Gene Summary

Gene:SOX6; SRY-box transcription factor 6
Aliases: SOXD, HSSOX6
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the D subfamily of sex determining region y-related transcription factors that are characterized by a conserved DNA-binding domain termed the high mobility group box and by their ability to bind the minor groove of DNA. The encoded protein is a transcriptional activator that is required for normal development of the central nervous system, chondrogenesis and maintenance of cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. The encoded protein interacts with other family members to cooperatively activate gene expression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor SOX-6
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SOX6 (cancer-related)

Liu P, Li X, Guo X, et al.
Circular RNA DOCK1 promotes bladder carcinoma progression via modulating circDOCK1/hsa-miR-132-3p/Sox5 signalling pathway.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(4):e12614 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To reveal the role of circular RNA (circRNA) DOCK1 (circDOCK1) as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target and its competing endogenous RNA mechanism in bladder carcinoma (BC).
METHODS: The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology was introduced to screen the circRNA expression profiles of BC using microarray. qPCR and Western blots assay were employed to measure the gene expression in different groups. Cell counting kit-8, EdU and transwell assays were applied to detect the cell viability, proliferation and migration potential, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was used to test the binds between hsa-miR-132-3p/Sox5. Xenografted tumour growth of nude mice was performed to test the role of circDOCK1 in vivo.
RESULTS: CircDOCK1 was upregulated in BC tissues and cell lines. Repression of circDOCK1 reduced cell viability, inhibited cell proliferation and curbed the cell migration potential of BC cell. CircDOCK1 played its role via regulation of circDOCK1/hsa-miR-132-3p/Sox5 pathway in BC cells. Suppression circDOCK1 inhibited the tumour growth in vivo.
CONCLUSION: In this study, we revealed that circDOCK1 affected the progression of BC via modulation of circDOCK1/hsa-miR-132-3p/Sox5 pathway both in vitro and in vivo and providing a potential biomarker and therapeutic targets for BC.

Guan X, Wen X, Xiao J, et al.
Lnc-SOX6-1 upregulation correlates with poor risk stratification and worse treatment outcomes, and promotes cell proliferation while inhibits apoptosis in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
Int J Lab Hematol. 2019; 41(2):234-241 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the correlation of long noncoding RNA-SOX6-1 (lnc-SOX6-1) with clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, and further explore its function in AML cell proliferation and apoptosis.
METHODS: A total of 146 de novo pediatric AML patients and 73 nonhematologic malignancy patients/donors were recruited. Bone marrow samples were obtained, followed by measurement of lnc-SOX6-1 expression by qPCR. Besides, lnc-SOX6-1 expression in various AML cells and control cells was detected. Blank overexpression (NC (+)), lnc-SOX6-1 overexpression (Lnc RNA (+)), blank shRNA (NC (-)), and lnc-SOX6-1 shRNA plasmids (Lnc RNA (-)) were transferred into KG-1 cells and THP-1 cells. Cell proliferation rate and cell apoptosis rate were detected by CCK-8 assay and AV/PI assay, respectively.
RESULTS: Lnc-SOX6-1 expression was upregulated in pediatric AML patients compared to controls, and its high expression correlated with the presence of monosomal karyotype, severer risk stratification, lower possibility of complete response achievement, shorter event-free survival, and poor overall survival. Furthermore, lnc-SOX6-1 expression was elevated in various AML cells compared to normal cells. In KG-1 cells and THP-1 cells, cell proliferation rate was elevated in Lnc RNA (+) group but reduced in Lnc RNA (-) group at 48 and 72 hours, and cell apoptosis rate was decreased in Lnc RNA (+) group but increased in Lnc RNA (-) group at 72 hours compared to the corresponding control groups.
CONCLUSION: Lnc-SOX6-1 is highly expressed and correlates with worse risk stratification and poor treatment outcomes, and promotes cell proliferation while represses apoptosis in pediatric AML.

Zhou Y, Zheng X, Chen LJ, et al.
microRNA-181b suppresses the metastasis of lung cancer cells by targeting sex determining region Y-related high mobility group-box 6 (Sox6).
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(2):335-342 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to measure the expression of microRNA (miR)-181b in patients with lung cancer, investigate its biological function and elucidate the underlying mechanisms associated with the development of lung cancer.
METHODS: miR-181b expression in tissues was measured via RT-qPCR. After A549 cells were transfected with miR-181b mimic or si-Sox6, the proliferation, migration and cell cycle distribution of A549 were evaluated using cell counting kit-8 assay, transwell assay and flow cytometry. The levels of cell cycle-related proteins and Sox6 were analyzed by western blotting. Gene targets of miR-181b were predicted via bioinformatics analysis and verified using a dual-luciferase reporter gene assay.
RESULTS: Expression of miR-181b was significantly downregulated in lung cancer tissues (P < 0.05), and was inversely correlated with the degree of cell differentiation and clinical stages of lung cancer (both P < 0.05). Additionally, the expression of miR-181b was significantly lower in adenocarcinoma compared with squamous cell carcinoma in the lungs (P < 0.05). Overexpression of miR-181b significantly decreased the protein level of Sox6 and significantly suppressed the cell proliferation and metastasis (both P < 0.05); this effect was also observed in A549 cells transfected with si-Sox6. The luciferase activity of a Sox6 3'-untranslated region-based reporter construct was significantly lower when transfected with miR-181b (P < 0.05), which suggests that Sox6 is a direct target of miR-181b.
CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that miR-181b may function as a tumor inhibitor in the development of lung cancer via targeting Sox6 to decrease the proliferation and metastasis of lung cancer cells.

