Gene Summary

Gene:TPR; translocated promoter region, nuclear basket protein
Summary:This gene encodes a large coiled-coil protein that forms intranuclear filaments attached to the inner surface of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). The protein directly interacts with several components of the NPC. It is required for the nuclear export of mRNAs and some proteins. Oncogenic fusions of the 5' end of this gene with several different kinase genes occur in some neoplasias. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nucleoprotein TPR
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (22)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 1
  • Base Sequence
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Mutation
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Cell Line
  • Western Blotting
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Transfection
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Adolescents
  • Messenger RNA
  • Ubiquitin
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • c-MET
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Sulfones
  • Oncogenes
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Ukraine
  • Carcinoma
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • NTRK1
  • Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins
  • Protein Binding
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Papillary Carcinoma
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TPR (cancer-related)

Wang Q, Yan R, Pinnell N, et al.
Stage-specific roles for Zmiz1 in Notch-dependent steps of early T-cell development.
Blood. 2018; 132(12):1279-1292 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
Notch1 signaling must elevate to high levels in order to drive the proliferation of CD4

Yang XM, Cao XY, He P, et al.
Overexpression of Rac GTPase Activating Protein 1 Contributes to Proliferation of Cancer Cells by Reducing Hippo Signaling to Promote Cytokinesis.
Gastroenterology. 2018; 155(4):1233-1249.e22 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Agents designed to block or alter cytokinesis can kill or stop proliferation of cancer cells. We aimed to identify cytokinesis-related proteins that are overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and might be targeted to slow liver tumor growth.
METHODS: Using the Oncomine database, we compared the gene expression patterns in 16 cancer microarray datasets and assessed gene enrichment sets using gene ontology. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of an HCC tissue microarray and identified changes in protein levels that are associated with patient survival times. Candidate genes were overexpressed or knocked down with small hairpin RNAs in SMMC7721, MHCC97H, or HCCLM3 cell lines; we analyzed their proliferation, viability, and clone-formation ability and their growth as subcutaneous or orthotopic xenograft tumors in mice. We performed microarray analyses to identify alterations in signaling pathways and immunoblot and immunofluorescence assays to detect and localize proteins in tissues. Yeast 2-hybrid screens and mass spectrometry combined with co-immunoprecipitation experiments were used to identify binding proteins. Protein interactions were validated with co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter luciferase activity, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to identify factors that regulate transcription of specific genes.
RESULTS: The genes that were most frequently overexpressed in different types of cancer cells were involved in cell division processes. We identified 3 cytokinesis-regulatory proteins among the 10 genes most frequently overexpressed by all cancer cell types. Rac GTPase activating protein 1 (RACGAP1) was the cytokinesis-regulatory protein that was most highly overexpressed in multiple cancers. Increased expression of RACGAP1 in tumor tissues was associated with shorter survival times of patients with cancer. Knockdown of RACGAP1 in HCC cells induced cytokinesis failure and cell apoptosis. In microarray analyses, we found knockdown of RACGAP1 in SMMC7721 cells to reduce expression of genes regulated by yes-associated protein (YAP) and WW domain containing transcription regulator 1 (WWTR1 or TAZ). RACGAP1 reduced activation of the Hippo pathway in HCC cells by increasing activity of RhoA and polymerization of filamentous actin. Knockdown of YAP reduced phosphorylation of RACGAP1 and redistribution at the anaphase central spindle. We found transcription of the translocated promoter region, nuclear basket protein (TPR) to be regulated by YAP and coordinately expressed with RACGAP1 to promote proliferation of HCC cells. TPR redistributed upon nuclear envelope breakdown and formed complexes with RACGAP1 during mitosis. Knockdown of TPR in HCC cells reduced phosphorylation of RACGAP1 by aurora kinase B and impaired their redistribution at the central spindle during cytokinesis. STAT3 activated transcription of RACGAP in HCC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of gene expression patterns of multiple tumor types, we found RACGAP1 to be frequently overexpressed, which is associated with shorter survival times of patients. RACGAP1 promotes proliferation of HCC cells by reducing activation of the Hippo and YAP pathways and promoting cytokinesis in coordination with TPR.

Chiang S, Cotzia P, Hyman DM, et al.
NTRK Fusions Define a Novel Uterine Sarcoma Subtype With Features of Fibrosarcoma.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(6):791-798 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) inhibitors have shown high response rates in patients with tumors harboring NTRK fusions. We identified 4 NTRK fusion-positive uterine sarcomas that should be distinguished from leiomyosarcoma and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. NTRK rearrangements were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or targeted RNA or DNA sequencing in 4 undifferentiated uterine sarcomas with spindle cell morphology. Because of histologic overlap with leiomyosarcoma, TrkA and pan-Trk immunohistochemistry was performed in 97 uterine leiomyosarcomas. NTRK1 and NTRK3 FISH was performed on tumors with TrkA or pan-Trk staining. We also performed whole transcriptome RNA sequencing of a leiomyosarcoma with TrkA expression and targeted RNA sequencing of 2 additional undifferentiated uterine sarcomas. FISH and/or targeted RNA or DNA sequencing in the study group showed TPM3-NTRK1, LMNA-NTRK1, RBPMS-NTRK3, and TPR-NTRK1 fusions. All tumors were composed of fascicles of spindle cells. Mitotic index was 7 to 30 mitotic figures per 10 high power fields; tumor necrosis was seen in 2 tumors. Desmin, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor were negative in all tumors, while pan-Trk was expressed in all tumors with concurrent TrkA staining in 3 of them. TrkA and/or pan-Trk staining was also seen in 6 leiomyosarcomas, but these tumors lacked NTRK fusions or alternative isoforms by FISH or whole transcriptome sequencing. No fusions were detected in 2 undifferentiated uterine sarcomas. NTRK fusion-positive uterine spindle cell sarcomas constitute a novel tumor type with features of fibrosarcoma; patients with these tumors may benefit from Trk inhibition. TrkA and pan-Trk expression in leiomyosarcomas is rare and does not correlate with NTRK rearrangement.

