Gene Summary

Gene:TPR; translocated promoter region, nuclear basket protein
Summary:This gene encodes a large coiled-coil protein that forms intranuclear filaments attached to the inner surface of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). The protein directly interacts with several components of the NPC. It is required for the nuclear export of mRNAs and some proteins. Oncogenic fusions of the 5' end of this gene with several different kinase genes occur in some neoplasias. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nucleoprotein TPR
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (22)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • NTRK1
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Messenger RNA
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Papillary Carcinoma
  • Cell Line
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Ukraine
  • Cancer DNA
  • Signal Transduction
  • Ubiquitin
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Protein Binding
  • Transfection
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Oncogenes
  • Chromosome 1
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Base Sequence
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins
  • c-MET
  • Sulfones
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Antineoplastic Agents
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TPR (cancer-related)

Ni W, Odunuga OO
UCS proteins: chaperones for myosin and co-chaperones for Hsp90.
Subcell Biochem. 2015; 78:133-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
The UCS (UNC-45/CRO1/She4p) family of proteins has emerged as chaperones that are specific for the folding, assembly and function of myosin. These proteins participate in various important myosin-dependent cellular processes that include myofibril organization and muscle functions, cell differentiation, cardiac and skeletal muscle development, cytokinesis and endocytosis. Mutations in the genes that code for UCS proteins cause serious defects in these actomyosin-based processes. Homologs of UCS proteins can be broadly divided into (1) animal UCS proteins, generally known as UNC-45 proteins, which contain an N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain in addition to the canonical UCS domain, and (2) fungal UCS proteins, which lack the TPR domain. Structurally, except for TPR domain, both sub-classes of UCS proteins comprise of several irregular armadillo (ARM) repeats that are divided into two-domain architecture: a combined central-neck domain and a C-terminal UCS domain. Structural analyses suggest that UNC-45 proteins form elongated oligomers that serve as scaffolds to recruit Hsp90 and/or Hsp70 to form a multi-protein chaperoning complex that assists myosin heads to fold and simultaneously organize them into myofibrils. Similarly, fungal UCS proteins may dimerize to promote folding of non-muscle myosins as well as determine their step size along actin filaments. These findings confirm UCS proteins as a new class of myosin-specific chaperones and co-chaperones for Hsp90. This chapter reviews the implications of the outcome of studies on these proteins in cellular processes such as muscle formation, and disease states such as myopathies and cancer.

Horibe T, Torisawa A, Kohno M, Kawakami K
Synergetic cytotoxic activity toward breast cancer cells enhanced by the combination of Antp-TPR hybrid peptide targeting Hsp90 and Hsp70-targeted peptide.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:615 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 and Hsp70 are indispensable for cell survival under conditions of stress. They bind to client proteins to assist in protein stabilization, translocation of polypeptides across the cell membrane, and recovery of proteins from aggregates in the cell. Therefore, these proteins have recently emerged as important targets in the treatment of cancer. We previously reported that the newly designed Antp-TPR hybrid peptide targeting Hsp90 induced cytotoxic activity to cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: To further improve the cytotoxic activity of Antp-TPR toward cancer cells, we investigated the effect of a Hsp70-targeted peptide, which was made cell-permeable by adding the polyarginine with a linker sequence, on the cytotoxic activity of Antp-TPR in breast cancer cell lines.
RESULTS: It was revealed that Antp-TPR in the presence of a Hsp70-targeted peptide induced effective cytotoxic activity toward breast cancer cells through the descrease of Hsp90 client proteins such as p53, Akt, and cRaf. Moreover, the combined treatment with these peptides did not induce the up-regulation of Hsp70 protein, as determined by western blotting, a promoter assay using a luminometer, and single-cell level imaging with the LV200 system, although a small-molecule inhibitor of Hsp90, 17-allylamino-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), did induce the up-regulation of this protein. We also found that treatment with Antp-TPR, Hsp70-targeted peptide, or a combination of the two did not induce an increase in the glutathione concentrations in the cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that targeting both Hsp90 and Hsp70 with Antp-TPR and Hsp70-targeted peptide is an attractive approach for selective cancer cell killing that might provide potent and selective therapeutic options for the treatment of cancer.

Kim SY, Kim JE, Park S, Kim HK
Molecular identification of a TPR-FGFR1 fusion transcript in an adult with myeloproliferative neoplasm, T-lymphoblastic lymphoma, and a t(1;8)(q25;p11.2).
Cancer Genet. 2014; 207(6):258-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
The 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome is an aggressive neoplasm associated with chromosomal abnormalities involving rearrangement of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene. We report herein a rare case of a t(1;8)(q25;p11.2) with a TPR-FGFR1 rearrangement, in which the patient presented with myeloproliferative neoplasm-like symptoms and T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. Sequence analysis revealed a fusion transcript with exon 22 of the TPR gene joined to exon 13 of the FGFR1 gene, which is a novel breakpoint for the TPR gene in the TPR-FGFR1 rearrangement.