Lin XQ, Huang ZM, Chen X, et al.
XIST Induced by JPX Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Sponging miR-155-5p.
Yonsei Med J. 2018; 59(7):816-826 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The influence of X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) and X-chromosome inactivation associated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) just proximal to XIST (JPX) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial in light of previous reports, which the present study aimed to verify.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The DIANA lncRNA-microRNA (miRNA) interaction database was used to explore miRNA interactions with JPX or XIST. JPX, XIST, and miR-155-5p expression levels in paired HCC specimens and adjacent normal tissue were analyzed by RT-qPCR. Interaction between XIST and miR-155-5p was verified by dual luciferase reporter assay. Expression levels of miR-155-5p and its known target genes, SOX6 and PTEN, were verified by RT-qPCR and Western blot in HepG2 cells with or without XIST knock-in. The potential suppressive role of XIST and JPX on HCC was verified by cell functional assays and tumor formation assay using a xenograft model.
RESULTS: JPX and XIST expression was significantly decreased in HCC pathologic specimens, compared to adjacent tissue, which correlated with HCC progression and increased miR-155-5p expression. Dual luciferase reporter assay revealed XIST as a direct target of miR-155-5p. XIST knock-in significantly reduced miR-155-5p expression level and increased that of SOX6 and PTEN, while significantly inhibiting HepG2 cell growth in vitro, which was partially reversed by miR-155-5p mimic transfection. JPX knock-in significantly increased XIST expression and inhibited HepG2 cell growth in vitro or tumor formation in vivo in a XIST dependent manner.
CONCLUSION: JPX and XIST play a suppressive role in HCC. JPX increases expression levels of XIST in HCC cells, which suppresses HCC development by sponging the cancer promoting miR-155-5p.

Dong P, Xiong Y, Yu J, et al.
Control of PD-L1 expression by miR-140/142/340/383 and oncogenic activation of the OCT4-miR-18a pathway in cervical cancer.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(39):5257-5268 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PD-L1, a key inhibitory immune receptor, has crucial functions in cancer immune evasion, but whether PD-L1 promotes the malignant properties of cervical cancer (CC) cells and the mechanism by which PD-L1 is regulated in CC remains unclear. We report that PD-L1 is overexpressed in CC, and shRNA-mediated PD-L1 depletion suppresses the proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis of CC cells. Loss of miR-140/142/340/383 contributes to PD-L1 upregulation. miR-18a enhances PD-L1 levels by targeting PTEN, WNK2 (ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor), and SOX6 (Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor and p53 pathway activator) to activate the PI3K/AKT, MEK/ERK, and Wnt/β-catenin pathways and inhibit the p53 pathway, and miR-18a also directly suppresses the expression of the tumor suppressors BTG3 and RBSP3 (CTDSPL). miR-18a overexpression in CC cells is triggered by OCT4 overexpression. Our data implicate PD-L1 as a novel oncoprotein and indicate that miR-140/142/340/383 and miR-18a are key upstream regulators of PD-L1 and potential targets for CC treatment.

Wang Z, Li J, Li K, Xu J
SOX6 is downregulated in osteosarcoma and suppresses the migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via TWIST1 regulation.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(5):6803-6811 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcription factor SOX6 (SOX6) has been reported to serve essential roles in numerous types of cancers. However, the expression and functions of SOX6 in osteosarcoma (OS) have not been analyzed. In the present study, the patterns of SOX6 expression in OS cell lines and tissues were investigated by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results of the present study revealed that SOX6 was notably downregulated in OS tissues and cell lines. Subsequently, gain‑ and loss‑of‑function studies demonstrated that SOX6 inhibited OS cell migration and invasion. In addition, SOX6 may have suppressed epithelial‑mesenchymal transition via twist‑related protein 1 (TWIST1) modulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), quantitative ChIP and dual luciferase activity assays were used to confirm the binding of SOX6 to the promoter region of TWIST1. Additionally, colony formation assays and Cell Counting Kit‑8 assays demonstrated that SOX6 suppressed cell proliferation. The findings of the present study indicated that SOX6 serves as a tumor suppressor in OS and may be a potential therapeutic target for OS.

Yu Y, Wang Z, Sun D, et al.
miR-671 promotes prostate cancer cell proliferation by targeting tumor suppressor SOX6.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2018; 823:65-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is one of the most severe malignancies in men, and many genes and non-coding RNAs, included microRNAs (miRs), have been demonstrated to regulate prostate cancer progression. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-671 in prostate cancer cell proliferation. We found that miR-671 was significantly upregulated in human prostate cancer tissues and cells. miR-671 overexpression promoted prostate cancer cell proliferation, while its downregulation inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation, as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, colony formation assays, soft agar growth assays, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assays. miR-671 directly targets the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the tumor suppressor SOX6 (encoding SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 6) to inhibit its expression. Double knockdown of miR-671 and SOX6 promoted PC3 cell proliferation, suggesting that miR-671 promotes prostate cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting SOX6.

