Research IndicatorsGraph generated 11 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 11 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: TFAP2B (cancer-related)
Hallberg AR, Vorrink SU, Hudachek DR, et al.Aberrant CpG methylation of the TFAP2A gene constitutes a mechanism for loss of TFAP2A expression in human metastatic melanoma.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(12):1641-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Metastatic melanoma is a deadly treatment-resistant form of skin cancer whose global incidence is on the rise. During melanocyte transformation and melanoma progression the expression profile of many genes changes. Among these, a gene implicated in several steps of melanocyte development, TFAP2A, is frequently silenced; however, the molecular mechanism of TFAP2A silencing in human melanoma remains unknown. In this study, we measured TFAP2A mRNA expression in primary human melanocytes compared to 11 human melanoma samples by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In addition, we assessed CpG DNA methylation of the TFAP2A promoter in these samples using bisulfite sequencing. Compared to primary melanocytes, which showed high TFAP2A mRNA expression and no promoter methylation, human melanoma samples showed decreased TFAP2A mRNA expression and increased promoter methylation. We further show that increased CpG methylation correlates with decreased TFAP2A mRNA expression. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, we further identified TFAP2A as a gene displaying among the most decreased expression in stage 4 melanomas vs. non-stage 4 melanomas, and whose CpG methylation was frequently associated with lack of mRNA expression. Based on our data, we conclude that TFAP2A expression in human melanomas can be silenced by aberrant CpG methylation of the TFAP2A promoter. We have identified aberrant CpG DNA methylation as an epigenetic mark associated with TFAP2A silencing in human melanoma that could have significant implications for the therapy of human melanoma using epigenetic modifying drugs.
Wu FL, Li RT, Yang M, et al.Gelatinases-stimuli nanoparticles encapsulating 5-fluorouridine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine enhance the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to chemical therapeutics.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 363(1):7-16 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Aberrant methylation of the transcription factor AP-2 epsilon (TFAP2E) has been attributed to 5-fluorouridine (5-FU) sensitivity. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), an epigenetic drug that inhibits DNA methylation, is able to cause reactive expression of TFAP2E by demethylating activity. This property might be useful in enhancing the sensitivity of cancer cells to 5-FU. However, the effect of DAC is transient because of its instability. Here, we report the use of intelligent gelatinases-stimuli nanoparticles (NPs) to coencapsulate and deliver DAC and 5-FU to gastric cancer (GC) cells. The results showed that NPs encapsulating DAC, 5-FU, or both could be effectively internalized by GC cells. Furthermore, we found that the NPs enhanced the stability of DAC, resulting in improved re-expression of TFAP2E. Thus, the incorporation of DAC into NPs significantly enhanced the sensitivity of GC cells to 5-FU by inhibiting cell growth rate and inducing cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrated that the gelatinases-stimuli NPs are an efficient means to simultaneously deliver epigenetic and chemotherapeutic drugs that may effectively inhibit cancer cell proliferation.
Park SJ, Kim SM, Hong YS, et al.TFAP2E methylation status and prognosis of patients with radically resected colorectal cancer.
Oncology. 2015; 88(2):122-32 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the clinical significance of the gene encoding AP-2ε (TFAP2E) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients undergoing curative resection.
METHODS: A single-institution cohort of 248 patients who underwent curative resection of stage I/II/III CRCs between March and December 2004 was enrolled, and 193 patients whose tumors were available for the determination of the TFAP2E methylation status were included in the analysis.
RESULTS: TFAP2E hypermethylation was detected in 112 patients (58%) and was significantly associated with distally located CRCs, low pathologic T stage (T1/T2), and stage I tumors. After a median follow-up of 86.3 months, the patients with TFAP2E hypermethylation tended to show better relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than the patients with TFAP2E hypomethylation (5-year RFS rate: 90 vs. 80%, p = 0.063; 6-year OS rate: 88 vs. 80%, p = 0.083). Multivariate analysis showed that the pathologic nodal stage and TFAP2E methylation status were independent prognostic factors for RFS and OS, and they remained significant factors in the subgroup analysis that included 154 patients with stage II/III CRCs who had received adjuvant chemotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: TFAP2E hypermethylation is associated with good clinical outcomes and may be considered as an independent prognostic factor in patients with curatively resected CRCs.
Pan Y, Ren F, Zhang W, et al.Regulation of BGC-823 cell sensitivity to adriamycin via miRNA-135a-5p.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(6):2549-56 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the genesis and development of gastric cancer. In the present study, we determined whether miRNA-135a-5p expression was increased in gastric cancer compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues using 20 pairs of gastric cancer and para-carcinoma tissue samples which were assessed via microarray and bioinformatics analysis, and western blotting. The protein content detection showed that miRNA‑135a-5p expression was inversely correlated with AP-2α. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that AP-2α contains a putative miRNA-135a-5p target, which was confirmed as a direct target using the 3'-UTR luciferase reporter system. Additionally, an increase and decrease of miRNA-135a-5p inhi-bited or impaired adriamycin-induced apoptosis in BGC-823 cells (p<0.05, compared with the group without gene intervention), respectively. Luciferase reporter experiments confirmed that AP-2α bound to the BCL-2 promoter and affected its transcription. Therefore, miRNA-135a-5p increased BCL-2 via AP-2α and consequently enhanced cell resistance to apoptosis. This newly identified miRNA-135a-5p-AP-2α-BCL-2 pathway provides insight for the treatment of gastric cancer and solution for insensitivity of gastric cancer to chemotherapy drugs.
