Gene Summary

Gene:LDHA; lactate dehydrogenase A
Aliases: LDH1, LDHM, GSD11, PIG19, HEL-S-133P
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the conversion of L-lactate and NAD to pyruvate and NADH in the final step of anaerobic glycolysis. The protein is found predominantly in muscle tissue and belongs to the lactate dehydrogenase family. Mutations in this gene have been linked to exertional myoglobinuria. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. The human genome contains several non-transcribed pseudogenes of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Most cancers exhibit a high expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) to ensure a high energy supply.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LDHA (cancer-related)

Wang YH, Israelsen WJ, Lee D, et al.
Cell-state-specific metabolic dependency in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis.
Cell. 2014; 158(6):1309-23 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2015 Related Publications
The balance between oxidative and nonoxidative glucose metabolism is essential for a number of pathophysiological processes. By deleting enzymes that affect aerobic glycolysis with different potencies, we examine how modulating glucose metabolism specifically affects hematopoietic and leukemic cell populations. We find that a deficiency in the M2 pyruvate kinase isoform (PKM2) reduces the levels of metabolic intermediates important for biosynthesis and impairs progenitor function without perturbing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), whereas lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) deletion significantly inhibits the function of both HSCs and progenitors during hematopoiesis. In contrast, leukemia initiation by transforming alleles putatively affecting either HSCs or progenitors is inhibited in the absence of either PKM2 or LDHA, indicating that the cell-state-specific responses to metabolic manipulation in hematopoiesis do not apply to the setting of leukemia. This finding suggests that fine-tuning the level of glycolysis may be explored therapeutically for treating leukemia while preserving HSC function.

Girgis H, Masui O, White NM, et al.
Lactate dehydrogenase A is a potential prognostic marker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:101 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Over 90% of cancer-related deaths in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are caused by tumor relapse and metastasis. Thus, there is an urgent need for new molecular markers that can potentiate the efficacy of the current clinical-based models of prognosis assessment. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential significance of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), assessed by immunohistochemical staining, as a prognostic marker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma in relation to clinicopathological features and clinical outcome.
METHODS: We assessed the expression of LDHA at the protein level, by immunohistochemistry, and correlated its expression with multiple clinicopathological features including tumor size, clinical stage, histological grade, disease-free and overall survival in 385 patients with primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We also correlated the LDHA expression with overall survival, at mRNA level, in an independent data set of 170 clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas databases. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for the potential clinicopathological factors were used to test for associations between the LDHA expression and both disease-free survival and overall survival.
RESULTS: There is statistically significant positive correlation between LDHA level of expression and tumor size, clinical stage and histological grade. Moreover, LDHA expression shows significantly inverse correlation with both disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Our results are validated by examining LDHA expression, at the mRNA level, in the independent data set of clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas databases which also shows that higher lactate dehydrogenase A expression is associated with significantly shorter overall survival.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that LDHA up-regulation can be a predictor of poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Thus, it represents a potential prognostic biomarker that can boost the accuracy of other prognostic models in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Zhang DG, Zheng JN, Pei DS
P53/microRNA-34-induced metabolic regulation: new opportunities in anticancer therapy.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:115 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2015 Related Publications
MicroRNA-34 (miR-34) is directly regulated by p53, and its potential tumor suppressive roles have been studied extensively. As a p53-induced microRNA, miR-34 functions as a tumor suppressor by playing a role in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and metabolic regulation. Among these p53/miR-34 associated processes, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest are known as essential for p53/miR-34-mediated tumor suppression. P53-mediated metabolic processes have been shown to play pivotal roles in cancer cell biology. Recent studies have also identified several miR-34 targets involved in p53/miR-34-induced metabolic regulation. However, correlations among these metabolic targets remain to be fully elucidated. In this review, we summarize the current progress in the field of metabolic regulation by the p53/miR-34 axis and propose future directions for the development of metabolic approaches in anticancer therapy.

Hua G, Liu Y, Li X, et al.
Targeting glucose metabolism in chondrosarcoma cells enhances the sensitivity to doxorubicin through the inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase-A.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(6):2727-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant cartilage-forming cancer composed of cells derived from transformed cells that produce cartilage. Conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy have very limited efficacy in patients with advanced chondrosarcoma. In the present study, we reported a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of chondrosarcoma cells. We detected that lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDHA) is highly active in chondrosarcoma cells and chondrosarcoma patient samples compared with normal chondrocyte cell lines and primary human chondrocyte. Moreover, chondrosarcoma cells exhibited elevated levels of LDHA expression under doxorubicin treatment. To further explore the mechanisms, we generated doxorubicin-resistant cells from SW1353 chondrosarcoma cell line. Notably, the activity and expression of LDHA are upregulated in doxorubicin-resistant cells. Moreover, our data showed a strong correlation between glucose metabolism and doxorubicin resistance in chondrosarcoma cells; doxorubicin-resistant cells displayed highly activated glucose metabolism and depended more on glucose supply. Finally, we reported a synergistic effect produced by incorporating doxorubicin with glycolysis inhibitors-oxamate in the combined treatment of chondrosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In summary, the present study may aid in the development of new approaches using the combination of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of chondrosarcoma patients.