Wang Y, Huang Y, Xu X, et al.
Expression of small glutamine-rich TPR-containing protein A (SGTA) in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas promotes tumor proliferation and reverses cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR).
Leuk Res. 2014; 38(8):955-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
The expression and biologic function of SGTA in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHL) was investigated in this study. Clinically, by immunohistochemistry analysis we detected SGTA expression in both reactive lymphoid tissues and NHL tissues. In addition, we also correlated high expression of SGTA with poor prognosis. Functionally, SGTA expression was positively related with cell proliferation and negative related with cell adhesion. Finally, SGTA knockdown induced adhesion-mediated drug resistance. Our finding supports a role of SGTA in NHL cell proliferation, adhesion and drug resistance, and it may pave the way for a novel therapeutic approach for CAM-DR in NHL.

Liu J, Xu D, Wang H, et al.
The subcellular distribution and function of MTA1 in cancer differentiation.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(13):5153-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The functions and mechanisms of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) in cancer progression are still unclear due to a lagged recognition of the subcellular localization. In the present study, using multiple molecular technologies we confirmed for the first time that MTA1 localizes to the nucleus, cytoplasm and nuclear envelope. MTA1 is primarily localized in the nucleus of normal adult tissues but in the cytoplasm of embryonic tissues. While in colon cancer, both distributions have been described. Further investigation revealed that MTA1 localizes on the nuclear envelope in a translocated promoter region (TPR)-dependent manner, while in the cytoplasm, MTA1 shows an obvious localization on microtubules. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic MTA1 are associated with cancer progression. However, these functions may be associated with different mechanisms because only nuclear MTA1 has been associated with cancer differentiation. Overexpression of MTA1 in HCT116 cells inhibited differentiation and promoted proliferation, whereas MTA1 knockdown resulted in cell differentiation and death. Theses results not only suggest that nuclear MTA1 is a good marker for cancer differentiation diagnosis and a potential target for the treatment of cancers but also reveal the necessity to differentially examine the functions of nuclear and cytoplasmic MTA1.

Choi YL, Lira ME, Hong M, et al.
A novel fusion of TPR and ALK in lung adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(4):563-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion is the most common mechanism for overexpression and activation in non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Several fusion partners of ALK have been reported, including echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4, TRK-fused gene, kinesin family member 5B, kinesin light chain 1 (KLC1), protein tyrosine phosphatase and nonreceptor type 3, and huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1).
METHODS AND RESULTS: A 60-year-old Korean man had a lung mass which was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with ALK overexpression. By using an Anchored Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay and sequencing, we found that tumor had a novel translocated promoter region (TPR)-ALK fusion. The fusion transcript was generated from an intact, in-frame fusion of TPR exon 15 and ALK exon 20 (t(1;2)(q31.1;p23)). The TPR-ALK fusion encodes a predicted protein of 1192 amino acids with a coiled-coil domain encoded by the 5'-2 of the TPR and juxtamembrane and kinase domains encoded by the 3'-end of the ALK.
CONCLUSIONS: The novel fusion gene and its protein TRP-ALK, harboring coiled-coil and kinase domains, could possess transforming potential and responses to treatment with ALK inhibitors. This case is the first report of TPR-ALK fusion transcript in clinical tumor samples and could provide a novel diagnostic and therapeutic candidate target for patients with cancer, including non-small-cell lung carcinoma.

Pomerleau V, Landry M, Bernier J, et al.
Met receptor-induced Grb2 or Shc signals both promote transformation of intestinal epithelial cells, albeit they are required for distinct oncogenic functions.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:240 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) contributes to the initiation and progression of intestinal-derived epithelial cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the roles of the proximal signaling molecules engaged by RTKs in different oncogenic functions of CRC remain unclear.
METHODS: Herein, the functional impact of expressing variant forms of the oncogenic Met receptor (Tpr-Met) that selectively recruit the adaptor proteins Grb2 or Shc was investigated in a model derived from normal intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). An RNA interference (RNAi) approach was used to define the requirement of Grb2 or Shc in Tpr-Met-transformed IEC-6 cells. Since Grb2 and Shc couple RTKs to the activation of the Ras/MEK/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways, Erk and Akt phosphorylation/activation states were monitored in transformed IEC-6 cells, and a pharmacological approach was employed to provide insights into the roles of these pathways in oncogenic processes evoked by activated Met, and downstream of Grb2 and Shc.
RESULTS: We show, for the first time, that constitutive activation of either Grb2 or Shc signals in IEC-6 cells, promotes morphological transformation associated with down-regulation of E-cadherin, as well as increased cell growth, loss of growth contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, and resistance to serum deprivation and anoikis. Oncogenic activation of Met was revealed to induce morphological transformation, E-cadherin down-regulation, and protection against anoikis by mechanisms dependent on Grb2, while Shc was shown to be partly required for enhanced cell growth. The coupling of activated Met to the Ras/MEK/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways, and the sustained engagement of Grb2 or Shc in IECs, was shown to trigger negative feedback, limiting the extent of activation of these pathways. Nonetheless, morphological alterations and E-cadherin down-regulation induced by the oncogenic Tpr-Met, and by Grb2 or Shc signals, were blocked by MEK, but not PI3K, inhibitors while the enhanced growth and resistance to anoikis induced by Tpr-Met were nearly abolished by co-treatment with both inhibitors.
CONCLUSION: Overall, these results identify Grb2 and Shc as central signaling effectors of Met-driven progression of intestinal epithelial-derived cancers. Notably, they suggest that Grb2 may represent a promising target for the design of novel CRC therapies.