Meng X, Meng C, Yang B, et al.AP-2α downregulation by cigarette smoke condensate is counteracted by p53 in human lung cancer cells.
Int J Mol Med. 2014; 34(4):1094-100 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cumulative findings have demonstrated that the dysregulation of tumor suppressor genes may be implicated in cigarette smoke-induced carcinogenesis. Activating enhancer-binding protein 2 (AP-2) is a eukaryotic transcriptional factor that plays a significant role in embryonic development and tumorigenesis. The vertebrate AP-2 family consists of AP-2α, AP-2β, AP-2γ, AP-2δ and AP-2ε. Previous studies have suggested that cigarette smoking disrupts AP-2 regulation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on AP-2α expression in human lung cancer cell lines (NCI-H1299, NCI-H446 and A549), as well as the potential mechanisms involved. Using RT-qPCR, we found that CSC decreased AP-2α expression by suppressing its transcription in human lung cancer cell lines, particularly in p53-deficient NCI-H1299 cells. Western blotting and luciferase assays were implemented and we found that the restoration of p53 expression rescued the NCI-H1299 cells from CSC-induced AP-2α loss, while the silencing of p53 resulted in increased AP-2α loss induced by CSC, suggesting an antagonizing role of p53 in the regulation of AP-2α by CSC. Our results indicate that AP-2α downregulation may be involved in smoke-induced lung carcinogenesis.
Gao SL, Wang LZ, Liu HY, et al.miR-200a inhibits tumor proliferation by targeting AP-2γ in neuroblastoma cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(11):4671-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-200a (miR-200a) has been reported to regulate tumour progression in several tumours but little is known about its role in neuroblastoma. Our aim was to investigate the potential role and mechanism of miR-200a in neuroblastomas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression levels of miR-200a in tissues were determined using RT-PCR. The effect of miR-200a and shAP-2γ on cell viability was evaluated using MTS assays, and target protein expression was determined using Western blotting and RT-PCR. Luciferase reporter plasmids were constructed to confirm direct targeting. RESULTS were reported as mean±S.E.M and differences were tested for significance using the 2-tailed Students t-test.
RESULTS: We determined that miR-200a expression was significantly lower in neuroblastoma tumors than the adjacent non-cancer tissue. Over-expression of miR-200 are reduced cell viability in neuroblastoma cells and inhibited tumor growth in mouse xenografts. We identified AP-2γ as a novel target for miR-200a in neuroblastoma cells. Thus miR-200a targets the 3'UTR of AP-2γ and inhibits its mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, our result showed that shRNA knockdown of AP-2γ in neuroblastoma cells results in significant inhibit of cell proliferation and tumor growth in vitro, supporting an oncogenic role of AP-2γ in neuroblastoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that miR-200a is a candidate tumor suppressor in neuroblastoma, through direct targeting of AP-2γ. These findings re-enforce the proposal of AP-2γ as a therapeutic target in neuroblastoma.
The TFAP2C/AP-2γ transcription factor regulates luminal breast cancer genes, and loss of TFAP2C induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition. By contrast, the highly homologous family member, TFAP2A, lacks transcriptional activity at luminal gene promoters. A detailed structure-function analysis identified that sumoylation of TFAP2A blocks its ability to induce the expression of luminal genes. Disruption of the sumoylation pathway by knockdown of sumoylation enzymes, mutation of the SUMO-target lysine of TFAP2A, or treatment with sumoylation inhibitors induced a basal-to-luminal transition, which was dependent on TFAP2A. Sumoylation inhibitors cleared the CD44(+/hi)/CD24(-/low) cell population characterizing basal cancers and inhibited tumor outgrowth of basal cancer xenografts. These findings establish a critical role for sumoylation in regulating the transcriptional mechanisms that maintain the basal cancer phenotype.
Jørgensen A, Young J, Nielsen JE, et al.Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples: a model used to investigate activin treatment effects in a preserved niche.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(10):2604-14 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumours of young adults, seminoma or non-seminomas, are preceded by a pre-invasive precursor, carcinoma in situ (CIS), understood to arise through differentiation arrest of embryonic germ cells. Knowledge about the malignant transformation of germ cells is currently limited by the lack of experimental models. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental tissue culture model to maintain normal and malignant germ cells within their niche and allow investigation of treatment effects.
METHODS: Human testis and testis cancer specimens from orchidectomies were cultured in 'hanging drops' and effects of activin A and follistatin treatment were investigated in seminoma cultures.
RESULTS: Testis fragments with normal spermatogenesis or CIS cells were cultured for 14 days with sustained proliferation of germ cells and CIS cells and without increased apoptosis. Seminoma cultures survived 7 days, with proliferating cells detectable during the first 5 days. Activin A treatment significantly reduced KIT transcript and protein levels in seminoma cultures, thereby demonstrating a specific treatment response.
CONCLUSIONS: Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples can be employed to delineate mechanisms governing growth of normal, CIS and tumorigenic germ cells retained within their niche.
BACKGROUND: TFAP2B is a member of the AP2 transcription factor family, which orchestrates a variety of cell processes. However, the roles of TFAP2B in regulating carcinogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the regulatory effects of TFAP2B on lung adenocarcinomas growth and identified the underlying mechanisms of actions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.