Du X, Shao Y, Qin HF, et al.
ALK-rearrangement in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Thorac Cancer. 2018; 9(4):423-430 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
The ALK gene encodes a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor. ALK is physiologically expressed in the nervous system during embryogenesis, but its expression decreases postnatally. ALK first emerged in the field of oncology in 1994 when it was identified to fuse to NPM1 in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Since then, ALK has been associated with other types of cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). More than 19 different ALK fusion partners have been discovered in NSCLC, including EML4, KIF5B, KLC1, and TPR. Most of these ALK fusions in NSCLC patients respond well to the ALK inhibitor, crizotinib. In this paper, we reviewed fusion partner genes with ALK, detection methods for ALK-rearrangement (ALK-R), and the ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, crizotinib, used in NSCLC patients.

Li SH, Lu HI, Huang WT, et al.
The Prognostic Significance of Histone Demethylase UTX in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(1) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
The dysregulation of the ubiquitously transcribed TPR gene on the X chromosome (

Iyama K, Matsuse M, Mitsutake N, et al.
Identification of Three Novel Fusion Oncogenes, SQSTM1/NTRK3, AFAP1L2/RET, and PPFIBP2/RET, in Thyroid Cancers of Young Patients in Fukushima.
Thyroid. 2017; 27(6):811-818 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Among 63 postoperative specimens of childhood and adolescent PTCs, which had been discovered by the thyroid ultrasound screening program in Fukushima, nine samples without prevalent known oncogenes, BRAF
RESULTS: Of the above nine samples, five samples were suspected to harbor a fusion, and using subsequent 5' rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE), two already reported fusion oncogenes, STRN/ALK and TPR/NTRK1, and three novel fusions, SQSTM1/NTRK3, AFAP1L2/RET, and PPFIBP2/RET, were identified. Functional analyses of these three chimeric genes were performed, and their transforming abilities were confirmed through the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK).
CONCLUSIONS: Three novel fusion oncogenes have been identified in young PTC patients in Fukushima, suggesting that rare fusions may be present among the cases negative for known oncogenes in this age group and that such rearrangements can play a significant role in thyroid carcinogenesis.

Li H, Jiang X, Zhu S, Sui L
Identification of personalized dysregulated pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Pathol Res Pract. 2017; 213(4):327-332 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver malignancy, and ranks the fifth most prevalent malignant tumors worldwide. In general, HCC are detected until the disease is at an advanced stage and may miss the best chance for treatment. Thus, elucidating the molecular mechanisms is critical to clinical diagnosis and treatment for HCC. The purpose of this study was to identify dysregulated pathways of great potential functional relevance in the progression of HCC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microarray data of 72 pairs of tumor and matched non-tumor surrounding tissues of HCC were transformed to gene expression data. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) between patients and normal controls were identified using Linear Models for Microarray Analysis. Personalized dysregulated pathways were identified using individualized pathway aberrance score module.
RESULTS: 169 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were obtained with |logFC|≥1.5 and P≤0.01. 749 dysregulated pathways were obtained with P≤0.01 in pathway statistics, and there were 93 DEG overlapped in the dysregulated pathways. After performing normal distribution analysis, 302 pathways with the aberrance probability≥0.5 were identified. By ranking pathway with aberrance probability, the top 20 pathways were obtained. Only three DEGs (TUBA1C, TPR, CDC20) were involved in the top 20 pathways.
CONCLUSION: These personalized dysregulated pathways and overlapped genes may give new insights into the underlying biological mechanisms in the progression of HCC. Particular attention can be focused on them for further research.

Won KJ, Im JY, Kim BK, et al.
Stability of the cancer target DDIAS is regulated by the CHIP/HSP70 pathway in lung cancer cells.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(1):e2554 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
DNA damage-induced apoptosis suppressor (DDIAS) rescues lung cancer cells from apoptosis in response to DNA damage. DDIAS is transcriptionally activated by NFATc1 and EGF-mediated ERK5/MEF2B, leading to cisplatin resistance and cell invasion. Therefore, DDIAS is suggested as a therapeutic target for lung cancer. Here, we report that DDIAS stability is regulated by E3 U-box ubiquitin ligase carboxyl terminus of HSP70-interacting protein (CHIP)-mediated proteasomal degradation. We first isolated CHIP as an interacting partner of DDIAS by yeast two-hybrid screening. CHIP physically associated with both the N- and C-terminal regions of DDIAS, targeting it for proteasomal degradation and reducing the DDIAS half-life. CHIP overexpression analyses indicated that the tetratrico peptide repeat (TPR) domain and the U-box are required for DDIAS ubiquitination. It is likely that HSP70-bound DDIAS is recruited to the CHIP E3 ligase via the TPR domain, suggesting DDIAS as a client protein of HSP70. In addition, CHIP overexpression in lung cancer cells expressing high DDIAS levels induced significant growth inhibition by enhancing DDIAS degradation. Furthermore, simultaneous CHIP overexpression and DNA damage agent treatment caused a substantial increase in the apoptosis of lung cancer cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that the stability of the DDIAS protein is regulated by CHIP/HSP70-mediated proteasomal degradation and that CHIP overexpression stimulates the apoptosis of lung cancer cells in response to DNA-damaging agents.

