Gene Summary

Gene:SPINT2; serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type, 2
Aliases: PB, Kop, HAI2, DIAR3, HAI-2
Summary:This gene encodes a transmembrane protein with two extracellular Kunitz domains that inhibits a variety of serine proteases. The protein inhibits HGF activator which prevents the formation of active hepatocyte growth factor. This gene is a putative tumor suppressor, and mutations in this gene result in congenital sodium diarrhea. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:kunitz-type protease inhibitor 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (7)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 16 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SPINT2 (cancer-related)

Mrizak D, Martin N, Barjon C, et al.
Effect of nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived exosomes on human regulatory T cells.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(1):363 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Treg) and tumor-exosomes are thought to play a role in preventing the rejection of malignant cells in patients bearing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
METHODS: Treg recruitment by exosomes derived from NPC cell lines (C15/C17-Exo), exosomes isolated from NPC patients' plasma (Patient-Exo), and CCL20 were tested in vitro using Boyden chamber assays and in vivo using a xenograft SCID mouse model (n = 5), both in the presence and absence of anti-CCL20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Impact of these NPC exosomes (NPC-Exo) on Treg phenotype and function was determined using adapted assays (FACS, Q-PCR, ELISA, and MLR). Experiments were performed in comparison with exosomes derived from plasma of healthy donors (HD-Exo). The Student's t test was used for group comparisons. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: CCL20 allowed the intratumoral recruitment of human Treg. NPC-Exo also facilitated Treg recruitment (3.30 ± 0.34 fold increase, P < .001), which was statistically significantly inhibited (P < .001) by an anti-CCL20 blocking mAb. NPC-Exo also recruited conventional CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells and mediated their conversion into inhibitory CD4(+)CD25(high) cells. Moreover, NPC-Exo enhanced (P = .0048) the expansion of human Treg, inducing the generation of Tim3(Low) Treg with increased expression of CD25 and FOXP3. Finally, NPC-Exo induced an overexpression of cell markers associated with Treg phenotype, properties and recruitment capacity. For example, GZMB mean fold change was 21.45 ± 1.75 (P < .001). These results were consistent with a stronger suppression of responder cells' proliferation and the secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines (IL10, TGFB1).
CONCLUSION: Interactions between NPC-Exo and Treg represent a newly defined mechanism that may be involved in regulating peripheral tolerance by tumors and in supporting immune evasion in human NPC.

Wu J, Zhang JY, Yin L, et al.
HAP1 gene expression is associated with radiosensitivity in breast cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 456(1):162-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between huntingtin-associated protein1 (HAP1) gene and radiation therapy of breast cancer cells.
METHODS: HAP1 gene was transfected into breast cancer MCF-7 cells, which was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis (qRT-PCR) and Western blot in vitro. The changes of cell radiosensitivity were assessed by colony formation assay. Apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. The expressions of two radiation-induced genes were evaluated by Western blot. Tumor growth was investigated in nude mice xenograft models in vivo.
RESULTS: Our data showed that HAP1 gene expression was significantly increased in HAP1-transfected MCF-7 cells in comparison with the parental cells or negative control cells. The survival rate in MCF-7/HAP1 cells was significantly decreased after irradiation (0, 2, 4, 6, 8Gy), compared to cells in MCF-7 and MCF-7/Pb groups in vitro. HAP1 gene increased apoptosis in MCF-7 cells after irradiation. Additionally, the tumor volume and weight in MCF-7/HAP1+RT group were observably lower than in MCF-7/HAP1 group and MCF-7/Pb+RT group.
CONCLUSION: The present study indicated that HAP1 gene expression was related to the radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells and may play an important role in the regulation of cellular radiosensitivity.

Maximov PY, McDaniel RE, Fernandes DJ, et al.
Pharmacological relevance of endoxifen in a laboratory simulation of breast cancer in postmenopausal patients.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(10) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen is metabolically activated via a CYP2D6 enzyme system to the more potent hydroxylated derivatives 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen. This study addresses the pharmacological importance of endoxifen by simulating clinical scenarios in vitro.
METHODS: Clinical levels of tamoxifen metabolites in postmenopausal breast cancer patients previously genotyped for CYP2D6 were used in vitro along with clinical estrogen levels (estrone and estradiol) in postmenopausal patients determined in previous studies. The biological effects on cell growth were evaluated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell lines via cell proliferation assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Data were analyzed with one- and two-way analysis of variance and Student's t test. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Postmenopausal levels of estrogen-induced proliferation of all test breast cancer cell lines (mean fold induction ± SD vs vehicle control: MCF-7 = 11 ± 1.74, P < .001; T47D = 7.52 ± 0.72, P < .001; BT474 = 1.75 ± 0.23, P < .001; ZR-75-1 = 5.5 ± 1.95, P = .001. Tamoxifen and primary metabolites completely inhibited cell growth regardless of the CYP2D6 genotype in all cell lines (mean fold induction ± SD vs vehicle control: MCF-7 = 1.57 ± 0.38, P = .54; T47D = 1.17 ± 0.23, P = .79; BT474 = 0.96 ± 0.2, P = .98; ZR-75-1 = 0.86 ± 0.67, P = .99). Interestingly, tamoxifen and its primary metabolites were not able to fully inhibit the estrogen-stimulated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in MCF-7 cells (P < .05 for all genes), but the addition of endoxifen was able to produce additional antiestrogenic effect on these genes.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tamoxifen and other metabolites, excluding endoxifen, completely inhibit estrogen-stimulated growth in all cell lines, but additional antiestrogenic action from endoxifen is necessary for complete blockade of estrogen-stimulated genes. Endoxifen is of supportive importance for the therapeutic effect of tamoxifen in a postmenopausal setting.