Miao S, Wu K, Zhang B, et al.
Synuclein γ compromises spindle assembly checkpoint and renders resistance to antimicrotubule drugs.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(3):699-713 [PubMed] Related Publications
Defects in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) have been proposed to contribute to the chromosomal instability in human cancers. One of the major mechanisms underlying antimicrotubule drug (AMD) resistance involves acquired inactivation of SAC. Synuclein γ (SNCG), previously identified as a breast cancer-specific gene, is highly expressed in malignant cancer cells but not in normal epithelium. Here, we show that SNCG is sufficient to induce resistance to AMD-caused apoptosis in breast cancer cells and cancer xenografts. SNCG binds to spindle checkpoint kinase BubR1 and inhibits its kinase activity. Specifically, the C-terminal (Gln106-Asp127) of SNCG binds to the N-terminal TPR (tetratricopeptidelike folds) motif of BubR1. SNCG-BubR1 interaction induces a structure change of BubR1, attenuates its interaction with other key checkpoint proteins of Cdc20, and thus compromises SAC function. SNCG expression in breast cancers from patients with a neoadjuvant clinical trial showed that SNCG-positive tumors are resistant to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. These data show that SNCG renders AMD resistance by inhibiting BubR1 activity and attenuating SAC function.

Chan B, VanderLaan PA, Sukhatme VP
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase regulates tumor cell migration in vitro by regulating receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 439(2):247-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) is the third enzyme in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Recently, we reported that knockdown of 6PGD inhibited lung tumor growth in vitro and in a xenograft model in mice. In this study, we continued to examine the functional role of 6PGD in cancer. We show that 6PGD expression positively correlates with advancing stage of lung carcinoma. In search of functional signals related to 6PGD, we discovered that knockdown of 6PGD significantly inhibited phosphorylation of c-Met at tyrosine residues known to be critical for activity. This downregulation of c-Met phosphorylation correlated with inhibition of cell migration in vitro. Overexpression of a constitutively active c-Met specifically rescued the migration but not proliferation phenotype of 6PGD knockdown. Therefore, 6PGD appears to be required for efficient c-Met signaling and migration of tumor cells in vitro.

Guo X, Li X, Wang Y, et al.
Nicotine induces alteration of H3K27 demethylase UTX in kidney cancer cell.
Hum Exp Toxicol. 2014; 33(3):264-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cigarette smoking is one of the most important risk factors for kidney cancer, but the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. To examine the expression change of histone H3 on lysine 27 trimethylase (H3K27me3) demethylases ubiquitously transcribed TPR gene on the X chromosome (UTX) in kidney cancer cell line 786-O after nicotine treatment, quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis were carried out. These results showed that nicotine can increase UTX messenger RNA and protein levels and also decrease the content of H3K27me3. The decreased content of H3K27me3 may activate specific gene expression and lead to kidney cancer. Future investigation on nicotine induced UTX expression and its epigenetic effect would deepen our understanding on nicotine toxicity and carcinogenicity.

Trotta AP, Need EF, Selth LA, et al.
Knockdown of the cochaperone SGTA results in the suppression of androgen and PI3K/Akt signaling and inhibition of prostate cancer cell proliferation.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(12):2812-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Solid tumors have an increased reliance on Hsp70/Hsp90 molecular chaperones for proliferation, survival and maintenance of intracellular signaling systems. An underinvestigated component of the chaperone system is the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing cochaperone, which coordinates Hsp70/Hsp90 involvement on client proteins as well as having diverse individual actions. A potentially important cochaperone in prostate cancer (PCa) is small glutamine-rich TPR-containing protein alpha (SGTA), which interacts with the androgen receptor (AR) and other critical cancer-related client proteins. In this study, the authors used small interfering RNA coupled with genome-wide expression profiling to investigate the biological significance of SGTA in PCa and its influence on AR signaling. Knockdown of SGTA for 72 hr in PCa C4-2B cells significantly altered expression of >1,900 genes (58% decreased) and reduced cell proliferation (p < 0.05). The regulation of 35% of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) target genes was affected by SGTA knockdown, with gene-specific effects on basal or DHT-induced expression or both. Pathway analysis revealed a role for SGTA in p53, generic PCa and phosphoinositol kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways; the latter evident by a reduction in PI3K subunit p100β levels and decreased phosphorylated Akt. Immunohistochemical analysis of 64 primary advanced PCa samples showed a significant increase in the AR:SGTA ratio in cancerous lesions compared to patient-matched benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue (p < 0.02). This study not only provides insight into the biological actions of SGTA and its effect on genome-wide AR transcriptional activity and other therapeutically targeted intracellular signaling pathways but also provides evidence for PCa-specific alterations in SGTA expression.

