Gene Summary

Gene:NAT1; N-acetyltransferase 1 (arylamine N-acetyltransferase)
Aliases: AAC1, MNAT, NATI, NAT-1
Summary:This gene is one of two arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) genes in the human genome, and is orthologous to the mouse and rat Nat2 genes. The enzyme encoded by this gene catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to various arylamine and hydrazine substrates. This enzyme helps metabolize drugs and other xenobiotics, and functions in folate catabolism. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (5)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • NAT1
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Biotransformation
  • Meat
  • Carcinogens
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Genotype
  • Base Sequence
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Isoenzymes
  • Acetylation
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Risk Factors
  • Chromosome 8
  • Postmenopause
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
  • Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase
  • Up-Regulation
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2
  • Small Molecule Libraries
  • Acetyltransferases
  • DNA Primers
  • Lung Cancer
  • Genetic Variation
  • Odds Ratio
  • Breast Cancer
  • Xanthines
  • Alleles
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • DNA Adducts
  • Diet
  • Cohort Studies
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Amines
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Phenotype
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NAT1 (cancer-related)

Li L, Sarver AL, Khatri R, et al.
Sequential expression of miR-182 and miR-503 cooperatively targets FBXW7, contributing to the malignant transformation of colon adenoma to adenocarcinoma.
J Pathol. 2014; 234(4):488-501 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic changes in colon cancer are known to parallel the tissue abnormalities associated with the disease, namely adenoma and adenocarcinoma. The role of microRNA dysregulation in dysplastic progression, however, is not well understood. Here, we show that miR-182 and miR-503 undergo sequential up-regulation and drive the progression of colon adenoma to adenocarcinoma by cooperatively down-regulating the tumour suppressor FBXW7. We identified that increased expression of miR-182 is a feature of adenomas. A subsequent increase in miR-503 expression works cooperatively with miR-182 to induce transformation of an adenoma to adenocarcinoma. We show that introducing miR-503 into AAC1 cells, which are derived from a benign adenoma, confers tumourigenic potential. We also demonstrated that blocking both miR-182 and miR-503 in HCT116 colon cancer cells resulted in increased FBXW7 expression and significantly reduced tumour size in xenograft models. We confirmed relevance of these results in patients by examining the expression levels of miR-182 and miR-503 in over 200 colon cancer patients with 12 year survival outcome data. Decreased patient survival was correlated with elevated expression of both miRNAs, suggesting that elevated levels of both miR-182 and miR-503 define a novel prognostic biomarker for colon cancer patients. In conclusion, we show that a sequential expression of miR-182 and miR-503 in benign adenoma cooperatively regulates the tumour suppressor FBXW7, contributing to the malignant transformation of colon adenoma to adenocarcinoma and miR-182 and miR-503 may prove to be novel therapeutic targets. Array data are available at:

Van Dyck E, Nazarov PV, Muller A, et al.
Bronchial airway gene expression in smokers with lung or head and neck cancer.
Cancer Med. 2014; 3(2):322-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cigarette smoking is the major cause of cancers of the respiratory tract, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and head and neck cancer (HNC). In order to better understand carcinogenesis of the lung and upper airways, we have compared the gene expression profiles of tumor-distant, histologically normal bronchial biopsy specimens obtained from current smokers with NSCLC or HNC (SC, considered as a single group), as well as nonsmokers (NS) and smokers without cancer (SNC). RNA from a total of 97 biopsies was used for gene expression profiling (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 array). Differentially expressed genes were used to compare NS, SNC, and SC, and functional analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Smoking-related cancer of the respiratory tract was found to affect the expression of genes encoding xenobiotic biotransformation proteins, as well as proteins associated with crucial inflammation/immunity pathways and other processes that protect the airway from the chemicals in cigarette smoke or contribute to carcinogenesis. Finally, we used the prediction analysis for microarray (PAM) method to identify gene signatures of cigarette smoking and cancer, and uncovered a 15-gene signature that distinguished between SNC and SC with an accuracy of 83%. Thus, gene profiling of histologically normal bronchial biopsy specimens provided insight into cigarette-induced carcinogenesis of the respiratory tract and gene signatures of cancer in smokers.