Lallous N, Leblanc E, Munuganti RS, et al.
Targeting Binding Function-3 of the Androgen Receptor Blocks Its Co-Chaperone Interactions, Nuclear Translocation, and Activation.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(12):2936-2945 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
The development of new antiandrogens, such as enzalutamide, or androgen synthesis inhibitors like abiraterone has improved patient outcomes in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. However, due to the development of drug resistance and tumor cell survival, a majority of these patients progress to the refractory state of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Thus, newer therapeutic agents and a better understanding of their mode of action are needed for treating these CRPC patients. We demonstrated previously that targeting the Binding Function 3 (BF3) pocket of the androgen receptor (AR) has great potential for treating patients with CRPC. Here, we explore the functional activity of this site by using an advanced BF3-specific small molecule (VPC-13566) that was previously reported to effectively inhibit AR transcriptional activity and to displace the BAG1L peptide from the BF3 pocket. We show that VPC-13566 inhibits the growth of various prostate cancer cell lines, including an enzalutamide-resistant cell line, and reduces the growth of AR-dependent prostate cancer xenograft tumors in mice. Importantly, we have used this AR-BF3 binder as a chemical probe and identified a co-chaperone, small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing protein alpha (SGTA), as an important AR-BF3 interacting partner. Furthermore, we used this AR-BF3-directed small molecule to demonstrate that inhibition of AR activity through the BF3 functionality can block translocation of the receptor into the nucleus. These findings suggest that targeting the BF3 site has potential clinical importance, especially in the treatment of CRPC and provide novel insights on the functional role of the BF3 pocket. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 2936-45. ©2016 AACR.

Agaram NP, Zhang L, Sung YS, et al.
Recurrent NTRK1 Gene Fusions Define a Novel Subset of Locally Aggressive Lipofibromatosis-like Neural Tumors.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2016; 40(10):1407-16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
The family of pediatric fibroblastic and myofibroblastic proliferations encompasses a wide spectrum of pathologic entities with overlapping morphologies and ill-defined genetic abnormalities. Among the superficial lesions, lipofibromatosis (LPF), composed of an admixture of adipose tissue and fibroblastic elements, in the past has been variously classified as infantile fibromatosis or fibrous hamartoma of infancy. In this regard, we have encountered a group of superficial soft tissue tumors occurring in children and young adults, with a notably infiltrative growth pattern reminiscent of LPF, variable cytologic atypia, and a distinct immunoprofile of S100 protein and CD34 reactivity, suggestive of neural differentiation. SOX10 and melanocytic markers were negative in all cases tested. In contrast, a control group of classic LPF displayed bland, monomorphic histology and lacked S100 protein immunoreactivity. To define the pathogenetic abnormalities in these seemingly distinctive groups, we performed RNA sequencing for fusion gene discovery in 2 cases each, followed by screening for any novel alterations identified in a larger cohort representing both entities. The 2 index LPF-like neural tumors (LPF-NT) showed TPR-NTRK1 and TPM3-NTRK1 gene fusions, which were further validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Subsequent FISH screening of 14 LPF-NT identified recurrent NTRK1 gene rearrangements in 10 (71%) cases. Of the NTRK1-negative LPF-NT cases, 1 case each showed ROS1 and ALK gene rearrangements. In contrast, none of the 25 classic LPFs showed NTRK1 gene rearrangements, although regional abnormalities were noted in the 1q21-22 region by FISH in a majority of cases. Furthermore, NTRK1 immunostaining was positive only in NTRK1-rearranged S100-positive LPF-NT but negative in classic LPF. These results suggest that NTRK1 oncogenic activation through gene fusion defines a novel and distinct subset of soft tissue tumors resembling LPF, but displaying cytologic atypia and a neural immunophenotype, provisionally named LPF-like neural tumors.