Hu J, Tian J, Zhu S, et al.
Sox5 contributes to prostate cancer metastasis and is a master regulator of TGF-β-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition through controlling Twist1 expression.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 118(1):88-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is one of the main contributors to the death of prostate cancer patients. To date, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying mCRPC are unclear. Given the crucial role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer metastasis, we aimed to analyse the expression and function of Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signal-associated protein named Sox5 in mCRPC.
METHODS: The protein expression levels were analysed by western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation were employed to validate the target of Sox5. The effect of Smad3/Sox5/Twist1 on PCa progression was investigated in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: Here, we found that TGF-β-induced EMT was accompanied by increased Sox5 expression. Interestingly, knockdown of Sox5 expression attenuated EMT induced by TGF-β signalling. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Smad3 could bind to the promoter of Sox5 and regulate its expression. Mechanistically, Sox5 could bind to Twist1 promoter and active Twist1, which initiated EMT. Importantly, knockdown of Sox5 in prostate cancer cells resulted in less of the mesenchymal phenotype and cell migration ability. Furthermore, targeting Sox5 could inhibit prostate cancer progression in a xenograft mouse model. In clinic, patients with high Sox5 expression were more likely to suffer from metastases, and high Sox5 expression also has a lower progression-free survival and cancer specific-survival in clinic database.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, we propose a new mechanism in which Smad3/Sox5/Twist1 promotes EMT and contributes to PCa progression.

Li Z, Wang Y
miR-96 targets SOX6 and promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biochem Cell Biol. 2018; 96(3):365-371 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent research suggested that microRNA 96 (miR-96) might function as an oncogene in several types of cancers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to probe into the mechanism of miR-96 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. HCC tissues and non-tumorous tissues, HCC cell lines, and healthy cell lines were all involved in this study. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect miR-96 and SOX6 mRNA and protein expressions. The direct regulation of miR96 on SOX6 was confirmed by luciferase reporter assays. Cell proliferation and growth were determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) assay and colony formation assay. Wound healing and transwell assay were employed for migration and invasion analyses. Finally, SPSS 21.0 and GraphPad 7.0 were applied for statistical analyses. In HCC tissues, miR-96 was highly expressed while SOX6 was lowly expressed. The overexpression of miR-96 reversely inhibited the expression of SOX6, contributing to the promotion of the biological functions of HCC cells. miR-96 could promote cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in HCC by targeting SOX6.

Kurtsdotter I, Topcic D, Karlén A, et al.
SOX5/6/21 Prevent Oncogene-Driven Transformation of Brain Stem Cells.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(18):4985-4997 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular mechanisms preventing self-renewing brain stem cells from oncogenic transformation are poorly defined. We show that the expression levels of SOX5, SOX6, and SOX21 (SOX5/6/21) transcription factors increase in stem cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ) upon oncogenic stress, whereas their expression in human glioma decreases during malignant progression. Elevated levels of SOX5/6/21 promoted SVZ cells to exit the cell cycle, whereas genetic ablation of SOX5/6/21 dramatically increased the capacity of these cells to form glioma-like tumors in an oncogene-driven mouse brain tumor model. Loss-of-function experiments revealed that SOX5/6/21 prevent detrimental hyperproliferation of oncogene expressing SVZ cells by facilitating an antiproliferative expression profile. Consistently, restoring high levels of SOX5/6/21 in human primary glioblastoma cells enabled expression of CDK inhibitors and decreased p53 protein turnover, which blocked their tumorigenic capacity through cellular senescence and apoptosis. Altogether, these results provide evidence that SOX5/6/21 play a central role in driving a tumor suppressor response in brain stem cells upon oncogenic insult.

Tian R, Wang J, Yan H, et al.
Differential expression of miR16 in glioblastoma and glioblastoma stem cells: their correlation with proliferation, differentiation, metastasis and prognosis.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(42):5861-5873 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The function of miR16 in multiforme glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and its stem cells (GSCs) remains elusive. To this end, we investigated the patterns of miR16 expression in these cells and their correlation with malignant behaviors and clinical outcomes. The levels of miR16 and its targeted genes in tumor tissue of GBM and GBM SGH44, U87, U251 cells as well as their stem cell counterparts were measured by qRT-PCR or western blot or immunohistochemistry. Luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the binding of miR16 to 3'-UTR of its target genes. The effects of miR16 on malignant behaviors were investigated, including tumor cell viability, soft-agar colony formation, GSCs Matrigel colony forming and migration and invasion as well as nude mice xenograft model. Differentially expression patterns of miR16 in glioblastoma cells and GSCs cells were found in this study. Changes of miR16 targeted genes, Bcl2 (B cell lymphoma 2), CDK6 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 6), CCND1 (cyclin D1), CCNE1 (cyclin E1) and SOX5 were confirmed in glioblastoma cell lines and tissue specimens. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that tumor cell proliferation was inhibited by miR16 mimic, but enhanced by miR16 inhibitor. The expression level of miR16 positively correlates with GSCs differentiation, but negatively with the abilities of migration, motility, invasion and colony formation in glioblastoma cells. The inhibitory effects of miR16 on its target genes were also found in nude mice xenograft model. Our findings revealed that the miR16 functions as a tumor suppressor in GSCs and its association with prognosis in GBM.

