Gene Summary

Gene:SLC2A3; solute carrier family 2 member 3
Aliases: GLUT3
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SLC2A3 (cancer-related)

Do SK, Choi SH, Lee SY, et al.
Glucose transporter 3 gene variant is associated with survival outcome of patients with non-small cell lung cancer after surgical resection.
Gene. 2019; 703:58-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was conducted to explore whether polymorphisms of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) gene affect the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical resection. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GLUT3 were investigated in a total of 782 patients with NSCLC who underwent curative surgery. The association of the SNPs with overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) was analyzed. Among the four SNPs investigated, GLUT3 rs7309332C>T was significantly associated with OS and DFS in multivariate analyses. The SNP was associated with significantly worse OS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-2.53, P = 0.03, under recessive model), and worse DFS (aHR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.18-2.29, P = 0.003, under recessive model). When stratified by tumor histology, the association between the GLUT3 rs7309332C>T and OS/DFS was not limited to either squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or adenocarcinoma (AC), although the significant association remained only in AC for OS (P = 0.40 for SCC and P = 0.04 for OS) and only in SCC for DFS (P = 0.03 for SCC and P = 0.08 for OS). When AC patients were stratified according to EGFR mutation status, the SNP was significantly associated with DFS in patients with EGFR mutant tumors (aHR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.15-5.30, P = 0.02, under recessive model), but not in those with EGFR wild-type tumors. This study suggests that genetic variation in GLUT3 may be useful in predicting survival of patients with early stage NSCLC.

Kim E, Jung S, Park WS, et al.
Upregulation of SLC2A3 gene and prognosis in colorectal carcinoma: analysis of TCGA data.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):302 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Upregulation of SLC2A genes that encode glucose transporter (GLUT) protein is associated with poor prognosis in many cancers. In colorectal cancer, studies reporting the association between overexpression of GLUT and poor clinical outcomes were flawed by small sample sizes or subjective interpretation of immunohistochemical staining. Here, we analyzed mRNA expressions in all 14 SLC2A genes and evaluated the association with prognosis in colorectal cancer using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database.
METHODS: In the present study, we analyzed the expression of SLC2A genes in colorectal cancer and their association with prognosis using data obtained from the TCGA for the discovery sample, and a dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus for the validation sample.
RESULTS: SLC2A3 was significantly associated with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in both the discovery sample (345 patients) and validation sample (501 patients). High SLC2A3 expression resulted in shorter OS and DFS. In multivariate analyses, high SLC2A3 levels predicted unfavorable OS (adjusted HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.11; P = 0.005) and were associated with poor DFS (adjusted HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.10-3.12; P = 0.02). Similar results were found in the discovery set.
CONCLUSION: Upregulation of the SLC2A3 genes is associated with decreased OS and DFS in colorectal cancer patients. Therefore, assessment of SLC2A3 gene expression may useful for predicting prognosis in these patients.

Martinez-Romero J, Bueno-Fortes S, Martín-Merino M, et al.
Survival marker genes of colorectal cancer derived from consistent transcriptomic profiling.
BMC Genomics. 2018; 19(Suppl 8):857 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Identification of biomarkers associated with the prognosis of different cancer subtypes is critical to achieve better therapeutic assistance. In colorectal cancer (CRC) the discovery of stable and consistent survival markers remains a challenge due to the high heterogeneity of this class of tumors. In this work, we identified a new set of gene markers for CRC associated to prognosis and risk using a large unified cohort of patients with transcriptomic profiles and survival information.
RESULTS: We built an integrated dataset with 1273 human colorectal samples, which provides a homogeneous robust framework to analyse genome-wide expression and survival data. Using this dataset we identified two sets of genes that are candidate prognostic markers for CRC in stages III and IV, showing either up-regulation correlated with poor prognosis or up-regulation correlated with good prognosis. The top 10 up-regulated genes found as survival markers of poor prognosis (i.e. low survival) were: DCBLD2, PTPN14, LAMP5, TM4SF1, NPR3, LEMD1, LCA5, CSGALNACT2, SLC2A3 and GADD45B. The stability and robustness of the gene survival markers was assessed by cross-validation, and the best-ranked genes were also validated with two external independent cohorts: one of microarrays with 482 samples; another of RNA-seq with 269 samples. Up-regulation of the top genes was also proved in a comparison with normal colorectal tissue samples. Finally, the set of top 100 genes that showed overexpression correlated with low survival was used to build a CRC risk predictor applying a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. This risk predictor yielded an optimal separation of the individual patients of the cohort according to their survival, with a p-value of 8.25e-14 and Hazard Ratio 2.14 (95% CI: 1.75-2.61).
CONCLUSIONS: The results presented in this work provide a solid rationale for the prognostic utility of a new set of genes in CRC, demonstrating their potential to predict colorectal tumor progression and evolution towards poor survival stages. Our study does not provide a fixed gene signature for prognosis and risk prediction, but instead proposes a robust set of genes ranked according to their predictive power that can be selected for additional tests with other CRC clinical cohorts.