Lynch JT, Somerville TD, Spencer GJ, et al.
TTC5 is required to prevent apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia stem cells.
Cell Death Dis. 2013; 4:e573 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Using a screening strategy, we identified the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motif protein, Tetratricopeptide repeat domain 5 (TTC5, also known as stress responsive activator of p300 or Strap) as required for the survival of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. TTC5 is a stress-inducible transcription cofactor known to interact directly with the histone acetyltransferase EP300 to augment the TP53 response. Knockdown (KD) of TTC5 induced apoptosis of both murine and human AML cells, with concomitant loss of clonogenic and leukemia-initiating potential; KD of EP300 elicited a similar phenotype. Consistent with the physical interaction of TTC5 and EP300, the onset of apoptosis following KD of either gene was preceded by reduced expression of BCL2 and increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes. Forced expression of BCL2 blocked apoptosis and partially rescued the clonogenic potential of AML cells following TTC5 KD. KD of both genes also led to the accumulation of MYC, an acetylation target of EP300, and the form of MYC that accumulated exhibited relative hypoacetylation at K148 and K157, residues targeted by EP300. In view of the ability of excess cellular MYC to sensitize cells to apoptosis, our data suggest a model whereby TTC5 and EP300 cooperate to prevent excessive accumulation of MYC in AML cells and their sensitization to cell death. They further reveal a hitherto unappreciated role for TTC5 in leukemic hematopoiesis.

Gandhi M, Evdokimova V, Nikiforov YE
Frequency of close positioning of chromosomal loci detected by FRET correlates with their participation in carcinogenic rearrangements in human cells.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012; 51(11):1037-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It has been well established that genes participating in oncogenic rearrangements are non-randomly positioned and frequently close to each other in human cell nuclei. However, the actual distance between these fusion partners has never been determined. The phenomenon of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is observed when a donor fluorophore is close (<10 nm) to transfer some of it energy to an acceptor fluorophore. The aim of this study was to validate the use of FRET on directly labeled DNA molecules to assess the frequency of positioning at <10 nm distances between genes known to be involved in rearrangement and to correlate it with their probability to undergo rearrangement. In the validation experiments, the frequency of FRET-sensitized emission (SE) was found to be 93-96% between probes for the immediately adjacent chromosomal regions as compared to 0.1-0.2% between probes for the random loci located on large linear separation. Further, we found that the frequency of FRET-SE between four pairs of genes that form rearrangements in thyroid cancer was 5% for RET and CCDC6, 4% for RET and NCOA4, 2% for BRAF and AKAP9, and 2% for NTRK1 and TPR. Moreover, the frequency with which FRET was observed showed strong correlation (r = 0.9871) with the prevalence of respective rearrangements in thyroid cancer. Our findings demonstrate that FRET can be used as a technique to analyze proximity between specific DNA regions and that the frequency of gene positioning at distances allowing FRET correlates with their probability to undergo chromosomal rearrangements.

Hsu YA, Lin HJ, Sheu JJ, et al.
A novel interaction between interferon-inducible protein p56 and ribosomal protein L15 in gastric cancer cells.
DNA Cell Biol. 2011; 30(9):671-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Type I interferons (IFNs) are potent inducers of antiviral and antiproliferative activities in vertebrates. IFNs cause activation of genes encoding antiviral proteins, such as p56 from the IFN-stimulated gene family. There are six tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs located at the N-terminal sequence of p56. Since TPR motifs are known to participate in protein-protein interactions, p56 may associate with various large protein complexes to modify their functions. Using a T7 phage display library, we identified ribosomal protein L15 (RPL15) as a novel interacting partner of p56. The p56-RPL15 interaction was confirmed by pull-down assays. Overexpression of p56 exhibited strong inhibition on the growth of RPL15-overexpressing cancer cells. Small interfering RNA targeting RPL15 not only reduced the growth rate of gastric cancer cells but also sensitized these cells to type I IFN-induced proliferative inhibition. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we also mapped the TPRs 1-4 of p56 as crucial domains to interact with RPL15. Taken together, our results demonstrated a novel interaction between p56 and RPL15. Differential regulation of p56 and RPL15 expression contributes to the antiproliferative capacity on gastric cancer cells, and further elucidation of their interaction may facilitate the development of new anticancer regimens.

Trivellin G, Korbonits M
AIP and its interacting partners.
J Endocrinol. 2011; 210(2):137-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene (AIP) predispose to young-onset pituitary tumours, most often to GH- or prolactin-secreting adenomas, and most of these patients belong to familial isolated pituitary adenoma families. The molecular pathway initiated by the loss-of-function AIP mutations leading to pituitary tumour formation is unknown. AIP, a co-chaperone of heat-shock protein 90 and various nuclear receptors, belongs to the family of tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing proteins. It has three antiparallel α-helix motifs (TPR domains) that mediate the interaction of AIP with most of its partners. In this review, we summarise the known interactions of AIP described so far. The identification of AIP partners and the understanding of how AIP interacts with these proteins might help to explain the specific phenotype of the families with heterozygous AIP mutations, to gain deeper insight into the pathological process of pituitary tumour formation and to identify novel drug targets.