METHODS: We first examined the expression of TFAP2B in lung cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. We also analyzed the prognostic predicting value of TFAP2B in lung adenocarcinomas. Then we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which TFAP2B knockdown or overexpression regulated lung cancer cell growth, angiogenesis and apoptosis, and further confirmed the role of TFAP2B in tumor growth in a lung cancer xenograft mouse model.
RESULTS: TFAP2B was highly expressed in NSCLC cell lines and tumor tissues. Strong TFAP2B expression showed a positive correlation with the poor prognoses of patients with lung adenocarcinomas (P < 0.001). TFAP2B knockdown by siRNA significantly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells in vitro and in a lung cancer subcutaneous xenograft model, whereas TFAP2B overexpression promoted cell growth. The observed regulation of cell growth was accompanied by the TFAP2B-mediated modulation of the ERK/p38, caspase/cytochrome-c and VEGF/PEDF-dependent signaling pathways in NSCLC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TFAP2B plays a critical role in regulating lung adenocarcinomas growth and could serve as a promising therapeutic target for lung cancer treatment.
Motalleb G, Gholipour N, Samaei NMAssociation of the human astrocyte elevated gene-1 promoter variants with susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(4):916 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Central role of astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) in regulating diverse aspects of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis and association of its overexpression with HCC progression has been demonstrated. The positive regulatory regions of AEG-1 promoter contain several putative transcription factor binding sites critical for basal promoter activity. In this study, the aim was to explore the association of AEG-1 promoter variant with HCC. In this study, the human AEG-1 promoter including the region -538 to -42 was explored in 53 HCC patients and 108 healthy controls. The polymerase chain reaction-sequencing method was used for investigating AEG-1 promoter polymorphisms. A novel mutation in AEG-1 promoter in human HCC patients at a potential AP-2 binding site was explored. An A>C mutation was observed in -483 of AEG-1 promoter in 4 out of 53 HCC patients but not in 108 control individuals. Sequencing data showed genetic variations in 11 HCC patients and 3 healthy controls. Among them, one novel SNP was found in activator protein-1 (AP2), a transcription factor binding site (-483 A to C) that may be associated with the susceptibility to HCC (P = 0.012) but no associations were found for other observed variations. This mutation could be tumor-specific. AEG-1 promoter variant -483 A>C may be associated with the susceptibility to HCC in Iranian population. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has reported this association with the susceptibility to HCC. Therefore, further studies need to be conducted in larger sample sizes and other populations to validate these findings.
Molecular subtypes of breast cancer are characterized by distinct patterns of gene expression that are predictive of outcome and response to therapy. The luminal breast cancer subtypes are defined by the expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα)-associated genes, many of which are directly responsive to the transcription factor activator protein 2C (TFAP2C). TFAP2C participates in a gene regulatory network controlling cell growth and differentiation during ectodermal development and regulating ESR1/ERα and other luminal cell-associated genes in breast cancer. TFAP2C has been established as a prognostic factor in human breast cancer, however, its role in the establishment and maintenance of the luminal cell phenotype during carcinogenesis and mammary gland development have remained elusive. Herein, we demonstrate a critical role for TFAP2C in maintaining the luminal phenotype in human breast cancer and in influencing the luminal cell phenotype during normal mammary development. Knockdown of TFAP2C in luminal breast carcinoma cells induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition with morphological and phenotypic changes characterized by a loss of luminal-associated gene expression and a concomitant gain of basal-associated gene expression. Conditional knockout of the mouse homolog of TFAP2C, Tcfap2c, in mouse mammary epithelium driven by MMTV-Cre promoted aberrant growth of the mammary tree leading to a reduction in the CD24(hi)/CD49f(mid) luminal cell population and concomitant gain of the CD24(mid)/CD49f(hi) basal cell population at maturity. Our results establish TFAP2C as a key transcriptional regulator for maintaining the luminal phenotype in human breast carcinoma. Furthermore, Tcfap2c influences development of the luminal cell type during mammary development. The data suggest that TFAP2C has an important role in regulated luminal-specific genes and may be a viable therapeutic target in breast cancer.
Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) was previously proposed to function as a potent tumor suppressor by acting as a master regulator of a tumor-suppressive network. CHD5 is down-regulated in several cancers, including leukemia and is responsible for tumor generation and progression. However, the mechanism of CHD5 down-regulation in leukemia is largely unknown. In this study, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses revealed that CHD5 was down-regulated in human leukemia cell lines and samples. Luciferase reporter assays showed that most of the baseline regulatory activity was localized from 500 to 200 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Bisulfite DNA sequencing of the identified regulatory element revealed that the CHD5 promoter was hypermethylated in human leukemia cells and samples. Thus, CHD5 expression was inversely correlated with promoter DNA methylation in these samples. Treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) activates CHD5 expression in human leukemia cell lines. In vitro luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that methylation of the CHD5 promoter repressed its promoter activity. Furthermore, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay combined with qualitative PCR identified activating protein 2 (AP2) as a potential transcription factor involved in CHD5 expression and indicated that treatment with DAC increases the recruitment of AP2 to the CHD5 promoter. In vitro transcription-factor activity studies showed that AP2 over-expression was able to activate CHD5 promoter activity. Our findings indicate that repression of CHD5 gene expression in human leukemia is mediated in part by DNA methylation of its promoter.