Xavier S, Gopi Mohan C, Nair S, et al.
Generation of humanized single-chain fragment variable immunotherapeutic against EGFR variant III using baculovirus expression system and in vitro validation.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2019; 124:17-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is known to be specifically expressed in cancer cells and associated with tumor virulence. The receptor provides an opportunity for both specifically targeting the tumor cells as well as for potentially controlling and inhibiting tumor progression. In this study, humanized anti-EGFRvIII single-chain fragment variable (hscFv) was expressed in insect cell culture system to accommodate post-translational glycosylations crucial for the fragment stability and efficacy. Target specific binding of the developed fragment to EGFRvIII expressing cell lines and EGFRvIII positive glioblastoma patient samples was evaluated by immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry respectively. Downstream intracellular signaling mechanisms related to the action of the developed antibody fragment on growth/metabolism of the cell was evaluated in U87-EGFRvIII human glioblastoma cell lines. It was observed that the hscFv bound specifically to EGFRvIII in mutant expressing cells. Functionally, hscFv was found to confer anti-proliferative properties in EGFRvIII expressing cell lines by downregulating phosphorylation of EGFR/EGFRvIII, Lyn, PI3K and GLUT3 involved in proliferation and metabolism. This study demonstrated the significance of hscFv as a potential immunotherapeutic agent as well as a targeting agent for specific delivery of drugs to EGFRvIII expressing cancer cells.

Koutsioumpa M, Hatziapostolou M, Polytarchou C, et al.
Lysine methyltransferase 2D regulates pancreatic carcinogenesis through metabolic reprogramming.
Gut. 2019; 68(7):1271-1286 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Despite advances in the identification of epigenetic alterations in pancreatic cancer, their biological roles in the pathobiology of this dismal neoplasm remain elusive. Here, we aimed to characterise the functional significance of histone lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and demethylases (KDMs) in pancreatic tumourigenesis.
DESIGN: DNA methylation sequencing and gene expression microarrays were employed to investigate CpG methylation and expression patterns of KMTs and KDMs in pancreatic cancer tissues versus normal tissues. Gene expression was assessed in five cohorts of patients by reverse transcription quantitative-PCR. Molecular analysis and functional assays were conducted in genetically modified cell lines. Cellular metabolic rates were measured using an XF24-3 Analyzer, while quantitative evaluation of lipids was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Subcutaneous xenograft mouse models were used to evaluate pancreatic tumour growth in vivo.
RESULTS: We define a new antitumorous function of the histone lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D) in pancreatic cancer.
CONCLUSION: Together our findings define a new tumour suppressor function of KMT2D through the regulation of glucose/fatty acid metabolism in pancreatic cancer.

Shimizu M, Tanaka N
IL-8-induced O-GlcNAc modification via GLUT3 and GFAT regulates cancer stem cell-like properties in colon and lung cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(9):1520-1533 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a pro-inflammatory chemokine that is associated with induction of chemotaxis and degranulation of neutrophils. IL-8 is overexpressed in many tumors, including colon and lung cancer, and recent studies demonstrated essential roles for IL-8 in tumor progression within the tumor microenvironment. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the functions of IL-8 in tumor progression is unclear. In this study, we found that IL-8 is overexpressed in colon and lung cancer cells with cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics and is required for CSC properties, including tumor-initiating abilities. These findings suggest that IL-8 plays an essential role in the development of CSCs. We also showed that IL-8 stimulation of colon and lung cancer cells-induced glucose uptake and expressions of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) and glucosamine fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GFAT), a regulator of glucose flux to the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, resulting in enhancement of protein O-GlcNAcylation. We demonstrated that these events are required for the generation and maintenance CSC-like characteristics of colon and lung cancer cells. Moreover, an O-GlcNAcylation inhibitor, OSMI1, reduced CSC number and tumor development in vivo. Together, these results reveal that IL-8-induced O-GlcNAcylation is required for generation and maintenance of CSCs of colon and lung cancer cells and suggests this regulatory pathway as a candidate therapeutic target of CSCs.