Li Y, Xiao M, Guo F
The role of Sox6 and Netrin-1 in ovarian cancer cell growth, invasiveness, and angiogenesis.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(5):1010428317705508 [PubMed] Related Publications
SOX6 plays important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell fate determination. It has been confirmed that SOX6 is a tumor suppressor and downregulated in various cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and chronic myeloid leukemia. Netrin-1 is highly expressed in various human cancers and acts as an anti-apoptotic and proangiogenic factor to drive tumorigenesis. The role of SOX6 and netrin-1 in regulating the growth of ovarian tumor cells still remains unclear. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot were used to determine the SOX6 messenger RNA and protein levels, respectively, in ovarian cancer cells and tumor tissues. Stable transfection of SOX6 was conducted to overexpress SOX6 in PA-1 and SW626 cells. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Invasion of ovarian cancer cells and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were confirmed by Transwell assays. To overexpress netrin-1, ovarian cancer cells with SOX6 restoration was transduced with netrin-1 lentiviral particles. PA-1 xenografts in a nude mice model were used to conduct in vivo evaluation of the role of SOX6 and its relationship with netrin-1 in tumor growth and angiogenesis. In this study, we found significantly reduced SOX6 levels in PA-1, SW626, SK-OV-3, and CaoV-3 ovarian cancer cell lines and human tumor tissues in comparison with normal human ovarian epithelial cells or matched non-tumor tissues. SOX6 overexpression by stable transfection dramatically inhibited proliferation and invasion of PA-1 and SW626 cells. Also, conditioned medium from PA-1 and SW626 cells with SOX6 restoration exhibited reduced ability to induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells migration and tube formation compared with conditioned medium from the cells with transfection control. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between SOX6 and netrin-1 expression was observed in PA-1 and SW626 cells. Overexpression of netrin-1 in ovarian cancer cells with forced SOX6 expression remarkably abrogated the inhibitory effect of SOX6 on proliferation, invasion of the cells, and tumor xenograft growth and vascularity in vivo. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell migration and tube formation were enhanced in the conditioned medium from the ovarian cancer cells transduced with netrin-1 lentivirus particles. Our observations revealed that SOX6 is a tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer cells, and SOX6 exerts an inhibitory effect on the proliferation, invasion, and tumor cell-induced angiogenesis of ovarian cancer cells, whereas nerin-1 plays an opposite role and its expression is inversely correlated with SOX6. Moreover, our findings suggest a new role of SOX6 and netrin-1 for understanding the progression of ovarian cancer and have the potential for the development of new diagnosis and treatment strategies for ovarian cancer.

Wang L, Ye S, Wang J, et al.
HuR Stabilizes lnc-Sox5 mRNA to Promote Tongue Carcinogenesis.
Biochemistry (Mosc). 2017; 82(4):438-445 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recently regarded as systemic regulators in multiple biological processes including tumorigenesis. In this study, we report an ultra-highly expressed lncRNA, lnc-Sox5, in tongue tumor tissues. The results imply that lnc-Sox5 may play vital role in tongue carcinoma progression. We observed that the growth of Tca8113 cells was suppressed by lnc-Sox5 downregulation. Additionally, lnc-Sox5 knockdown simultaneously increased Tca8113 cell apoptosis, but the cell cycle was arrested. RNA immunoprecipitation suggested that HuR directly bound to and stabilized lnc-Sox5 RNA. Consistently, HuR knockdown reduced the level of lnc-Sox5 in Tca8113 cells. However, overexpression of HuR induced more lnc-Sox5 in Tca8113 cells. Both lnc-Sox5 knockdown and HuR knockdown suppressed Tca8113 cell tumorigenesis in xenograft models. These results suggest that lnc-Sox5, which was stabilized by HuR, could regulate carcinogenesis of tongue cancer and may serve as a predicted target for tongue carcinoma therapies.

Guo J, Cai H, Zheng J, et al.
Long non-coding RNA NEAT1 regulates permeability of the blood-tumor barrier via miR-181d-5p-mediated expression changes in ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2017; 1863(9):2240-2254 [PubMed] Related Publications
The blood-tumor barrier (BTB) constitutes an efficient organization of tight junctions that limits the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to brain tumor tissues and impacts the treatment of glioma. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein coding RNAs regulating gene expression, some lncRNAs play a crucial role in BTB permeability. However, the function of lncRNAs in BTB permeability is still largely unclear. Here, we have identified lncRNA nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1), was remarkably up-regulated in glioma endothelial cells (GECs) obtained from an in vitro BTB model. Knockdown of NEAT1 impaired the integrity and increased the permeability of the BTB, accompanied by downregulation of expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 in GECs. Both bioinformatics data and results of luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that NEAT1 influenced BTB permeability by binding to miR-181d-5p. Knockdown of NEAT1 also down-regulated the expression of sex determining region Y-box protein 5 (SOX5), which was defined as a direct and functional downstream target of miR-181d-5p. SOX5 interacts with the promoter region of ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 in GECs. In conclusion, knockdown of NEAT1 increased BTB permeability by binding to miR-181d-5p and then reducing tight junction protein expression by targeting SOX5. These results suggest an important role for NEAT1 in regulating BTB permeability and provide an additional strategy for treating glioma.