Marino AM, Frijhoff J, Calero R, et al.
Effects of epigenetic modificators in combination with small molecule inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases on medulloblastoma growth.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 450(4):1600-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetic alterations and aberrant expression of genes controlling epigenetic mechanisms have been identified in several cancers, including medulloblastoma, the most common brain tumor in children. Here we show that combining drugs that inhibit two of the most important epigenetic factors, gene methylation and post-translational modifications of protein histone-associated DNA, with small molecule inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases induces apoptosis. The histone deacetylation inhibitor, 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB) and the demethylation agent, 5-Aza-2'deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) had minor effects on medulloblastoma cell cytotoxity in single agent treatment whereas a significant enhancement in cell cytotoxity was seen when these drugs were combined with Gleevec. Triple treatment of medulloblastoma cells with 4-PB, 5-Aza and Gleevec were associated with reduced DNA methyltransferase activity, reduced global methylation and induction of apoptosis. Taken together these results suggest that a combination of these drugs may be beneficial in the treatment of medulloblastoma.

Wang L, Xu M, Wang C, et al.
The feature of distribution and clonality of TCR γ/δ subfamilies T cells in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
J Immunol Res. 2014; 2014:241246 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Restricted T-cell receptor (TCR) Vα/Vβ repertoire expression and clonal expansion of αβ T cells especially for putative tumor-associated antigens were observed in patients with hematological malignancies. To further characterize the γδ T-cell immune status in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), we investigated the distribution and clonality of TCR Vγ/Vδ repertoire in peripheral blood (PB), bone marrow (BM), and lymph node (LN) from patients with B-NHL. Four newly diagnosed B-NHL cases, including three with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and one with small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), were enrolled. The restrictive expression of TCR Vγ/Vδ subfamilies with different distribution patterns could be detected in PB, BM, or LN from all of four patients, and partial subfamily T cells showed clonal proliferation. At least one clonally expanded Vδ subfamily member was found in PB from each patient. However, the expression pattern and clonality of TCR Vγ/Vδ changed in different immune organs and showed individual feature in different patients. The clonally expanded Vδ5, Vδ6, and Vδ8 were detected only in PB but neither in BM nor LN while clonally expanded Vδ2 and Vδ3 could be detected in both PB and BM/LN. In conclusion, the results provide a preliminary profile of distribution and clonality of TCR γ/δ subfamilies T cells in PB, BM, and LN from B-NHL; similar clonally expanded Vδ subfamily T cells in PB and BM may be related to the same B-cell lymphoma-associated antigens, while the different reactive clonally expanded Vγ/Vδ T cells may be due to local immune response.

Yu P, Ge YZ, Zhao Y, et al.
Identification and significance of mobilized endothelial progenitor cells in tumor neovascularization of renal cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):9331-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neovascularization is a key role of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the status of neovascularization in RCC is closely correlated with the tumor development and patient prognosis. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are considered as important building blocks for neovascularization. However, the role of mobilized EPCs in RCC remains unknown. In this study, the orthotopic RCC model was established to investigate the distribution, frequency, and significance of mobilized EPCs. We found that circulating endothelial progenitor cell (CEPC) levels and plasma angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) were higher in peripheral blood (PB) of the RCC than those in the normal group and positively correlated with each other. EPC levels in adjacent nonmalignant kidney tissue (AT) were significantly higher than those in tumor tissue (TT) and normal kidney tissue (NT), which were positively correlated with CEPC levels. VEGF, VEGF receptor-2 (Flk), and SDF-1 and its SDF-1 receptor (CXCR4) expression in AT was significantly higher than that in TT and NT. Levels of these angiogenic factors in AT were positively correlated with those in PB. Mean microvessel density (MVD) was higher in AT than in TT, and that in TT was slightly lower than that in NT. Our findings propose that mobilized EPCs play an important role in RCC neovascularization. EPCs in PB and AT can be used as a biomarker for predicting RCC progression.

Rajgor D, Mellad JA, Soong D, et al.
Mammalian microtubule P-body dynamics are mediated by nesprin-1.
J Cell Biol. 2014; 205(4):457-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Nesprins are a multi-isomeric family of spectrin-repeat (SR) proteins, predominantly known as nuclear envelope scaffolds. However, isoforms that function beyond the nuclear envelope remain poorly examined. Here, we characterize p50(Nesp1), a 50-kD isoform that localizes to processing bodies (PBs), where it acts as a microtubule-associated protein capable of linking mRNP complexes to microtubules. Overexpression of dominant-negative p50(Nesp1) caused Rck/p54, but not GW182, displacement from microtubules, resulting in reduced PB movement and cross talk with stress granules (SGs). These cells disassembled canonical SGs induced by sodium arsenite, but not those induced by hydrogen peroxide, leading to cell death and revealing PB-microtubule attachment is required for hydrogen peroxide-induced SG anti-apoptotic functions. Furthermore, p50(Nesp1) was required for miRNA-mediated silencing and interacted with core miRISC silencers Ago2 and Rck/p54 in an RNA-dependent manner and with GW182 in a microtubule-dependent manner. These data identify p50(Nesp1) as a multi-functional PB component and microtubule scaffold necessary for RNA granule dynamics and provides evidence for PB and SG micro-heterogeneity.