Bellon M, Baydoun HH, Yao Y, Nicot C
HTLV-I Tax-dependent and -independent events associated with immortalization of human primary T lymphocytes.
Blood. 2010; 115(12):2441-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated malignancies are seen in a small percentage of infected persons. Although in vitro immortalization by HTLV-I virus is very efficient, we report that Tax has poor oncogenic activity in human primary T cells and that immortalization by Tax is rare. Sustained telomerase activity represents one of the oncogenic steps required for Tax-mediated immortalization. Tax expression was required for the growth of primary T cells, but was not sufficient to propel T cells into cell cycle in the absence of exogenous interleukin-2 (IL-2). Tax was sufficient to activate the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway as shown by down regulation of Src homology phosphatase-1 and increased phosphorylation of Akt. We also found disruption of putative tumor suppressors IL-16 and translocated promoter region (TPR) in Tax-immortalized and HTLV-I-transformed cell lines. Our results confirmed previous observations that Tax activates the anaphase-promoting complex. However, Tax did not affect the mitotic spindle checkpoint, which was also functional in HTLV-I-transformed cells. These data provide a better understanding of Tax functions in human T cells, and highlight the limitations of Tax, suggesting that other viral proteins are key to T-cell transformation and development of adult T-cell leukemia.

Periyasamy S, Hinds T, Shemshedini L, et al.
FKBP51 and Cyp40 are positive regulators of androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell growth and the targets of FK506 and cyclosporin A.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(11):1691-701 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) growth is dependent on androgens and on the androgen receptor (AR), which acts by modulating gene transcription. Tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) proteins (FKBP52, FKBP51 and Cyp40) interact with AR in PCa cells, suggesting roles in AR-mediated gene transcription and cell growth. We report here that FKBP51 and Cyp40, but not FKBP52, are significantly elevated in PCa tissues and in androgen-dependent (AD) and androgen-independent (AI) cell lines. Overexpression of FKBP51 in AD LNCaP cells increased AR transcriptional activity in the presence and absence of androgen, whereas siRNA knockdown of FKBP51 dramatically decreased AD gene transcription and proliferation. Knockdown of Cyp40 also inhibited androgen-mediated transcription and growth in LNCaP cells. However, disruption of FKBP51 and Cyp40 in AI C4-2 cells caused only a small reduction in proliferation, indicating that Cyp40 and FKBP51 predominantly regulate AD cell proliferation. Under knockdown conditions, the inhibitory effects of TPR ligands, cyclosporine A (CsA) and FK506, on AR activity were not observed, indicating that Cyp40 and FKBP51 are the targets of CsA and FK506, respectively. Our findings show that FKBP51 and Cyp40 are positive regulators of AR that can be selectively targeted by CsA and FK506 to achieve inhibition of androgen-induced cell proliferation. These proteins and their cognate ligands thus provide new strategies in the treatment of PCa.

Greco A, Miranda C, Pierotti MA
Rearrangements of NTRK1 gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010; 321(1):44-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
TRK oncogenes are observed in a consistent fraction of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); they arise from the fusion of the 3' terminal sequences of the NTRK1/NGF receptor gene with 5' terminal sequences of various activating genes, such as TPM3, TPR and TFG. TRK oncoproteins display constitutive tyrosine-kinase activity, leading to in vitro and in vivo transformation. In this review studies performed during the last 20 years will be summarized. The following topics will be illustrated: (a) frequency of TRK oncogenes and correlation with radiation and tumor histopathological features; (b) molecular mechanisms underlying NTRK1 oncogenic rearrangements; (c) molecular and biochemical characterization of TRK oncoproteins, and their mechanism of action; (d) role of activating sequences in the activation of TRK oncoproteins.

Mo WJ, Fu XP, Han XT, et al.
A stochastic model for identifying differential gene pair co-expression patterns in prostate cancer progression.
BMC Genomics. 2009; 10:340 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The identification of gene differential co-expression patterns between cancer stages is a newly developing method to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Most researches of this subject lack an algorithm useful for performing a statistical significance assessment involving cancer progression. Lacking this specific algorithm is apparently absent in identifying precise gene pairs correlating to cancer progression.
RESULTS: In this investigation we studied gene pair co-expression change by using a stochastic process model for approximating the underlying dynamic procedure of the co-expression change during cancer progression. Also, we presented a novel analytical method named 'Stochastic process model for Identifying differentially co-expressed Gene pair' (SIG method). This method has been applied to two well known prostate cancer data sets: hormone sensitive versus hormone resistant, and healthy versus cancerous. From these data sets, 428,582 gene pairs and 303,992 gene pairs were identified respectively. Afterwards, we used two different current statistical methods to the same data sets, which were developed to identify gene pair differential co-expression and did not consider cancer progression in algorithm. We then compared these results from three different perspectives: progression analysis, gene pair identification effectiveness analysis, and pathway enrichment analysis. Statistical methods were used to quantify the quality and performance of these different perspectives. They included: Re-identification Scale (RS) and Progression Score (PS) in progression analysis, True Positive Rate (TPR) in gene pair analysis, and Pathway Enrichment Score (PES) in pathway analysis. Our results show small values of RS and large values of PS, TPR, and PES; thus, suggesting that gene pairs identified by the SIG method are highly correlated with cancer progression, and highly enriched in disease-specific pathways. From this research, several gene interaction networks inferred could provide clues for the mechanism of prostate cancer progression.
CONCLUSION: The SIG method reliably identifies cancer progression correlated gene pairs, and performs well both in gene pair ontology analysis and in pathway enrichment analysis. This method provides an effective means of understanding the molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis by appropriately tracking down the process of cancer progression.