Fujita N, Suzuki S, Watanabe K, et al.
Chordoma-derived cell line U-CH1-N recapitulates the biological properties of notochordal nucleus pulposus cells.
J Orthop Res. 2016; 34(8):1341-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Intervertebral disc degeneration proceeds with age and is one of the major causes of lumbar pain and degenerative lumbar spine diseases. However, studies in the field of intervertebral disc biology have been hampered by the lack of reliable cell lines that can be used for in vitro assays. In this study, we show that a chordoma-derived cell line U-CH1-N cells highly express the nucleus pulposus (NP) marker genes, including T (encodes T brachyury transcription factor), KRT19, and CD24. These observations were further confirmed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. Reporter analyses showed that transcriptional activity of T was enhanced in U-CH1-N cells. Chondrogenic capacity of U-CH1-N cells was verified by evaluating the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and Alcian blue staining. Of note, we found that proliferation and synthesis of chondrogenic ECM proteins were largely dependent on T in U-CH1-N cells. In accordance, knockdown of the T transcripts suppressed the expression of PCNA, a gene essential for DNA replication, and SOX5 and SOX6, the master regulators of chondrogenesis. On the other hand, the CD24-silenced cells showed no reduction in the mRNA expression level of the chondrogenic ECM genes. These results suggest that U-CH1-N shares important biological properties with notochordal NP cells and that T plays crucial roles in maintaining the notochordal NP cell-like phenotype in this cell line. Taken together, our data indicate that U-CH1-N may serve as a useful tool in studying the biology of intervertebral disc. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 34:1341-1350, 2016.

Chen WC, Wang CY, Hung YH, et al.
Systematic Analysis of Gene Expression Alterations and Clinical Outcomes for Long-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase Family in Cancer.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0155660 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulated lipid metabolism contributes to cancer progression. Our previous study indicates that long-chain fatty acyl-Co A synthetase (ACSL) 3 is essential for lipid upregulation induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this report, we aimed to identify the role of ACSL family in cancer with systematic analysis and in vitro experiment. We explored the ACSL expression using Oncomine database to determine the gene alteration during carcinogenesis and identified the association between ACSL expression and the survival of cancer patient using PrognoScan database. ACSL1 may play a potential oncogenic role in colorectal and breast cancer and play a potential tumor suppressor role in lung cancer. Co-expression analysis revealed that ACSL1 was coexpressed with MYBPH, PTPRE, PFKFB3, SOCS3 in colon cancer and with LRRFIP1, TSC22D1 in lung cancer. In accordance with PrognoScan analysis, downregulation of ACSL1 in colon and breast cancer cell line inhibited proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth. In contrast, increase of oncogenic property was observed in lung cancer cell line by attenuating ACSL1. High ACSL3 expression predicted a better prognosis in ovarian cancer; in contrast, high ACSL3 predicted a worse prognosis in melanoma. ACSL3 was coexpressed with SNUPN, TRIP13, and SEMA5A in melanoma. High expression of ACSL4 predicted a worse prognosis in colorectal cancer, but predicted better prognosis in breast, brain and lung cancer. ACSL4 was coexpressed with SERPIN2, HNRNPCL1, ITIH2, PROCR, LRRFIP1. High expression of ACSL5 predicted good prognosis in breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. ACSL5 was coexpressed with TMEM140, TAPBPL, BIRC3, PTPRE, and SERPINB1. Low ACSL6 predicted a worse prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. ACSL6 was coexpressed with SOX6 and DARC. Altogether, different members of ACSLs are implicated in diverse types of cancer development. ACSL-coexpressed molecules may be used to further investigate the role of ACSL family in individual type of cancers.

Li J, Shen J, Wang K, et al.
The Roles of Sox Family Genes in Sarcoma.
Curr Drug Targets. 2016; 17(15):1761-1772 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sox (SRY-related HMG-box) family genes are important regulators of cell development, homeostasis, and regeneration. Deregulation of certain members of the Sox gene family has been implicated in a number of human malignancies, including in sarcoma. Accumulating evidence suggests that Sox genes play crucial roles in sarcoma cell pathogenesis, growth, and proliferation. Here, we review the biological relevance of Sox2 and Sox9 genes in osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and chordoma; Sox2, Sox6, and Sox17 genes in Ewing's sarcoma; Sox2, Sox9, and Sox10 genes in synovial sarcoma; Sox2 gene in fibrosarcoma; and Sox21 gene in liposarcoma. These findings potentiate the targeting of Sox genes for novel therapeutic interventions in sarcoma and may also hold valuable clinical potential to improve the care of patients with sarcoma.

Kordaß T, Weber CE, Oswald M, et al.
SOX5 is involved in balanced MITF regulation in human melanoma cells.
BMC Med Genomics. 2016; 9:10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a cancer with rising incidence and new therapeutics are needed. For this, it is necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms of melanoma development and progression. Melanoma differs from other cancers by its ability to produce the pigment melanin via melanogenesis; this biosynthesis is essentially regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). MITF regulates various processes such as cell cycling and differentiation. MITF shows an ambivalent role, since high levels inhibit cell proliferation and low levels promote invasion. Hence, well-balanced MITF homeostasis is important for the progression and spread of melanoma. Therefore, it is difficult to use MITF itself for targeted therapy, but elucidating its complex regulation may lead to a promising melanoma-cell specific therapy.
METHOD: We systematically analyzed the regulation of MITF with a novel established transcription factor based gene regulatory network model. Starting from comparative transcriptomics analysis using data from cells originating from nine different tumors and a melanoma cell dataset, we predicted the transcriptional regulators of MITF employing ChIP binding information from a comprehensive set of databases. The most striking regulators were experimentally validated by functional assays and an MITF-promoter reporter assay. Finally, we analyzed the impact of the expression of the identified regulators on clinically relevant parameters of melanoma, i.e. the thickness of primary tumors and patient overall survival.
RESULTS: Our model predictions identified SOX10 and SOX5 as regulators of MITF. We experimentally confirmed the role of the already well-known regulator SOX10. Additionally, we found that SOX5 knockdown led to MITF up-regulation in melanoma cells, while double knockdown with SOX10 showed a rescue effect; both effects were validated by reporter assays. Regarding clinical samples, SOX5 expression was distinctively up-regulated in metastatic compared to primary melanoma. In contrast, survival analysis of melanoma patients with predominantly metastatic disease revealed that low SOX5 levels were associated with a poor prognosis.
CONCLUSION: MITF regulation by SOX5 has been shown only in murine cells, but not yet in human melanoma cells. SOX5 has a strong inhibitory effect on MITF expression and seems to have a decisive clinical impact on melanoma during tumor progression.