Khlifi R, Chakroun A, Hamza-Chaffai A, Rebai A
Association of CYP1A1 and CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms with head and neck cancer in Tunisian patients.
Mol Biol Rep. 2014; 41(4):2591-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between head and neck cancer (HNC) and environmental agents and polymorphisms in CYP1A1, CYP2D6, NAT1 and NAT2 metabolic enzymes genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on polymorphisms in CYP1A1 6310C>T, CYP2D6 Arg365His, NAT1 52936A>T and NAT2 Arg268Lys (NAT2*12A) genes and susceptibility to HNC in Tunisian population. We study the prevalence of these polymorphisms in 169 patients with HNC and 261 control subjects using polymerase chain reaction based methods in a Tunisian population. We detected an association between HNC and CYP1A1 6310C>T (TT) and CYP2D6 Arg365His (His/His) variant carriers (OR 1.75, P = 0.008 and OR 1.66, P = 0.016, respectively). No association was found between the polymorphisms genotypes of NAT1 52936T>A and NAT2 Arg268Lys and risk of HNC. An association between HNC and CYP1A1 (TT) genotype was found among patients with smoking (P = 0.011) and drinking habit (P = 0.009). The combinations of NAT1 (AT or AA) and NAT2 (AA) at-risk genotypes increased HNC risk (OR 4.23, P = 0.005 and OR 3.60, P = 0.048, respectively). However, the combinations of CYP1A1 (AA) and CYP2D6 (CC) genotypes decreased risk of HNC (OR 0.20; P = 0.006). Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1 and CYP2D6 may significantly associate with HNC in the Tunisian population. The results of this study suggest a possible gene-environment interaction for certain carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, but larger studies that fully evaluate the interaction are needed.

Pogue-Geile KL, Kim C, Jeong JH, et al.
Predicting degree of benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab in NSABP trial B-31.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013; 105(23):1782-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) trial B-31 suggested the efficacy of adjuvant trastuzumab, even in HER2-negative breast cancer. This finding prompted us to develop a predictive model for degree of benefit from trastuzumab using archived tumor blocks from B-31.
METHODS: Case subjects with tumor blocks were randomly divided into discovery (n = 588) and confirmation cohorts (n = 991). A predictive model was built from the discovery cohort through gene expression profiling of 462 genes with nCounter assay. A predefined cut point for the predictive model was tested in the confirmation cohort. Gene-by-treatment interaction was tested with Cox models, and correlations between variables were assessed with Spearman correlation. Principal component analysis was performed on the final set of selected genes. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Eight predictive genes associated with HER2 (ERBB2, c17orf37, GRB7) or ER (ESR1, NAT1, GATA3, CA12, IGF1R) were selected for model building. Three-dimensional subset treatment effect pattern plot using two principal components of these genes was used to identify a subset with no benefit from trastuzumab, characterized by intermediate-level ERBB2 and high-level ESR1 mRNA expression. In the confirmation set, the predefined cut points for this model classified patients into three subsets with differential benefit from trastuzumab with hazard ratios of 1.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67 to 3.69; P = .29; n = 100), 0.60 (95% CI = 0.41 to 0.89; P = .01; n = 449), and 0.28 (95% CI = 0.20 to 0.41; P < .001; n = 442; P(interaction) between the model and trastuzumab < .001).
CONCLUSIONS: We developed a gene expression-based predictive model for degree of benefit from trastuzumab and demonstrated that HER2-negative tumors belong to the moderate benefit group, thus providing justification for testing trastuzumab in HER2-negative patients (NSABP B-47).

Khlifi R, Messaoud O, Rebai A, Hamza-Chaffai A
Polymorphisms in the human cytochrome P450 and arylamine N-acetyltransferase: susceptibility to head and neck cancers.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:582768 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The occurrence of head and neck cancer (HNC) is associated with smoking and alcohol drinking. Tobacco smoking exposes smokers to a series of carcinogenic chemicals. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450s), such as CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2D6, usually metabolize carcinogens to their inactive derivatives, but they occasionally convert the chemicals to more potent carcinogens. In addition, via CYP450 (CYP2E1) oxidase, alcohol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, a highly toxic compound, which plays an important role in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, two N-acetyltransferase isozymes (NATs), NAT1 and NAT2, are polymorphic and catalyze both N-acetylation and O-acetylation of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens. Genetic polymorphisms are associated with a number of enzymes involved in the metabolism of carcinogens important in the induction of HNC. It has been suggested that such polymorphisms may be linked to cancer susceptibility. In this paper, we select four cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1BA1, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1), and two N-acetyltransferase isozymes (NAT1 and NAT2) in order to summarize and analyze findings from the literature related to HNC risk by focusing on (i) the interaction between these genes and the environment, (ii) the impact of genetic defect on protein activity and/or expression, and (iii) the eventual involvement of race in such associations.