Kang HJ, Lee MH, Kang HL, et al.Differential regulation of estrogen receptor α expression in breast cancer cells by metastasis-associated protein 1.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(5):1484-94 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) is a component of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex, which plays an important role in progression of breast cancer. Although MTA1 is known as a repressor of the transactivation function of estrogen receptor α (ERα), its involvement in the epigenetic control of transcription of the ERα gene ESR1 has not been studied. Here, we show that silencing of MTA1 reduced the level of expression of ERα in ERα-positive cells but increased it in ERα-negative cells. In both MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, MTA1 was recruited to the region +146 to +461 bp downstream of the transcription start site of ESR1 (ERpro315). Proteomics analysis of the MTA1 complex that was pulled down by an oligonucleotide encoding ERpro315 revealed that the transcription factor AP-2γ (TFAP2C) and the IFN-γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) were components of the complex. Interestingly, in MCF7, TFAP2C activated the reporter encoding ERpro315 and the level of ERα mRNA. By contrast, in MDA-MB-231, IFI16 repressed the promoter activity and silencing of MTA1 increased expression of ERα. Importantly, class II HDACs are involved in the MTA1-mediated differential regulation of ERα. Finally, an MDA-MB-231-derived cell line that stably expressed shIFI16 or shMTA1 was more susceptible to tamoxifen-induced growth inhibition in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Taken together, our findings suggest that the MTA1-TFAP2C or the MTA1-IFI16 complex may contribute to the epigenetic regulation of ESR1 expression in breast cancer and may determine the chemosensitivity of tumors to tamoxifen therapy in patients with breast cancer.
Hahn SS, Tang Q, Zheng F, et al.Repression of integrin-linked kinase by antidiabetes drugs through cross-talk of PPARγ- and AMPKα-dependent signaling: role of AP-2α and Sp1.
Cell Signal. 2014; 26(3):639-47 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common cancers of the head and neck, particularly in Southern China and Southeast Asia with high treatment failure due to the development of local recurrence and distant metastasis. The molecular mechanisms related to the progression of NPC have not been fully understood. In this study, we showed that antidiabetes drugs rosiglitazone and metformin inhibit NPC cell growth through reducing the expression of integrin-linked kinase (ILK). Blockade of PPARγ and AMPKα overcame the effects of rosiglitazone and metformin on ILK protein. Importantly, overexpression of ILK abrogated the effect of rosiglitazone and metformin on NPC cell growth. Furthermore, these agents reduced ILK promoter activity, which was not observed in AP-2α, but not Sp1 site mutation in ILK gene promoter. In addition, silencing of AP-2α or overexpression of Sp1 reversed the effect of these agents on ILK protein expression and cell growth. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that rosiglitazone induced AP-2α, while metformin reduced Sp1 protein binding to the DNA sequences in the ILK gene promoter. Intriguingly, overexpression of Sp1 abolished the effect of rosiglitazone on AP-2α protein expression. Collectively, we show that rosiglitazone and metformin inhibit ILK gene expression through PPARγ- and AMPKα-dependent signaling pathways that are involved in the regulation of AP-2α and Sp1 protein expressions. The effect of combination of rosiglitazone and metformin demonstrates greater extent than single agent alone. The cross-talk of PPARγ and AMPKα signaling enhances the synergistic effects of rosiglitazone and metformin. This study unveils novel mechanisms by which oral antidiabetes drugs inhibit the growth of human NPC cells.
Shi D, Xie F, Zhang Y, et al.TFAP2A regulates nasopharyngeal carcinoma growth and survival by targeting HIF-1α signaling pathway.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014; 7(2):266-77 [PubMed
] Related Publications
TFAP2A is a transcription factor that orchestrates a variety of cell processes, including cell growth and tissue differentiation. However, the regulation of TFAP2A in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumorigenesis and its precise mechanism of action remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the biologic role and clinical significance of TFAP2A in nasopharyngeal carcinoma growth and progression and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that TFAP2A was highly expressed in various nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and tumor tissue specimens and was significantly correlated with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression. A positive correlation of TFAP2A overexpression with advanced tumor stage, local invasion, clinical progression, and poor prognosis of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas were also observed. Moreover, we found that knockdown of TFAP2A expression by siRNA significantly inhibited tumor cell growth in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model by targeting the HIF-1α-mediated VEGF/pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) signaling pathway. Treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells with TFAP2A siRNA dramatically inhibited the expression and the release of VEGF protein but did not change the level of PEDF protein, resulting in a significant reduction of the ratio of VEGF/PEDF. Pretreatment with a HIF-1α siRNA did not significantly change the TFAP2A siRNA-mediated inhibition in cell viability. Our results indicate that TFAP2A regulates nasopharyngeal carcinoma growth and survival through the modulation of the HIF-1α-mediated VEGF/PEDF signaling pathway, and suggest that TFAP2A could be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment.