Picarsic JL, Buryk MA, Ozolek J, et al.
Molecular Characterization of Sporadic Pediatric Thyroid Carcinoma with the DNA/RNA ThyroSeq v2 Next-Generation Sequencing Assay.
Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2016 Mar-Apr; 19(2):115-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that our 60-gene DNA/RNA ThyroSeq v2 next-generation sequence (NGS) assay would identify additional genetic markers, including gene fusions in sporadic pediatric differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) that had no known molecular alterations. Sporadic pediatric DTCs with informative molecular testing (n=18) were studied. We previously tested 15 cases by our standard 7-gene (BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS, RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, PAX8/PPARg) mutation panel. Three cases were not tested previously. The standard 7-gene panel identified molecular alterations in 9 of 15 tumors (60%). Cases analyzed by ThyroSeq v2 NGS included the six previously negative cases by the standard 7-gene panel and three cases not previously tested. The NGS assay revealed new gene fusions in four of six previously negative cases (67%). These gene fusions included ETV6/NTRK3 (n=3) and TPR/NTRK1 (n=1). A point mutation (BRAF-V600E) was detected in one of three untested cases. While standard testing could identify only molecular alterations in 60% of cases, with the addition of the ThyroSeq v2 NGS, this increased to 87% (n=13/15). Some cases with chromosomal rearrangements, including ETV6/NTRK3, appear to be associated with an aggressive histopathologic phenotype, but had no documented history of radiation exposure. Additional work is needed to investigate if pediatric DTCs could benefit from a reclassification based on molecular subtypes, which may better reflect their underlying biologic potential. Our data support the use of broad gene panels for the molecular diagnostics of pediatric thyroid nodules to aid future classification, treatment, and clinical management recommendations.

Kato Y, Ochiai K, Michishita M, et al.
Molecular cloning of canine co-chaperone small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α (SGTA) and investigation of its ability to suppress androgen receptor signalling in androgen-independent prostate cancer.
Vet J. 2015; 206(2):143-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the morbidity of canine prostate cancer is low, the majority of cases present with resistance to androgen therapy and poor clinical outcomes. These pathological conditions are similar to the signs of the terminal stage of human androgen-independent prostate cancer. The co-chaperone small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α (SGTA) is known to be overexpressed in human androgen-independent prostate cancer. However, there is little information about the structure and function of canine SGTA. In this study, canine SGTA was cloned and analysed for its ability to suppress androgen receptor signalling. The full-length open reading frame (ORF) of the canine SGTA gene was amplified by RT-PCR using primers designed from canine-expressed sequence tags that were homologous to human SGTA. The canine SGTA ORF has high homology with the corresponding human (89%) and mouse (81%) sequences. SGTA dimerisation region and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains are conserved across the three species. The ability of canine SGTA to undergo homodimerisation was demonstrated by a mammalian two-hybrid system and a pull-down assay. The negative impact of canine SGTA on androgen receptor (AR) signalling was demonstrated using a reporter assay in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell lines. Pathological analysis showed overexpression of SGTA in canine prostate cancer, but not in hyperplasia. A reporter assay in prostate cells demonstrated suppression of AR signalling by canine SGTA. Altogether, these results suggest that canine SGTA may play an important role in the acquisition of androgen independence by canine prostate cancer cells.

Husmann K, Ducommun P, Sabile AA, et al.
Signal transduction and downregulation of C-MET in HGF stimulated low and highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 464(4):1222-1227 [PubMed] Related Publications
The poor outcome of osteosarcoma (OS), particularly in patients with metastatic disease and a five-year survival rate of only 20%, asks for more effective therapeutic strategies targeting malignancy-promoting mechanisms. Dysregulation of C-MET, its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the fusion oncogene product TPR-MET, first identified in human MNNG-HOS OS cells, have been described as cancer-causing factors in human cancers. Here, the expression of these molecules at the mRNA and the protein level and of HGF-stimulated signaling and downregulation of C-MET was compared in the parental low metastatic HOS and MG63 cell lines and the respective highly metastatic MNNG-HOS and 143B and the MG63-M6 and MG63-M8 sublines. Interestingly, expression of TPR-MET was only observed in MNNG-HOS cells. HGF stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt and Erk1/2 in all cell lines investigated, but phospho-Stat3 remained at basal levels. Downregulation of HGF-stimulated Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation was much faster in the HGF expressing MG63-M8 cells than in HOS cells. Degradation of HGF-activated C-MET occurred predominantly through the proteasomal and to a lesser extent the lysosomal pathway in the cell lines investigated. Thus, HGF-stimulated Akt and Erk1/2 signaling as well as proteasomal degradation of HGF activated C-MET are potential therapeutic targets in OS.

Créancier L, Vandenberghe I, Gomes B, et al.
Chromosomal rearrangements involving the NTRK1 gene in colorectal carcinoma.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 365(1):107-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal rearrangements of the NTRK1 gene, which encodes the high affinity nerve growth factor receptor (tropomyosin related kinase, TRKA), have been observed in several epithelial cancers, such as colon cancer, papillary thyroid carcinoma or non small cell lung cancer. The various NTRK1 fusions described so far lead to constitutive activation of TRKA kinase activity and are oncogenic. We further investigated here the existence and the frequency of NTRK1 gene rearrangements in colorectal cancer. Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, we analyzed a series of human colorectal cancers. We identified two TRKA positive cases over 408, with NTRK1 chromosomal rearrangements. One of these rearrangements is a TPM3-NTRK1 fusion already observed in colon cancer, while the second one is a TPR-NTRK1 fusion never described in this type of cancer. These findings further confirm that translocations in the NTRK1 gene are recurring events in colorectal cancer, although occurring at a low frequency (around 0.5%).