Reece KM, Richardson ED, Cook KM, et al.
Epidithiodiketopiperazines (ETPs) exhibit in vitro antiangiogenic and in vivo antitumor activity by disrupting the HIF-1α/p300 complex in a preclinical model of prostate cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2015 Related Publications
The downstream targets of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) play an important role in tumor progression and angiogenesis. Therefore, inhibition of HIF-mediated transcription has potential in the treatment of cancer. One attractive strategy for inhibiting HIF activity is the disruption of the HIF-1α/p300 complex, as p300 is a crucial coactivator of hypoxia-inducible transcription. Several members of the epidithiodiketopiperazine (ETP) family of natural products have been shown to disrupt the HIF-1α/p300 complex in vitro; namely, gliotoxin, chaetocin, and chetomin. Here, we further characterized the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiangiogenic and antitumor effects of these ETPs using a preclinical model of prostate cancer. In the rat aortic ring angiogenesis assay, gliotoxin, chaetocin, and chetomin significantly inhibited microvessel outgrowth at a GI50 of 151, 8, and 20 nM, respectively. In vitro co-immunoprecipitation studies in prostate cancer cell extracts demonstrated that these compounds disrupted the HIF-1α/p300 complex. The downstream effects of inhibiting the HIF-1α/p300 interaction were evaluated by determining HIF-1α target gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Dose-dependent decreases in levels of secreted VEGF were detected by ELISA in the culture media of treated cells, and the subsequent downregulation of VEGFA, LDHA, and ENO1 HIF-1α target genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, treatment with ETPs in mice bearing prostate tumor xenografts resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth. These results suggest that directly targeting the HIF-1α/p300 complex with ETPs may be an effective approach for inhibiting angiogenesis and tumor growth.

Song YD, Zhang KF, Liu D, et al.
Inhibition of EGFR-induced glucose metabolism sensitizes chondrosarcoma cells to cisplatin.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):7017-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage-forming tumors which are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. By searching in Oncomine which is a cancer microarray database and web-based data mining platform, we found Glut1 and LDHA were upregulated in human chondrosarcoma patient samples. In this study, we reported total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and phosphorylated EGFR were highly activated in human chondrosarcoma cell lines. In addition, overexpression of EGFR contributed to cisplatin resistance. EGFR promoted glucose metabolism of chondrosarcoma cells through the upregulation of glycolysis key enzymes. Interestingly, cisplatin-resistant chondrosarcoma cells showed upregulated glucose metabolism and EGFR signaling pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that the combination of either EGFR inhibitor or anaerobic glycolysis inhibitor with cisplatin showed synergistically inhibitory effects on cisplatin-resistant chondrosarcoma cells through the inducements of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Our project proposed a novel function of EGFR in the regulation of glucose metabolism in chondrosarcoma cells and contributed to the development of therapeutic strategies for the clinical treatment of chondrosarcoma patient.

Yao Y, Wang H, Li B
LDH5 overexpression is associated with poor survival in patients with solid tumors: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):6973-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5) is believed to be particularly important and a reliable marker of malignancy. However, it is still controversial whether LDH5 expression can be regarded as a prognostic factor for cancer patients. We reviewed the literature by performing an electronic database search via PubMed to identify eligible studies that assessed the impact of LDH5 as a cancer prognostic marker and its association with HIF-1α. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also assessed. A total of 12 literatures which included 1,892 cancer patients were combined in the final analysis. Meta-analysis revealed that LDH5 overexpression was associated with an unfavorable overall survival (12 studies, 1,597 patients; HR 1.59, 95 % CI 1.17-2.16) and disease/recurrence/progression-free survival (7 studies; 1,086 patients; HR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.04-2.04) among solid tumor patients. Meta-analysis revealed an association between the expression of LDH5 and hypoxia-inducible factors 1 (OR 2.72, 95 % CI 1.66-4.45). Publication bias could not be excluded when investigating the association of LDH5 expression and overall survival. However, when we accounted for publication bias using the trim and fill method, the results remained significant (HR 1.435, 95 % CI 1.071-1.923, P < 0.05) suggesting the stability of our results. Therefore, our study suggested that LDH5 overexpression had a poor prognosis value in cancer patients. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that high LDH5 expression is associated with HIF-1α and poor overall survival in cancer patients.

Koukourakis MI, Giatromanolaki A, Panteliadou M, et al.
Lactate dehydrogenase 5 isoenzyme overexpression defines resistance of prostate cancer to radiotherapy.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(9):2217-23 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy provides high-cure rates in prostate cancer. Despite its overall slow clinical growth, high proliferation rates documented in a subset of tumours relate to poor radiotherapy outcome. This study examines the role of anaerobic metabolism in prostate cancer growth and resistance to radiotherapy.
METHODS: Biopsy samples from 83 patients with prostate cancer undergoing radical hypofractionated and accelerated radiotherapy were analysed for MIB1 proliferation index and for lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH5, a marker of tumour anaerobic metabolism. Ninety-five surgical samples were in parallel analysed. Correlation with histopathological variables, PSA and radiotherapy outcome was assessed. Dose-response experiments were performed in PC3 and DU145 cancer cell lines.
RESULTS: High MIB1 index (noted in 25% of cases) was directly related to Gleason score (P<0.0001), T3-stage (P=0.0008) and PSA levels (P=0.03). High LDH5 (noted in 65% of cases) was directly related to MIB1 index (P<0.0001), Gleason score (P=0.02) and T3-stage (P=0.001). High Gleason score, MIB1, LDH5 and PSA levels were significantly related to poor BRFS (P=0.007, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). High Gleason score (P=0.04), LDH5 (P=0.01) and PSA levels (P=0.003) were significantly related to local recurrence. MIB1 and T-stage did not affect local control. Silencing of LDHA gene in both prostate cancer cell lines resulted in significant radiosensitisation.
CONCLUSIONS: LDH5 overexpression is significantly linked to highly proliferating prostate carcinomas and with biochemical failure and local relapse following radiotherapy. Hypoxia and LDHA targeting agents may prove useful to overcome radioresistance in a subgroup of prostate carcinomas with anaerobic metabolic predilection.