Neslund-Dudas C, Levin AM, Beebe-Dimmer JL, et al.
Gene-environment interactions between JAZF1 and occupational and household lead exposure in prostate cancer among African American men.
Cancer Causes Control. 2014; 25(7):869-79 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: A single nucleotide polymorphism, rs10486567, in JAZF1 has consistently been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. The physical interaction of zinc finger proteins, such as JAZF1, with heavy metals may play a role in carcinogenesis. This study assessed potential gene-environment statistical interactions (G×E) between rs10486567 and heavy metals in prostate cancer.
METHODS: In a case-only study of 228 African American prostate cancer cases, G×E between rs10486567 and sources of cadmium and lead (Pb) were assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate interaction odds ratios (IORs), and generalized estimating equations were used for models containing nested data. Case-control validation of IORs was performed, using 82 controls frequency matched to cases on age-race.
RESULTS: Among cases, a potential G×E interaction was observed between rs10486567 CC genotype and living in a Census tract with a high proportion of housing built before 1950, a proxy for household Pb exposure, when compared to CT or TT carriers (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.04-3.16; p = 0.036). A stronger G×E interaction was observed when both housing and occupational Pb exposure were taken into account (OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.03-6.68; p = 0.04). Case-control stratified analyses showed the odds of being a CC carrier were higher in cases compared to controls among men living in areas with older housing (OR 2.03; CI 0.99-4.19; p = 0.05) or having high occupational Pb exposure (OR 2.50; CI 1.01-6.18; p = 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: In African American men, the association between JAZF1 rs10486567 and prostate cancer may be modified by exposure to heavy metals such as Pb.

Bobek V, Kacprzak G, Rzechonek A, Kolostova K
Detection and cultivation of circulating tumor cells in malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(5):2565-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive disease with very poor prognosis which tends to affect older patients. Progress in the management of this group of patients has been limited by the rarity of the disease and hence, difficulty in conducting randomized trials. The vast majority of cancer deaths occur due to metastasis of the primary tumor to distant sites via circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the circulation. CTCs are extremely rare and limits in technology used to capture these cells hamper our complete understanding over the metastatic process. In the present study we present a new method for detection and cultivation of CTCs isolated from peripheral blood of MPM patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with diagnosed MPM were enrolled into this study.
RESULTS: A size-based separation method for viable CTC enrichment from unclothed peripheral blood has been introduced; MetaCell. The size-based enrichment process was based on filtration of peripheral blood (PB) through porous polycarbonate membrane. The separated CTCs are cultured on the membrane in vitro under standard cancer cell culture conditions and observed by an inverted microscope.
CONCLUSION: The reported methodology allows for quick and easy enrichment of CTCs and their cultivation. The cultivated cells can be used for next specification of gene expression and histological/biological specificity of concrete mesothelioma.

Zhong SL, Zhang J, Hu Q, et al.
C1420T polymorphism of cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(5):2257-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
A series of studies have explored the role of cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT1) C1420T polymorphism in cancer risk, but their results were conflicting rather than conclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the association between C1420T and cancer risk, the present meta-analysis of 28 available studies with 15,121 cases and 18,023 controls was conducted. The results revealed that there was no significant association between the polymorphism and cancer risk overall. In stratified analysis by cancer type (breast cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and others), the results showed that 1420T allele was associated with decreased risk in leukemia (CT vs. CC: OR= 0.825, 95% CI =0.704-0.966; and CT+TT vs. CC: OR= 0.838, 95% CI = 0.722-0.973), but the same results were not present for other cancer types. When subgroup analysis was performed by source of control (population-based [PB] and hospital-based [HB]), a borderline inverse association was observed for the HB subgroup (CT vs. CC: OR= 0.917, 95% CI = 0.857-0.982) but not for the PB subgroup. Stratifying by geographic area (America, Asia and Europe), significant inverse association was only found in Asia subgroup (CT vs. CC: OR= 0.674, 95% CI = 0.522-0.870). In summary, the findings suggest that SHMT1 C1420T polymorphism is not associated with overall cancer development, but might decrease cancer susceptibility of Asians as well as reduce leukemia risk. Large well-designed epidemiological studies will be necessary to validate the risk identified in the current meta-analysis.

Li Y, Yang L, Pan Y, et al.
Methylation and decreased expression of SHP-1 are related to disease progression in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(5):2438-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the unprecedented success of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in treating chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), some patients nevertheless progress to advanced stages of the disease. Thus far, the biological basis leading to CML progression remains poorly understood. SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) is reported to bind to p210BCR‑ABL1 and to function as a tumor suppressor. Furthermore, its substrates have been found to be essential for p210BCR-ABL1 leukemogenesis or CML progression. In the present study, we found that SHP-1 mRNA and protein levels were markedly decreased in patients in the accelerated and blastic phases of CML (AP-CML and BP-CML) compared to those in the chronic phase (CP-CML). In vitro, we demonstrated that overexpression of SHP-1 reduced p210BCR-ABL1 protein expression and activity in the K562 CML cell line and negatively regulated the AKT, MAPK, MYC and JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathways. Moreover, using a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) assay, abnormal methylation of the SHP-1 gene promoter region was found both in K562 cells and bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood (PB) cells from AP-CML and BP-CML patients. In conclusion, our findings suggest that decreased expression levels of SHP-1 caused by aberrant promoter hypermethylation may play a key role in the progression of CML by dysregulating BCR-ABL1, AKT, MAPK, MYC and JAK2/STAT5 signaling.

