Gene Summary

Gene:SOCS1; suppressor of cytokine signaling 1
Aliases: JAB, CIS1, SSI1, TIP3, CISH1, SSI-1, TIP-3, SOCS-1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), also known as suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), family. SSI family members are cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. The expression of this gene can be induced by a subset of cytokines, including IL2, IL3 erythropoietin (EPO), CSF2/GM-CSF, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene functions downstream of cytokine receptors, and takes part in a negative feedback loop to attenuate cytokine signaling. Knockout studies in mice suggested the role of this gene as a modulator of IFN-gamma action, which is required for normal postnatal growth and survival. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:suppressor of cytokine signaling 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SOCS1 (cancer-related)

Pasha HF, Mohamed RH, Radwan MI
RASSF1A and SOCS1 genes methylation status as a noninvasive marker for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(2):241-247 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation status is one of the most prevalent molecular alterations in human cancers. Identification of powerful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) without a biopsy is urgently required.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the methylation status of RASSF1A and SOCS-1genes as a non-invasive biomarker for HCC identification and prognosis.
METHODS: Methylation specific-PCR technique was performed to recognize the methylation status of RASSF1A and SOCS-1 genes in 100 patients with HCC, 100 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) but without HCC were considered as cirrhotic liver control group and 100 healthy control.
RESULTS: Methylation of RASSF1A and SOCS-1 genes were detected in 40% and 38% of HCC patients respectively, 14% and 20% of LC patients respectively. Methylation of SOCS-1 gene in peripheral blood of healthy control was 23%. Methylation of RASSF1A gene was associated with age, tumor size, vascular invasion and α fetoprotein (AFP), while SOCS-1 gene methylation was significantly associated with tumor size and AFP. Furthermore, using RASSF1A/ SOCS-1/ AFP panel improve diagnostic sensitivity for HCC 86% and specificity of 75%.
CONCLUSION: RASSF1A and SOCS1 genes methylation status may play an important role in the process of hepatocarcinogenesis and may be used as diagnostic and prognostic noninvasive biomarkers for HCC when combined with serum AFP.

Cha Y, Kim SY, Yeo HY, et al.
Association of CHFR Promoter Methylation with Treatment Outcomes of Irinotecan-Based Chemotherapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
Neoplasia. 2019; 21(1):146-155 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant promoter methylation plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, its role in treatment responses is unclear, especially for metastatic disease. Here, we investigated the association between promoter methylation and treatment outcomes of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in 102 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Promoter methylation was examined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction for three loci (CHFR, WRN, and SULF2) associated with chemotherapy response and five CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-specific markers (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1). Association between CHFR methylation and in vitro sensitivity to irinotecan was also evaluated. Promoter methylation of CHFR, WRN, and SULF2 was identified in 16 (15.7%), 24 (23.5%), and 33 (32.4%) patients, respectively. CIMP status was positive in 22 (21.6%) patients. CHFR methylation was associated with a significantly longer time to progression (TTP) (median: 8.77 vs. 4.43 months, P = .019), with trends favoring higher overall survival (OS) (median: 22.83 vs. 20.17 months, P = .300) and response rates (31.3% vs. 17.4%, P = .300). For patients with unmethylated CHFR, TTP (median: 5.60 vs. 3.53, P = .020) and OS (median: 20.57 vs. 9.23, P = .006) were significantly different according to CIMP status. Colorectal cancer cell lines with CHFR methylation demonstrated increased sensitivity to irinotecan. Both CHFR overexpression and combination with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed irinotecan sensitivity in CHFR-methylated cell lines, whereas CHFR knockdown in unmethylated cells restored sensitivity to irinotecan. These data suggest that CHFR methylation may be associated with favorable treatment outcomes of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

Liu Y, Zhu H, Zhang Z, et al.
Effects of a single transient transfection of Ten-eleven translocation 1 catalytic domain on hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0207139 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), including Ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1), are hypermethylated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). TET1 catalytic domain (TET1-CD) induces genome-wide DNA demethylation to activate TSGs, but so far, anticancer effects of TET1-CD are unclear. Here we showed that after HCC cells were transiently transfected with TET1-CD, the methylation levels of TSGs, namely APC, p16, RASSF1A, SOCS1 and TET1, were distinctly reduced, and their mRNA levels were significantly increased and HCC cells proliferation, migration and invasion were suppressed, but the methylation and mRNA levels of oncogenes, namely C-myc, Bmi1, EMS1, Kpna2 and c-fos, were not significantly change. Strikingly, HCC subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice remained to be significantly repressed even 54 days after transient transfection of TET1-CD. So, transient transfection of TET1-CD may be a great advance in HCC treatment due to its activation of multiple TSGs and persistent anticancer effects.

Ghafouri-Fard S, Oskooei VK, Azari I, Taheri M
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) genes are downregulated in breast cancer.
World J Surg Oncol. 2018; 16(1):226 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins are inhibitors of the cytokine-activated Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. We aimed at evaluation of expression of SOCS genes in breast cancer.
METHODS: We evaluated expression of SOCS1-3 and SOCS5 genes in breast cancer samples compared with the corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues (ANCTs).
RESULTS: All assessed SOCS genes were significantly downregulated in tumoral tissues compared with ANCTs. SOCS1 and SOCS2 genes were significantly overexpressed in higher grade samples, but SOCS3 had the opposite trend. Significant correlations were found between expression levels of SOCS genes. The SOCS1 and SOCS2 expression levels had the best specificity and sensitivity values respectively for breast cancer diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: The current study provides further evidence for contribution of SOCS genes in breast cancer.