Ratajczak T
Steroid Receptor-Associated Immunophilins: Candidates for Diverse Drug-Targeting Approaches in Disease.
Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2015; 9(1):66-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
The steroid receptor-associated TPR cochaperones FKBP51, FKBP52, CyP40 and PP5 have non-redundant roles in steroid receptor function that impact steroid hormone-binding affinity, nucleocyoplasmic shuttling and transcriptional activation of target genes in a tissue-specific manner. Aberrant expression of these TPR immunophilins has the potential to cause steroid-based diseases, including breast and prostate cancer, diabetes and metabolic disorders, male and female infertility and major depressive and neurodegenerative disorders. This review summaries the function of these proteins as cochaperones in steroid receptor-Hsp90 complexes and elaborates on their role in alternative, Hsp90-dependent and -independent signalling pathways not involving steroid receptors. The review also extensively covers current knowledge of the link between the steroid receptor-associated immunophilins and human disease. An improved understanding of their mechanisms of action has revealed opportunities for molecular therapies to enhance or inhibit cellular processes under their control that contribute both to human health and disease.

McClements L, Annett S, Yakkundi A, Robson T
The Role of Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerases in Aging and Vascular Diseases.
Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2015; 9(2):165-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peptidyl prolyl isomerases (PPIases) are proteins belonging to the immunophilin family and are characterised by their cis-trans isomerization activity at the X-Pro peptide bond, in addition to their tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, important for interaction with the molecular chaperone, Hsp90. Due to this unique structure these proteins are able to facilitate protein-protein interactions which can impact significantly on a range of cellular processes such as cell signalling, differentiation, cell cycle progression, metabolic activity and apoptosis. Malfunction and/or dysregulation of most members of this class of proteins promotes cellular damage and tissue/organ failure, predisposing to ageing and age-related diseases. Many individual genes within the PPIase family are associated with several age-related diseases including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), atherosclerosis, type II diabetes mellitus (T2D), chronic kidney disease (CDK), neurodegeneration, cancer and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in addition to the ageing process itself. This review will focus on the different roles of PPIases, and their therapeutic/ biomarker potential in these age-related vascular diseases.

Duchnowska R, Jassem J, Goswami CP, et al.
Predicting early brain metastases based on clinicopathological factors and gene expression analysis in advanced HER2-positive breast cancer patients.
J Neurooncol. 2015; 122(1):205-16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
The overexpression or amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2/neu) is associated with high risk of brain metastasis (BM). The identification of patients at highest immediate risk of BM could optimize screening and facilitate interventional trials. We performed gene expression analysis using complementary deoxyribonucleic acid-mediated annealing, selection, extension and ligation and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in primary tumor samples from two independent cohorts of advanced HER2 positive breast cancer patients. Additionally, we analyzed predictive relevance of clinicopathological factors in this series. Study group included discovery Cohort A (84 patients) and validation Cohort B (75 patients). The only independent variables associated with the development of early BM in both cohorts were the visceral location of first distant relapse [Cohort A: hazard ratio (HR) 7.4, 95 % CI 2.4-22.3; p < 0.001; Cohort B: HR 6.1, 95 % CI 1.5-25.6; p = 0.01] and the lack of trastuzumab administration in the metastatic setting (Cohort A: HR 5.0, 95 % CI 1.4-10.0; p = 0.009; Cohort B: HR 10.0, 95 % CI 2.0-100.0; p = 0.008). A profile including 13 genes was associated with early (≤36 months) symptomatic BM in the discovery cohort. This was refined by qRT-PCR to a 3-gene classifier (RAD51, HDGF, TPR) highly predictive of early BM (HR 5.3, 95 % CI 1.6-16.7; p = 0.005; multivariate analysis). However, predictive value of the classifier was not confirmed in the independent validation Cohort B. The presence of visceral metastases and the lack of trastuzumab administration in the metastatic setting apparently increase the likelihood of early BM in advanced HER2-positive breast cancer.

Ni W, Odunuga OO
UCS proteins: chaperones for myosin and co-chaperones for Hsp90.
Subcell Biochem. 2015; 78:133-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
The UCS (UNC-45/CRO1/She4p) family of proteins has emerged as chaperones that are specific for the folding, assembly and function of myosin. These proteins participate in various important myosin-dependent cellular processes that include myofibril organization and muscle functions, cell differentiation, cardiac and skeletal muscle development, cytokinesis and endocytosis. Mutations in the genes that code for UCS proteins cause serious defects in these actomyosin-based processes. Homologs of UCS proteins can be broadly divided into (1) animal UCS proteins, generally known as UNC-45 proteins, which contain an N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain in addition to the canonical UCS domain, and (2) fungal UCS proteins, which lack the TPR domain. Structurally, except for TPR domain, both sub-classes of UCS proteins comprise of several irregular armadillo (ARM) repeats that are divided into two-domain architecture: a combined central-neck domain and a C-terminal UCS domain. Structural analyses suggest that UNC-45 proteins form elongated oligomers that serve as scaffolds to recruit Hsp90 and/or Hsp70 to form a multi-protein chaperoning complex that assists myosin heads to fold and simultaneously organize them into myofibrils. Similarly, fungal UCS proteins may dimerize to promote folding of non-muscle myosins as well as determine their step size along actin filaments. These findings confirm UCS proteins as a new class of myosin-specific chaperones and co-chaperones for Hsp90. This chapter reviews the implications of the outcome of studies on these proteins in cellular processes such as muscle formation, and disease states such as myopathies and cancer.