Yu Y, Liao M, Liu R, et al.
Overexpression of lactate dehydrogenase-A in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: its implication for treatment.
World J Surg Oncol. 2014; 12:78 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) is strongly expressed in several malignancies, that LDH-A expression is associated with poor prognosis, and that LDH-A inhibition severely diminishes tumorigenicity. However, little is known about the implications of LDH-A expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of LDH-A and to clarify its effect on intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
METHODS: We studied the expression of LDH-A in tissue samples from patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (n = 54) using the ultrasensitive surfactant protein (S-P) immunohistochemical method. We then inhibited LDH-A using small hairpin RNA (shRNA) in the cholangiocarcinoma cell line HuCCT-1 in vitro to study the role it plays in promoting growth and escaping apoptosis.
RESULTS: We report that LDH-A was overexpressed in 52 of 54 (96%) paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples and 0 of 54 para-carcinoma tissue samples. Reduction of LDH-A by RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in HuCCT-1 cells. This result correlated with the elevation of cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels.
CONCLUSIONS: LDH-A expression is closely correlated with histopathological variables of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, indicating that LDH-A may serve as a new treatment target.

Cui J, Shi M, Xie D, et al.
FOXM1 promotes the warburg effect and pancreatic cancer progression via transactivation of LDHA expression.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(10):2595-606 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/05/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: The transcription factor Forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) plays critical roles in cancer development and progression. However, the regulatory role and underlying mechanisms of FOXM1 in cancer metabolism are unknown. In this study, we characterized the regulation of aerobic glycolysis by FOXM1 and its impact on pancreatic cancer metabolism.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effect of altered expression of FOXM1 on expression of glycolytic enzymes and tumor development and progression was examined using animal models of pancreatic cancer. Also, the underlying mechanisms of altered pancreatic cancer glycolysis were analyzed using in vitro molecular biology. The clinical relevance of aberrant metabolism caused by dysregulated FOXM1 signaling was determined using pancreatic tumor and normal pancreatic tissue specimens.
RESULTS: We found that FOXM1 did not markedly change the expression of most glycolytic enzymes except for phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK-1) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA). FOXM1 and LDHA were overexpressed concomitantly in pancreatic tumors and cancer cell lines. Increased expression of FOXM1 upregulated the expression of LDHA at both the mRNA and protein level and elevated LDH activity, lactate production, and glucose utilization, whereas reduced expression of FOXM1 did the opposite. Further studies demonstrated that FOXM1 bound directly to the LDHA promoter region and regulated the expression of the LDHA gene at the transcriptional level. Also, elevated FOXM1-LDHA signaling increased the pancreatic cancer cell growth and metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: Dysregulated expression and activation of FOXM1 play important roles in aerobic glycolysis and tumorigenesis in patients with pancreatic cancer via transcriptional regulation of LDHA expression.

Sun X, Sun Z, Zhu Z, et al.
Clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of lactate dehydrogenase A expression in gastric cancer patients.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91068 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/05/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: LDH-A, the enzyme responsible for transforming pyruvate into lactate, has been demonstrated to be up-regulated in many types of cancer and to give rise to more aggressive behavior by regulating proliferation and anti-apoptosis. However, its expression in gastric cancer (GC) has not been characterized thoroughly. The purpose of this study was to clarify the expression and potential impact of LDH-A in GC.
METHODS: We examined LDH-A expression by immunohistochemistry on GC tissue microarray (TMA) and using Western blot on fresh GC tissues and cell lines. Prognostic value and correlation with other clinicopathologic factors were evaluated. We transfected siRNA into GC cells against LDH-A. LDH-A was analyzed by Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. Cell growth was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Lactate and ATP production by cells were determined.
RESULTS: There was significantly higher LDH-A expression in carcinoma than in non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM). There was a positive correlation of LDH-A expression with age, histological type and Lymph node metastases. Survival analysis demonstrated that high expression of LDH-A in GC was associated with lower overall survival (OS). When stratified by Lauren grade and histological classification, significance appeared in diffuse type and undifferentiated type GC. In multivariate analysis, the LDH-A expression in GC was an independent prognostic risk factor for OS (hazard ratio = 1.829, 95%CI 1.375-2.433,P<0.0001). Specific siRNA against LDH-A in GC cell line retarded cell growth both in vitro and in mouse models. LDH-A knockdown also reduced lactate and ATP production in GC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated the oncogenic role of LDH-A in GC. LDH-A expression is an independent prognostic risk factor in GC patients and up-regulated expression of LDH-A could be predictive of poor outcomes in diffuse type and undifferentiated type GC. Our results suggested that LDH-A might be a potential therapeutic target in gastric cancer.