Bastidas Torres AN, Cats D, Mei H, et al.
Genomic analysis reveals recurrent deletion of JAK-STAT signaling inhibitors HNRNPK and SOCS1 in mycosis fungoides.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(12):653-664 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Causative genetic alterations in MF are unknown. The low recurrence of pathogenic small-scale mutations (ie, nucleotide substitutions, indels) in the disease, calls for the study of additional aspects of MF genetics. Here, we investigated structural genomic alterations in tumor-stage MF by integrating whole-genome sequencing and RNA-sequencing. Multiple genes with roles in cell physiology (n = 113) and metabolism (n = 92) were found to be impacted by genomic rearrangements, including 47 genes currently implicated in cancer. Fusion transcripts involving genes of interest such as DOT1L, KDM6A, LIFR, TP53, and TP63 were also observed. Additionally, we identified recurrent deletions of genes involved in cell cycle control, chromatin regulation, the JAK-STAT pathway, and the PI-3-K pathway. Remarkably, many of these deletions result from genomic rearrangements. Deletion of tumor suppressors HNRNPK and SOCS1 were the most frequent genetic alterations in MF after deletion of CDKN2A. Notably, SOCS1 deletion could be detected in early-stage MF. In agreement with the observed genomic alterations, transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the cell cycle, JAK-STAT, PI-3-K and developmental pathways. Our results position inactivation of HNRNPK and SOCS1 as potential driver events in MF development.

Juskevicius D, Jucker D, Dietsche T, et al.
Novel cell enrichment technique for robust genetic analysis of archival classical Hodgkin lymphoma tissues.
Lab Invest. 2018; 98(11):1487-1499 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 15% of patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) die after relapse or progressive disease. Comprehensive genetic characterization is required to better understand its molecular pathology and improve management. However, genetic information on cHL is hard to obtain mainly due to rare malignant Hodgkin- and Reed-Sternberg cells (HRSC), whose overall frequencies in the affected tissues ranges from 0.1 to 10%. Therefore, enrichment of neoplastic cells is necessary for the majority of genetic investigations. We have developed a new high-throughput method for marker-based enrichment of archival formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue-derived HRSC nuclei by fluorescence-assisted flow sorting (FACS) and successfully applied it on ten cHL cases. Genomic DNA extracted from sorted nuclei was used for targeted high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of 68 genes that are frequently affected in lymphomas. Chromosomal copy number aberrations were investigated by the Agilent SurePrint 180k microarray. Our method enabled HRSC nuclei enrichment to 40-90% in sorted populations. This level of enrichment was sufficient for reliable identification of tumor-specific mutations and copy number aberrations. Genetic analysis revealed that components of JAK-STAT signaling pathway were affected in all investigated tumors by frequent mutations of SOCS1 and STAT6 as well as copy number gains of JAK2. Involvement of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway compounds was evident from recurrent gains of the locus containing the REL gene and mutations in TNFAIP3 and CARD11. Finally, genetic alterations of PD-L1 and B2M suggested immune evasion as mechanisms of oncogenesis in some patients. In this work, we present a new method for HRSC enrichment from FFPE tissue blocks by FACS and demonstrate the feasibility of a wide-scale genetic analysis by cutting-edge molecular methods. Our work opens the door to a large resource of archived clinical cHL samples and lays foundation to more complex studies aimed to answer important biological and clinical questions that are critical to improve cHL management.

Song TL, Nairismägi ML, Laurensia Y, et al.
Oncogenic activation of the STAT3 pathway drives PD-L1 expression in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2018; 132(11):1146-1158 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mature T-cell lymphomas, including peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL), represent a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with dismal outcomes and limited treatment options. To determine the extent of involvement of the JAK/STAT pathway in this malignancy, we performed targeted capture sequencing of 188 genes in this pathway in 171 PTCL and NKTL cases. A total of 272 nonsynonymous somatic mutations in 101 genes were identified in 73% of the samples, including 258 single-nucleotide variants and 14 insertions or deletions. Recurrent mutations were most frequently located in

Zhang XH, Yang L, Liu XJ, et al.
Association between methylation of tumor suppressor gene SOCS1 and acute myeloid leukemia.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(2):1008-1016 [PubMed] Related Publications
Suppressor of cytokine signaling‑1 (SOCS1) is a widely recognized tumor suppressor gene. Silencing of SOCS1 expression as a result of promoter methylation is associated with occurrence and development of solid tumors such as liver, cervical and pancreatic cancer. However, the association between SOCS1 gene methylation and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been well explored. In the present study, we examined whether gene expression and methylation status of SOCS1 was altered in AML, and whether this was related to disease occurrence and development. To assess this hypothesis, we analyzed SOCS1 in four groups of AML patients: i) Initial treatment group (IT); ii) relapsed/refractory group (RR); iii) remission group (RE); and iv) normal control group (NC). We also used leukemia cell lines U937 and THP‑1 to study the underlying molecular mechanism of SOCS1 in AML, mainly the JAK2/STAT pathway. We used several techniques such as quantitative PCR (qPCR), methylation‑specific PCR (MS‑PCR), western blotting, flow cytometry and cell transfection techniques to analyze the expression and methylation status of SOCS1. We found that the SOCS1 gene methylation rate in the IT and RR groups was significantly higher than that in the RR and NC groups (48, 80 vs. 0 and 0%, respectively). Furthermore, mRNA and protein expression was significantly lower in the IT and RR groups when compared to the RE and NC groups. We also found that the JAK2/STAT signaling pathway was negatively affected by SOCS1. SOCS1 gene methylation caused gene silencing of SOCS1 which overcame the suppression of the downstream JAK2/STAT signaling pathway by SOCS1, and promoted the growth and proliferation of AML cells.