Rogalska A, Forma E, Bryś M, et al.
Hyperglycemia-Associated Dysregulation of O-GlcNAcylation and HIF1A Reduces Anticancer Action of Metformin in Ovarian Cancer Cells (SKOV-3).
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although cancer cells need more glucose than normal cells to maintain energy demand, chronic hyperglycemia induces metabolic alteration that may dysregulate signaling pathways, including the O-GlcNAcylation and HIF1A (Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha) pathways. Metformin was demonstrated to evoke metabolic stress and induce cancer cell death. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic efficiency of metformin on SKOV-3 cells cultured in hyperglycemia and normoglycemia. To identify the potential mechanism, we assessed the expression of O-linked β-

Karageorgis G, Reckzeh ES, Ceballos J, et al.
Chromopynones are pseudo natural product glucose uptake inhibitors targeting glucose transporters GLUT-1 and -3.
Nat Chem. 2018; 10(11):1103-1111 [PubMed] Related Publications
The principles guiding the design and synthesis of bioactive compounds based on natural product (NP) structure, such as biology-oriented synthesis (BIOS), are limited by their partial coverage of the NP-like chemical space of existing NPs and retainment of bioactivity in the corresponding compound collections. Here we propose and validate a concept to overcome these limitations by de novo combination of NP-derived fragments to structurally unprecedented 'pseudo natural products'. Pseudo NPs inherit characteristic elements of NP structure yet enable the efficient exploration of areas of chemical space not covered by NP-derived chemotypes, and may possess novel bioactivities. We provide a proof of principle by designing, synthesizing and investigating the biological properties of chromopynone pseudo NPs that combine biosynthetically unrelated chromane- and tetrahydropyrimidinone NP fragments. We show that chromopynones define a glucose uptake inhibitor chemotype that selectively targets glucose transporters GLUT-1 and -3, inhibits cancer cell growth and promises to inspire new drug discovery programmes aimed at tumour metabolism.

Feitosa SG, Viana KF, Luna ECM, et al.
Immunohistochemical Evaluation of GLUT-3 and GLUT-4 in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(7):1779-1783 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objectives: To evaluate immunohistochemically the expression of GLUT-3 and GLUT-4 in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and assess possible involvement in the malignant transformation of oral lesions. Methods: Tissue samples of 15 cases of OSCC and 15 of OED were subjected to immunohistochemistry with anti-GLUT-3 and anti-GLUT-4 antibodies. Five fields of each case were analyzed, to provide percentages of positive cells at 400X magnification. Result: GLUT-3 and GLUT-4 were positive in 100% of the analyzed samples, the percentage immunolabeling for GLUT-3 ranging from 19% to 73% in the OED group and 10% to 89% in the OSCC group. Positive immunolabeling for GLUT-4 ranged from 15.2% to 79.9% in the OSCC group and 27.1% to 92.6% in the OED group. Statistical analysis with the Mann-Whitney test revealed that there was a higher expression of GLUT-4 in the OED group than in the OSCC group (p=0.04) without any significant difference in the GLUT-3 expression (p=0.852). Conclusion: GLUT-4 expression may indicate some role in oncogenic mechanisms which can determine a malignant phenotype. Thus, it is suggested that further studies on the role of GLUT-3 in oral carcinogenesis be conducted.

Suh S, Kim YH, Goh TS, et al.
mRNA Expression of SLC5A5 and SLC2A Family Genes in Papillary Thyroid Cancer: An Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas.
Yonsei Med J. 2018; 59(6):746-753 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the dynamics and prognostic role of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression responsible for ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and radioactive iodine (¹³¹I) uptake in whole-body radioactive iodine scans (WBS) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary and processed data were downloaded from the Genomic Data Commons Data Portal. Expression data for sodium/iodide symporter (solute carrier family 5 member 5, SLC5A5), hexokinase (HK1-3), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and glucose transporter (solute carrier family 2, SLC2A1-4) mRNA were collected.
RESULTS: Expression of SLC5A5 mRNA were negatively correlated with SLC2A1 mRNA and positively correlated with SLC2A4 mRNA. In PTC with BRAF mutations, expressions of SLC2A1, SLC2A3, HK2, and HK3 mRNA were higher than those in PTC without BRAF mutations. Expression of SLC5A5, SLC2A4, HK1, and G6PD mRNA was lower in PTC without BRAF mutation. PTCs with higher expression of SLC5A5 mRNA had more favorable disease-free survival, but no association with overall survival.
CONCLUSION: Expression of SLC5A5 mRNA was negatively correlated with SLC2A1 mRNA. This finding provides a molecular basis for the management of PTC with negative WBS using ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans. In addition, higher expression of SLC5A5 mRNA was associated with less PTC recurrence, but not with deaths.