Dulmovits BM, Appiah-Kubi AO, Papoin J, et al.
Pomalidomide reverses γ-globin silencing through the transcriptional reprogramming of adult hematopoietic progenitors.
Blood. 2016; 127(11):1481-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Current therapeutic strategies for sickle cell anemia are aimed at reactivating fetal hemoglobin. Pomalidomide, a third-generation immunomodulatory drug, was proposed to induce fetal hemoglobin production by an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that pomalidomide induced a fetal-like erythroid differentiation program, leading to a reversion of γ-globin silencing in adult human erythroblasts. Pomalidomide acted early by transiently delaying erythropoiesis at the burst-forming unit-erythroid/colony-forming unit-erythroid transition, but without affecting terminal differentiation. Further, the transcription networks involved in γ-globin repression were selectively and differentially affected by pomalidomide including BCL11A, SOX6, IKZF1, KLF1, and LSD1. IKAROS (IKZF1), a known target of pomalidomide, was degraded by the proteasome, but was not the key effector of this program, because genetic ablation of IKZF1 did not phenocopy pomalidomide treatment. Notably, the pomalidomide-induced reprogramming was conserved in hematopoietic progenitors from individuals with sickle cell anemia. Moreover, multiple myeloma patients treated with pomalidomide demonstrated increased in vivo γ-globin levels in their erythrocytes. Together, these data reveal the molecular mechanisms by which pomalidomide reactivates fetal hemoglobin, reinforcing its potential as a treatment for patients with β-hemoglobinopathies.

Matsumoto Y, Sato S, Maeda T, et al.
Transcription factors related to chondrogenesis in pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland: a mechanism of mesenchymal tissue formation.
Lab Invest. 2016; 96(1):16-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
In salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma, expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) substances indicates that tumor epithelial cells are becoming chondrogenic and will produce cartilage-like mesenchymal tissues. Sox9, the master transcription factor of chondrogenesis, is expressed in mouse salivary gland cells. To clarify the mechanism behind chondrogenesis in tumor epithelial cells, we examined the expression of transcription factors related to chondrogenesis in tumors and salivary glands. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and immunostaining were performed on pleomorphic adenoma tissues, salivary gland tissues, and human submandibular gland (HSG) cells. The mRNAs of essential transcription factors for chondrogenesis-Sox9, Sox6, and Sox5-were detected in both tumor and salivary gland tissues. The mRNAs of aggrecan and type II collagen-cartilage-specific ECM substances-were detected only in tumors. Sox9 and Sox6 proteins were colocalized in many epithelial cells in tumors and salivary glands. Tumor epithelial cells also possessed aggrecan protein and occasionally type II collagen protein. Moreover, mRNAs for transcription repressors of chondrogenesis δEF1 and AP-2α were detected in both tumors and salivary glands, whereas Twist1 mRNA was detected only in salivary glands and was at significantly low-to-undetectable levels in tumors. Twist1 protein was localized in the Sox9-expressing salivary gland cells. HSG cells expressed Sox9, Sox6, and Twist1, but not aggrecan or type II collagen, and thus were similar to salivary gland cells. Twist1 depletion by Twist1 siRNA led to the upregulation of aggrecan and type II collagen mRNA expression in HSG cells. In contrast, forced expression of Twist1, using Twist1 cDNA, resulted in the downregulation of both these genes. Taken together, these results indicate that salivary gland cells have a potential for chondrogenesis, and Twist1 depletion concomitant with neoplastic transformation, which would permit tumor epithelial cells to produce cartilage-like mesenchymal tissues in salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma.

Wang J, Ding S, Duan Z, et al.
Role of p14ARF-HDM2-p53 axis in SOX6-mediated tumor suppression.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(13):1692-702 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sex-determining region Y box 6 (SOX6) has been described as a tumor-suppressor gene in several cancers. Our previous work has suggested that SOX6 upregulated p21(Waf1/Cip1)(p21) expression in a p53-dependent manner; however, the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. In this study, we confirmed that SOX6 can suppress cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo by stabilizing p53 protein and subsequently upregulating p21. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunocytofluorescence assays demonstrated that SOX6 can promote formation of the p14ARF-HDM2-p53 ternary complex by promoting translocation of p14ARF (p14 alternate reading frame tumor suppressor) to the nucleoplasm, thereby inhibiting HDM2-mediated p53 nuclear export and degradation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with PCR assay proved that SOX6 can bind to a potential binding site in the regulatory region of the c-Myc gene. Furthermore, we confirmed that SOX6 can downregulate the expression of c-Myc, as well as its direct target gene nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1), and that the SOX6-induced downregulation of NPM1 is linked to translocation of p14ARF to the nucleoplasm. Finally, we showed that the highly conserved high-mobility group (HMG) domain of SOX6 is required for SOX6-mediated p53 stabilization and tumor inhibitory activity. Collectively, these results reveal a new mechanism of SOX6-mediated tumor suppression involving p21 upregulation via the p14ARF-HDM2-p53 axis in an HMG domain-dependent manner.