Sørensen CD, Jørgensen JM, Nederby L, et al.
Common consensus LNA probe for quantitative PCR assays in cancer: vehicles for minimal residual disease detection in t(11;14) and t(14;18) positive malignant lymphomas.
J Immunol Methods. 2014; 406:131-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The use of locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes and primers potentially improves sensitivity and specificity of quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. One area of application is that of minimal residual cancer where PCR techniques have proved to be highly relevant tools in patient follow-up. We present here sensitive and specific consensus qPCR assays for quantification of the malignant lymphoma translocations, t(11;14) and t(14;18), by taking advantage of the thermodynamic properties of LNA. The assays were applied to genomic DNA from patients diagnosed with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL), respectively. Two consensus forward primers targeting the BCL1 and BCL2 genes were designed together with a common consensus reverse primer and hydrolysis probe, the latter consisting exclusively of LNA, both targeting the J segments of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene. The quantitative range of both assays was 1×10(0) to 5×10(-5), and the sensitivity was 10(-5), without the need for patient-specific primers. Peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples from 36 patients diagnosed with MCL and nine patients diagnosed with FL were analysed using this novel qPCR approach. The level of minimal residual disease (MRD) using t(11;14) and t(14;18) as genetic targets reflected the clinical status of the patients: low levels of MRD at clinical remission, and increasing levels at disease progression. The present assays could prove as useful tools in lymphoma therapy.

Vij R, Mazumder A, Klinger M, et al.
Deep sequencing reveals myeloma cells in peripheral blood in majority of multiple myeloma patients.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2014; 14(2):131-139.e1 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of myeloma cells in multiple myeloma (MM) patients has generally been limited to the assessment of bone marrow involvement because of the sensitivity limitations of traditional minimal-residual-disease-detection methods.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a sequencing-based method to identify myeloma cells in bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) samples, based on their unique immunoglobulin gene rearrangements, that can detect cancer clones at levels well below 1 in 1 million leukocytes (0.0001%). In this multisite study, we used this sequencing method to determine the fraction of patients with myeloma cells in their PB at diagnosis and posttreatment time points.
RESULTS: Using this sequencing approach, we detected myeloma cells in the PB in the vast majority of MM patients (44/46, 96%). We demonstrated a clear correlation (R(2) = 0.57) between myeloma clone levels in paired BM and PB samples, and noted that PB clone levels were approximately 100-fold lower than levels in BM samples. The sequencing assay demonstrated a clear sensitivity advantage in the BM compartment and at least equivalent sensitivity in the PB compared with that of monoclonal-protein results.
CONCLUSION: This study highlights the promise of a blood-based, sequencing minimal-residual-disease assay that can be used to measure MM disease burden at different time points and various disease stages.

Yang MH, Kim J, Khan IA, et al.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug activated gene-1 (NAG-1) modulators from natural products as anti-cancer agents.
Life Sci. 2014; 100(2):75-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Natural products are rich sources of gene modulators that may be useful in prevention and treatment of cancer. Recently, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) activated gene-1 (NAG-1) has been focused as a target of action against diverse cancers like colorectal, pancreatic, prostate, and breast. A variety of natural agents have been reported to play a pivotal role in regulation of NAG-1 through multiple transcriptional mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to review the NAG-1 modulators derived from natural products including plants, marine organisms, and microorganisms. Plant extracts belonging to the families of Fabaceae (Astragalus membranaceus), Ranunculaceae (Coptis chinensis), Menispermaceae (Coscinium fenestratum), Umbelliferae (Pleurospermum kamtschaticum), Lamiaceae (Marubium vulgare), and Rosaceae (Prunus serotina) increased the protein expression of NAG-1 in human colon cancer or hepatocarcinoma cells. Phytochemicals in the class of flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin, isoliquiritigenin, and 2'-hydroxyflavanone), isoflavonoids (formononetin and genistein), catechins (epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate), stilbenoids (resveratrol and pinosylvin), phenolics (6-gingerol), phloroglucinols (rottlerin and aspidin PB), terpenoids (18 α-glycyrrhetinic acid, platycodin D, pseudolaric acid B, and xanthorrhizol), alkaloids (berberine, capsaicin, and indole-3-carbinol), lignans (isochaihulactone), anthraquinones (damnacanthal), and allyl sulfides (diallyl disulfide) elicited NAG-1 overexpression in various cancer cells. Pectenotoxin-2 from marine organisms and prodigiosin and anisomycin from microorganisms were also reported as NAG-1 modulators. Several transcription factors including EGR-1, p53, ATF-3, Sp1 and PPARγ were involved in natural products-induced NAG-1 transcriptional signaling pathway.