Tyszka-Czochara M, Bukowska-Strakova K, Kocemba-Pilarczyk KA, Majka M
Caffeic Acid Targets AMPK Signaling and Regulates Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Anaplerosis while Metformin Downregulates HIF-1α-Induced Glycolytic Enzymes in Human Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lines.
Nutrients. 2018; 10(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The small molecules, natural antioxidant Caffeic Acid (trans-3,4-Dihydroxycinnamic acid CA) and anti-diabetic drug Metformin (Met), activate 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and interfere with metabolic reprogramming in human cervical squamous carcinoma cells. Here, to gain more insight into the ability of CA, Met and the combination of both compounds to impair aerobic glycolysis (the “Warburg effect”) and disrupt bioenergetics of cancer cells, we employed the cervical tumor cell lines C-4I and HTB-35/SiHa. In epithelial C-4I cells derived from solid tumors, CA alleviated glutamine anaplerosis by downregulation of Glutaminase (GLS) and Malic Enzyme 1 (ME1), which resulted in the reduction of NADPH levels. CA treatment of the cells altered tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle supplementation with pyruvate via Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDH), increased ROS formation and enhanced cell death. Additionally, CA and CA/Met evoked intracellular energetic stress, which was followed by activation of AMPK and the impairment of unsaturated FA de novo synthesis. In invasive HTB-35 cells, Met inhibited Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1α) and suppressed the expression of the proteins involved in the “Warburg effect”, such as glucose transporters (

Libby CJ, Zhang S, Benavides GA, et al.
Identification of Compounds That Decrease Glioblastoma Growth and Glucose Uptake in Vitro.
ACS Chem Biol. 2018; 13(8):2048-2057 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor heterogeneity has hampered the development of novel effective therapeutic options for aggressive cancers, including the deadly primary adult brain tumor glioblastoma (GBM). Intratumoral heterogeneity is partially attributed to the tumor initiating cell (TIC) subset that contains highly tumorigenic, stem-like cells. TICs display metabolic plasticity but can have a reliance on aerobic glycolysis. Elevated expression of GLUT1 and GLUT3 is present in many cancer types, with GLUT3 being preferentially expressed in brain TICs (BTICs) to increase survival in low nutrient tumor microenvironments, leading to tumor maintenance. Through structure-based virtual screening (SBVS), we identified potential novel GLUT inhibitors. The screening of 13 compounds identified two that preferentially inhibit the growth of GBM cells with minimal toxicity to non-neoplastic astrocytes and neurons. These compounds, SRI-37683 and SRI-37684, also inhibit glucose uptake and decrease the glycolytic capacity and glycolytic reserve capacity of GBM patient-derived xenograft (PDX) cells in glycolytic stress test assays. Our results suggest a potential new therapeutic avenue to target metabolic reprogramming for the treatment of GBM, as well as other tumor types, and the identified novel inhibitors provide an excellent starting point for further lead development.

Ancey PB, Contat C, Meylan E
Glucose transporters in cancer - from tumor cells to the tumor microenvironment.
FEBS J. 2018; 285(16):2926-2943 [PubMed] Related Publications
Solute carriers of the glucose transporter (GLUT) family mediate the first step for cellular glucose usage. The upregulation of GLUTs has been reported in numerous cancer types as a result of perturbation of gene expression or protein relocalization or stabilization. Because they enable to sustain the energy demand required by tumor cells for various biochemical programs, they are promising targets for the development of anticancer strategies. Recently, important biological insights have come from the fine crystal structure determination of several GLUTs; these advances will likely catalyze the development of new selective inhibitory compounds. Furthermore, deregulated glucose metabolism of nontumor cells in the tumor mass is beginning to be appreciated and could have major implications for our understanding of how glucose uptake by specific cell types influences the behavior of neighboring cells in the same microenvironment. In this review, we discuss some of the deregulation mechanisms of glucose transporters, their genetic and pharmacological targeting in cancer, and new functions they may have in nontumor cells of the tumor environment or beyond glucose uptake for glycolysis.