ErbB2 gene amplification occurs in 20%-25% of breast cancers, and its therapeutic targeting has markedly improved survival of patients with breast cancer in the adjuvant setting. However, resistance to these therapies can develop. Because epigenetic mechanisms can importantly influence oncogene expression and be druggable as well, we investigated histone modifications that influence ErbB2 overexpression, independent of gene amplification. We demonstrate here that ErbB2-overexpressing breast carcinomas acquire the H3K4me3 mark on the erbB2 promoter and that receptor-amplified tumors further acquire the H3K9ac mark, which is dependent on H3K4me3 mark acquisition. Targeting WD repeat domain 5 (Wdr5), which is absolutely required for H3K4me3 enrichment, decreased ErbB2 overexpression, associated with a decrease in the H3K4me3 mark on the erbB2 promoter. Of note, Wdr5 silencing cooperated with trastuzumab or chemotherapy in specifically inhibiting the growth of ErbB2-positive breast tumor cells. Thus, our studies illuminate epigenetic steps in the selection for ErbB2 activation.
Fujiwara K, Ghosh S, Liang P, et al.Genome-wide screening of aberrant DNA methylation which associated with gene expression in mouse skin cancers.
Mol Carcinog. 2015; 54(3):178-88 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epigenetic alteration of genomic DNA is a common and key process in carcinogenesis. There is considerable evidence indicating that some of the somatic alterations occurring during carcinogenesis in humans also involve the same processes as those observed in mice. Therefore, we analyzed mouse skin cancer tissues induced by the 2-stage carcinogenesis model to identify skin tumor-specific differentially methylated regions (ST-DMRs) during the multistep carcinogenesis process. We have previously identified ST-DMRs using the restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS) technique and reported that some of the mouse ST-DMRs were also epigenetically modified in human cancers, such as melanoma, neuroblastoma, and brain tumor. These results encouraged us to pursue global methylation screening in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Using the methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) method combined with the NimbleGen promoter plus CpG island (CpGi) array, we identified 615 ST-DMRs. In combination with global gene expression analysis, 91 of these ST-DMRs were shown to be located on or around the genes differentially expressed between normal skin and tumor tissues, including a candidate human tumor suppressor gene Tfap2e. As observed in human colorectal cancers, Tfap2e was methylated at a CpGi located in intron 3 and downregulated in skin tumors. Our results identified aberrant methylated regions that were associated with gene expression regulation during carcinogenesis, which may indicate critical genetic regions also involved in human carcinogenesis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Spanheimer PM, Cyr AR, Gillum MP, et al.Distinct pathways regulated by RET and estrogen receptor in luminal breast cancer demonstrate the biological basis for combination therapy.
Ann Surg. 2014; 259(4):793-9 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We investigated directed therapy based on TFAP2C-regulated pathways to inform new therapeutic approaches for treatment of luminal breast cancer.
BACKGROUND: TFAP2C regulates the expression of genes characterizing the luminal phenotype including ESR1 and RET, but pathway cross talk and potential for distinct elements have not been characterized.
METHODS: Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and AKT was assessed using phosphorylation-specific Western blot. Cell proliferation was measured with MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] after siRNA (small interfering RNA) gene knockdown or drug treatment. Cell cycle, Ki-67, and cleaved caspase 3 were measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Tumorigenesis was assessed in mice xenografts.
RESULTS: Knockdown of TFAP2C or RET inhibited GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor)-mediated activation of ERK and AKT in MCF-7 cells. Similarly, sunitinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of RET, blocked GDNF-mediated activation of ERK and AKT. Inhibition of RET either by gene knockdown or by treatment with sunitinib or vandetanib reduced RET-dependent growth of luminal breast cancer cells. Interestingly, knockdown of TFAP2C, which controls both ER (estrogen receptor) and RET, demonstrated a greater effect on cell growth than either RET or ER alone. Parallel experiments using treatment with tamoxifen and sunitinib confirmed the increased effectiveness of dual inhibition of the ER and RET pathways in regulating cell growth. Whereas targeting the ER pathway altered cell proliferation, as measured by Ki-67 and S-phase, anti-RET primarily increased apoptosis, as demonstrated by cleaved caspase 3 and increased TUNEL (terminal deoxyneucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) expression in xenografts.
CONCLUSIONS: ER and RET primarily function through distinct pathways regulating proliferation and cell survival, respectively. The findings inform a therapeutic approach based on combination therapy with antiestrogen and anti-RET in luminal breast cancer.
Extracellular matrix 1 (ECM1) is over-expressed in multiple epithelial malignancies. However, knowledge regarding the expression of ECM1 in melanomas and the mechanisms of ECM1 regulation is limited. In this study, we found that ECM1 is over-expressed in several melanoma cell lines, when compared to primary melanocytes, and furthermore, that ECM1 expression paralleled that of TFAP2C levels in multiple cell lines. Knockdown of TFAP2C in the A375 cell line with siRNA led to a reduction in ECM1 expression, and upregulation of TFAP2C with adenoviral vectors in the WM793 cell line resulted in ECM1 upregulation. Utilizing 5' RACE to identify transcription start sites (TSS) and luciferase reporter assays in the ECM1-overexpressing A375 cell line, we identified the minimal promoter region of human ECM1 and demonstrate that an approximately 100bp fragment upstream of the TSS containing a TATA box and binding sites for AP1, SP1 and Ets is sufficient for promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and direct sequencing (ChIP-seq) for TFAP2C in the A375 cell line identified an AP2 regulatory region in the promoter of the ECM1 gene. Gelshift assays further confirmed binding of TFAP2C to this site. ECM1 knockdown reduces melanoma cell attachment and is consistent with findings that ECM1 overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis. Our investigations show an as yet unrecognized role for TFAP2C in melanoma via its regulation of ECM1.