Storci G, Bertoni S, De Carolis S, et al.
Slug/β-catenin-dependent proinflammatory phenotype in hypoxic breast cancer stem cells.
Am J Pathol. 2013; 183(5):1688-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cell survival relies on the activation of inflammatory pathways, which is speculatively triggered by cell autonomous mechanisms or by microenvironmental stimuli. Here, we observed that hypoxic bone marrow stroma-derived transforming growth factor-β 1 promotes the growth of human breast cancer stem cells as mammospheres. The ensuing Slug-dependent serine 139 phosphorylation of the DNA damage sensor H2AX in breast cancer stem cells induces tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-8 mRNAs, whose stability is enhanced by cytoplasmic β-catenin. β-Catenin also up-regulates and binds miR-221, reducing the stability of the miR-221 targets Rad51 and ERα mRNAs. Our data show that the Slug/β-catenin-dependent activation of DNA damage signaling triggered by the hypoxic microenvironment sustains the proinflammatory phenotype of breast cancer stem cells.

Andres SA, Brock GN, Wittliff JL
Interrogating differences in expression of targeted gene sets to predict breast cancer outcome.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:326 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genomics provides opportunities to develop precise tests for diagnostics, therapy selection and monitoring. From analyses of our studies and those of published results, 32 candidate genes were identified, whose expression appears related to clinical outcome of breast cancer. Expression of these genes was validated by qPCR and correlated with clinical follow-up to identify a gene subset for development of a prognostic test.
METHODS: RNA was isolated from 225 frozen invasive ductal carcinomas,and qRT-PCR was performed. Univariate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer mortality and recurrence were calculated for each of the 32 candidate genes. A multivariable gene expression model for predicting each outcome was determined using the LASSO, with 1000 splits of the data into training and testing sets to determine predictive accuracy based on the C-index. Models with gene expression data were compared to models with standard clinical covariates and models with both gene expression and clinical covariates.
RESULTS: Univariate analyses revealed over-expression of RABEP1, PGR, NAT1, PTP4A2, SLC39A6, ESR1, EVL, TBC1D9, FUT8, and SCUBE2 were all associated with reduced time to disease-related mortality (HR between 0.8 and 0.91, adjusted p < 0.05), while RABEP1, PGR, SLC39A6, and FUT8 were also associated with reduced recurrence times. Multivariable analyses using the LASSO revealed PGR, ESR1, NAT1, GABRP, TBC1D9, SLC39A6, and LRBA to be the most important predictors for both disease mortality and recurrence. Median C-indexes on test data sets for the gene expression, clinical, and combined models were 0.65, 0.63, and 0.65 for disease mortality and 0.64, 0.63, and 0.66 for disease recurrence, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Molecular signatures consisting of five genes (PGR, GABRP, TBC1D9, SLC39A6 and LRBA) for disease mortality and of six genes (PGR, ESR1, GABRP, TBC1D9, SLC39A6 and LRBA) for disease recurrence were identified. These signatures were as effective as standard clinical parameters in predicting recurrence/mortality, and when combined, offered some improvement relative to clinical information alone for disease recurrence (median difference in C-values of 0.03, 95% CI of -0.08 to 0.13). Collectively, results suggest that these genes form the basis for a clinical laboratory test to predict clinical outcome of breast cancer.

Wu K, Wang X, Xie Z, et al.
N-acetyltransferase 1 polymorphism and bladder cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.
J Int Med Res. 2013; 41(1):31-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the association between an N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) gene polymorphism and bladder cancer risk.
METHODS: PubMed® and EMBASE databases were searched to identify studies that examined the effect of the NAT1*10 allele on the risk of bladder cancer.
RESULTS: Eleven case-control studies, which included 3311 bladder cancer cases and 3906 control subjects, met the inclusion criteria. The pooled analyses based on all studies showed that there was no significant difference in the NAT1*10 allele between bladder cancer cases and controls (odds ratios [OR] 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81, 1.10). When stratifying for race, the results were similar among Caucasians (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.81, 1.12) and Asians (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.48, 1.56). No statistical association was found between the NAT1*10 allele and bladder cancer risk upon stratification for smoking status and study design.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that there was no association between the NAT1*10 allele and bladder cancer risk. Further research should focus on other potentially functional genetic polymorphisms.