Zhao W, Chang C, Cui Y, et al.
Steroid receptor coactivator-3 regulates glucose metabolism in bladder cancer cells through coactivation of hypoxia inducible factor 1α.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(16):11219-29 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/04/2015 Related Publications
Cancer cell proliferation is a metabolically demanding process, requiring high glycolysis, which is known as "Warburg effect," to support anabolic growth. Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3), a steroid receptor coactivator, is overexpressed and/or amplified in multiple cancer types, including non-steroid targeted cancers, such as urinary bladder cancer (UBC). However, whether SRC-3 regulates the metabolic reprogramming for cancer cell growth is unknown. Here, we reported that overexpression of SRC-3 accelerated UBC cell growth, accompanied by the increased expression of genes involved in glycolysis. Knockdown of SRC-3 reduced the UBC cell glycolytic rate under hypoxia, decreased tumor growth in nude mice, with reduction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and lactate dehydrogenase expression levels. We further revealed that SRC-3 could interact with hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), which is a key transcription factor required for glycolysis, and coactivate its transcriptional activity. SRC-3 was recruited to the promoters of HIF1α-target genes, such as glut1 and pgk1. The positive correlation of expression levels between SRC-3 and Glut1 proteins was demonstrated in human UBC patient samples. Inhibition of glycolysis through targeting HK2 or LDHA decelerated SRC-3 overexpression-induced cell growth. In summary, overexpression of SRC-3 promoted glycolysis in bladder cancer cells through HIF1α to facilitate tumorigenesis, which may be an intriguing drug target for bladder cancer therapy.

He G, Jiang Y, Zhang B, Wu G
The effect of HIF-1α on glucose metabolism, growth and apoptosis of pancreatic cancerous cells.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014; 23(1):174-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to explore the possible role of HIF-1α in glucose metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic cancerous cells.
METHOD: The pancreatic cancerous BxPC-3 cells were cultured in normoxia or hypoxia (3% O2), respectively. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay, apoptosis was determined by Annexin V/PI staining. Expression of Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK1), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDHA), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and citrate synthase (CS) was determined by Western-blot and Realtime PCR.
RESULTS: Under hypoxia, the expression of HIF-1α and the lactate production were increased. The expression of glucose metabolic enzymes PDK1, LDHA, PKM2 was also increased compared with that under aerobic condition. Hypoxia treatment had little effect on expression of CS. Under hypoxia, knockdown of HIF-1α inhibited the production of lactate and the expression of PDK1, LDHA and PKM2. Knockdown of HIF-1α repressed the growth of pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells and induced apoptosis of the cells under hypoxia.
CONCLUSION: Under hypoxia, the expression of HIF-1α is induced, leading to the increase of glycolysis in BxPC-3 cells possibly through upregulation of the enzymes related to glycolysis. HIF-1α knockdown can inhibit the prolife ratio and promote apoptosis of pancreatic cancerous BxPC-3 cells in vitro.

White NM, Masui O, Desouza LV, et al.
Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals potential diagnostic markers and pathways involved in pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(2):506-18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/04/2015 Related Publications
There are no serum biomarkers for the accurate diagnosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Diagnosis and decision of nephrectomy rely on imaging which is not always accurate. Non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers are urgently required. In this study, we preformed quantitative proteomics analysis on a total of 199 patients including 30 matched pairs of normal kidney and ccRCC using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis to identify differentially expressed proteins. We found 55 proteins significantly dysregulated in ccRCC compared to normal kidney tissue. 54 were previously reported to play a role in carcinogenesis, and 39 are secreted proteins. Dysregulation of alpha-enolase (ENO1), L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain (LDHA), heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1/Hsp27), and 10 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial (HSPE1) was confirmed in two independent sets of patients by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Pathway analysis, validated by PCR, showed glucose metabolism is altered in ccRCC compared to normal kidney tissue. In addition, we examined the utility of Hsp27 as biomarker in serum and urine. In ccRCC patients, Hsp27 was elevated in the urine and serum and high serum Hsp27 was associated with high grade (Grade 3-4) tumors. These data together identify potential diagnostic biomarkers for ccRCC and shed new light on the molecular mechanisms that are dysregulated and contribute to the pathogenesis of ccRCC. Hsp27 is a promising diagnostic marker for ccRCC although further large-scale studies are required. Also, molecular profiling may help pave the road to the discovery of new therapies.

Kim HS, Lee HE, Yang HK, Kim WH
High lactate dehydrogenase 5 expression correlates with high tumoral and stromal vascular endothelial growth factor expression in gastric cancer.
Pathobiology. 2014; 81(2):78-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5) is a major lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme catalyzing the transformation of pyruvate to lactate to provide anaerobic energy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is expressed in both tumor and stromal cells in gastric cancer. Our aim was to study the prognostic effect of LDH5, and tumoral and stromal expression of the angiogenic factor VEGF in gastric cancer, and the intercorrelation of tissue expression of both factors.
METHODS: Tissue microarray analysis of 382 consecutive gastric cancer resection specimens was used for immunohistochemistry of LDH5 and VEGF, and expression of LDH5, tumoral VEGF, and stromal VEGF was categorized into low and high groups.
RESULTS: High expression was observed for LDH5 in 57.9% (219/378), tumoral VEGF in 35.7% (136/381), and stromal VEGF in 58.5% (223/381) of the specimens. Regarding high expression of LDH5 and VEGF, significant associations with intestinal type, advanced gastric cancer, lymph node metastasis, higher TNM stage, and upper-third location were noted. Positive intercorrelations occurred among the expression of LDH5 and VEGF. Results of survival analyses revealed a significant association of high expression of LDH5 and VEGF with lower survival (overall and disease-free survival). Five-year survival rates were significantly lower in tumors with high LDH5 and tumoral VEGF expression in diffuse- or mixed-type cancers and high expression of stromal VEGF in intestinal-type cancer.
CONCLUSION: The results of our study showed that high LDH5 and VEGF expression in both tumor and stroma was a prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancers, especially diffuse- or mixed-type cancers. Therefore, LDH5 expression may play a role in the regulation of tumoral and stromal VEGF expression in gastric cancer. Our results suggest the potential use of LDH5 expression as a biomarker for response to VEGF-targeted therapy.