Shiseki M, Masuda A, Yoshinaga K, et al.
Identification of the SOX5 gene as a novel IGH-involved translocation partner in BCL2-negative follicular lymphoma with t(12;14)(p12.2;q32).
Int J Hematol. 2015; 102(5):633-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosome translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene locus at chromosome region 14q32 are often observed in B-cell lymphoid neoplasms. Of these, t(14;18)(q32;q21) results in juxtaposition of the IGH gene on chromosome 14 and the BCL2 gene on chromosome 18, leading to the overexpression of BCL2 anti-apoptotic protein, which plays a critical role in the development of follicular lymphoma (FL). However, BCL2 overexpression is not observed in approximately 10 % of FL, and the molecular pathogenesis of BCL2-negative FL has not been elucidated. Here, we identify the SRY-related high-morbidity-group (HMG) box 5 (SOX5) gene on chromosome 12p12 as a novel IGH-involved translocation partner in the case of BCL2-negative follicular lymphoma (FL) with a complex karyotype including t(12;14)(p12.2;q32) by long-distance inverse PCR. As a result of this translocation, the SOX5 gene is juxtaposed to the enhancer of the IGH gene; SOX5 overexpression in neoplastic cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The results of the present study suggest a role for SOX5 in the molecular pathogenesis of FL.

Wang D, Han S, Wang X, et al.
SOX5 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell invasion via regulation of Twist1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(2):461 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcription factor sex determining region Y-box protein 5 (SOX5) plays important roles in various types of cancers. However, the expression and function of SOX5 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been elucidated. Here, we found that SOX5 is significantly up-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. Gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that SOX5 promoted HCC cell migration and invasion. In addition, we revealed that SOX5 is linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by regulation of Twist1. Our results indicate for the first time that SOX5 is a novel regulator of EMT in HCC and may be a potential therapeutic target for HCC metastasis.

Patel P, Brooks C, Seneviratne A, et al.
Investigating microenvironmental regulation of human chordoma cell behaviour.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):e115909 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tumour microenvironment is complex and composed of many different constituents, including matricellular proteins such as connective tissue growth factor (CCN2), and is characterized by gradients in oxygen levels. In various cancers, hypoxia and CCN2 promote stem and progenitor cell properties, and regulate the proliferation, migration and phenotype of cancer cells. Our study was aimed at investigating the effects of hypoxia and CCN2 on chordoma cells, using the human U-CH1 cell line. We demonstrate that under basal conditions, U-CH1 cells express multiple CCN family members including CCN1, CCN2, CCN3 and CCN5. Culture of U-CH1 cells in either hypoxia or in the presence of recombinant CCN2 peptide promoted progenitor cell-like characteristics specific to the notochordal tissue of origin. Specifically, hypoxia induced the most robust increase in progenitor-like characteristics in U-CH1 cells, including increased expression of the notochord-associated markers T, CD24, FOXA1, ACAN and CA12, increased cell growth and tumour-sphere formation, and a decrease in the percentage of vacuolated cells present in the heterogeneous population. Interestingly, the effects of recombinant CCN2 peptide on U-CH1 cells were more pronounced under normoxia than hypoxia, promoting increased expression of CCN1, CCN2, CCN3 and CCN5, the notochord-associated markers SOX5, SOX6, T, CD24, and FOXA1 as well as increased tumour-sphere formation. Overall, this study highlights the importance of multiple factors within the tumour microenvironment and how hypoxia and CCN2 may regulate human chordoma cell behaviour.

Seabra AD, Araújo TM, Mello Junior FA, et al.
High-density array comparative genomic hybridization detects novel copy number alterations in gastric adenocarcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(11):6405-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate frequent quantitative alterations of intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed genome-wide DNA copy numbers of 22 samples and using CytoScan® HD Array.
RESULTS: We identified 22 gene alterations that to the best of our knowledge have not been described for gastric cancer, including of v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 4 (ERBB4), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 6 (SOX6), regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1) and UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 5 (B4GALT5). The most significant alterations related to peritoneal invasion involved the regions 13q21.1 (gain) and 15q15.1, 17q23.1, 19q13.2 and 20q11.22 (loss of heterozygozity; LOH), where we found LOH of erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 1 (EPB41L1) gene. In relation to early age of onset, the most significant alterations were gains in the regions Xq26 and Xp22.31 and a loss in the region 11p15.4.
CONCLUSION: These quantitative changes may play a role in the development of this type of neoplasia and may be used as markers in evaluating poor prognosis, as well as act as potential therapeutic targets for gastric cancer.