Neslund-Dudas C, Levin AM, Rundle A, et al.
Case-only gene-environment interaction between ALAD tagSNPs and occupational lead exposure in prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2014; 74(6):637-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Black men have historically had higher blood lead levels than white men in the U.S. and have the highest incidence of prostate cancer in the world. Inorganic lead has been classified as a probable human carcinogen. Lead (Pb) inhibits delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), a gene recently implicated in other genitourinary cancers. The ALAD enzyme is involved in the second step of heme biosynthesis and is an endogenous inhibitor of the 26S proteasome, a master system for protein degradation and a current target of cancer therapy.
METHODS: Using a case-only study design, we assessed potential gene-environment (G × E) interactions between lifetime occupational Pb exposure and 11 tagSNPs within ALAD in black (N = 260) and white (N = 343) prostate cancer cases.
RESULTS: Two ALAD tagSNPs in high linkage disequilibrium showed significant interaction with high Pb exposure among black cases (rs818684 interaction odds ratio or IOR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.43-5.22, P = 0.002; rs818689 IOR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.15-4.21, P = 0.017) and an additional tagSNP, rs2761016, showed G × E interaction with low Pb exposure (IOR = 2.08, 95% CI 1.13-3.84, P = 0.019). Further, the variant allele of rs818684 was associated with a higher Gleason grade in those with high Pb exposure among both blacks (OR 3.96, 95% CI 1.01-15.46, P = 0.048) and whites (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.18-7.39, P = 0.020).
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in ALAD may modify associations between Pb and prostate cancer. Additional studies of ALAD, Pb, and prostate cancer are warranted and should include black men. Prostate 74:637-646, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Yu S, Liu C, Zhang L, et al.
Elevated Th22 cells correlated with Th17 cells in peripheral blood of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(2):1927-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological tumor in which progress T helper (Th) subsets including Th22, Th17, and Th1 cells play a pivotal role. However, the role of T helper (Th) subsets in the immune pathogenesis of AML remains unclear. Here, we investigated frequencies of Th22, Th17, pure Th17, and Th1 cells in the peripheral blood (PB) of AML patients. We demonstrated that Th22, Th17, and pure Th17 in newly-diagnosed (ND) and non-complete remission (Non-CR) AML patients and plasma IL-22 in ND AML patients were significantly increased. Retinoid-related orphan receptor C (RORC) expression was significantly elevated in CR and Non-CR AML patients. However, Th1 in ND AML patients and IL-17 in ND, Non-CR or CR AML patients was significantly decreased compared with controls. Moreover, Th22 and IL-22 showed positive correlation with pure Th17, but Th22 showed negative correlation with Th1 in ND AML patients. RORC showed positive correlation with Th22 and approximately positive correlation with pure Th17 in Non-CR patients. PB blast cell showed positive correlation with Th22 and negative correlation with Th1 in ND AML patients. Our results indicate that Th22 and pure Th17 cells conjointly contribute to the pathogenesis of AML and might be promising novel clinical index for AML.

Scheil-Bertram S, Kappler R, von Baer A, et al.
Molecular profiling of chordoma.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(4):1041-55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
The molecular basis of chordoma is still poorly understood, particularly with respect to differentially expressed genes involved in the primary origin of chordoma. In this study, therefore, we compared the transcriptional expression profile of one sacral chordoma recurrence, two chordoma cell lines (U-CH1 and U-CH2) and one chondrosarcoma cell line (U-CS2) with vertebral disc using a high-density oligonucleotide array. The expression of 65 genes whose mRNA levels differed significantly (p<0.001; ≥6-fold change) between chordoma and control (vertebral disc) was identified. Genes with increased expression in chordoma compared to control and chondrosarcoma were most frequently located on chromosomes 2 (11%), 5 (8%), 1 and 7 (each 6%), whereas interphase cytogenetics of 33 chordomas demonstrated gains of chromosomal material most prevalent on 7q (42%), 12q (21%), 17q (21%), 20q (27%) and 22q (21%). The microarray data were confirmed for selected genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. As in other studies, we showed the expression of brachyury. We demonstrate the expression of new potential candidates for chordoma tumorigenesis, such as CD24, ECRG4, RARRES2, IGFBP2, RAP1, HAI2, RAB38, osteopontin, GalNAc-T3, VAMP8 and others. Thus, we identified and validated a set of interesting candidate genes whose differential expression likely plays a role in chordoma.

Yong KJ, Milenic DE, Baidoo KE, et al.
Gene expression profiling upon (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab treatment in the LS-174T i.p. xenograft model.
Cancer Med. 2013; 2(5):646-53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Recent studies have demonstrated that therapy with (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab resulted in (1) induction of apoptosis, (2) G2/M arrest, and (3) blockage of double-strand DNA damage repair in LS-174T i.p. (intraperitoneal) xenografts. To further understand the molecular basis of the cell killing efficacy of (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab, gene expression profiling was performed with LS-174T xenografts 24 h after exposure to (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab. DNA damage response genes (84) were screened using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction array (qRT-PCR array). Differentially regulated genes were identified following exposure to (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab. These included genes involved in apoptosis (ABL, GADD45α, GADD45γ, PCBP4, and p73), cell cycle (ATM, DDIT3, GADD45α, GTSE1, MKK6, PCBP4, and SESN1), and damaged DNA binding (DDB) and repair (ATM and BTG2). The stressful growth arrest conditions provoked by (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab were found to induce genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The expression of genes involved in DDB and single-strand DNA breaks was also enhanced by (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab while no modulation of genes involved in double-strand break repair was apparent. Furthermore, the p73/GADD45 signaling pathway mediated by p38 kinase signaling may be involved in the cellular response, as evidenced by the enhanced expression of genes and proteins of this pathway. These results further support the previously described cell killing mechanism by (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab in the same LS-174T i.p. xenograft. Insight into these mechanisms could lead to improved strategies for rational application of radioimmunotherapy using α-particle emitters.