Saidi LJ, Polydoro M, Kay KR, et al.
Carboxy terminus heat shock protein 70 interacting protein reduces tau-associated degenerative changes.
J Alzheimers Dis. 2015; 44(3):937-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, intracellular aggregates of hyperphosphorylated, mislocalized tau protein, which are associated with neuronal loss. Changes in tau are known to impair cellular transport (including that of mitochondria) and are associated with cell death in cell culture and mouse models of tauopathy. Thus clearing pathological forms of tau from cells is a key therapeutic strategy. One critical modulator in the degradation and clearance of misfolded proteins is the co-chaperone CHIP (Carboxy terminus Hsp70 interacting Protein), which is known to play a role in refolding and clearance of hyperphosphorylated tau. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CHIP could ameliorate pathological changes associated with tau. We find that co-expressing CHIP with full-length tau, tau truncated at D421 mimicking caspase cleavage, or the short tauRDΔK280 tau construct containing only the tau repeat domain with a tauopathy mutation, decreases tau protein levels in human H4 neuroglioma cells in a manner dependent on the Hsp70-binding TPR domain of CHIP. The observed reduction in tau levels by CHIP is associated with a decrease of tau phosphorylation and reduced levels of cleaved Caspase 3 indicating that CHIP plays an important role in preventing tau-induced pathological changes. Furthermore, tau-associated mitochondrial transport deficits are rescued by CHIP co-expression in H4 cells. Together, these data suggest that the co-chaperone CHIP can rescue the pathological effects of tau, and indicate that other diseases of protein misfolding and accumulation may also benefit from CHIP upregulation.

Horibe T, Torisawa A, Kohno M, Kawakami K
Synergetic cytotoxic activity toward breast cancer cells enhanced by the combination of Antp-TPR hybrid peptide targeting Hsp90 and Hsp70-targeted peptide.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:615 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 and Hsp70 are indispensable for cell survival under conditions of stress. They bind to client proteins to assist in protein stabilization, translocation of polypeptides across the cell membrane, and recovery of proteins from aggregates in the cell. Therefore, these proteins have recently emerged as important targets in the treatment of cancer. We previously reported that the newly designed Antp-TPR hybrid peptide targeting Hsp90 induced cytotoxic activity to cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: To further improve the cytotoxic activity of Antp-TPR toward cancer cells, we investigated the effect of a Hsp70-targeted peptide, which was made cell-permeable by adding the polyarginine with a linker sequence, on the cytotoxic activity of Antp-TPR in breast cancer cell lines.
RESULTS: It was revealed that Antp-TPR in the presence of a Hsp70-targeted peptide induced effective cytotoxic activity toward breast cancer cells through the descrease of Hsp90 client proteins such as p53, Akt, and cRaf. Moreover, the combined treatment with these peptides did not induce the up-regulation of Hsp70 protein, as determined by western blotting, a promoter assay using a luminometer, and single-cell level imaging with the LV200 system, although a small-molecule inhibitor of Hsp90, 17-allylamino-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), did induce the up-regulation of this protein. We also found that treatment with Antp-TPR, Hsp70-targeted peptide, or a combination of the two did not induce an increase in the glutathione concentrations in the cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that targeting both Hsp90 and Hsp70 with Antp-TPR and Hsp70-targeted peptide is an attractive approach for selective cancer cell killing that might provide potent and selective therapeutic options for the treatment of cancer.

Kim SY, Kim JE, Park S, Kim HK
Molecular identification of a TPR-FGFR1 fusion transcript in an adult with myeloproliferative neoplasm, T-lymphoblastic lymphoma, and a t(1;8)(q25;p11.2).
Cancer Genet. 2014; 207(6):258-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
The 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome is an aggressive neoplasm associated with chromosomal abnormalities involving rearrangement of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene. We report herein a rare case of a t(1;8)(q25;p11.2) with a TPR-FGFR1 rearrangement, in which the patient presented with myeloproliferative neoplasm-like symptoms and T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. Sequence analysis revealed a fusion transcript with exon 22 of the TPR gene joined to exon 13 of the FGFR1 gene, which is a novel breakpoint for the TPR gene in the TPR-FGFR1 rearrangement.

Wang Y, Huang Y, Xu X, et al.
Expression of small glutamine-rich TPR-containing protein A (SGTA) in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas promotes tumor proliferation and reverses cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR).
Leuk Res. 2014; 38(8):955-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
The expression and biologic function of SGTA in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHL) was investigated in this study. Clinically, by immunohistochemistry analysis we detected SGTA expression in both reactive lymphoid tissues and NHL tissues. In addition, we also correlated high expression of SGTA with poor prognosis. Functionally, SGTA expression was positively related with cell proliferation and negative related with cell adhesion. Finally, SGTA knockdown induced adhesion-mediated drug resistance. Our finding supports a role of SGTA in NHL cell proliferation, adhesion and drug resistance, and it may pave the way for a novel therapeutic approach for CAM-DR in NHL.