Zeng L, Jarrett C, Brown K, et al.Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) plays a role in the anti-tumorigenic effects of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) in breast cancer cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2013; 319(14):2282-95 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Breast cancer progression is associated with loss of estrogen receptor (ER-α), often due to epigenetic silencing. IGFBP genes have consistently been identified among the most common to be aberrantly methylated in tumours. To understand the impact of losing IGFBP-3 tumour expression via DNA methylation, we treated four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, Hs578T and MDA-MB-231) with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) to determine IGFBP-3's role in the effects of AZA on total cell number and survival relative to changes in the ER. AZA induced cell growth inhibition, death and a reduction in the formation of colonies, despite increasing ER-α expression in ER-negative cells but reducing ER-α in ER-positive cells. Regardless of the differential effects on the ER-α, AZA consistently increased the abundance of IGFBP-3 and negating this increase in IGFBP-3 with siRNA reduced the AZA-induced growth inhibition and induction of cell death and virtually negated the AZA-induced inhibition of colony formation. With ER-α positive cells AZA increased the abundance of the tumour suppressor gene, p53 and induced demethylation of the IGFBP-3 promoter, whereas with ER negative cells, AZA epigenetically increased the transcription factor AP2-α, which when silenced prevented the increase in IGFBP-3. IGFBP-3 plays an important role in the anti-tumorigenic effects of AZA on breast cancer cells.
Spanheimer PM, Askeland RW, Kulak MV, et al.High TFAP2C/low CD44 expression is associated with an increased rate of pathologic complete response following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
J Surg Res. 2013; 184(1):519-25 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In luminal breast cancer cell lines, TFAP2C regulates expression of key genes in the estrogen receptor-associated cluster and represses basal-associated genes including CD44. We examined the effect of TFAP2C overexpression in a basal cell line and characterized the expression of TFAP2C and CD44 in breast cancer specimens to determine if expression was associated with clinical response.
METHODS: MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were treated with a TFAP2C-containing plasmid and evaluated for effects on CD44 expression. Pretreatment biopsy cores from patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer were evaluated for TFAP2A, p53, TFAP2C, and CD44 expression by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Overexpression of TFAP2C in MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in decreased expression of CD44 mRNA and protein, P < 0.05. A pathologic complete response (pCR) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy was achieved in 17% of patients (4/23). Average expression for TFAP2C by immunohistochemistry in patients with a pCR was 93%, compared with 46% in patients with residual disease, P = 0.016; and in tumors that stained at ≥80% for TFAP2C, 4 of 9 (44%) achieved pCR, compared with 0 of 14 below 80%, P = 0.01. Additionally, in tumors that stained ≤80% for CD44, 4 of 10 (40%) achieved pCR, compared with 0 of 13 >80%, P = 0.02. In tumors that stained high for TFAP2C (≥80%) and low for CD44 (≤80%), 4 of 7 (57%) achieved pCR, compared with 0 of 16 in all other groups (P = 0.004).
CONCLUSIONS: TFAP2C repressed CD44 expression in basal-derived breast cancer. In primary breast cancer specimens, high TFAP2C and low CD44 expression were associated with pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and could be predictive of tumors that have improved response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Penna E, Orso F, Cimino D, et al.miR-214 coordinates melanoma progression by upregulating ALCAM through TFAP2 and miR-148b downmodulation.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(13):4098-111 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive human cancers, but the mechanisms governing its metastatic dissemination are not fully understood. Upregulation of miR-214 and ALCAM and the loss of TFAP2 expression have been implicated in this process, with TFAP2 a direct target of miR-214. Here, we link miR-214 and ALCAM as well as identify a core role for miR-214 in organizing melanoma metastasis. miR-214 upregulated ALCAM, acting transcriptionally through TFAP2 and also posttranscriptionally through miR-148b (itself controlled by TFAP2), both negative regulators of ALCAM. We also identified several miR-214-mediated prometastatic functions directly promoted by ALCAM. Silencing ALCAM in miR-214-overexpressing melanoma cells reduced cell migration and invasion without affecting growth or anoikis in vitro, and it also impaired extravasation and metastasis formation in vivo. Conversely, cell migration and extravasation was reduced in miR-214-overexpressing cells by upregulation of either miR-148b or TFAP2. These findings were consistent with patterns of expression of miR-214, ALCAM, and miR-148b in human melanoma specimens. Overall, our results define a pathway involving miR-214, miR-148b, TFAP2, and ALCAM that is critical for establishing distant metastases in melanoma.
Zhang Z, Zhang L, Jia L, et al.AP-2α suppresses invasion in BeWo cells by repression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and up-regulation of E-cadherin.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2013; 381(1-2):31-9 [PubMed
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Preeclampsia complicates 5-10% of pregnancies and is a leading cause of maternal/fetal morbidity and mortality. Although the cause is unknown, the reduced migration/invasion of extravillous trophoblasts is generally regarded as a key feature of preeclampsia genesis. The present study examined the expression of activator protein-2α (AP-2α), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and E-cadherin in severe preeclamptic placentas and normal placentas using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of AP-2α, TIMP-2, and E-cadherin were elevated, while MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were decreased in severe preeclamptic placentas when compared with normal placentas. To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, BeWo cells were transfected with an AP-2α-expression construct as well as a siRNA against AP-2α. The over-expression of AP-2α decreased the invasive abilities of BeWo cells. AP-2α induction was followed by the induction of TIMP-2 and E-cadherin and a significant reduction of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Whereas in AP-2α-silencing BeWo cells, we observed the decreased expression of TIMP-2 and E-cadherin and the increased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. We presume that AP-2α may suppress trophoblast invasion by repression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and up-regulation of E-cadherin, thus leading to shallow placentation in severe preeclampsia.