Andersen V, Holst R, Vogel U
Systematic review: diet-gene interactions and the risk of colorectal cancer.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013; 37(4):383-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Diet contributes significantly to colorectal cancer (CRC) aetiology and may be potentially modifiable.
AIM: To review diet-gene interactions, aiming to further the understanding of the underlying biological pathways in CRC development.
METHODS: The PubMed and Medline were systematically searched for prospective studies in relation to diet, colorectal cancer and genetics.
RESULTS: In a meta-analysis, no interaction between NAT1 phenotypes and meat intake in relation to risk of CRC was found (P-value for interaction 0.95). We found a trend towards interaction between NAT2 phenotypes and meat intake in relation to risk of CRC. High meat intake was not associated with risk of CRC among carriers of the slow NAT2 phenotype, whereas NAT2 fast acetylators with high meat intake were at increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-2.01) compared with slow acetylators with low meat intake (reference), P-value for interaction = 0.07. Low meat intake in the studied populations may influence the result. Interactions between meat, cruciferous vegetables, fibres, calcium, vitamins, and alcohol and ABCB1, NFKB1, GSTM1, GSTT1, CCND1, VDR, MGTM, IL10 and PPARG are suggested.
CONCLUSIONS: A number of interactions between genetic variation and diet are suggested, but the findings need replication in independent, prospective, and well-characterised cohorts before conclusions regarding the underlying biological mechanisms can be reached. When the above criteria are met, studies on diet-gene interactions may contribute valuable insight into the biological mechanisms underlying the role of various dietary items in colorectal carcinogenesis.

Endo Y, Toyama T, Takahashi S, et al.
miR-1290 and its potential targets are associated with characteristics of estrogen receptor α-positive breast cancer.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013; 20(1):91-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent analyses have identified heterogeneity in estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive breast cancer. Subtypes called luminal A and luminal B have been identified, and the tumor characteristics, such as response to endocrine therapy and prognosis, are different in these subtypes. However, little is known about how the biological characteristics of ER-positive breast cancer are determined. In this study, expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs in ER-positive breast cancer tissue were compared between ER(high) Ki67(low) tumors and ER(low) Ki67(high) tumors by miRNA and mRNA microarrays. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analyses revealed distinct expression patterns of miRNAs and mRNAs in these groups. We identified a downregulation of miR-1290 in ER(high) Ki67(low) tumors. Among 11 miRNAs that were upregulated in ER(high) Ki67(low) tumors, quantitative RT-PCR detection analysis using 64 samples of frozen breast cancer tissue identified six miRNAs (let-7a, miR-15a, miR-26a, miR-34a, miR-193b, and miR-342-3p). We picked up 11 genes that were potential target genes of the selected miRNAs and that were differentially expressed in ER(high) Ki67(low) tumors and ER(low) Ki67(high) tumors. Protein expression patterns of the selected target genes were analyzed in 256 ER-positive breast cancer samples by immunohistochemistry: miR-1290 and its putative targets, BCL2, FOXA1, MAPT, and NAT1, were identified. Transfection experiments revealed that introduction of miR-1290 into ER-positive breast cancer cells decreased expression of NAT1 and FOXA1. Our results suggest that miR-1290 and its potential targets might be associated with characteristics of ER-positive breast cancer.

