in COV434. Exogenous insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) treatment could reverse the effect of miR-99a. MiR-99a was negatively and dose-dependently regulated by insulin in vitro.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-99a expression was downregulated in patients with PCOS, the degree of which may be closely related to insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. MiR-99a could attenuate proliferation and promote apoptosis of human GCs through targeting IGF-1R, which could partly explain the abnormal folliculogenesis in PCOS.

Iida Y, Salomon MP, Hata K, et al.
Predominance of triple wild-type and IGF2R mutations in mucosal melanomas.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1054 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary mucosal melanoma (MM) is a rare subtype of melanoma that arises from melanocytes in the mucosa. MM has not been well profiled for mutations and its etiology is not well understood, rendering current treatment strategies unsuccessful. Hence, we investigated mutational landscape for MM to understand its etiology and to clarify mutations that are potentially relevant for MM treatment.
METHODS: Forty one MM and 48 cutaneous melanoma (CM) tissues were profiled for mutations using targeted deep next-generation sequencing (NGS) for 89 cancer-related genes. A total of 997 mutations within exons were analyzed for their mutational spectrum and prevalence of mutation, and 685 non-synonymous variants were investigated to identify mutations in individual genes and pathways. PD-L1 expression from 21 MM and 18 CM were assessed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Mutational spectrum analysis revealed a lower frequency of UV-induced DNA damage in MM than in CM (p = 0.001), while tobacco exposure was indicated as a potential etiologic factor for MM. In accordance with low UV damage signatures, MM demonstrated an overall lower number of mutations compared to CM (6.5 mutations/Mb vs 14.8 mutations/Mb, p = 0.001), and less PD-L1 expression (p = 0.003). Compared to CM, which showed frequent mutations in known driver genes (BRAF 50.0%, NRAS 29.2%), MM displayed lower mutation frequencies (BRAF; 12.2%, p < 0.001, NRAS; 17.1%), and was significantly more enriched for triple wild-type (no mutations in BRAF, RAS, or NF1, 70.7% vs 25.0%, p < 0.001), IGF2R mutation (31.7% vs 6.3%, p = 0.002), and KIT mutation (9.8% vs 0%, p = 0.042). Of clinical relevance, presence of DCC mutations was significantly associated with poorer overall survival in MM (log-rank test, p = 0.02). Furthermore, mutational spectrum analysis distinguished primary anorectal MM from CM metastasized to the bowel (spectrum analysis p < 0.001, number of mutations p = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated a potential etiologic factor and driver mutation for MM and strongly suggested that MM initiation or progression involves distinct molecular-mechanisms from CM. This study also identified mutational signatures that are clinically relevant for MM treatment.

Wang H, Huang W, Yu X, et al.
Two prostate cancer‑associated polymorphisms in the 3'UTR of IGF1R influences prostate cancer susceptibility by affecting miRNA binding.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(1):512-524 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common malignant cancer in men worldwide. Numerous genetic variations have been associated with PCa, but their biological function remains unclear. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) inside 3' untranslated region (UTR) affect gene expression, with one essential mechanism being regulation by micro (mi)RNAs. Based on data from genome‑wide association study of the Consortium for Chinese Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics, rs1815009 and rs2684788 inside 3'UTR of insulin‑like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) presented significant genotype distribution between PCa and control samples. In the current study, targeting miRNAs were predicted using TargetScan and miRanda. The prediction was confirmed using a thermodynamic model for miRNA‑target interaction and luciferase reporter assays for miRNA binding inside IGF1R 3'UTR. Furthermore, data from public databases and miRNA overexpression further supported miRNAs function. The results suggested that miR‑133a and miR‑133b may bind near rs1815009, and miR‑455 near rs2684788, within IGF1R 3'UTR. Compared with normal tissues, miR‑133a, miR‑133b and miR‑455 exhibited significantly lower expression in PCa tissues in the public datasets analyzed. The results of the present study revealed an association between rs1815009, rs2684788 and PCa risk, which involves altered miRNA regulation and contributes to cancer susceptibility.

Wang L, Yao M, Zheng W, et al.
Insulin-like Growth Factor I Receptor: A Novel Target for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Gene Therapy.
Mini Rev Med Chem. 2019; 19(4):272-280 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis affects the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially in the abnormality of hepatic IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) or IGF-II expression as a key molecule in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the over-expression of hepatic IGFIR is associated with HCC progression with largely unknown mechanisms. The IGF-IR as one key molecule of the IGF signal pathway plays an important role in the hepatocyte malignant transformation. Attaching importance to IGF-IR might improve the prognostic or the therapeutic technique of HCC. This article reviews IGF-IR alteration during HCC development, and the effects of silencing IGF-IR gene by specific short hairpin RNA on the inhibition of cell proliferation in vitro or HCC xenograft growth in vivo to elucidate it as a novel molecular-targeted therapy for HCC.

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