Xu S, Powers MA
Nuclear pore proteins and cancer.
Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009; 20(5):620-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of macromolecules, a highly specific and tightly regulated process, occurs exclusively through the nuclear pore complex. This immense structure is assembled from approximately 30 proteins, termed nucleoporins. Here we discuss the four nucleoporins that have been linked to cancers, either through elevated expression in tumors (Nup88) or through involvement in chromosomal translocations that encode chimeric fusion proteins (Tpr, Nup98, Nup214). In each case we consider the normal function of the nucleoporin and its translocation partners, as well as what is known about their mechanistic contributions to carcinogenesis, particularly in leukemias. Studies of nucleoporin-linked cancers have revealed novel mechanisms of oncogenesis and in the future, should continue to expand our understanding of cancer biology.

Chen Y, Zhao M, Wang S, et al.
A novel role for DYX1C1, a chaperone protein for both Hsp70 and Hsp90, in breast cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2009; 135(9):1265-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: With three consecutive tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs at its C-terminus essential for neuronal migration, and a p23 domain at its N-terminus, DYX1C1 was the first gene proposed to have a role in developmental dyslexia. In this study, we attempted to identify the potential interaction of DYX1C1 and heat shock protein, and the role of DYX1C1 in breast cancer.
MAIN METHODS: GST pull-down, a yeast two-hybrid system, RT-PCR, site-directed mutagenesis approach.
KEY FINDINGS: Our study initially confirmed DYX1C1, a dyslexia related protein, could interact with Hsp70 and Hsp90 via GST pull-down and a yeast two-hybrid system. And we verified that EEVD, the C-terminal residues of DYX1C1, is responsible for the identified association. Further, DYX1C1 mRNA was significantly overexpressed in malignant breast tumor, linking with the up-regulated expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90.
SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that DYX1C1 is a novel Hsp70 and Hsp90-interacting co-chaperone protein and its expression is associated with malignancy.

Boccalatte FE, Voena C, Riganti C, et al.
The enzymatic activity of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase is enhanced by NPM-ALK: new insights in ALK-mediated pathogenesis and the treatment of ALCL.
Blood. 2009; 113(12):2776-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma represents a subset of neoplasms caused by translocations that juxtapose the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) to dimerization partners. The constitutive activation of ALK fusion proteins leads to cellular transformation through a complex signaling network. To elucidate the ALK pathways sustaining lymphomagenesis and tumor maintenance, we analyzed the tyrosine-kinase protein profiles of ALK-positive cell lines using 2 complementary proteomic-based approaches, taking advantage of a specific ALK RNA interference (RNAi) or cell-permeable inhibitors. A well-defined set of ALK-associated tyrosine phosphopeptides, including metabolic enzymes, kinases, ribosomal and cytoskeletal proteins, was identified. Validation studies confirmed that vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase (ATIC) associated with nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK, and their phosphorylation required ALK activity. ATIC phosphorylation was documented in cell lines and primary tumors carrying ALK proteins and other tyrosine kinases, including TPR-Met and wild type c-Met. Functional analyses revealed that ALK-mediated ATIC phosphorylation enhanced its enzymatic activity, dampening the methotrexate-mediated transformylase activity inhibition. These findings demonstrate that proteomic approaches in well-controlled experimental settings allow the definition of informative proteomic profiles and the discovery of novel ALK downstream players that contribute to the maintenance of the neoplastic phenotype. Prediction of tumor responses to methotrexate may justify specific molecular-based chemotherapy.

Zhang Y, Kaplan-Lefko PJ, Rex K, et al.
Identification of a novel recepteur d'origine nantais/c-met small-molecule kinase inhibitor with antitumor activity in vivo.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(16):6680-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) is a receptor tyrosine kinase closely related to c-Met. Both receptors are involved in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and there is evidence that both are deregulated in cancer. Receptor overexpression has been most frequently described, but other mechanisms can lead to the oncogenic activation of RON and c-Met. They include activating mutations or gene amplification for c-Met and constitutively active splicing variants for RON. We identified a novel inhibitor of RON and c-Met, compound I, and characterized its in vitro and in vivo activities. Compound I selectively and potently inhibited the kinase activity of RON and c-Met with IC(50)s of 9 and 4 nmol/L, respectively. Compound I inhibited hepatocyte growth factor-mediated and macrophage-stimulating protein-mediated signaling and cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. Compound I was tested in vivo in xenograft models that either were dependent on c-Met or expressed a constitutively active form of RON (RONDelta160 in HT-29). Compound I caused complete tumor growth inhibition in NIH3T3 TPR-Met and U-87 MG xenografts but showed only partial inhibition in HT-29 xenografts. The effect of compound I in HT-29 xenografts is consistent with the expression of the activating b-Raf V600E mutation, which activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway downstream of RON. Importantly, tumor growth inhibition correlated with the inhibition of c-Met-dependent and RON-dependent signaling in tumors. Taken together, our results suggest that a small-molecule dual inhibitor of RON/c-Met has the potential to inhibit tumor growth and could therefore be useful for the treatment of patients with cancers where RON and/or c-Met are activated.