Gibson TM, Smedby KE, Skibola CF, et al.
Smoking, variation in N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2), and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a pooled analysis within the InterLymph consortium.
Cancer Causes Control. 2013; 24(1):125-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Studies of smoking and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to subtype heterogeneity and/or genetic variation impacting the metabolism of tobacco-derived carcinogens, including substrates of the N-acetyltransferase enzymes NAT1 and NAT2.
METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of 5,026 NHL cases and 4,630 controls from seven case-control studies in the international lymphoma epidemiology consortium to examine associations between smoking, variation in the N-acetyltransferase genes NAT1 and NAT2, and risk of NHL subtypes. Smoking data were harmonized across studies, and genetic variants in NAT1 and NAT2 were used to infer acetylation phenotype of the NAT1 and NAT2 enzymes, respectively. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) for risk of NHL and subtypes were calculated using joint fixed effects unconditional logistic regression models.
RESULTS: Current smoking was associated with a significant 30 % increased risk of follicular lymphoma (n = 1,176) but not NHL overall or other NHL subtypes. The association was similar among NAT2 slow (OR 1.36; 95 % CI 1.07-1.75) and intermediate/rapid (OR 1.27; 95 % CI 0.95-1.69) acetylators (p (interaction) = 0.82) and also did not differ by NAT1*10 allelotype. Neither NAT2 phenotype nor NAT1*10 allelotype was associated with risk of NHL overall or NHL subtypes.
CONCLUSION: The current findings provide further evidence for a modest association between current smoking and follicular lymphoma risk and suggest that this association may not be influenced by variation in the N-acetyltransferase enzymes.

Liu J, Ding D, Wang X, et al.
N-acetyltransferase polymorphism and risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer: a pooled analysis of variations from 59 studies.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e42797 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There have been an increasing number of studies with evidence suggesting that the N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotypes may be implicated in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and colorectal adenoma (CRA). So far the published data on this association has remained controversial, however. We performed a meta-analysis of case-cohort and case-control studies using a subset of the published data, with an aim to derive a better understanding of the underlying relationship.
METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A literature search was performed using Medline database for relevant studies published through October 31, 2011. A total of 39 publications were selected for this meta-analysis, including 11,724 cases and 16,215 controls for CRC, and 3,701 cases and 5,149 controls for CRA. In our pooled analysis of all these studies, the results of our meta-analysis suggested that the NAT1 genotype was not significantly associated with an elevated CRC risk (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.91-1.07). We also found that individuals with the rapid NAT2 genotype did have an elevated risk of CRC (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13). There was no evidence for an association between the NAT1 and 2 rapid genotype and an elevated CRA risk (NAT1: OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.99-1.29; NAT2: OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.86-1.03).
CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that individuals with NAT2 genotype had an elevated risk of CRC. There was no evidence for the association between NAT1 and 2 rapid genotype and CRA risk.

Gilsing AM, Berndt SI, Ruder EH, et al.
Meat-related mutagen exposure, xenobiotic metabolizing gene polymorphisms and the risk of advanced colorectal adenoma and cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2012; 33(7):1332-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Meat mutagens, including heterocyclic amines (HCAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and N-nitroso compounds (NOCs), may be involved in colorectal carcinogenesis depending on their activation or detoxification by phase I and II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME). Using unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), we examined the intake of five meat mutagens and >300 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 XME genes in relation to advanced colorectal adenoma (1205 cases and 1387 controls) and colorectal cancer (370 cases and 401 controls) within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Dietary intake of meat mutagens was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire with a detailed meat-cooking module. An interaction was observed between 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) intake and the NAT1 polymorphism rs6586714 in the adenoma study (P(interaction) = 0.001). Among individuals carrying a GG genotype, high MeIQx intake was associated with a 43% increased risk of adenoma (95% CI 1.11-1.85, P(trend) = 0.07), whereas the reverse was observed among carriers of the A variant (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.30-0.84, P(trend) = 0.01). In addition, we observed some suggestive (P < 0.05) modifying effects for SNPs in other XME genes (UGT1A, CYP2E1, EPHX1, AHR and GSTM3), but these were not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. This large and comprehensive study of XME genes, meat mutagens and the risk of colorectal tumours found that a NAT1 polymorphism modified the association between MeIQx intake and colorectal adenoma risk.