Wang Y, Wu S, Huang C, et al.
Yin Yang 1 promotes the Warburg effect and tumorigenesis via glucose transporter GLUT3.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(8):2423-2434 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cells typically shift their metabolism to aerobic glycolysis to fulfill the demand of energy and macromolecules to support their proliferation. Glucose transporter (GLUT) family-mediated glucose transport is the pacesetter of aerobic glycolysis and, thus, is critical for tumor cell metabolism. Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is an oncogene crucial for tumorigenesis; however, its role in tumor cell glucose metabolism remains unclear. Here, we revealed that YY1 activates GLUT3 transcription by directly binding to its promoter and, concomitantly, enhances tumor cell aerobic glycolysis. This regulatory effect of YY1 on glucose entry into the cells is critical for YY1-induced tumor cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Intriguingly, YY1 regulation of GLUT3 expression, and, subsequently, of tumor cell aerobic glycolysis and tumorigenesis, occurs p53-independently. Our results also showed that clinical drug oxaliplatin suppresses colon carcinoma cell proliferation by inhibiting the YY1/GLUT3 axis. Together, these results link YY1's tumorigenic potential with the critical first step of aerobic glycolysis. Thus, our novel findings not only provide new insights into the complex role of YY1 in tumorigenesis but also indicate the potential of YY1 as a target for cancer therapy irrespective of the p53 status.

Wang H, Xue W, Jiang X
Overexpression of TRIM24 Stimulates Proliferation and Glucose Metabolism of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:6142843 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TRIM24 (Tripartite Motif Containing 24) is a recently identified oncogene overexpressed in various cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of TRIM24 in the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains ambiguous. In the present study, we analyzed the expression pattern of TRIM24 in 100 HNSCC tissues and found that TRIM24 was overexpressed in 43/100 HNSCC cases. Significant association was found between TRIM24 overexpression and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (

Li J, Fu F, Wan X, et al.
Up-regulated miR-29c inhibits cell proliferation and glycolysis by inhibiting SLC2A3 expression in prostate cancer.
Gene. 2018; 665:26-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly cancer in male worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of PCa remain unclear. MiR-29c was reported to be down-regulated in several kinds of tumors. Here, we for the first time demonstrated miR-29c was down-regulated in PCa samples. SLC2A3, a regulator of glycolysis, was validated as a direct target of miR-29c. Moreover, functional studies showed miR-29c could inhibit cell growth, induce apoptosis and deceased the rate of glucose metabolism. Accordingly, we identified miR-29c acted as a tumor-suppressor and was down-regulated in PCa. We thought this study will provide useful information to explore the potential candidate biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis targets of PCa.

Zhuang Y, Zhao J, Xu X, Bi L
Downregulation of GLUT3 Promotes Apoptosis and Chemosensitivity of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells via EGFR Signaling.
Arch Iran Med. 2018; 21(2):73-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) plays an important role in tumor progression and drug resistance in numerous malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the effect of GLUT3 silencing on treatment of AML remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate role of GLUT3 in proliferation and chemosensitivity of AML and its underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: The siRNA transfection was conducted using LipofectamineTM 2000. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analyses were employed to measure the expression levels of mRNA and protein for GLUT3, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of siRNA and vincristine were determined using the MTT assay. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze apoptosis.
RESULTS: GLUT3 siRNA transfection significantly reduced expression levels of GLUT3 mRNA and protein, leading to a strong growth inhibition and enhanced apoptosis (P = 0.017) in AML cells. Moreover, treatment with GLUT3 siRNA, synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of vincristine (P = 0.025). We further investigated the possible mechanism involved in regulation of GLUT3 in AML cell proliferation and apoptosis. We found that GLUT3 negatively regulates EGFR activity, as well as the expression of its downstream proteins.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that GLUT3 plays a fundamental role in the survival and resistance of AML cells to vincristine. Therefore, GLUT3 can be considered as an attractive target for gene therapy of AML patients and siRNA-mediated silencing of this gene may be a novel strategy in AML treatment.