Ding X, Yang Z, Zhou F, et al.Transcription factor AP-2α regulates acute myeloid leukemia cell proliferation by influencing Hoxa gene expression.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013; 45(8):1647-56 [PubMed
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Transcription factor AP-2α mediates transcription of a number of genes implicated in mammalian development, cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. In the current study, we identified Hoxa7, Hoxa9 and Hox cofactor Meis1 as AP-2α target genes, which are involved in myeloid leukemogenesis. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that overexpression of AP-2α activated transcription activities of Hoxa7, Hoxa9 and Meis1, whereas siRNA of AP-2α inhibited their transcription activities. We found that AP-2 binding sites in regulatory regions of three genes activated their transcription by mutant analysis and AP-2α could interact with AP-2 binding sites in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Further results showed that the AP-2α shRNA efficiently inhibited mRNA and protein levels of Hoxa7, Hoxa9 and Meis1 in AML cell lines U937 and HL60. Moreover, decreased expression of AP-2α resulted in a significant reduction in the growth and proliferation of AML cells in vitro. Remarkably, AP-2α knockdown leukemia cells exhibit decreased tumorigenicity in vivo compared with controls. Finally, AP-2α and target genes in clinical acute myeloid leukemia samples of M5b subtype revealed variable expression levels and broadly paralleled expression. These data support a role of AP-2α in mediating the expression of Hoxa genes in acute myeloid leukemia to influence the proliferation and cell survival.
Cellular differentiation leading to formation of the bradyzoite tissue cyst stage is the underlying cause of chronic toxoplasmosis. Consequently, mechanisms responsible for controlling development in the Toxoplasma intermediate life cycle have long been sought. Here, we identified 15 Toxoplasma mRNAs induced in early bradyzoite development that encode proteins with apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) DNA binding domains. Of these 15 mRNAs, the AP2IX-9 mRNA demonstrated the largest expression increase during alkaline-induced differentiation. At the protein level, we found that AP2IX-9 was restricted to the early bradyzoite nucleus and is repressed in tachyzoites and in mature bradyzoites from 30-d infected animals. Conditional overexpression of AP2IX-9 significantly reduced tissue cyst formation and conferred alkaline pH-resistant growth, whereas disruption of the AP2IX-9 gene increased tissue cyst formation, indicating AP2IX-9 operates as a repressor of bradyzoite development. Consistent with a role as a repressor, AP2IX-9 specifically inhibited the expression of bradyzoite mRNAs, including the canonical bradyzoite marker, bradyzoite antigen 1 (BAG1). Using protein binding microarrays, we established the AP2 domain of AP2IX-9 binds a CAGTGT DNA sequence motif and is capable of binding cis-regulatory elements controlling the BAG1 and bradyzoite-specific nucleoside triphosphatase (B-NTPase) promoters. The effect of AP2IX-9 on BAG1 expression was direct because this factor inhibits expression of a firefly luciferase reporter under the control of the BAG1 promoter in vivo, and epitope-tagged AP2IX-9 can be immunoprecipitated with the BAG1 promoter in parasite chromatin. Altogether, these results indicate AP2IX-9 restricts Toxoplasma commitment to develop the mature bradyzoite tissue cyst.
Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive tumour with increasing -incidence and poor prognosis in the metastatic stage. In recent years, a substantial number of reports on individual miRNAs or miRNA patterns have been published providing strong evidence that miRNAs might play an important role in malignant melanoma and might help to better understand the molecular mechanisms of melanoma development and progression. A major preliminary finding was that melanoma-associated miRNAs are often located in genomic regions with frequent gains and losses in tumours. Detailed studies of different groups thereafter identified miRNAs with differential expression in benign melanocytes compared with melanoma cell lines or in benign melanocytic lesions compared with melanomas. Among these were let-7a and b, miR-23a and b, miR-148, miR-155, miR-182, miR-200c, miR-211, miR214, and miR-221 and 222. Some of these miRNAs target well-known melanoma-associated genes like the NRAS oncogene, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), receptor tyrosine kinase c-KIT or AP-2 transcription factors (TFAP2). Although we are still far from a complete understanding of the role of miRNA-target gene interactions in malignant melanoma, these findings further underscore the notion of a direct involvement of miRNAs in melanoma biology. Very recently, a prognostic signature of six miRNAs has been identified consisting of miRNAs miR-150, miR-342-3p, miR-455-3p, miR-145, miR-155, and miR-497. High expression of these miRNAs was shown to be associated with improved long-term survival of metastatic patients.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the establishment and characterization of a human cell line, SEM-1, from a patient diagnosed with a mediastinal seminoma.