Aschebrook-Kilfoy B, Neta G, Brenner AV, et al.
Common genetic variants in metabolism and detoxification pathways and the risk of papillary thyroid cancer.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2012; 19(3):333-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Relationships are unclear between polymorphisms in genes involved in metabolism and detoxification of various chemicals and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) risk as well as their potential modification by alcohol or tobacco intake. We evaluated associations between 1647 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 132 candidate genes/regions involved in metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds (Phase I/II, oxidative stress, and metal binding pathways) and PTC risk in 344 PTC cases and 452 controls. For 15 selected regions and their respective SNPs, we also assessed interaction with alcohol and tobacco use. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the main effect of SNPs (P(trend)) and interaction with alcohol/tobacco intake. Gene- and pathway-level associations and interactions (P(gene interaction)) were evaluated by combining P(trend) values using the adaptive rank-truncated product method. While we found associations between PTC risk and nine SNPs (P(trend) ≤ 0.01) and seven genes/regions (P(region)<0.05), none remained significant after correction for the false discovery rate. We found a significant interaction between UGT2B7 and NAT1 genes and alcohol intake (P(gene interaction)=0.01 and 0.02 respectively) and between the CYP26B1 gene and tobacco intake (P(gene interaction)=0.02). Our results are suggestive of interaction between the genetic polymorphisms in several detoxification genes and alcohol or tobacco intake on risk of PTC. Larger studies with improved exposure assessment should address potential modification of PTC risk by alcohol and tobacco intake to confirm or refute our findings.

Johansson I, Nilsson C, Berglund P, et al.
Gene expression profiling of primary male breast cancers reveals two unique subgroups and identifies N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1) as a novel prognostic biomarker.
Breast Cancer Res. 2012; 14(1):R31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare and inadequately characterized disease. The aim of the present study was to characterize MBC tumors transcriptionally, to classify them into comprehensive subgroups, and to compare them with female breast cancer (FBC).
METHODS: A total of 66 clinicopathologically well-annotated fresh frozen MBC tumors were analyzed using Illumina Human HT-12 bead arrays, and a tissue microarray with 220 MBC tumors was constructed for validation using immunohistochemistry. Two external gene expression datasets were used for comparison purposes: 37 MBCs and 359 FBCs.
RESULTS: Using an unsupervised approach, we classified the MBC tumors into two subgroups, luminal M1 and luminal M2, respectively, with differences in tumor biological features and outcome, and which differed from the intrinsic subgroups described in FBC. The two subgroups were recapitulated in the external MBC dataset. Luminal M2 tumors were characterized by high expression of immune response genes and genes associated with estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. Luminal M1 tumors, on the other hand, despite being ER positive by immunohistochemistry showed a lower correlation to genes associated with ER signaling and displayed a more aggressive phenotype and worse prognosis. Validation of two of the most differentially expressed genes, class 1 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and the metabolizing gene N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1), respectively, revealed significantly better survival associated with high expression of both markers (HLA, hazard ratio (HR) 3.6, P = 0.002; NAT1, HR 2.5, P = 0.033). Importantly, NAT1 remained significant in a multivariate analysis (HR 2.8, P = 0.040) and may thus be a novel prognostic marker in MBC.
CONCLUSIONS: We have detected two unique and stable subgroups of MBC with differences in tumor biological features and outcome. They differ from the widely acknowledged intrinsic subgroups of FBC. As such, they may constitute two novel subgroups of breast cancer, occurring exclusively in men, and which may consequently require novel treatment approaches. Finally, we identified NAT1 as a possible prognostic biomarker for MBC, as suggested by NAT1 positivity corresponding to better outcome.

Cai J, Zhao Y, Zhu CL, et al.
The association of NAT1 polymorphisms and colorectal carcinoma risk: evidence from 20,000 subjects.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(7):7497-503 [PubMed] Related Publications
Published data on the association between N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) gene polymorphisms and colorectal carcinoma (CRC) susceptivity are inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the association, we conducted this meta-analysis. Data were collected from electronic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, with the last report up to May 2010. The odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association. A total of 20 individual studies including 8,219 cases and 11,498 controls based on the search criteria were involved. Meta-analysis was performed for slow versus rapid acetylation genotypes of NAT1. We found no association between NAT1 polymorphisms and CRC in overall population (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.88-1.05 P = 0.05 for heterogeneity) without significant publication bias present. In subgroup analyses, similar results were found in different ethnicities, source of controls, genotyping methods and adjustment. Current meta-analysis suggests that lack of association between the NAT1 polymorphisms and individual risk to CRC.