Jones RB, Dorsett KA, Hjelmeland AB, Bellis SL
The ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase protects tumor cells against hypoxia by enhancing HIF-1α signaling.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(15):5659-5667 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant cell surface glycosylation is prevalent in tumor cells, and there is ample evidence that glycans have functional roles in carcinogenesis. Nonetheless, many molecular details remain unclear. Tumor cells frequently exhibit increased α2-6 sialylation on

Bunda S, Zadeh G, Aldape KD
Glut3 Addiction: A Druggable Vulnerability in Glioblastoma.
Cancer Cell. 2017; 32(6):726-727 [PubMed] Related Publications
The link between GBM molecular subtype and response to treatment remains undefined. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Cosset and colleagues define a subpopulation of patients within the proneural/classical subtype sensitive to integrin blockade because of a Glut3 addiction. These findings reveal context-dependent druggable vulnerability in a subpopulation of GBM.

Cosset É, Ilmjärv S, Dutoit V, et al.
Glut3 Addiction Is a Druggable Vulnerability for a Molecularly Defined Subpopulation of Glioblastoma.
Cancer Cell. 2017; 32(6):856-868.e5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
While molecular subtypes of glioblastoma (GBM) are defined using gene expression and mutation profiles, we identify a unique subpopulation based on addiction to the high-affinity glucose transporter, Glut3. Although Glut3 is a known driver of a cancer stem cell phenotype, direct targeting is complicated by its expression in neurons. Using established GBM lines and patient-derived stem cells, we identify a subset of tumors within the "proneural" and "classical" subtypes that are addicted to aberrant signaling from integrin αvβ3, which activates a PAK4-YAP/TAZ signaling axis to enhance Glut3 expression. This defined subpopulation of GBM is highly sensitive to agents that disrupt this pathway, including the integrin antagonist cilengitide, providing a targeted therapeutic strategy for this unique subset of GBM tumors.

Gonzalez-Menendez P, Hevia D, Mayo JC, Sainz RM
The dark side of glucose transporters in prostate cancer: Are they a new feature to characterize carcinomas?
Int J Cancer. 2018; 142(12):2414-2424 [PubMed] Related Publications
One of the hallmarks of cancer cells is the increased ability to acquire nutrients, particularly glucose and glutamine. Proliferating cells need precursors for cell growth and NADPH reducing equivalents for survival. The principal responsible for glucose uptake is facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), which usually are overexpressed in cancer cells. Besides their role in glucose uptake, GLUT transporters are able to transport other compounds such as dehydroascorbic acid or uric acid. They play a major role in tumor progression and cellular processes such as regulated cell death. The prostate gland has the particular characteristic of being more glycolytic than other non-pathological tissues given an accumulation of citrate in the seminal fluid and the inhibition of m-aconitase that affects to tricarboxylic acid cycle. In prostate cancer (PCa), androgens increase glucose uptake, upregulate GLUT transporters such as GLUT1 and GLUT3 and stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase pathway, suggesting a possible connection between glycolytic and androgenic signaling. Interestingly, diabetes is not a risk factor for PCa, as it is in other cancers, while insulin stimulates progression and insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway plays an important role in PCa progression. It was recently found that PCa cells overexpress GLUT4 and, more importantly, that it seems to be related to the castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) phenotype, although little is known about its participation in tumor progression. This review will focus on the role of GLUT transporters along with PCa progression, and the involvement of GLUT4 on CRPC phenotype transition would be considered.

Crippa S, Ancey PB, Vazquez J, et al.
EMBO Mol Med. 2017; 9(11):1589-1604 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatoblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric liver cancer. Histological evaluation of tumor biopsies is used to distinguish among the different subtypes of hepatoblastoma, with fetal and embryonal representing the two main epithelial components. With frequent

Codreanu SG, Hoeksema MD, Slebos RJC, et al.
Identification of Proteomic Features To Distinguish Benign Pulmonary Nodules from Lung Adenocarcinoma.
J Proteome Res. 2017; 16(9):3266-3276 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We hypothesized that distinct protein expression features of benign and malignant pulmonary nodules may reveal novel candidate biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer. We performed proteome profiling by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to characterize 34 resected benign lung nodules, 24 untreated lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs), and biopsies of bronchial epithelium. Group comparisons identified 65 proteins that differentiate nodules from ADCs and normal bronchial epithelium and 66 proteins that differentiate ADCs from nodules and normal bronchial epithelium. We developed a multiplexed parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay to quantify a subset of 43 of these candidate biomarkers in an independent cohort of 20 benign nodules, 21 ADCs, and 20 normal bronchial biopsies. PRM analyses confirmed significant nodule-specific abundance of 10 proteins including ALOX5, ALOX5AP, CCL19, CILP1, COL5A2, ITGB2, ITGAX, PTPRE, S100A12, and SLC2A3 and significant ADC-specific abundance of CEACAM6, CRABP2, LAD1, PLOD2, and TMEM110-MUSTN1. Immunohistochemistry analyses for seven selected proteins performed on an independent set of tissue microarrays confirmed nodule-specific expression of ALOX5, ALOX5AP, ITGAX, and SLC2A3 and cancer-specific expression of CEACAM6. These studies illustrate the value of global and targeted proteomics in a systematic process to identify and qualify candidate biomarkers for noninvasive molecular diagnosis of lung cancer.