Nair VS, Gevaert O, Davidzon G, et al.
NF-κB protein expression associates with (18)F-FDG PET tumor uptake in non-small cell lung cancer: a radiogenomics validation study to understand tumor metabolism.
Lung Cancer. 2014; 83(2):189-96 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/04/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: We previously demonstrated that NF-κB may be associated with (18)F-FDG PET uptake and patient prognosis using radiogenomics in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To validate these results, we assessed NF-κB protein expression in an extended cohort of NSCLC patients.
METHODS: We examined NF-κBp65 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a Tissue Microarray. Staining intensity was assessed by qualitative ordinal scoring and compared to tumor FDG uptake (SUVmax and SUVmean), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) expression (as a positive control) and outcome using ANOVA, Kaplan Meier (KM), and Cox-proportional hazards (CPH) analysis.
RESULTS: 365 tumors from 355 patients with long-term follow-up were analyzed. The average age for patients was 67±11 years, 46% were male and 67% were ever smokers. Stage I and II patients comprised 83% of the cohort and the majority had adenocarcinoma (73%). From 88 FDG PET scans available, average SUVmax and SUVmean were 8.3±6.6, and 3.7±2.4 respectively. Increasing NF-κBp65 expression, but not LDHA expression, was associated with higher SUVmax and SUVmean (p=0.03 and 0.02 respectively). Both NF-κBp65 and positive FDG uptake were significantly associated with more advanced stage, tumor histology and invasion. Higher NF-κBp65 expression was associated with death by KM analysis (p=0.06) while LDHA was strongly associated with recurrence (p=0.04). Increased levels of combined NF-κBp65 and LDHA expression were synergistic and associated with both recurrence (p=0.04) and death (p=0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: NF-κB IHC was a modest biomarker of prognosis that associated with tumor glucose metabolism on FDG PET when compared to existing molecular correlates like LDHA, which was synergistic with NF-κB for outcome. These findings recapitulate radiogenomics profiles previously reported by our group and provide a methodology for studying tumor biology using computational approaches.

Wang HJ, Hsieh YJ, Cheng WC, et al.
JMJD5 regulates PKM2 nuclear translocation and reprograms HIF-1α-mediated glucose metabolism.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(1):279-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/04/2015 Related Publications
JMJD5, a Jumonji C domain-containing dioxygenase, is important for embryonic development and cancer growth. Here, we show that JMJD5 is up-regulated by hypoxia and is crucial for hypoxia-induced cell proliferation. JMJD5 interacts directly with pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme (PKM)2 to modulate metabolic flux in cancer cells. The JMJD5-PKM2 interaction resides at the intersubunit interface region of PKM2, which hinders PKM2 tetramerization and blocks pyruvate kinase activity. This interaction also influences translocation of PKM2 into the nucleus and promotes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α-mediated transactivation. JMJD5 knockdown inhibits the transcription of the PKM2-HIF-1α target genes involved in glucose metabolism, resulting in a reduction of glucose uptake and lactate secretion in cancer cells. JMJD5, along with PKM2 and HIF-1α, is recruited to the hypoxia response element site in the lactate dehydrogenase A and PKM2 loci and mediates the recruitment of the latter two proteins. Our data uncover a mechanism whereby PKM2 can be regulated by factor-binding-induced homo/heterooligomeric restructuring, paving the way to cell metabolic reprogram.

An JS, Huang MN, Song YM, et al.
A preliminary study of genes related to concomitant chemoradiotherapy resistance in advanced uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2013; 126(21):4109-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor intrinsic chemoradiotherapy resistance is the primary factor in concomitant chemoradiotherapy failure in advanced uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma. This study aims to identify a set of genes and molecular pathways related to this condition.
METHODS: Forty patients with uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIb or IIIb, treated with platinum-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy between May 2007 and December 2012, were enrolled in this trial. Patients included chemoradiotherapy resistant (n = 20) and sensitive (n = 20) groups. Total RNA was extracted from fresh tumor tissues obtained by biopsy before treatment and microarray analysis was performed to identify genes differentially expressed between the two groups.
RESULTS: Microarray analysis identified 108 genes differentially expressed between concomitant chemoradiotherapy resistant and sensitive patients. Functional pathway cluster analysis of these genes revealed that DNA damage repair, apoptosis, cell cycle, Map kinase signal transduction, anaerobic glycolysis and glutathione metabolism were the most relevant pathways. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) and protein kinase A type 1A (PRKAR1A) were significantly upregulated in the chemoradiosensitive group, while lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), bcl2 antagonist/killer 1 (BAK1), bcl2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), single-strand-selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase 1 (SMUG1), and cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) were upregulated in the chemoradiotherapy resistant group.
CONCLUSION: We have identified seven genes that are differentially expressed in concomitant chemoradiotherapy resistant and sensitive uterine cervical squamous cell carcinomas, which may represent primary predictors for this condition.