Butcher NJ, Minchin RF
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1: a novel drug target in cancer development.
Pharmacol Rev. 2012; 64(1):147-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human arylamine N-acetyltransferases first attracted attention because of their role in drug metabolism. However, much of the current literature has focused on their role in the activation and detoxification of environmental carcinogens and how genetic polymorphisms in the genes create predispositions to increased or decreased cancer risk. There are two closely related genes on chromosome 8 that encode the two human arylamine N-acetyltransferases--NAT1 and NAT2. Although NAT2 has restricted tissue expression, NAT1 is found in almost all tissues of the body. There are several single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the protein coding and 3'-untranslated regions of the gene that affect enzyme activity. However, NAT1 is also regulated by post-translational and environmental factors, which may be of greater importance than genotype in determining tissue NAT1 activities. Recent studies have suggested a novel role for this enzyme in cancer cell growth. NAT1 is up-regulated in several cancer types, and overexpression can lead to increased survival and resistance to chemotherapy. Although a link to folate homeostasis has been suggested, many of the effects attributed to NAT1 and cancer cell growth remain to be explained. Nevertheless, the enzyme has emerged as a viable candidate for drug development, which should lead to small molecule inhibitors for preclinical and clinical evaluation.

Koutros S, Silverman DT, Baris D, et al.
Hair dye use and risk of bladder cancer in the New England bladder cancer study.
Int J Cancer. 2011; 129(12):2894-904 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aromatic amine components in hair dyes and polymorphisms in genes that encode enzymes responsible for hair dye metabolism may be related to bladder cancer risk. We evaluated the association between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk and effect modification by N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1), NAT2, glutathione S-transferase Mu-1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase theta-1 (GSTT1) genotypes in a population-based case-control study of 1193 incident cases and 1418 controls from Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire enrolled between 2001 and 2004. Individuals were interviewed in person using a computer-assisted personal interview to assess hair dye use and information on potential confounders and effect modifiers. No overall association between age at first use, year of first use, type of product, color, duration or number of applications of hair dyes and bladder cancer among women or men was apparent, but increased risks were observed in certain subgroups. Women who used permanent dyes and had a college degree, a marker of socioeconomic status, had an increased risk of bladder cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-8.9]. Among these women, we found an increased risk of bladder cancer among exclusive users of permanent hair dyes who had NAT2 slow acetylation phenotype (OR = 7.3, 95% CI: 1.6-32.6) compared to never users of dye with NAT2 rapid/intermediate acetylation phenotype. Although we found no relation between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk in women overall, we detected evidence of associations and gene-environment interaction with permanent hair dye use; however, this was limited to educated women. These results need confirmation with larger numbers, requiring pooling data from multiple studies.

Tiang JM, Butcher NJ, Cullinane C, et al.
RNAi-mediated knock-down of arylamine N-acetyltransferase-1 expression induces E-cadherin up-regulation and cell-cell contact growth inhibition.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(2):e17031 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biotransformation of arylamine and hydrazine substrates. It also has a role in the catabolism of the folate metabolite p-aminobenzoyl glutamate. Recent bioinformatics studies have correlated NAT1 expression with various cancer subtypes. However, a direct role for NAT1 in cell biology has not been established. In this study, we have knocked down NAT1 in the colon adenocarcinoma cell-line HT-29 and found a marked change in cell morphology that was accompanied by an increase in cell-cell contact growth inhibition and a loss of cell viability at confluence. NAT1 knock-down also led to attenuation in anchorage independent growth in soft agar. Loss of NAT1 led to the up-regulation of E-cadherin mRNA and protein levels. This change in E-cadherin was not attributed to RNAi off-target effects and was also observed in the prostate cancer cell-line 22Rv1. In vivo, NAT1 knock-down cells grew with a longer doubling time compared to cells stably transfected with a scrambled RNAi or to parental HT-29 cells. This study has shown that NAT1 affects cell growth and morphology. In addition, it suggests that NAT1 may be a novel drug target for cancer therapeutics.

Cleary SP, Cotterchio M, Shi E, et al.
Cigarette smoking, genetic variants in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, and colorectal cancer risk.
Am J Epidemiol. 2010; 172(9):1000-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The risk of colorectal cancer associated with smoking is unclear and may be influenced by genetic variation in enzymes that metabolize cigarette carcinogens. The authors examined the colorectal cancer risk associated with smoking and 26 variants in carcinogen metabolism genes in 1,174 colorectal cancer cases and 1,293 population-based controls recruited in Canada by the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry from 1997 to 2001. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated by multivariable logistic regression. Smoking for >27 years was associated with a statistically significant increased colorectal cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.53) in all subjects. Colorectal cancer risk associated with smoking was higher in males for smoking status, duration, and intensity. The CYP1A1-3801-CC (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.94) and CYP2C9-430-CT (AOR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99) genotypes were associated with decreased risk, and the GSTM1-K173N-CG (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.25) genotype was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Statistical interactions between smoking and genetic variants were assessed by comparing logistic regression models with and without a multiplicative interaction term. Significant interactions were observed between smoking status and SULT1A1-638 (P = 0.02), NAT2-857 (P = 0.01), and CYP1B1-4390 (P = 0.04) variants and between smoking duration and NAT1-1088 (P = 0.02), SULT1A1-638 (P = 0.04), and NAT1-acetylator (P = 0.03) status. These findings support the hypothesis that prolonged cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer and that this risk may be modified by variation in carcinogen metabolism genes.