Cao S, Ho GH, Lin VC
Tetratricopeptide repeat domain 9A is an interacting protein for tropomyosin Tm5NM-1.
BMC Cancer. 2008; 8:231 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tetratricopeptide repeat domain 9A (TTC9A) protein is a recently identified protein which contains three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) on its C-terminus. In our previous studies, we have shown that TTC9A was a hormonally-regulated gene in breast cancer cells. In this study, we found that TTC9A was over-expressed in breast cancer tissues compared with the adjacent controls (P < 0.00001), suggesting it might be involved in the breast cancer development process. The aim of the current study was to further elucidate the function of TTC9A.
METHODS: Breast samples from 25 patients including the malignant breast tissues and the adjacent normal tissues were processed for Southern blot analysis. Yeast-two-hybrid assay, GST pull-down assay and co-immunoprecipitation were used to identify and verify the interaction between TTC9A and other proteins.
RESULTS: Tropomyosin Tm5NM-1 was identified as one of the TTC9A partner proteins. The interaction between TTC9A and Tm5NM-1 was further confirmed by GST pull-down assay and co-immunoprecipitation in mammalian cells. TTC9A domains required for the interaction were also characterized in this study. The results suggested that the first TPR domain and the linker fragment between the first two TPR domains of TTC9A were important for the interaction with Tm5NM-1 and the second and the third TPR might play an inhibitory role.
CONCLUSION: Since the primary function of tropomyosin is to stabilize actin filament, its interaction with TTC9A may play a role in cell shape and motility. In our previous results, we have found that progesterone-induced TTC9A expression was associated with increased cell motility and cell spreading. We speculate that TTC9A acts as a chaperone protein to facilitate the function of tropomyosins in stabilizing microfilament and it may play a role in cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

Karakoula K, Suarez-Merino B, Ward S, et al.
Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of pediatric ependymomas identifies novel candidate genes including TPR at 1q25 and CHIBBY at 22q12-q13.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2008; 47(11):1005-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of chromosome 22 and gain of 1q are the most frequent genomic aberrations in ependymomas, indicating that genes mapping to these regions are critical in their pathogenesis. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we measured relative copy numbers of 10 genes mapping to 22q12.3-q13.33 and 10 genes at 1q21-32 in a series of 47 pediatric intracranial ependymomas. Loss of one or more of the genes on 22 was detected in 81% of cases, with RAC2 and C22ORF2 at 22q12-q13.1 being deleted most frequently in 38% and 32% of ependymoma samples, respectively. Combined analysis of quantitative-PCR with methylation-specific PCR and bisulphite sequencing revealed a high rate (>60% ependymoma) of transcriptional inactivation of C22ORF2, indicating its potential importance in the development of pediatric ependymomas. Increase of relative copy numbers of at least one gene on 1q were detected in 61% of cases, with TPR at 1q25 displaying relative copy number gains in 38% of cases. Patient age was identified as a significant adverse prognostic factor, as a significantly shorter overall survival time (P = 0.0056) was observed in patients <2 years of age compared with patients who were >2 years of age. Loss of RAC2 at 22q13 or amplification of TPR at 1q25 was significantly associated with shorter overall survival in these younger patients (P = 0.0492 and P = < 0.0001, respectively). This study identifies candidate target genes within 1q and 22q that are potentially important in the pathogenesis of intracranial pediatric ependymomas.

Liu Q, Gao J, Chen X, et al.
HBP21: a novel member of TPR motif family, as a potential chaperone of heat shock protein 70 in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and breast cancer.
Mol Biotechnol. 2008; 40(3):231-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
A large number of tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing proteins have been shown to interact with the C-terminal domain of the 70 kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp70), especially those with three consecutive TPR motifs. The TPR motifs in these proteins are necessary and sufficient for mediating the interaction with Hsp70. Here, we investigate HBP21, a novel human protein of unknown function having three tandem TPR motifs predicted by computational sequence analysis. We confirmed the high expression of HBP21 in breast cancer and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) proliferative membrane and examined whether HBP21 could interact with Hsp70 using a yeast two-hybrid system and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of Hsp70 C-terminal residues EEVD and PTIEEVD for interaction with TPR-containing proteins. Here, we tested an assortment of truncation and amino acid substitution mutants of Hsp70 to determine their ability to bind to HBP21 using a yeast two-hybrid system. The newly discovered interaction between HBP21 and Hsp70 along with observations from other studies leads to our hypothesis that HBP21 may be involved in the inhibition of progression and metastasis of tumor cells.

Accornero P, Lattanzio G, Mangano T, et al.
An in vivo model of Met-driven lymphoma as a tool to explore the therapeutic potential of Met inhibitors.
Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14(7):2220-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Met, the tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor, is frequently deregulated in human cancer. Recent evidence indicates that Met amplification may confer resistance to treatments directed toward other receptor tyrosine kinases. Thus, there is a need to develop Met inhibitors into therapeutic tools, to be used alone or in combination with other molecularly targeted drugs. Preclinical validation of Met inhibitors has thus far been done in nude mice bearing cancer cells xenografts. A far superior model would be a transgenic line developing spontaneous Met-driven tumors with high penetrance and short latency.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To this end, we introduced into the mouse genome TPR-MET, the oncogenic form of MET. The Tpr-Met protein ensures deregulation of Met signaling because dimerization motifs in the Tpr moiety cause ligand-independent activation of the Met kinase.
RESULTS: Here, we describe a TPR-MET transgenic line that develops thymic T-cell lymphoma with full penetrance and very short latency. In the tumors, Tpr-Met and its effectors were phosphorylated. Treatment of tumor-derived T lymphocytes with the selective Met inhibitor PHA-665752 at nanomolar concentrations abolished phosphorylation of Met and downstream effectors and led to caspase-mediated apoptosis. I.v. administration of PHA-665752 to transgenic mice bearing lymphomas in exponential growth phase led to a significant decrease in tumor growth and, in some cases, to tumor regression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our transgenic line, which within 2 months reliably develops Tpr-Met-driven T-cell lymphoma, represents a valuable tool to explore the efficacy and therapeutic potential of Met kinase inhibitors as anticancer drugs.