Erben P, Schwaab J, Metzgeroth G, et al.
The KIT D816V expressed allele burden for diagnosis and disease monitoring of systemic mastocytosis.
Ann Hematol. 2014; 93(1):81-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The activating KIT D816V mutation plays a central role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and targeted treatment of systemic mastocytosis (SM). For improved and reliable identification of KIT D816V, we have developed an allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR (RQ-PCR) with an enhanced sensitivity of 0.01-0.1 %, which was superior to denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (0.5-1 %) or conventional sequencing (10-20 %). Overall, KIT D816 mutations were identified in 146/147 (99 %) of patients (D816V, n = 142; D816H, n = 2; D816Y, n = 2) with SM, including indolent SM (ISM, n = 63, 43 %), smoldering SM (n = 8, 5 %), SM with associated hematological non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD, n = 16, 11 %), and aggressive SM/mast cell leukemia ± AHNMD (ASM/MCL, n = 60, 41 %). If positive in BM, the KIT D816V mutation was found in PB of all patients with advanced SM (SM-AHNMD, ASM, and MCL) and in 46 % (23/50) of patients with ISM. There was a strong correlation between the KIT D816V expressed allele burden (KIT D816V EAB) with results obtained from DNA by genomic allele-specific PCR and also with disease activity (e.g., serum tryptase level), disease subtype (e.g., indolent vs. advanced SM) and survival. In terms of monitoring of residual disease, qualitative and quantitative assessment of KIT D816V and KIT D816V EAB was successfully used for sequential analysis after chemotherapy or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We therefore conclude that RQ-PCR assays for KIT D816V are useful complimentary tools for diagnosis, disease monitoring, and evaluation of prognosis in patients with SM.

Yue D, Fan Q, Chen X, et al.
Epigenetic inactivation of SPINT2 is associated with tumor suppressive function in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Exp Cell Res. 2014; 322(1):149-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2 (SPINT2), a Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor, has been identified as a putative tumor suppressor gene silenced by promoter methylation. We aimed to investigate whether SPINT2 might act as an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tumor suppressor gene. Four ESCC cell lines, Fifty-two ESCC tissues and twenty-nine neighboring non-cancerous tissues were included in this study. The expression of SPINT2 was monitored by real time PCR. Bisulfite genomic sequencing and methylation-specific PCR were used to analyze methylation status. The effect of SPINT2 on cell proliferation and apoptosis in EC109 and EC9706 cells was observed by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometric analysis. We found that silencing of SPINT2 was associated with promoter methylation in ESCC cell lines. The densely methylated SPINT2 promoter region was confirmed by bisulfite genomic sequencing. Ectopic expression of SPINT2 inhibited cell proliferation through inducing cell apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, methylation-specific PCR analysis revealed that SPINT2 promoter methylation was prominent in carcinoma tissues (52.08%) compared with neighboring non-cancerous tissues (22.58%). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with SPINT2 hypermethylation had shorter survival time. The tumor suppressor gene of SPINT2 is commonly silenced by promoter hypermethylation in human ESCC and SPINT2 hypermethylation is correlated with poor overall survival, implicating SPINT2 is an underlying prognostic marker for human ESCC.

Sun YX, Kong HL, Liu CF, et al.
The imbalanced profile and clinical significance of T helper associated cytokines in bone marrow microenvironment of the patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Hum Immunol. 2014; 75(2):113-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Immunological disorder has shown to be related to the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The microenvironment of AML is immunosuppressive, favoring the survival of malignant hematopoietic cells. However, the systematic research on AML abnormal immune microenvironment, especially the T helper (Th) cells imbalance, remains unsettled.
DESIGN AND METHODS: The levels of cytokines in bone marrow plasma including Th1-associated cytokine (IFN-γ), Th2-associated cytokine (IL-4), Th17-associated cytokines (IL-17, IL-6, TGF-β, and IL-21), regulatory T cell (Treg)-associated cytokines (IL-35 and IL-10) and Th22-associated cytokine (IL-22) were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in AML patients and controls. The relative expression levels of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-21 mRNA were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: Significant differences on cytokine levels tested were observed among the AML newly-diagnosed (ND) patients, AML patients in complete remission (CR) and controls except IL-21 and IL-35. In AML-ND group IFN-γ level was positively correlated with IL-21 or IL-22 level. Additionally, significant associations were observed between IL-17, IL-21 and some clinical characteristics.
CONCLUSION: Our results showed that many cytokines were abnormal in AML bone marrow microenvironment. The dysregulation of Th subsets cytokines is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of AML.

Hus I, Bojarska-Junak A, Chocholska S, et al.
Th17/IL-17A might play a protective role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia immunity.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e78091 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Th17 cells, a recently discovered subset of T helper cells that secrete IL-17A, can affect the inflammation process autoimmune and cancer diseases development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of Th17 cells and IL17A in biology of CLL. The study group included 294 untreated CLL patients in different clinical stages. Here, we show that higher Th17 and IL-17A values were associated with less advanced clinical stage of CLL. Th17 cells' percentages in PB were lower in patients who died due to CLL during follow-up due to CLL (as compared to surviving patients) and in patients responding to first-line therapy with fludarabine-based regimens (as compared to non-responders). IL-17A inversely correlated with the time from CLL diagnosis to the start of therapy and was lower in patients who required treatment during follow-up. Th-17 and IL-17A values were lower in patients with adverse prognostic factors (17p and 11q deletion, CD38 and ZAP-70 expression). CLL patients with detectable IL-17A mRNA in T cells were in Rai Stage 0 and negative for both ZAP-70 and CD38 expression. Th17 percentages positively correlated with iNKT and adversely with Treg cells. The results of this study suggest that Th17 may play a beneficial role in CLL immunity.