Elias MH, Azlan H, Baba AA, Ankathil R
Aberrant DNA Methylation of SOCS1 Gene is Not Associated with Resistance to Imatinib Mesylate among Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients.
Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2018; 18(3):234-238 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In exploring the cause of Imatinib Mesylate (IM) resistance among Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) patients who do not harbor BCR-ABL dependent mechanism, BCR-ABL independent pathways are the most probable pathways that should be explored. In BCR-ABL independent pathway, SOCS1 plays an important role as it helps in regulating optimal JAK/STAT activity.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the association of SOCS1 gene hypermethylation in mediating IM Resistance.
METHOD: The SOCS1 promoter methylation level of 92 BCR-ABL non mutated IM resistant CML patients, 83 IM good response CML patients and 5 normal samples from healthy individuals were measured using Methylation Specific-High Resolution Melt (MS-HRM) analysis.
RESULTS: Both primers used to amplify promoter region from -333 to -223 and from -332 to -188 showed less than 10% methylation in all CML and normal samples. Consequently, there was no significant difference in SOCS1 promoter methylation level between IM resistant and IM good response patients.
CONCLUSION: SOCS1 promoter methylation level is not suitable to be used as one of the biomarkers for predicting the possibility of acquiring resistance among CML patients treated with IM.

Tiacci E, Ladewig E, Schiavoni G, et al.
Pervasive mutations of JAK-STAT pathway genes in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Blood. 2018; 131(22):2454-2465 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dissecting the pathogenesis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), a common cancer in young adults, remains challenging because of the rarity of tumor cells in involved tissues (usually <5%). Here, we analyzed the coding genome of cHL by microdissecting tumor and normal cells from 34 patient biopsies for a total of ∼50 000 singly isolated lymphoma cells. We uncovered several recurrently mutated genes, namely,

Sugase T, Takahashi T, Serada S, et al.
SOCS1 gene therapy has antitumor effects in imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells through FAK/PI3 K signaling.
Gastric Cancer. 2018; 21(6):968-976 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Most of the gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) have mutations in the KIT gene, encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase. Imatinib, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the first-line therapy for unresectable and metastatic GISTs. Despite the revolutionary effects of imatinib, some patients are primarily resistant to imatinib and many become resistant because of acquisition of secondary mutations in KIT. This study investigated the antitumor effects of SOCS1 gene therapy, which targets several signaling pathways.
METHODS: We used GIST-T1 (imatinib-sensitive) and GIST-R8 (imatinib-resistant) cells. We infected both cell lines with an adenovirus expressing SOCS1 (AdSOCS1) and examined antitumor effect and mechanisms of its agent.
RESULTS: The latter harboured with secondary KIT mutation and had imatinib resistance > 1000-fold higher than the former cells. We demonstrated that AdSOCS1 significantly decreased the proliferation and induced apoptosis in both cell lines. Moreover, SOCS1 overexpression inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), AKT, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in both of them. Inhibition of JAK signaling did not affect the proliferation enough. However, inhibition of the FAK signaling with an FAK inhibitor or RNA interference significantly showed inhibitory effect on cell growth and suppressed the phosphorylation of AKT, indicating a cross-talk between the AKT and FAK pathways in both the imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant GIST cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the activation of FAK signaling is critical for proliferation of both imatinib-sensitive and -resistant GIST cells and the interference with FAK/AKT pathway might be beneficial for therapeutic target.

Shao N, Ma G, Zhang J, Zhu W
miR-221-5p enhances cell proliferation and metastasis through post-transcriptional regulation of SOCS1 in human prostate cancer.
BMC Urol. 2018; 18(1):14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of miR-221-5p on cell proliferaton and metastasis of human prostate cancer in vitro and vivo.
METHODS: We established PC3 cell lines with stable overexpression or silencing of miRNA-221-5p via lentivirus infection. miRNA-221-5p and its target gene SOCS1 expression levels in the stable cells were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. Using luciferase reporter assays to study the relationship between miR-221-5p and SOCS1. Cell proliferative activity was measured using the MTT assay and colony formation assay. Migration ability was assessed using wound-healing assay and transwell assay. To further study the function of miR-221-5p in human prostate cancer we established nude mice xenograft model in vivo.
RESULTS: miR-221-5p regulates the proliferation, migration of prostate cancer cells in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo by regulating socs1 expression through targeted its 3'UTR, and miR-221-5p regulates MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and EMT features in prostate cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Up-regulation and silencing of miR-221-5p expression in prostate cancer cells are correlated with cell proliferation, migration and tumorigenesis, which suggest that miR-221-5p plays an important role in prostate cancer progression.