METHODS: A small percentage of germ cell tumors develop as primary lesions in extragonadal sites, and the etiology of these tumors is poorly understood. Currently, only 2 cell lines from seminoma patients have been reported, JKT-1 and TCam-2, both derived from the testis. The cell line was characterized by heterotransplantation in Nude mice, cytogenetic studies, immunohistochemical and flow cytometry staining for germ cell tumor biomarkers, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for cancer testis antigen expression, and BRAF mutation screening with quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Characterization studies confirmed the human extragonadal seminoma origin of SEM-1 and demonstrated that it had more features in common with TCam-2 than JKT-1. Specifically, SEM-1 was positive for Sal-like protein 4 (SALL-4), activator protein-2γ (AP-2γ), and cytokeratin CAM5.2, and demonstrated heterogeneous expression of stem cell markers octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4, NANOG, c-KIT, SOX17, and SOX2. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a hypotriploid chromosome number, with multiple copies of 12p, but isochromosome 12p and the BRAF mutation V600E were not identified. The cell lines also did not contain the BRD4/NUT gene rearrangement [t(15,19)] seen in midline carcinomas nor did they contain overexpressed nuclear protein in testis (NUT) genes.
CONCLUSION: SEM-1 is the first cell line derived from an extragonadal germ cell tumor showing intermediate characteristics between seminoma and nonseminoma, and as such, is an important model to study the molecular pathogenesis of this malignancy.
Shiu KK, Wetterskog D, Mackay A, et al.Integrative molecular and functional profiling of ERBB2-amplified breast cancers identifies new genetic dependencies.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(5):619-31 [PubMed
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Overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase ERBB2 (also known as HER2) occurs in around 15% of breast cancers and is driven by amplification of the ERBB2 gene. ERBB2 amplification is a marker of poor prognosis, and although anti-ERBB2-targeted therapies have shown significant clinical benefit, de novo and acquired resistance remains an important problem. Genomic profiling has demonstrated that ERBB2+ve breast cancers are distinguished from ER+ve and 'triple-negative' breast cancers by harbouring not only the ERBB2 amplification on 17q12, but also a number of co-amplified genes on 17q12 and amplification events on other chromosomes. Some of these genes may have important roles in influencing clinical outcome, and could represent genetic dependencies in ERBB2+ve cancers and therefore potential therapeutic targets. Here, we describe an integrated genomic, gene expression and functional analysis to determine whether the genes present within amplicons are critical for the survival of ERBB2+ve breast tumour cells. We show that only a fraction of the ERBB2-amplified breast tumour lines are truly addicted to the ERBB2 oncogene at the mRNA level and display a heterogeneous set of additional genetic dependencies. These include an addiction to the transcription factor gene TFAP2C when it is amplified and overexpressed, suggesting that TFAP2C represents a genetic dependency in some ERBB2+ve breast cancer cells.
Niebler S, Bosserhoff AKThe transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein epsilon (AP-2ε) regulates the core promoter of type II collagen (COL2A1).
FEBS J. 2013; 280(6):1397-408 [PubMed
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The transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein epsilon (AP-2ε) was recently shown to be expressed during late chondrocyte differentiation, especially in hypertrophic chondrocytes. In this study, we were able to reveal that the promoter of the type II collagen (COL2A1) gene, encoding the extracellular matrix protein type II collagen, is specifically regulated by AP-2ε. Expression of COL2A1 is downregulated at the transition of chondroblasts into hypertrophic chondrocytes and our data provide evidence that AP-2ε is involved in this process. In reporter gene assays, overexpression of AP-2ε in cartilaginous cell lines resulted in a significant reduction in COL2A1 core promoter activity of ~ 45%. Furthermore, we found that this process is dose-dependent and highly specific for the epsilon isoform. Computational analysis offered only a single putative AP-2-binding motif within the chosen promoter fragment but site-directed mutagenesis revealed this motif to be regulatory inactive. After expanding our screening to motifs containing minor differences from the classical AP-2 consensus sequence (5'-GCCN3 GGC-3'), we determined the sequence 5'-GCCCAGGC-3' ranging from position -128 to -135 bp as an important regulatory site and responsible for COL2A1 downregulation through AP-2ε. Interaction of AP-2ε with the COL2A1 promoter at this site was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and electromobility shift assay. Further, our experiments suggest that at least one additional factor is involved in this process. This is the first study to prove regulation of COL2A1 by AP-2ε highlighting the role of the transcription factor as a modulator of cartilage development.
Yan F, He Q, Hu X, et al.Direct regulation of caspase‑3 by the transcription factor AP‑2α is involved in aspirin‑induced apoptosis in MDA‑MB‑453 breast cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2013; 7(3):909-14 [PubMed
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Aspirin has been reported to trigger apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. However, the detailed mechanisms involved remain elusive. The present study aimed to investigate whether aspirin plays a role in apoptosis of MDA-MB-453 cells. The effect of aspirin on the proliferation of human MDA-MB-453 cells breast cancer cells was evaluated using MTT assay, flow cytometry and western blotting. The present study reports that aspirin induces the apoptosis of MDA‑MB‑453 breast cancer cells which was attributed to the increased expression and activation of caspase‑3. Moreover, AP‑2α, a transcription factor highly expressed in MDA‑MB‑453 cells, was identified as a negative regulator of caspase‑3 transcription and AP‑2α was attenuated following aspirin treatment. Therefore, aspirin may increase the expression of caspase‑3 by inducing the degradation of AP‑2α, which increases activated caspase‑3 expression, thereby triggering apoptosis in MDA‑MB‑453 cells. Thus, aspirin may be used in breast cancer therapy.