Elcombe CR, Peffer RC, Wolf DC, et al.
Mode of action and human relevance analysis for nuclear receptor-mediated liver toxicity: A case study with phenobarbital as a model constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator.
Crit Rev Toxicol. 2014; 44(1):64-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are important nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of cellular responses from exposure to many xenobiotics and various physiological processes. Phenobarbital (PB) is a non-genotoxic indirect CAR activator, which induces cytochrome P450 (CYP) and other xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and is known to produce liver foci/tumors in mice and rats. From literature data, a mode of action (MOA) for PB-induced rodent liver tumor formation was developed. A MOA for PXR activators was not established owing to a lack of suitable data. The key events in the PB-induced liver tumor MOA comprise activation of CAR followed by altered gene expression specific to CAR activation, increased cell proliferation, formation of altered hepatic foci and ultimately the development of liver tumors. Associative events in the MOA include altered epigenetic changes, induction of hepatic CYP2B enzymes, liver hypertrophy and decreased apoptosis; with inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication being an associative event or modulating factor. The MOA was evaluated using the modified Bradford Hill criteria for causality and other possible MOAs were excluded. While PB produces liver tumors in rodents, important species differences were identified including a lack of cell proliferation in cultured human hepatocytes. The MOA for PB-induced rodent liver tumor formation was considered to be qualitatively not plausible for humans. This conclusion is supported by data from a number of epidemiological studies conducted in human populations chronically exposed to PB in which there is no clear evidence for increased liver tumor risk.

Wei CH, Gorgan TR, Elashoff DA, et al.
A meta-analysis of gemcitabine biomarkers in patients with pancreaticobiliary cancers.
Pancreas. 2013; 42(8):1303-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to summarize all clinical studies evaluating the prognostic role of gemcitabine (GEM) metabolic genes in pancreaticobiliary (PB) cancer patients receiving GEM therapy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, or palliative settings.
METHODS: Meta-analyses were performed to calculate the pooled hazard ratios for each gene by each clinical outcome (overall survival [OS], disease-free survival [DFS], and progression-free survival) using a random-effects approach.
RESULTS: The search strategy identified 16 eligible studies, composed of 632 PB patients total, with moderate quality. Compared with low expression, pooled hazard ratios for OS of hENT1, dCK, RRM1, RRM2, and DPD were 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.47), 0.40 (95% CI, 0.20-0.80), 2.21 (95% CI, 1.12-4.36), 2.13 (95% CI, 1.00-4.52), and 1.91 (95% CI, 1.16-3.17), respectively. A similar trend was observed for each of these biomarkers in DFS and progression-free survival prognostication. Subgroup analyses for hENT1 showed a comparable survival correlation in the adjuvant and palliative settings.
CONCLUSIONS: High expression of hENT1 in PB cancer patients receiving GEM-based adjuvant therapy is associated with improved OS and DFS and may be the best examined prognostic marker to date. Evidence for other biomarkers is limited by a small number of publications investigating these markers.

Tsai CH, Teng CH, Tu YT, et al.
HAI-2 suppresses the invasive growth and metastasis of prostate cancer through regulation of matriptase.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(38):4643-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Dysregulation of cell surface proteolysis has been strongly implicated in tumorigenicity and metastasis. In this study, we delineated the role of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-2 (HAI-2) in prostate cancer (PCa) cell migration, invasion, tumorigenicity and metastasis using a human PCa progression model (103E, N1, and N2 cells) and xenograft models. N1 and N2 cells were established through serial intraprostatic propagation of 103E human PCa cells and isolation of the metastatic cells from nearby lymph nodes. The invasion capability of these cells was revealed to gradually increase throughout the serial isolations (103E

Setti M, Savalli N, Osti D, et al.
Functional role of CLIC1 ion channel in glioblastoma-derived stem/progenitor cells.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013; 105(21):1644-55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chloride channels are physiologically involved in cell division and motility. Chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1) is overexpressed in a variety of human solid tumors compared with normal tissues, suggesting a potential involvement of CLIC1 in the regulation of tumorigenesis. This led us to investigate the role of CLIC1 in gliomagenesis.
METHODS: We used the neurosphere system to isolate stem/progenitor cells from human glioblastomas (GBMs). CLIC1 targeting in GBM neurospheres was achieved by both lentiviral-mediated short-hairpin RNA transduction and CLIC1 antibody treatment, and its effect on stem-like properties was analyzed in vitro by proliferation and clonogenic assays and in vivo by orthotopic injection in immunocompromised mice. Channel activity was studied by perforated patch clamp technique. Differences in expression were analyzed by analysis of variance with Tamhane's multiple comparison test. Kaplan-Meier analyses and log-rank test were used to assess survival. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: CLIC1 was statistically significantly overexpressed in GBMs compared with normal brain tissues (P < .001) with a better survival of patients with CLIC1 low-expressing tumors (CLIC1(low) vs CLIC1(high) survival: χ(2) = 74.35; degrees of freedom = 1; log-rank P < .001). CLIC1 was variably expressed in patient-derived GBM neurospheres and was found enriched in the stem/progenitor compartment. CLIC1 silencing reduced proliferative (P < .01), clonogenic (P < .01), and tumorigenic capacity (P < .05) of stem/progenitor cells. The reduction of CLIC1 chloride currents with a specific CLIC1 antibody mirrored the biological effects of CLIC1 silencing in GBM patient-derived neurospheres.
CONCLUSIONS: Reduced gliomagenesis after CLIC1 targeting in tumoral stem/progenitor cells and the finding that CLIC1 expression is inversely associated with patient survival suggest CLIC1 as a potential target and prognostic biomarker.