Kulling PM, Olson KC, Hamele CE, et al.
Dysregulation of the IFN-γ-STAT1 signaling pathway in a cell line model of large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(2):e0193429 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
T cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGLL) is a rare incurable disease that is characterized by defective apoptosis of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Chronic activation of the Janus Kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway is a hallmark of T-LGLL. One manifestation is the constitutive phosphorylation of tyrosine 701 of STAT1 (p-STAT1). T-LGLL patients also exhibit elevated serum levels of the STAT1 activator, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), thus contributing to an inflammatory environment. In normal cells, IFN-γ production is tightly controlled through induction of IFN-γ negative regulators. However, in T-LGLL, IFN-γ signaling lacks this negative feedback mechanism as evidenced by excessive IFN-γ production and decreased levels of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), a negative regulator of IFN-γ. Here we characterize the IFN-γ-STAT1 pathway in TL-1 cells, a cell line model of T-LGLL. TL-1 cells exhibited lower IFN-γ receptor protein and mRNA expression compared to an IFN-γ responsive cell line. Furthermore, IFN-γ treatment did not induce JAK2 or STAT1 activation or transcription of IFN-γ-inducible gene targets. However, IFN-β induced p-STAT1 and subsequent STAT1 gene transcription, demonstrating a specific IFN-γ signaling defect in TL-1 cells. We utilized siRNA targeting of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5b to probe their role in IL-2-mediated IFN-γ regulation. These studies identified STAT5b as a positive regulator of IFN-γ production. We also characterized the relationship between STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5b proteins. Surprisingly, p-STAT1 was positively correlated with STAT3 levels while STAT5b suppressed the activation of both STAT1 and STAT3. Taken together, these results suggest that the dysregulation of the IFN-γ-STAT1 signaling pathway in TL-1 cells likely results from low levels of the IFN-γ receptor. The resulting inability to induce negative feedback regulators explains the observed elevated IL-2 driven IFN-γ production. Future work will elucidate the best way to target this pathway, with the ultimate goal to find a better therapeutic for T-LGLL.

Hühns M, Krohn S, Murua Escobar H, Prall F
Genomic heterogeneity in primary colorectal carcinomas and their metastases: born bad or brought up a villain?
Hum Pathol. 2018; 74:54-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Progression of solid cancers, colorectal carcinomas among them, from their primaries to metastatic lesions traditionally is thought to proceed by a stepwise acquisition of and selection for genomic aberrations. To test if patterns of genomic aberrations would be consistent with this model, we studied 10 colorectal carcinoma primary-metastasis pairs, 9 with 1 liver metastasis each and 1 with 2 metastases. Next-generation targeted sequencing (50-gene panel) with samples obtained from different regions of the primaries and their metastases demonstrated 1-11 gene mutations per lesion. But only in 2 tumors were there seen mutations in all samples from the metastasis and not any of the primaries (BRAF

Jiang Q, Wang X, Qian M, et al.
Effects of epidermal growth factor receptor fusion protein on the cytotoxic activity of SOCS1-silenced dendritic cells in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(3):1306-1312 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of cytokine signaling suppressor 1 (SOCS1)-silenced dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) fusion protein on the activation of T lymphocyte and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity against Hep-2 cells. DCs were derived from the medullary cells of mice and authenticated by flow cytometry (FCM). Recombinant glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-EGFR fusion protein was produced and purified. After being pulsed with it, DCs were modified by recombinant SOCS1-siRNA adenoviral to silence SOCS1 gene expression. The maturation of DCs was evaluated by FCM. The effects of modified DCs on T-cell proliferation were assessed by MTT assay. The killing effects against Hep-2 cells of CTL were assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. High-purity DCs from the medullary cells of mice were obtained. Compared with the control, EGFR-pulsed DCs displayed higher expression of cell surface molecules, including CD83, CD860 and HLA-DR. The MTT assay revealed that all of the EGFR-pulsed, SOCS1‑silenced and EGFR-pulsed plus SOCS1-silenced DCs had an enhanced capacity to stimulate T-lymphocyte proliferation. As expected, EGFR-pulsed plus SOCS1-silenced DCs had the strongest effects on T-cell proliferation. The splenic T cells isolated from both EGFR-pulsed DC-immunized mice and EGFR-pulsed plus SOCS1-silenced DC-immunized mice enhanced the cytotoxicity against Hep-2 cells, while T cells from EGFR‑pulsed plus SOCS1-silenced DC-immunized mice exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity than those from EGFR-DC-immunized mice. The EGFR-pulsed SOCS1‑siRNA-silenced DCs had the strongest effects on activation of T-cell proliferation and the CTL activity against Hep-2 cells.

Ge C, Li R, Song H, et al.
Phase I clinical trial of a novel autologous modified-DC vaccine in patients with resected NSCLC.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):884 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of a novel dendritic cell (DC) vaccine pulsed with survivin and MUC1, silenced with suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), and immune stimulated with flagellin for patients with stage I to IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a phase I open-label, uncontrolled, and dose-escalation trial. Moreover, we evaluate the potential efficacy of this modified DC vaccine as secondary aim.
METHODS: The patients were treated with the vaccine at 1 × 10
RESULTS: The vaccine was well tolerated without dose-limiting toxicity even at higher doses. The most common adverse event reported was just grade 1 flu-like symptoms without unanticipated or serious adverse event. A significant decrease in CD3 + CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cell number and increase in TNF-α and IL-6 were observed in two patients. Two patients showed 15% and 64% decrease in carcino-embryonic antigen and CYFRA21, respectively. The vaccination with the maximum dose significantly improved the patients'quality of life when administered at the highest dose. More importantly, in the long-term follow-up until February 17, 2017, 1 patient had no recurrence, 1 patients had a progressive disease (PD), and 1 patient was died in the low dose group. In the middle dose group, all 3 patients had no recurrence. In the high dose group, 1 patient was died, 1 patient had a PD, and the other 7 patients had no recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: We provide preliminary data on the safety and efficacy profile of a novel vaccine against non-small cell lung cancer, which was reasonably well tolerated, induced modest antitumor activity without dose-limiting toxicity, and improved patients' quality of life. Further more, the vaccine maybe a very efficacious treatment for patients with resected NSCLC to prevent recurrence. Our findings on the safety and efficacy of the vaccine in this phase I trial warrant future phase II/III clinical trial.