Zhai X, Yang Y, Wan J, et al.
Inhibition of LDH-A by oxamate induces G2/M arrest, apoptosis and increases radiosensitivity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2983-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
An elevated rate of glucose consumption and the dependency on aerobic glycolysis for ATP generation have long been observed in cancer cells, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. the altered energy metabolism in cancer cells provides an attractive opportunity for developing novel cancer therapeutic strategies. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which catalyzes the transformation of pyruvate to lactate, plays a vital role in the process of glycolysis. It has been reported that the level of LDH-A expression is increased both in head and neck cancer cells and in the blood serum of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, and is associated with poor prognosis. However, the effect of LDH-A inhibition on NPC cells remains unknown. Here, in the present study, we found that oxamate, a classical inhibitor of LDH-A, suppressed cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner both in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, two NPC cancer cell lines. LDH inhibition by oxamate induced G2/M cell cycle arrest via downregulation of the CDK1/cyclin B1 pathway and promoted apoptosis through enhancement of mitochondrial ROS generation. N-acetylcysteine, a specific scavenger of ROS, significantly blocked the growth inhibition effect induced by oxamate. We also identified that oxamate increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation in the two NPC cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we verified similar results in tumor xenograft models. collectively, these results suggest that LDH-A may serve as a promising therapeutic target for NPC treatment.

Bezrookove V, De Semir D, Nosrati M, et al.
Prognostic impact of PHIP copy number in melanoma: linkage to ulceration.
J Invest Dermatol. 2014; 134(3):783-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/04/2015 Related Publications
Ulceration is an important prognostic factor in melanoma whose biologic basis is poorly understood. Here we assessed the prognostic impact of pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) copy number and its relationship to ulceration. PHIP copy number was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a tissue microarray cohort of 238 melanomas. Elevated PHIP copy number was associated with significantly reduced distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS; P=0.01) and disease-specific survival (DSS; P=0.009) by Kaplan-Meier analyses. PHIP FISH scores were independently predictive of DMFS (P=0.03) and DSS (P=0.03). Increased PHIP copy number was an independent predictor of ulceration status (P=0.04). The combined impact of increased PHIP copy number and tumor vascularity on ulceration status was highly significant (P<0.0001). Stable suppression of PHIP in human melanoma cells resulted in significantly reduced glycolytic activity in vitro, with lower expression of lactate dehydrogenase 5, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha subunit, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and was accompanied by reduced microvessel density in vivo. These results provide further support for PHIP as a molecular prognostic marker of melanoma, and reveal a significant linkage between PHIP levels and ulceration. Moreover, they suggest that ulceration may be driven by increased glycolysis and angiogenesis.

Chan B, VanderLaan PA, Sukhatme VP
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase regulates tumor cell migration in vitro by regulating receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 439(2):247-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) is the third enzyme in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Recently, we reported that knockdown of 6PGD inhibited lung tumor growth in vitro and in a xenograft model in mice. In this study, we continued to examine the functional role of 6PGD in cancer. We show that 6PGD expression positively correlates with advancing stage of lung carcinoma. In search of functional signals related to 6PGD, we discovered that knockdown of 6PGD significantly inhibited phosphorylation of c-Met at tyrosine residues known to be critical for activity. This downregulation of c-Met phosphorylation correlated with inhibition of cell migration in vitro. Overexpression of a constitutively active c-Met specifically rescued the migration but not proliferation phenotype of 6PGD knockdown. Therefore, 6PGD appears to be required for efficient c-Met signaling and migration of tumor cells in vitro.

Lu H, Li X, Luo Z, et al.
Cetuximab reverses the Warburg effect by inhibiting HIF-1-regulated LDH-A.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2013; 12(10):2187-99 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/04/2015 Related Publications
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays a critical role in reprogramming cancer metabolism toward aerobic glycolysis (i.e., the Warburg effect), which is critical to supplying cancer cells with the biomass needed for proliferation. Previous studies have shown that cetuximab, an EGF receptor-blocking monoclonal antibody, downregulates the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α) through the inhibition of EGF receptor downstream cell signaling and that downregulation of HIF-1α is required for cetuximab-induced antiproliferative effects. However, the mechanism underlying these actions has yet to be identified. In this study, we used the Seahorse XF96 extracellular flux analyzer to assess the effect of cetuximab treatment on changes in glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, the two major energy-producing pathways, in live cells. We found that cetuximab downregulated lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) and inhibited glycolysis in cetuximab-sensitive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells in an HIF-1α downregulation-dependent manner. HNSCC cells with acquired cetuximab resistance expressed a high level of HIF-1α and were highly glycolytic. Overexpression of a HIF-1α mutant (HIF-1α/ΔODD) conferred resistance to cetuximab-induced G1 phase cell-cycle arrest, which could be overcome by knockdown of LDH-A expression. Inhibition of LDH-A activity with oxamate enhanced the response of cetuximab-resistant cells to cetuximab. Cetuximab had no noticeable inhibitory effect on glycolysis in nontransformed cells. These findings provide novel mechanistic insights into cetuximab-induced cell-cycle arrest from the perspective of cancer metabolism and suggest novel strategies for enhancing cetuximab response.

Gottfried E, Lang SA, Renner K, et al.
New aspects of an old drug--diclofenac targets MYC and glucose metabolism in tumor cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e66987 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/04/2015 Related Publications
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac exhibit potent anticancer effects. Up to now these effects were mainly attributed to its classical role as COX-inhibitor. Here we show novel COX-independent effects of diclofenac. Diclofenac significantly diminished MYC expression and modulated glucose metabolism resulting in impaired melanoma, leukemia, and carcinoma cell line proliferation in vitro and reduced melanoma growth in vivo. In contrast, the non-selective COX inhibitor aspirin and the COX-2 specific inhibitor NS-398 had no effect on MYC expression and glucose metabolism. Diclofenac significantly decreased glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), and monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) gene expression in line with a decrease in glucose uptake and lactate secretion. A significant intracellular accumulation of lactate by diclofenac preceded the observed effect on gene expression, suggesting a direct inhibitory effect of diclofenac on lactate efflux. While intracellular lactate accumulation impairs cellular proliferation and gene expression, it does not inhibit MYC expression as evidenced by the lack of MYC regulation by the MCT inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid. Finally, in a cell line with a tetracycline-regulated c-MYC gene, diclofenac decreased proliferation both in the presence and absence of c-MYC. Thus, diclofenac targets tumor cell proliferation via two mechanisms, that is inhibition of MYC and lactate transport. Based on these results, diclofenac holds potential as a clinically applicable MYC and glycolysis inhibitor supporting established tumor therapies.