Agrawal S, Łuc M, Ziółkowski P, et al.
Insulin-induced enhancement of MCF-7 breast cancer cell response to 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(6):1010428317702901 [PubMed] Related Publications
The study was designed to evaluate the potential use of insulin for cancer-specific treatment. Insulin-induced sensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide was evaluated. To investigate and establish the possible mechanisms of this phenomenon, we assessed cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, activation of apoptotic and autophagic pathways, expression of glucose transporters 1 and 3, formation of reactive oxygen species, and wound-healing assay. Additionally, we reviewed the literature regarding theuse of insulin in cancer-specific treatment. We found that insulin increases the cytotoxic effect of 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide in vitro up to two-fold. The effect was linked to enhancement of apoptosis, activation of apoptotic and autophagic pathways, and overexpression of glucose transporters 1 and 3 as well as inhibition of cell proliferation and motility. We propose a model for insulin-induced sensitization process. Insulin acts as a sensitizer of cancer cells to cytotoxic therapy through various mechanisms opening a possibility for metronomic insulin-based treatments.

Leite RB, Cavalcante RB, Nogueira RLM, et al.
Analysis of GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and angiogenic index in syndromic and non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors.
Braz Oral Res. 2017; 31:e34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of glucose transporters 1 (GLUT-1) and 3 (GLUT-3) in keratocystic odontogenic tumors associated with Gorlin syndrome (SKOTs) and non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors (NSKOTs), and to establish correlations with the angiogenic index. Seventeen primary NSKOTs, seven recurrent NSKOTs, and 17 SKOTs were selected for the study. The percentage of immunopositive cells for GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 in the epithelial component of the tumors was assessed. The angiogenic index was determined by microvessel count. The results were analyzed statistically using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's correlation test. High epithelial immunoexpression of GLUT-1 was observed in most tumors (p = 0.360). There was a higher frequency of negative cases for GLUT-3 in all groups. The few GLUT-3-positive tumors exhibited low expression of this protein in epithelial cells. No significant difference in the angiogenic index was observed between groups (p = 0.778). GLUT-1 expression did not correlate significantly with the angiogenic index (p > 0.05). The results suggest that the more aggressive biological behavior of SKOTs when compared to NSKOTs may not be related to GLUT-1 or GLUT-3 expression. GLUT-1 may play an important role in glucose uptake by epithelial cells of KOTs and this process is unlikely related to the angiogenic index. GLUT-1 could be a potential target for future development of therapeutic strategies for KOTs.

Khurshed M, Molenaar RJ, Lenting K, et al.
In silico gene expression analysis reveals glycolysis and acetate anaplerosis in IDH1 wild-type glioma and lactate and glutamate anaplerosis in IDH1-mutated glioma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(30):49165-49177 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hotspot mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) initiate low-grade glioma and secondary glioblastoma and induce a neomorphic activity that converts α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG). It causes metabolic rewiring that is not fully understood. We investigated the effects of IDH1 mutations (IDH1MUT) on expression of genes that encode for metabolic enzymes by data mining The Cancer Genome Atlas. We analyzed 112 IDH1 wild-type (IDH1WT) versus 399 IDH1MUT low-grade glioma and 157 IDH1WT versus 9 IDH1MUT glioblastoma samples. In both glioma types, IDH1WT was associated with high expression levels of genes encoding enzymes that are involved in glycolysis and acetate anaplerosis, whereas IDH1MUT glioma overexpress genes encoding enzymes that are involved in the oxidative tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In vitro, we observed that IDH1MUT cancer cells have a higher basal respiration compared to IDH1WT cancer cells and inhibition of the IDH1MUT shifts the metabolism by decreasing oxygen consumption and increasing glycolysis. Our findings indicate that IDH1WT glioma have a typical Warburg phenotype whereas in IDH1MUT glioma the TCA cycle, rather than glycolytic lactate production, is the predominant metabolic pathway. Our data further suggest that the TCA in IDH1MUT glioma is driven by lactate and glutamate anaplerosis to facilitate production of α-KG, and ultimately D-2-HG. This metabolic rewiring may be a basis for novel therapies for IDH1MUT and IDH1WT glioma.