Wang R, Li J, Zhao Y, et al.
Investigating the therapeutic potential and mechanism of curcumin in breast cancer based on RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.
Breast Cancer. 2018; 25(2):206-212 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a prevalent cancer in female. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic potential and mechanism of curcumin in breast cancer.
METHODS: After cultivation, human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells) were treated with 0.1% (v/v) 15 µmol/ml curcumin-dimethylsulfoxide solution and 0.1% (v/v) dimethylsulfoxide, respectively, at 37 °C and 5% CO
RESULTS: After DEGs screening, 347 DEGs were identified. Up-regulated DEGs were enriched in 14 functions and 3 pathways, and associated with 12 drugs. Down-regulated DEGs were enriched in 14 functions and 9 pathways, and associated with 14 drugs. Moreover, 5 DEGs were associated with breast cancer, including PGAP3, MAP3K1, SERPINE1, PON2, and GSTO2. PPI network was constructed, and the top DEGs were FOS, VIM, FGF2, MAPK1, SPARC, TOMM7, PSMB10, TCEB2, SOCS1, COL4A1, UQCR11, SERPINE1, and ISG15.
CONCLUSION: Curcumin might have therapeutic potential in breast cancer through regulating breast cancer-related genes, including SERPINE1, PGAP3, MAP3K1, MAPK1, GSTO2, VIM, SPARC, and FGF2. However, validations are required.

Sugase T, Takahashi T, Serada S, et al.
SOCS1 Gene Therapy Improves Radiosensitivity and Enhances Irradiation-Induced DNA Damage in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(24):6975-6986 [PubMed] Related Publications
STAT3 has been implicated recently in radioresistance in cancer. In this study, we investigated the association between STAT3 and radioresistance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Strong expression of activated phospho-STAT3 (p-STAT3) was observed in 16/22 ESCC patients with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT), compared with 9 of 24 patients with surgery alone, where the prognosis of those with CRT was poor. Expression of p-STAT3 and the antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and survivin was strongly induced in ESCC cells by irradiation. Ectopic STAT3 expression increased radioresistance, whereas expression of the STAT3 negative regulator SOCS1 via an adenoviral vector improved radioresponse. Inhibiting the STAT3-Mcl-1 axis by SOCS1 enhanced DNA damage after irradition and induced apoptosis. Combining SOCS1 with radiotherapy enhanced antitumor responses in a murine xenograft model compared with the individual therapies. Tumor repopulation occurred transiently after treatment by irradiation but not the combination SOCS1/radiotherapy. Tumors subjected to this combination expressed high levels of γH2AX and low levels of Ki-67, which was maintained after cessation of treatment. Overall, we demonstrated that inhibiting the STAT3-Mcl-1 signaling axis by ectopic SOCS1 improved radiosensitivity by inducing apoptosis and enhancing DNA damage after radiotherapy, offering a mechanistic rationale for a new ESCC treatment.

Wonganan O, He YJ, Shen XF, et al.
6-Hydroxy-3-O-methyl-kaempferol 6-O-glucopyranoside potentiates the anti-proliferative effect of interferon α/β by promoting activation of the JAK/STAT signaling by inhibiting SOCS3 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017; 336:31-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a key negative regulator of type I interferon (IFN α/β) signaling. Inhibition of SOCS3 by small molecules may be a new strategy to enhance the efficacy of type I IFN and reduce its side effects. We established a cell-based screening assay using human hepatoma HepG2 cells stably transfected with a plasmid wherein the luciferase reporter activity was propelled by interferon α-stimulated response element (ISRE), which is a motif specifically recognized by type I IFN-induced activation of Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. After screening our chemical library, 6-hydroxy-3-O-methyl-kaempferol 6-O-glucopyranoside (K6G) was identified to be a potent activator of type I IFN with EC