Libisch MG, Casás M, Chiribao M, et al.
GALNT11 as a new molecular marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Gene. 2014; 533(1):270-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant mucin O-glycosylation often occurs in different cancers and is characterized by immature expression of simple mucin-type carbohydrates. At present, there are some controversial reports about the Tn antigen (GalNAcα-O-Ser/Thr) expression and there is a great lack of information about the [UDP-N-acetyl-α-d-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-Ts)] expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To gain insight in these issues we evaluated the Tn antigen expression in CLL patient samples using two Tn binding proteins with different fine specificity. We also studied the expression from 14 GalNAc-Ts genes in CLL patients by RT-PCR. Our results have provided additional information about the expression level of the Tn antigen, suggesting that a low density of Tn residues is expressed in CLL cells. We also found that GALNT11 was expressed in CLL cells and normal T cell whereas little or no expression was found in normal B cells. Based on these results, GALNT11 expression was assessed by qPCR in a cohort of 50 CLL patients. We found significant over-expression of GALNT11 in 96% of B-CLL cells when compared to normal B cells. Moreover, we confirmed the expression of this enzyme at the protein level. Finally we found that GALNT11 expression was significantly associated with the mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV), [א(2)(1)=18.26; P<0.0001], lipoprotein lipase expression [א(2)(1)=13.72; P=0.0002] and disease prognosis [א(2)(1)=15.49; P<0.0001]. Our evidence suggests that CLL patient samples harbor aberrant O-glycosylation highlighted by Tn antigen expression and that the over-expression of GALNT11 constitutes a new molecular marker for CLL.

Kapur P, Christie A, Raman JD, et al.
BAP1 immunohistochemistry predicts outcomes in a multi-institutional cohort with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
J Urol. 2014; 191(3):603-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BAP1 occur in approximately 15% of clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases. Sequencing efforts demonstrated worse outcomes in patients with BAP1 mutated clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We investigated the clinicopathological significance and oncologic outcomes of BAP1 loss using a previously validated immunohistochemical assay.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 was performed on tissue microarray sections from 559 nonmetastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases treated with nephrectomy at multiple institutions. The association of BAP1 expression with clinicopathological parameters was analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests. Survival was assessed by Cox regression analysis, which also identified independent predictors of time dependent outcomes.
RESULTS: At a median followup of 50 months (range 0 to 183) 86 of 483 patients (17.8%) experienced recurrence and 121 of 559 (21.6%) had died. BAP1 was negative in 82 of 559 tumors (14.7%). BAP1 loss was associated with adverse clinicopathological variables, including high Fuhrman grade (p <0.0001), advanced pT stage (p = 0.0021), sarcomatoid dedifferentiation (p = 0.0001) and necrosis (p <0.0001). Cox regression revealed that patients with BAP1 negative tumors had significantly worse disease-free survival (HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.8-4.7, p <0.0001) and overall survival (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.1, p = 0.0010) than patients with BAP1 positive tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 serves as a powerful marker to predict poor oncologic outcomes and adverse clinicopathological features in patients with nonmetastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. BAP1 assessment using immunohistochemistry on needle biopsy may benefit preoperative risk stratification and guide treatment planning in the future.

Yamada R, Maeda N, Oguri H, et al.
Is it possible to diagnose malignancy from fluid in cystic ovarian tumors?
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013; 171(1):96-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: p53 gene mutations are frequently identified in ovarian cancer tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether wild type or mutated genomic DNA can be identified in ovarian cystic fluid specimens.
STUDY DESIGN: Forty-eight Japanese patients with cystic ovarian tumors (30 benign cysts, 8 borderline malignant tumors, and 10 cancers) were investigated. Cystic fluid and tumor tissue were obtained during surgery. After DNA extraction from the cystic fluid, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis for exons 4-9 of the p53 gene was performed. In two cases of mucinous cystic tumor of borderline malignancy and endometrioid adenocarcinoma, the p53 gene sequences were determined. Immunohistochemical staining for abnormal p53 gene product was also performed.
RESULTS: DNA was successfully extracted from all cystic fluid specimens. Furthermore, exons 4-9 of the p53 gene could be identified by electrophoresis from all samples. In a mucinous cystic tumor of borderline malignancy, one point mutation was identified at codon 223 in exon 6 (CCT → CTT) of the p53 gene. Aberrant p53 gene product was also observed in the tumor cells by immunohistochemical staining. Moreover, in another case of endometrial adenocarcinoma, a point mutation at codon 245 in exon 7 (GGC → AGC) was detected by the direct sequencing of the amplified Exon. Notably, the mutation was not present in the peripheral blood (PB) sample and tissue specimens from the patient.
CONCLUSION: In cystic ovarian tumors, cystic fluid may provide informative material for molecular studies since it reflects the p53 status of tumor tissue in the cyst wall. This system might help to identify ovarian malignancy without resection of the tumor tissues.

de Melo CF, Gigek CO, da Silva JN, et al.
Association of COX2 gene hypomethylation with intestinal type gastric cancer in samples of patients from northern Brazil.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(2):1107-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
To verify the methylation status of THBS1, GPX3, and COX2 genes and to evaluate their association with Helicobacter pylori in gastric adenocarcinomas. Methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme PCR assay was performed in 16 diffuse type gastric cancer samples, 23 intestinal type, and 15 normal stomach tissue. The presence of H. pylori was performed by amplification of the fragment of the 16S rRNA. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's exact test. The hypermethylation of GPX3, THBS1, and COX2 occurred in 18 (n = 7), 5 (n = 2), and 36 % (n = 14) of gastric cancer samples, respectively, whereas in normal samples, it was found in 13, 7, and 67 %. The presence of H. pylori was detected in 67 % of gastric cancer samples and 67 % in normal gastric samples. The methylation of THBS1 and GPX3 was not significantly different between the types of tumors, normal sample, the presence of H. pylori, or clinicopathological variables studied (P > 0.05). However, the methylation status of the gene COX2 is significantly different between normal tissue and intestinal type gastric cancer (P = 0.02). Therefore, our results suggest that the methylation status of the gene COX2 is associated with the intestinal type of gastric cancer.

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