Wang H, Zhao L, Zhu LT, et al.
Wogonin reverses hypoxia resistance of human colon cancer HCT116 cells via downregulation of HIF-1α and glycolysis, by inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Mol Carcinog. 2014; 53 Suppl 1:E107-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia induced drug resistance is a major obstacle in the development of effective cancer therapy. In the present study, the reversal abilities of wogonin on the hypoxia resistance and the underlying mechanisms were discovered. MTT assay revealed that hypoxia increased maximal 1.71-, 2.08-, and 2.15-fold of IC50 toward paclitaxel, ADM, and DDP in human colon cancer cell lines HCT116, respectively. Furthermore, wogonin showed strong reversal potency in HCT116 cells in hypoxia and the RF reached 2.05. hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) can activate the expression of target genes involved in glycolysis. Wogonin decreased the expression of glycolysis-related proteins (HKII, PDHK1, LDHA), glucose uptake, and lactate generation in a dose-dependent manner. Further, Western blot experiments exhibited that wogonin could down regulate HIF-1α expression and glycolysis through inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which might be the mechanism of reversal resistance of wogonin. Also, wogonin could inhibit the growth of transplantable tumors and the expression of HIF-1α, glycolysis-related proteins and PI3K/Akt in vivo. In summary, wogonin could be a good candidate for the development of new multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent and its reversal mechanism probably is due to the suppression of HIF-1α expression via inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

Tsui KH, Chung LC, Wang SW, et al.
Hypoxia upregulates the gene expression of mitochondrial aconitase in prostate carcinoma cells.
J Mol Endocrinol. 2013; 51(1):131-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia induces metabolic alteration in cancer cells by stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α (HIF1A)), which regulates the bioenergetic genes of glycolysis and lipid metabolic pathways. However, the target genes of hypoxia-induced metabolic alterations in the prostate remain uncertain. Mitochondrial aconitase (mACON) (ACONM) is an enzyme that is central to carbohydrate and energy metabolism and is responsible for the interconversion of citrate to isocitrate as part of the citric acid cycle in the human prostate. We evaluated the effects of the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia on mACON gene expression in PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells. Immunoblotting assays revealed that hypoxia modulated mACON and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) protein expression, while these effects were attenuated when HIF-1α was knocked down. Hypoxia induced fatty acid synthase (FASN) in PC-3 cells while hypoxia blocked FASN gene expression in LNCaP cells after 24-h incubation. Results of real-time RT-qPCR, immunoblotting, and transient gene expression assays revealed that hypoxia treatment or co-transfection with HIF-1α expression vector enhanced gene expression of mACON, implying that hypoxia modulated mACON at the transcriptional level. Hypoxia-induced mACON promoter activity is dependent on the DNA fragment located at -1013 to -842 upstream of the translation initiation site. l-mimosine, an iron chelator, stabilized HIF-1α but downregulated mACON gene expression, suggesting that iron chelation blocked the hypoxia-induced mACON gene expression. These results suggest that hypoxia dysregulates the expressions of LDHA, FASN, and mACON genes, and the hypoxia-induced mACON gene expression is via the HIF-1α-dependent and iron-dependent pathways in prostate carcinoma cells.

Linehan WM, Rouault TA
Molecular pathways: Fumarate hydratase-deficient kidney cancer--targeting the Warburg effect in cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(13):3345-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is a hereditary cancer syndrome in which affected individuals are at risk for development of cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas and an aggressive form of type II papillary kidney cancer. HLRCC is characterized by germline mutation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH). FH-deficient kidney cancer is characterized by impaired oxidative phosphorylation and a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis, a form of metabolic reprogramming referred to as the Warburg effect. Increased glycolysis generates ATP needed for increased cell proliferation. In FH-deficient kidney cancer, levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor, are decreased resulting in diminished p53 levels, decreased expression of the iron importer, DMT1, leading to low cellular iron levels, and to enhanced fatty acid synthesis by diminishing phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase, a rate-limiting step for fatty acid synthesis. Increased fumarate and decreased iron levels in FH-deficient kidney cancer cells inactivate prolyl hydroxylases, leading to stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and increased expression of genes such as VEGF and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) to provide fuel needed for rapid growth demands. Several therapeutic approaches for targeting the metabolic basis of FH-deficient kidney cancer are under development or are being evaluated in clinical trials, including the use of agents such as metformin, which would reverse the inactivation of AMPK, approaches to inhibit glucose transport, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), the antioxidant response pathway, the heme oxygenase pathway, and approaches to target the tumor vasculature and glucose transport with agents such as bevacizumab and erlotinib. These same types of metabolic shifts, to aerobic glycolysis with decreased oxidative phosphorylation, have been found in a wide variety of other cancer types. Targeting the metabolic basis of a rare cancer such as FH-deficient kidney cancer will hopefully provide insights into the development of effective forms of therapies for other, more common forms of cancer.