Sadras T, Heatley SL, Kok CH, et al.
Differential expression of MUC4, GPR110 and IL2RA defines two groups of CRLF2-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with distinct secondary lesions.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 408:92-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
CRLF2-rearrangements (CRLF2-r) occur frequently in Ph-like B-ALL, a high-risk ALL sub-type characterized by a signaling profile similar to Ph + ALL, however accumulating evidence indicates genetic heterogeneity within CRLF2-r ALL. We performed thorough genomic characterization of 35 CRLF2-r cases (P2RY8-CRLF2 n = 18; IGH-CRLF2 n = 17). Activating JAK2 mutations were present in 34% of patients, and a CRLF2-F232C mutation was identified in an additional 17%. IKZF1 deletions were detected in 63% of cases. The majority of patients (26/35) classified as Ph-like, and these were characterized by significantly higher levels of MUC4, GPR110 and IL2RA/CD25. In addition, Ph-like CRLF2-r samples were significantly enriched for IKZF1 deletions, JAK2/CRLF2 mutations and increased expression of JAK/STAT target genes (CISH, SOCS1), suggesting that mutation-driven CRLF2/JAK2 activation is more frequent in this sub-group. Less is known about the genomics of CRLF2-r cases lacking JAK2-pathway mutations, but KRAS/NRAS mutations were identified in 4/9 non-Ph-like samples. This work highlights the heterogeneity of secondary lesions which may arise and influence intracellular-pathway activation in CRLF2-r patients, and importantly presents distinct therapeutic targets within a group of patients harboring identical primary translocations, for whom efficient directed therapies are currently lacking.

Hou HA, Lu JW, Lin TY, et al.
Clinico-biological significance of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 expression in acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood Cancer J. 2017; 7(7):e588 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) protein, which encodes a member of signal transducers and activators of transcription-induced inhibitors, takes part in a negative regulation of cytokine signaling. The mechanism of SOCS1 in tumor carcinogenesis is complex and there have been no studies concerning the clinic-biologic implication of SOCS1 expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we first identified that higher bone marrow (BM) SOCS1 expression was closely associated with older age, FLT3-ITD, NPM1 and DNMT3A mutations, but negatively correlated with CEBPA mutation in patients with de novo AML. Compared to patients with lower SOCS1 expression, those with higher expression had lower complete remission rates and shorter overall survival. Further, higher expression of SOCS1 in the BM was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor irrespective of age, white blood cell, cytogenetics and gene mutations. Next, we generated zebrafish model overexpressing SOCS1 by spi1 promoter, which showed kidney marrow from adult SOCS1 zebrafish had increased myelopoiesis, myeloid progenitors and the kidney or spleen structure were effaced and distorted, mimicking leukemia phenotype. The SOCS1/FLT3-ITD double transgenic fish could further facilitate the leukemic process. The results indicate SOCS1 plays an important role in AML and its higher expression serves as a new biomarker to risk-stratify AML patients.

Li Z, Peng Z, Gu S, et al.
Global Analysis of miRNA-mRNA Interaction Network in Breast Cancer with Brain Metastasis.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(8):4455-4468 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been linked to a number of cancer types including breast cancer. The rate of brain metastases is 10-30% in patients with advanced breast cancer which is associated with poor prognosis. The potential application of miRNAs in the diagnostics and therapeutics of breast cancer with brain metastasis is an area of intense interest. In an initial effort to systematically address the differential expression of miRNAs and mRNAs in primary breast cancer which may provide clues for early detection of brain metastasis, we analyzed the consequent changes in global patterns of gene expression in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data set obtained by microarray from patients with in situ carcinoma and patients with brain metastasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The miRNA-pathway regulatory network and miRNA-mRNA regulatory network were investigated in breast cancer specimens from patients with brain metastasis to screen for significantly dysregulated miRNAs followed by prediction of their target genes and pathways by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis.
RESULTS: Functional coordination of the changes of gene expression can be modulated by individual miRNAs. Two miRNAs, hsa-miR-17-5p and hsa-miR-16-5p, were identified as having the highest associations with targeted mRNAs [such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), small body size/mothers against decapentaplegic 3 (SMAD3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1)] and pathways associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and other processes linked with cancer metastasis (including cell cycle, adherence junctions and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction). mRNAs for two genes [HECT, UBA and WWE domain containing 1 (HUWE1) and BCL2] were found to have the highest associations with miRNAs, which were down-regulated in brain metastasis specimens of breast cancer. The change of 11 selected miRNAs was verified in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer dataset. Up-regulation of hsa-miR-17-5p was detected in triple-negative breast cancer tissues in TCGA. Furthermore, a negative correlation of hsa-miR-17-5p with overall survival and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and BCL2 target genes was found in TCGA breast cancer specimens.
CONCLUSION: Our findings provide a functionally coordinated expression pattern of different families of miRNAs that may have potential to provide clinicians with a strategy to treat breast cancer with brain metastasis from a systems-rather than a single-gene perspective.