Liu J, Xu D, Wang H, et al.
The subcellular distribution and function of MTA1 in cancer differentiation.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(13):5153-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
The functions and mechanisms of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) in cancer progression are still unclear due to a lagged recognition of the subcellular localization. In the present study, using multiple molecular technologies we confirmed for the first time that MTA1 localizes to the nucleus, cytoplasm and nuclear envelope. MTA1 is primarily localized in the nucleus of normal adult tissues but in the cytoplasm of embryonic tissues. While in colon cancer, both distributions have been described. Further investigation revealed that MTA1 localizes on the nuclear envelope in a translocated promoter region (TPR)-dependent manner, while in the cytoplasm, MTA1 shows an obvious localization on microtubules. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic MTA1 are associated with cancer progression. However, these functions may be associated with different mechanisms because only nuclear MTA1 has been associated with cancer differentiation. Overexpression of MTA1 in HCT116 cells inhibited differentiation and promoted proliferation, whereas MTA1 knockdown resulted in cell differentiation and death. Theses results not only suggest that nuclear MTA1 is a good marker for cancer differentiation diagnosis and a potential target for the treatment of cancers but also reveal the necessity to differentially examine the functions of nuclear and cytoplasmic MTA1.

Choi YL, Lira ME, Hong M, et al.
A novel fusion of TPR and ALK in lung adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(4):563-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion is the most common mechanism for overexpression and activation in non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Several fusion partners of ALK have been reported, including echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4, TRK-fused gene, kinesin family member 5B, kinesin light chain 1 (KLC1), protein tyrosine phosphatase and nonreceptor type 3, and huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1).
METHODS AND RESULTS: A 60-year-old Korean man had a lung mass which was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with ALK overexpression. By using an Anchored Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay and sequencing, we found that tumor had a novel translocated promoter region (TPR)-ALK fusion. The fusion transcript was generated from an intact, in-frame fusion of TPR exon 15 and ALK exon 20 (t(1;2)(q31.1;p23)). The TPR-ALK fusion encodes a predicted protein of 1192 amino acids with a coiled-coil domain encoded by the 5'-2 of the TPR and juxtamembrane and kinase domains encoded by the 3'-end of the ALK.
CONCLUSIONS: The novel fusion gene and its protein TRP-ALK, harboring coiled-coil and kinase domains, could possess transforming potential and responses to treatment with ALK inhibitors. This case is the first report of TPR-ALK fusion transcript in clinical tumor samples and could provide a novel diagnostic and therapeutic candidate target for patients with cancer, including non-small-cell lung carcinoma.

Pomerleau V, Landry M, Bernier J, et al.
Met receptor-induced Grb2 or Shc signals both promote transformation of intestinal epithelial cells, albeit they are required for distinct oncogenic functions.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:240 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) contributes to the initiation and progression of intestinal-derived epithelial cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the roles of the proximal signaling molecules engaged by RTKs in different oncogenic functions of CRC remain unclear.
METHODS: Herein, the functional impact of expressing variant forms of the oncogenic Met receptor (Tpr-Met) that selectively recruit the adaptor proteins Grb2 or Shc was investigated in a model derived from normal intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). An RNA interference (RNAi) approach was used to define the requirement of Grb2 or Shc in Tpr-Met-transformed IEC-6 cells. Since Grb2 and Shc couple RTKs to the activation of the Ras/MEK/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways, Erk and Akt phosphorylation/activation states were monitored in transformed IEC-6 cells, and a pharmacological approach was employed to provide insights into the roles of these pathways in oncogenic processes evoked by activated Met, and downstream of Grb2 and Shc.
RESULTS: We show, for the first time, that constitutive activation of either Grb2 or Shc signals in IEC-6 cells, promotes morphological transformation associated with down-regulation of E-cadherin, as well as increased cell growth, loss of growth contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, and resistance to serum deprivation and anoikis. Oncogenic activation of Met was revealed to induce morphological transformation, E-cadherin down-regulation, and protection against anoikis by mechanisms dependent on Grb2, while Shc was shown to be partly required for enhanced cell growth. The coupling of activated Met to the Ras/MEK/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways, and the sustained engagement of Grb2 or Shc in IECs, was shown to trigger negative feedback, limiting the extent of activation of these pathways. Nonetheless, morphological alterations and E-cadherin down-regulation induced by the oncogenic Tpr-Met, and by Grb2 or Shc signals, were blocked by MEK, but not PI3K, inhibitors while the enhanced growth and resistance to anoikis induced by Tpr-Met were nearly abolished by co-treatment with both inhibitors.
CONCLUSION: Overall, these results identify Grb2 and Shc as central signaling effectors of Met-driven progression of intestinal epithelial-derived cancers. Notably, they suggest that Grb2 may represent a promising target for the design of novel CRC therapies.

Miao S, Wu K, Zhang B, et al.
Synuclein γ compromises spindle assembly checkpoint and renders resistance to antimicrotubule drugs.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(3):699-713 [PubMed] Related Publications
Defects in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) have been proposed to contribute to the chromosomal instability in human cancers. One of the major mechanisms underlying antimicrotubule drug (AMD) resistance involves acquired inactivation of SAC. Synuclein γ (SNCG), previously identified as a breast cancer-specific gene, is highly expressed in malignant cancer cells but not in normal epithelium. Here, we show that SNCG is sufficient to induce resistance to AMD-caused apoptosis in breast cancer cells and cancer xenografts. SNCG binds to spindle checkpoint kinase BubR1 and inhibits its kinase activity. Specifically, the C-terminal (Gln106-Asp127) of SNCG binds to the N-terminal TPR (tetratricopeptidelike folds) motif of BubR1. SNCG-BubR1 interaction induces a structure change of BubR1, attenuates its interaction with other key checkpoint proteins of Cdc20, and thus compromises SAC function. SNCG expression in breast cancers from patients with a neoadjuvant clinical trial showed that SNCG-positive tumors are resistant to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. These data show that SNCG renders AMD resistance by inhibiting BubR1 activity and attenuating SAC function.