Renjie W, Haiqian L
MiR-132, miR-15a and miR-16 synergistically inhibit pituitary tumor cell proliferation, invasion and migration by targeting Sox5.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 356(2 Pt B):568-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
MiR-132, miR-15a and miR-16 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many types of cancer, including pituitary tumors. However, the molecular mechanism of these miRNAs in pituitary tumor growth and metastasis is still unclear. Here, we showed that miR-132 and miR-15a/16 were less expressed in pituitary tumor cell lines, as well as in invasive pituitary tumor tissues, compared to non-invasive tumor tissues. We described that overexpression of miR-132 and miR-15a/16 resulted in the suppression of pituitary tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion, respectively, and also inhibits the expression of proteins involved in Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Then, we show that these miRNAs synergistically target Sox5 in pituitary tumor. Moreover, we found that Sox5 overexpression partially rescued miR-132, miR-15a and miR-16-mediated inhibition of cell migration, invasion and cell growth. Finally, we confirmed that Sox5 was upregulated in invasive pituitary tumor tissues, compared to non-invasion tissues. In conclusion, our data indicate that miR-132 and miR-15a/16 act as tumor suppressor genes in pituitary tumor by directly targetting Sox5, and imply that these miRNAs have potential as therapeutic targets for invasive pituitary tumor.

Zhu Y, Xia Y, Niu H, Chen Y
MiR-16 induced the suppression of cell apoptosis while promote proliferation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014; 33(5):1340-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that regulate cell proliferation and functions by interfering with the translation of target mRNAs. Altered expression of miRNA is known to induce various human malignancies, but little is known about the role of miRNAs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
METHODS: RT-PCR and Western blot were used to examine the expression of miRNAs and candidate genes in 40 pairs of squamous cell carcinoma of human. MiR-16 mimics and inhibitor were transfected in human TE-1 and Eca-109 cells before detecting the cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle. The regulation mechanism was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Caspase-3 and 9 were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot.
RESULTS: Aberrant increased level of miR-16 was detected in the ESCC tissues compared with the corresponding adjacent tumor tissues. MiR-16 could inhibit cell apoptosis while promote cell proliferation by down-regulating RECK and SOX6 in TE-1 and Eca-109 cell lines through binding the 3'UTR of both RECK and SOX6 mRNA.
CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant expression level of miR-16 could suppress cell apoptosis while promote growth by regulating RECK and SOX6 which play important roles in the pathogenesis of ESCC.

Pei XH, Lv XQ, Li HX
Sox5 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition by transactivation of Twist1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 446(1):322-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a highly conserved cellular program, plays an important role in normal embryogenesis and cancer metastasis. Twist1, a master regulator of embryonic morphogenesis, is overexpressed in breast cancer and contributes to metastasis by promoting EMT. In exploring the mechanism underlying the increased Twist1 in breast cancer cells, we found that the transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 5(Sox5) is up-regulation in breast cancer cells and depletion of Sox5 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, depletion of Sox5 in breast cancer cells caused a dramatic decrease in Twist1 and chromosome immunoprecipitation assay showed that Sox5 can bind directly to the Twist1 promoter, suggesting that Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression. We further demonstrated that knockdown of Sox5 up-regulated epithelial phenotype cell biomarker (E-cadherin) and down-regulated mesenchymal phenotype cell biomarkers (N-cadherin, Vimentin, and Fibronectin 1), resulting in suppression of EMT. Our study suggests that Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression and plays an important role in the regulation of breast cancer progression.

Scott O, Pugh J, Kiddoo D, et al.
Global developmental delay, progressive relapsing-remitting parkinsonism, and spinal syrinx in a child with SOX6 mutation.
J Child Neurol. 2014; 29(11):NP164-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
SOX6, a member of the SOX gene family, plays a key role in the development of several mammalian tissues and organs, including the central nervous system. Specifically, this gene modulates the differentiation and proliferation of interneurons in the medial ganglionic eminence, as well as oligodendrocytes in the spinal cord. We describe the case of a 4-year-old girl with global developmental delay and a spinal cord syrinx who presented with recurrent episodes of parkinsonian symptoms subsequent to febrile illnesses. The symptoms included gait instability, tremor, and dysarthria, with a progressive relapsing-remitting course over the span of 2 years. The patient was later found to have a large deletion-type mutation in the SOX6 gene. This case is the first report in humans implying a role for SOX6 in basal ganglia function, as well as spinal cord development.

Lynn M, Wang Y, Slater J, et al.
High-resolution genome-wide copy-number analyses identify localized copy-number alterations in Ewing sarcoma.
Diagn Mol Pathol. 2013; 22(2):76-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma family tumors are aggressive sarcomas of childhood and adolescence with continuing poor outcomes. Decades of research on the characteristics of the often solitary-known oncogenic-genomic aberration in Ewing sarcoma family tumors, namely a TET-ETS fusion, have provided little advancement in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of Ewing sarcoma or treatment thereof. In this study, the high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism technology was used to identify additional/secondary copy-number alterations (CNAs) in Ewing sarcoma that might elucidate the aggressive biology of this sarcoma. We compared paired constitutional and tumor DNA samples. Commonly known genomic alterations including gain of 1q and chromosome 8 were the most frequently detected changes in this study. In addition, deletions and loss of heterozygosity were identified in 10q, 11p, and 17p. Furthermore, tumor-specific CNAs were identified not only in genes previously known to be of interest, including CDKN2A, but also in genes not previously associated with Ewing sarcoma, including SOX6 and PTEN. Selected array-based findings were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical studies, or sequencing. The results highlight an unexpected level of cytogenetic complexity associated with several of the samples, 2 of which contained TP53 mutations. In summary, our high-resolution genome-wide copy-number data identify several novel CNAs associated with Ewing sarcoma, which are promising targets for novel therapeutic strategies in this aggressive sarcoma.

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