Ren D, Yang Q, Dai Y, et al.
Oncogenic miR-210-3p promotes prostate cancer cell EMT and bone metastasis via NF-κB signaling pathway.
Mol Cancer. 2017; 16(1):117 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The primary issue arising from prostate cancer (PCa) is its high prevalence to metastasize to bone, which severely affects the quality of life and survival time of PCa patients. miR-210-3p is a well-documented oncogenic miRNA implicated in various aspects of cancer development, progression and metastasis. However, the clinical significance and biological roles of miR-210-3p in PCa bone metastasis remain obscure.
METHODS: miR-210-3p expression was evaluated by real-time PCR in 68 bone metastatic and 81 non-bone metastatic PCa tissues. The biological roles of miR-210-3p in the bone metastasis of PCa were investigated both in vitro by EMT and Transwell assays, and in vivo using a mouse model of left cardiac ventricle inoculation. Bioinformatics analysis, real-time PCR, western blot and luciferase reporter analysis were applied to discern and examine the relationship between miR-210-3p and its potential targets. RT-PCR was performed to identify the underlying mechanism of miR-210-3p overexpression in bone metastasis of PCa. Clinical correlation of miR-210-3p with its targets was examined in human PCa and metastatic bone tissues.
RESULTS: miR-210-3p expression is elevated in bone metastatic PCa tissues compared with non-bone metastatic PCa tissues. Overexpression of miR-210-3p positively correlates with serum PSA levels, Gleason grade and bone metastasis status in PCa patients. Upregulating miR-210-3p enhances, while silencing miR-210-3p represses the EMT, invasion and migration of PCa cells in vitro. Importantly, silencing miR-210-3p significantly inhibits bone metastasis of PC-3 cells in vivo. Our results further demonstrate that miR-210-3p maintains the sustained activation of NF-κB signaling via targeting negative regulators of NF-κB signaling (TNF-α Induced Protein 3 Interacting Protein 1) TNIP1 and (Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling 1) SOCS1, resulting in EMT, invasion, migration and bone metastasis of PCa cells. Moreover, our results further indicate that recurrent gains (amplification) contribute to miR-210-3p overexpression in a small number of PCa patients. The clinical correlation of miR-210-3p with SOCS1, TNIP1 and NF-κB signaling activity is verified in PCa tissues.
CONCLUSION: Our findings unravel a novel mechanism for constitutive activation of NF-κB signaling pathway in the bone metastasis of PCa, supporting a functional and clinical significance of epigenetic events in bone metastasis of PCa.

Chen Q, Yin D, Zhang Y, et al.
MicroRNA-29a induces loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and promotes metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma through a TET-SOCS1-MMP9 signaling axis.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(6):e2906 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes convert 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxy-methylcytosine (5-hmC) and have crucial roles in biological and pathological processes by mediating DNA demethylation, however, the functional role of this epigenetic mark and the related enzymes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression remains unknown. Here, we demonstrated that TET-family enzymes downregulation was one likely mechanism underlying 5-hmC loss in HCC. We found that miR-29a overexpression increased DNA methylation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) promoter was associated with HCC metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, miR-29a silenced anti-metastatic SOCS1 through direct TET-family targeting, resulting in SOCS1 promoter demethylation inhibition. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses confirmed that TET1 regulated SOCS1 expression through binding to the promoter region of SOCS1. Finally, miR-29a overexpression correlated with poor clinical outcomes and TET-SOCS1-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 axis silencing in HCC patients. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that 5-hmC loss is an epigenetic hallmark of HCC, and miR-29a is an important epigenetic modifier, promoting HCC metastasis through TET-SOCS1-MMP9 axis silencing. The results offer a new strategy for epigenetic cancer therapy.

Ren D, Lin B, Zhang X, et al.
Maintenance of cancer stemness by miR-196b-5p contributes to chemoresistance of colorectal cancer cells via activating STAT3 signaling pathway.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(30):49807-49823 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Emerging studies indicated that cancer stem cells represent a subpopulation of cells within the tumor that is responsible for chemotherapeutic resistance. However, the underlying mechanism is still not clarified yet. Here we report that miR-196b-5p is dramatically upregulated in CRC tissues and high expression of miR-196b-5p correlates with poor survival in CRC patients. Moreover, recurrent gains (amplification) contribute to the miR-196b-5p overexpression in CRC tissues. Silencing miR-196b-5p suppresses spheroids formation ability, the fraction of SP cells, expression of stem cell factors and the mitochondrial potential, and enhances the apoptosis induced by 5-fluorouracil in CRC cells; while ectopic expression of miR-196b-5p yields an opposite effect. In addition, downregulation of miR-196b-5p resensitizes CRC cells to 5-fluorouracil in vivo. Our results further demonstrate that miR-196b-5p promotes stemness and chemoresistance of CRC cells to 5-fluorouracil via targeting negative regulators SOCS1 and SOCS3 of STAT3 signaling pathway, giving rise to activation of STAT3 signaling. Interestingly, miR-196b-5p is highly enriched in the serum exosomes of patients with CRC compared to the healthy control subjects. Thus, our results unravel a novel mechanism of miR-196b-5p implicating in the maintenance of stem cell property and chemotherapeutic resistance in CRC, offering a potential rational registry of anti-miR-196b-5p combining with conventional chemotherapy against CRC.

Oz Gul O, Cander S, Gul CB, et al.
Cytokine signal suppressor (SOCS) 1-1478 CA/del gene polymorphism in Turkish patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
J Obstet Gynaecol. 2017; 37(7):896-901 [PubMed] Related Publications
Eighty-four subjects, premenopausal female patients (n = 42, mean (SD) age: 26.4 (4.2) years) diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and age-matched healthy volunteers (n = 42, mean (SD) age: 27.6(3.4) years), were included in this study. Data on physical examination, anthropometric measurements and blood biochemistry analysis were recorded for each subject along with analysis for SOCS1-1478 CA/del polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The relation of SOCS1-1478 CA/del polymorphism to PCOS status and insulin resistance was analysed via logistic regression analysis. Mean (SD) levels for BMI (28.5(6.5) vs.22.5 (4.9) kg/m