Zhong X, Tian S, Zhang X, et al.
CUE domain-containing protein 2 promotes the Warburg effect and tumorigenesis.
EMBO Rep. 2017; 18(5):809-825 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer progression depends on cellular metabolic reprogramming as both direct and indirect consequence of oncogenic lesions; however, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we report that CUEDC2 (CUE domain-containing protein 2) plays a vital role in facilitating aerobic glycolysis, or Warburg effect, in cancer cells. Mechanistically, we show that CUEDC2 upregulates the two key glycolytic proteins GLUT3 and LDHA via interacting with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) or 14-3-3ζ, respectively. We further demonstrate that enhanced aerobic glycolysis is essential for the role of CUEDC2 to drive cancer progression. Moreover, using tissue microarray analysis, we show a correlation between the aberrant expression of CUEDC2, and GLUT3 and LDHA in clinical HCC samples, further demonstrating a link between CUEDC2 and the Warburg effect during cancer development. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated function of CUEDC2 in cancer cell metabolism and tumorigenesis, illustrating how close oncogenic lesions are intertwined with metabolic alterations promoting cancer progression.

Bernacchioni C, Ghini V, Cencetti F, et al.
NMR metabolomics highlights sphingosine kinase-1 as a new molecular switch in the orchestration of aberrant metabolic phenotype in cancer cells.
Mol Oncol. 2017; 11(5):517-533 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Strong experimental evidence in animal and cellular models supports a pivotal role of sphingosine kinase-1 (SK1) in oncogenesis. In many human cancers, SK1 levels are upregulated and these increases are linked to poor prognosis in patients. Here, by employing untargeted NMR-based metabolomic profiling combined with functional validations, we report the crucial role of SK1 in the metabolic shift known as the Warburg effect in A2780 ovarian cancer cells. Indeed, expression of SK1 induced a high glycolytic rate, characterized by increased levels of lactate along with increased expression of the proton/monocarboxylate symporter MCT1, and decreased oxidative metabolism, associated with the accumulation of intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and reduction in CO

Kuang R, Jahangiri A, Mascharak S, et al.
GLUT3 upregulation promotes metabolic reprogramming associated with antiangiogenic therapy resistance.
JCI Insight. 2017; 2(2):e88815 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clinical trials revealed limited response duration of glioblastomas to VEGF-neutralizing antibody bevacizumab. Thriving in the devascularized microenvironment occurring after antiangiogenic therapy requires tumor cell adaptation to decreased glucose, with 50% less glucose identified in bevacizumab-treated xenografts. Compared with bevacizumab-responsive xenograft cells, resistant cells exhibited increased glucose uptake, glycolysis,

Chen X, Lu P, Zhou S, et al.
Predictive value of glucose transporter-1 and glucose transporter-3 for survival of cancer patients: A meta-analysis.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(8):13206-13213 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The role of glucose transporters in cancers remains contradictory. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between overall survival and glucose transporter s (GLUTs) 1 and 3 to find an accurate prognostic biomarker.
METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed, EMbase and Medline databases for relevant published studies that were consistent with the eligible criteria up to January 2016, and calculated pooled estimated hazard ratios of GLUT-1 and -3's expressions in different cancer types and ethnic populations. Random-effects models were used to assess estimates from studies with significant heterogeneities.
RESULTS: Overall, 12 studies concerning GLUT 1 and 2 studies concerning GLUT 3, which involved 2008 participants when combined, were included in this analysis. We found that overexpression of GLUTs were significantly correlated to poorer survival rates (HR=1.63, 95%CI=1.09-2.44 and HR=1.89, 95%CI=1.28-2.81). In the subgroup analysis, the GLUT 1 up-regulation was correlated with negative overall survival in pancreatic cancer and gastric cancer and with better overall survival in colorectal cancer. In addition, overexpression of GLUT 1 was associated with a poorer prognosis in the Asian population, while no significance was found in the non-Asian subgroup. However, limitations do exist, which could be handled better.
CONCLUSIONS: A combination of GLUTs 1 and 3 might help predict malignancy of cancers and direct effective cancer therapy.

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