Chan B, VanderLaan PA, Sukhatme VP
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase regulates tumor cell migration in vitro by regulating receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 439(2):247-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) is the third enzyme in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Recently, we reported that knockdown of 6PGD inhibited lung tumor growth in vitro and in a xenograft model in mice. In this study, we continued to examine the functional role of 6PGD in cancer. We show that 6PGD expression positively correlates with advancing stage of lung carcinoma. In search of functional signals related to 6PGD, we discovered that knockdown of 6PGD significantly inhibited phosphorylation of c-Met at tyrosine residues known to be critical for activity. This downregulation of c-Met phosphorylation correlated with inhibition of cell migration in vitro. Overexpression of a constitutively active c-Met specifically rescued the migration but not proliferation phenotype of 6PGD knockdown. Therefore, 6PGD appears to be required for efficient c-Met signaling and migration of tumor cells in vitro.

Guo X, Li X, Wang Y, et al.
Nicotine induces alteration of H3K27 demethylase UTX in kidney cancer cell.
Hum Exp Toxicol. 2014; 33(3):264-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cigarette smoking is one of the most important risk factors for kidney cancer, but the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. To examine the expression change of histone H3 on lysine 27 trimethylase (H3K27me3) demethylases ubiquitously transcribed TPR gene on the X chromosome (UTX) in kidney cancer cell line 786-O after nicotine treatment, quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis were carried out. These results showed that nicotine can increase UTX messenger RNA and protein levels and also decrease the content of H3K27me3. The decreased content of H3K27me3 may activate specific gene expression and lead to kidney cancer. Future investigation on nicotine induced UTX expression and its epigenetic effect would deepen our understanding on nicotine toxicity and carcinogenicity.

Trotta AP, Need EF, Selth LA, et al.
Knockdown of the cochaperone SGTA results in the suppression of androgen and PI3K/Akt signaling and inhibition of prostate cancer cell proliferation.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(12):2812-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Solid tumors have an increased reliance on Hsp70/Hsp90 molecular chaperones for proliferation, survival and maintenance of intracellular signaling systems. An underinvestigated component of the chaperone system is the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing cochaperone, which coordinates Hsp70/Hsp90 involvement on client proteins as well as having diverse individual actions. A potentially important cochaperone in prostate cancer (PCa) is small glutamine-rich TPR-containing protein alpha (SGTA), which interacts with the androgen receptor (AR) and other critical cancer-related client proteins. In this study, the authors used small interfering RNA coupled with genome-wide expression profiling to investigate the biological significance of SGTA in PCa and its influence on AR signaling. Knockdown of SGTA for 72 hr in PCa C4-2B cells significantly altered expression of >1,900 genes (58% decreased) and reduced cell proliferation (p < 0.05). The regulation of 35% of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) target genes was affected by SGTA knockdown, with gene-specific effects on basal or DHT-induced expression or both. Pathway analysis revealed a role for SGTA in p53, generic PCa and phosphoinositol kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways; the latter evident by a reduction in PI3K subunit p100β levels and decreased phosphorylated Akt. Immunohistochemical analysis of 64 primary advanced PCa samples showed a significant increase in the AR:SGTA ratio in cancerous lesions compared to patient-matched benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue (p < 0.02). This study not only provides insight into the biological actions of SGTA and its effect on genome-wide AR transcriptional activity and other therapeutically targeted intracellular signaling pathways but also provides evidence for PCa-specific alterations in SGTA expression.

Lynch JT, Somerville TD, Spencer GJ, et al.
TTC5 is required to prevent apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia stem cells.
Cell Death Dis. 2013; 4:e573 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
Using a screening strategy, we identified the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motif protein, Tetratricopeptide repeat domain 5 (TTC5, also known as stress responsive activator of p300 or Strap) as required for the survival of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. TTC5 is a stress-inducible transcription cofactor known to interact directly with the histone acetyltransferase EP300 to augment the TP53 response. Knockdown (KD) of TTC5 induced apoptosis of both murine and human AML cells, with concomitant loss of clonogenic and leukemia-initiating potential; KD of EP300 elicited a similar phenotype. Consistent with the physical interaction of TTC5 and EP300, the onset of apoptosis following KD of either gene was preceded by reduced expression of BCL2 and increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes. Forced expression of BCL2 blocked apoptosis and partially rescued the clonogenic potential of AML cells following TTC5 KD. KD of both genes also led to the accumulation of MYC, an acetylation target of EP300, and the form of MYC that accumulated exhibited relative hypoacetylation at K148 and K157, residues targeted by EP300. In view of the ability of excess cellular MYC to sensitize cells to apoptosis, our data suggest a model whereby TTC5 and EP300 cooperate to prevent excessive accumulation of MYC in AML cells and their sensitization to cell death. They further reveal a hitherto unappreciated role for TTC5 in leukemic hematopoiesis.

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