Yu SJ, Long ZW
Effect of SOCS1 silencing on proliferation and apoptosis of melanoma cells: An in vivo and in vitro study.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(5):1010428317694315 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to investigate the effect of SOCS1 silencing on the proliferation and apoptosis of melanoma cells by in vivo and in vitro studies. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect SOCS1 expression in melanoma tissues and pigmented nevi. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were applied to detect the messenger RNA and protein expressions of SOCS1 in primary human melanocytes and malignant melanoma cell lines (A375, SK-MEL-5, M14, and MV3). Melanoma cells were assigned into mock, negative small interfering RNA, and SOCS1-small interfering RNA groups. The proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis, and messenger RNA expression of SOCS1 in MV3 and A375 cells were detected using MTT assay, flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The expressions of SOCS1 protein, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and janus kinase signal transduction and activators of transcription signaling pathways-related proteins were detected using western blotting. After the establishment of subcutaneous xenograft tumor models in nude mice, the latent period, size, volume and growth speed of xenograft tumors in the mock, negative small interfering RNA, and SOCS1-small interfering RNA groups were examined and compared. The results indicated that positive expression rate of SOCS1 was higher in malignant melanoma tissues than in pigmented nevi. MV3 cells had the highest messenger RNA and protein expressions of SOCS1, followed by A357 cells. Compared with the mock and negative small interfering RNA groups, SOCS1-small interfering RNA group showed lower cell viability, elevated cell apoptosis, more cells in G0/G1 phase and less cells in S and G2/M phases, and decreased messenger RNA and protein expressions of SOCS1, p-ERK1/2, p-JAK2, p-STAT1, and p-STAT3. Compared with the mock and negative small interfering RNA groups, the SOCS1-small interfering RNA group showed longer latent period of tumor, smaller tumor size and volume, and smoother tumor growth curve. To conclude, SOCS1 silencing can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of MV3 and A357 melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase and janus kinase signal transduction and activators of transcription signaling pathways.

Madonna S, Scarponi C, Morelli M, et al.
SOCS3 inhibits the pathological effects of IL-22 in non-melanoma skin tumor-derived keratinocytes.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(15):24652-24667 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous-cell carcinomas (SCC) are common malignancies in humans, caused by neoplastic transformation of keratinocytes of the basal or suprabasal layers of epidermis, respectively. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are frequently found in BCC and SCC, and functionally promote epithelial carcinogenesis. TILs secreting IL-22, in particular, participate to BCC and SCC growth by inducing keratinocyte proliferation and migration, as well as the expression of inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic genes.In this study, we identified SOCS3 as a valid candidate to be manipulated for suppressing tumorigenic functions in BCC and SCC. We found that SOCS3 and SOCS1 expression was reduced in vivo, in tumor lesions of BCC and SCC, as compared to other skin inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis, despite the high number of IL-22-secreting TILs. Moreover, IL-22 was not able to induce in vitro the transcriptional expression of SOCS3 in BCC-or SCC-derived keratinocytes, contrarily to healthy cells. Aimed at rescuing SOCS3 activity in these tumor contexts, a SOCS3-derived peptide, named KIR-ESS, was synthesized, and its ability in suppressing IL-22-induced responses was evaluated in healthy and transformed keratinocytes. We found that KIR-ESS peptide efficiently suppressed the IL-22 molecular signaling in keratinocytes, by acting on STAT3 and Erk1/2 cascade, as well as on the expression of STAT3-dependent downstream genes. Interestingly, after treatment with peptide, both healthy and transformed keratinocytes could no longer aberrantly proliferate and migrate in response to IL-22. Finally, treatment of athymic nude mice bearing SCC xenografts with KIR-ESS peptide concomitantly reduced tumor growth and activated STAT3 levels. As a whole, these data provides the rationale for the use in BCC and SCC skin tumors of SOCS3 mimetics, being able to inhibit the deleterious effects of IL-22 in these contexts.

Moffitt AB, Ondrejka SL, McKinney M, et al.
Enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma subtypes are characterized by loss of function of SETD2.
J Exp Med. 2017; 214(5):1371-1386 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL) is a lethal, and the most common, neoplastic complication of celiac disease. Here, we defined the genetic landscape of EATL through whole-exome sequencing of 69 EATL tumors.

Beldi-Ferchiou A, Skouri N, Ben Ali C, et al.
Abnormal repression of SHP-1, SHP-2 and SOCS-1 transcription sustains the activation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway and the progression of the disease in multiple myeloma.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(4):e0174835 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sustained activation of JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway is classically described in Multiple Myeloma (MM). One explanation could be the silencing of the JAK/STAT suppressor genes, through the hypermethylation of SHP-1 and SOCS-1, previously demonstrated in MM cell lines or in whole bone marrow aspirates. The link between such suppressor gene silencing and the degree of bone marrow invasion or the treatment response has not been evaluated in depth. Using real-time RT-PCR, we studied the expression profile of three JAK/STAT suppressor genes: SHP-1, SHP-2 and SOCS-1 in plasma cells freshly isolated from the bone marrows of MM patients and healthy controls. Our data demonstrated an abnormal repression of such genes in malignant plasma cells and revealed a significant correlation between such defects and the sustained activation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway during MM. The repressed expression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 correlated significantly with a high initial degree of bone marrow infiltration but was, unexpectedly, associated with a better response to the induction therapy. Collectively, our data provide new evidences that substantiate the contribution of JAK/STAT suppressor genes in the pathogenesis of MM. They also highlight the possibility that the decreased gene expression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 could be of interest as a new predictive factor of a favorable treatment response, and suggest new potential mechanisms of action of the therapeutic molecules. Whether such defect helps the progression of the disease from monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance to MM remains, however, to be determined.

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