Crevel G, Bennett D, Cotterill S
The human TPR protein TTC4 is a putative Hsp90 co-chaperone which interacts with CDC6 and shows alterations in transformed cells.
PLoS One. 2008; 3(3):e0001737 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The human TTC4 protein is a TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) motif-containing protein. The gene was originally identified as being localized in a genomic region linked to breast cancer and subsequent studies on melanoma cell lines revealed point mutations in the TTC4 protein that may be associated with the progression of malignant melanoma.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we show that TTC4 is a nucleoplasmic protein which interacts with HSP90 and HSP70, and also with the replication protein CDC6. It has significant structural and functional similarities with a previously characterised Drosophila protein Dpit47. We show that TTC4 protein levels are raised in malignant melanoma cell lines compared to melanocytes. We also see increased TTC4 expression in a variety of tumour lines derived from other tissues. In addition we show that TTC4 proteins bearing some of the mutations previously identified from patient samples lose their interaction with the CDC6 protein.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these results and our previous work with the Drosophila Dpit47 protein we suggest that TTC4 is an HSP90 co-chaperone protein which forms a link between HSP90 chaperone activity and DNA replication. We further suggest that the loss of the interaction with CDC6 or with additional client proteins could provide one route through which TTC4 could influence malignant development of cells.

Koldehoff M, Zakrzewski JL, Klein-Hitpass L, et al.
Gene profiling of growth factor independence 1B gene (Gfi-1B) in leukemic cells.
Int J Hematol. 2008; 87(1):39-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the molecular effects of growth factor independence 1B (Gfi-1B), a transcription factor essential for the development of hematopoietic cells and differentiation of erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages, the naturally Gfi-1B overexpressing cell line K562 was cultured in the presence of Gfi-1B target-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). SiRNA treatment significantly knocked down Gfi-1B expression with an efficiency of nearly 90%. Analysis of the siRNA silencing protocol by colony-forming units ensured that it was not cytotoxic. Samples from Gfi-1B overexpressing cells and cells with knocked-down Gfi-1B were analyzed by oligonucleotide microarray technology and based upon rigorous statistical analysis of the data; relevant genes were chosen for confirmation by reserve transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, including MYC/MYCBP and CDKN1A. Interestingly, transcripts within components of the signalling cascade of immune cells (PLD1, LAMP1, HSP90, IL6ST), of the tyrosine kinase pathway (TPR, RAC3) and of the transcription factors (RAC3, CEP290, JEM-1, ATR, MYC, SMC3, RARA, RBBP6) were found to be differentially expressed in Gfi-1B overexpressing cells compared to controls. Individual genes such as ZDHHC17, DMXL1, ZNF292 were found to be upregulated in Gfi-1B overexpressing cells. In addition, down-regulated transcripts showed cell signaling transcripts for several chemokine gene members including GNAL, CXCL5, GNL3L, GPR65, TMEM30, BCL11B and transcription factors (GTF2H3, ATXN3). In conclusion, several essential cell signalling factors, as well as transcriptional and post-translational regulation genes were differentially expressed in cells that overexpressed Gfi-1B compared to control cells with knocked-down Gfi-1B. Our data indicate that Gfi-1B signalling is important for commitment and maturation of hematopoietic cell populations.

Lee S, Bang S, Song K, Lee I
Differential expression in normal-adenoma-carcinoma sequence suggests complex molecular carcinogenesis in colon.
Oncol Rep. 2006; 16(4):747-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
The majority of colon cancers develop from pre-existing adenomas. We analyzed the expression profiles in the sequence of normal colon crypts, adenomas and early-stage carcinomas using microdissected cells from tubular adenomas with foci of malignant transformation. Differentially expressed genes were detected between normal-adenoma and adenoma-carcinoma, and were grouped according to the patterns of expression changes in the sequence. Down-regulated genes in the sequence included PLA2G2A, TSPAN1, PDCD4, FCGBP, AATK, EPLIN, FABP1, AGR2, MTUS1, TSC1, galectin 4 and MT1F. PLA2G2A has been shown to suppress colon tumorigenesis in mice, but the pathobiological role in humans has been controversial. Our data showed continuous down-regulation of PLA2G2A in the sequence supporting an implication in human colon cancer. Tumor suppressor and/ or proapoptotic activities have also been reported in other genes. Up-regulated genes included ribosomal proteins, IER3 and TPR. TGF-beta2 and matrix metalloproteinase 23B were up-regulated in carcinoma but not in adenoma, supporting the pathobiological roles in malignant transformation. Differentially expressed genes partly coincided with those in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of the stomach, which was published previously, suggesting a partial overlap between the adenoma-carcinoma sequences of the colon and stomach.

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