Arseneault R, Chien A, Newington JT, et al.
Attenuation of LDHA expression in cancer cells leads to redox-dependent alterations in cytoskeletal structure and cell migration.
Cancer Lett. 2013; 338(2):255-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aerobic glycolysis, the preferential use of glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen to meet cellular metabolic demands, is a near universal feature of cancer. This unique type of metabolism is thought to protect cancer cells from damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondria. Using the cancer cell line MDA-MB-435 it is shown that shRNA mediated knockdown of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key mediator of aerobic glycolysis, results in elevated mitochondrial ROS production and a concomitant decrease in cell proliferation and motility. Redox-sensitive proteins affected by oxidative stress associated with LDHA knockdown were identified by Redox 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry. In particular, tropomyosin (Tm) isoforms Tm4, Tm5NM1 and Tm5NM5, proteins involved in cell migration and cytoskeletal dynamics, exhibited changes in disulfide bonding and co-localized with peri-nuclear actin aggregates in LDHA knockdown cells. In contrast, treatment with the thiol-based antioxidant N-acetylcysteine promoted the relocalization of Tms to cortical actin microfilaments and partially rescued the migration defects associated with attenuated LDHA expression. These results suggest that aerobic glycolysis and reduced mitochondrial ROS production create an environment conducive to cytoskeletal remodeling; key events linked to the high cell motility associated with cancer.

Zhao D, Zou SW, Liu Y, et al.
Lysine-5 acetylation negatively regulates lactate dehydrogenase A and is decreased in pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Cell. 2013; 23(4):464-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/04/2015 Related Publications
Tumor cells commonly have increased glucose uptake and lactate accumulation. Lactate is produced from pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A), which is frequently overexpressed in tumor cells and is important for cell growth. Elevated transcription by c-Myc or HIF1α may contribute to increased LDH-A in some cancer types. Here, we show that LDH-A is acetylated at lysine 5 (K5) and that this acetylation inhibits LDH-A activity. Furthermore, the K5-acetylated LDH-A is recognized by the HSC70 chaperone and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Replacement of endogenous LDH-A with an acetylation mimetic mutant decreases cell proliferation and migration. Importantly, K5 acetylation of LDH-A is reduced in human pancreatic cancers. Our study reveals a mechanism of LDH-A upregulation in pancreatic cancers.

Mirebeau-Prunier D, Le Pennec S, Jacques C, et al.
Estrogen-related receptor alpha modulates lactate dehydrogenase activity in thyroid tumors.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58683 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/04/2015 Related Publications
Metabolic modifications of tumor cells are hallmarks of cancer. They exhibit an altered metabolism that allows them to sustain higher proliferation rates in hostile environment outside the cell. In thyroid tumors, the expression of the estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), a major factor of metabolic adaptation, is closely related to the oxidative metabolism and the proliferative status of the cells. To elucidate the role played by ERRα in the glycolytic adaptation of tumor cells, we focused on the regulation of lactate dehydrogenases A and B (LDHA, LDHB) and the LDHA/LDHB ratio. Our study included tissue samples from 10 classical and 10 oncocytic variants of follicular thyroid tumors and 10 normal thyroid tissues, as well as samples from three human thyroid tumor cell lines: FTC-133, XTC.UC1 and RO82W-1. We identified multiple cis-acting promoter elements for ERRα, in both the LDHA and LDHB genes. The interaction between ERRα and LDH promoters was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and in vitro analysis for LDHB. Using knock-in and knock-out cellular models, we found an inverse correlation between ERRα expression and LDH activity. This suggests that thyroid tumor cells may reprogram their metabolic pathways through the up-regulation of ERRα by a process distinct from that proposed by the recently revisited Warburg hypothesis.

Wang Z, Wang D, Han S, et al.
Bioactivity-guided identification and cell signaling technology to delineate the lactate dehydrogenase A inhibition effects of Spatholobus suberectus on breast cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e56631 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/04/2015 Related Publications
Aerobic glycolysis is an important feature of cancer cells. In recent years, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is emerging as a novel therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Seeking LDH-A inhibitors from natural resources has been paid much attention for drug discovery. Spatholobus suberectus (SS) is a common herbal medicine used in China for treating blood-stasis related diseases such as cancer. This study aims to explore the potential medicinal application of SS for LDH-A inhibition on breast cancer and to determine its bioactive compounds. We found that SS manifested apoptosis-inducing, cell cycle arresting and anti-LDH-A activities in both estrogen-dependent human MCF-7 cells and estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 cell. Oral herbal extracts (1 g/kg/d) administration attenuated tumor growth and LDH-A expression in both breast cancer xenografts. Bioactivity-guided fractionation finally identified epigallocatechin as a key compound in SS inhibiting LDH-A activity. Further studies revealed that LDH-A plays a critical role in mediating the apoptosis-induction effects of epigallocatechin. The inhibited LDH-A activities by epigallocatechin is attributed to disassociation of Hsp90 from HIF-1α and subsequent accelerated HIF-1α proteasome degradation. In vivo study also demonstrated that epigallocatechin could significantly inhibit breast cancer growth, HIF-1α/LDH-A expression and trigger apoptosis without bringing toxic effects. The preclinical study thus suggests that the potential medicinal application of SS for inhibiting cancer LDH-A activity and the possibility to consider epigallocatechin as a lead compound to develop LDH-A inhibitors. Future studies of SS for chemoprevention or chemosensitization against breast cancer are thus warranted.

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