Kidd LR, Hein DW, Woodson K, et al.
Lack of association of the N-acetyltransferase NAT1*10 allele with prostate cancer incidence, grade, or stage among smokers in Finland.
Biochem Genet. 2011; 49(1-2):73-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic variations in xenobiotic metabolizing genes can influence susceptibility to many environmentally induced cancers. Inheritance of the N-acetyltransferase 1 allele (NAT1*10), linked with increased metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens, is associated with an increased susceptibility to many cancers in which cigarette- or meat-derived carcinogens have been implicated in their etiology. The role of NAT1*10 in prostate cancer is under studied. Although cigarette smoking is not considered a risk factor for prostate cancer, a recent review suggests it may play a role in disease progression. Consequently, we examined the association of NAT1*10 with prostate cancer risk, grade, and stage among 400 Finnish male smokers using a case-control study design. Following genotyping of 206 patients and 196 healthy controls, our results do not support the role of NAT1*10 in relation to prostate cancer risk (OR = 1.28; 95% CI, 0.66-2.47), aggressive disease (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.13-2.67), or advanced disease (OR = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.49-2.91).

Kim SJ, Kang HS, Jung SY, et al.
Methylation patterns of genes coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer tissues.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2010; 88(11):1123-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
The biological mechanisms underlying resistance to tamoxifen are of considerable clinical significance. However, little is known about the correlation between tamoxifen resistance and methylation of genes related to drug-metabolizing enzymes. To address this issue, we examined the methylation pattern and expression of the selected genes coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes, including COMT, CYP1A1, CYP2D6, NAT1, and SULT1A1 in tamoxifen-resistant and control breast cancers. Bisulfite genomic sequencing and methylation-specific PCR were carried out to evaluate the methylation patterns of the five genes from control (n = 74) and tamoxifen-resistant tissues (n = 37) chosen by an age-matched sampling method. Also, end-point reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR were performed to determine RNA expression of the genes. Bisulfite genomic sequencing revealed methylation of the NAT1 gene in 25 of the control cancers (33.8%) and 23 of the resistant tumors (62.2%). Of the five genes, only NAT1 showed a significant lower methylation rate in the control group than in the resistant group (p = 0.004). No significant difference of the methylation rate was found in the other four genes including COMT, CYP1A1, CYP2D6, and SULT1A1 (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the expression rate of NAT1 mRNA was lower in the tumors from the resistant group than in control tumors (28.6% vs. 65.2%, p = 0.031). Real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the NAT1 gene was more down-regulated in resistant tissues than in control group (p = 0.023). Moreover, malignant cells from the resistant cases demonstrated a higher percentage of positive staining for Ki67 (p = 0.001) and cyclin D1 (p = 0.043) than those from the control group. Taken together, the higher methylation rate of the NAT1 gene is related to tamoxifen resistance, and this fact supports the hypothesis that hypermethylation of the NAT1 gene might affect the initiation of tamoxifen resistance.

Sharma S, Cao X, Wilkens LR, et al.
Well-done meat consumption, NAT1 and NAT2 acetylator genotypes and prostate cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010; 19(7):1866-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common male malignancy in the United States and disparities in risk exist among ethnic/racial groups. A high intake of well-done meat and the presence of the rapid NAT1 and slow NAT2 acetylator genotypes, as modifiers of the carcinogenic effect of heterocyclic amines, were hypothesized to increase PC risk and possibly explain these ethnic differences in risk.
METHODS: This study examined the associations between well-done (red) meat consumption, NAT1 and NAT2 acetylator genotypes, and PC risk among five ethnicities (African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, Latino, and Caucasian) in a case-control study of PC nested within the Multiethnic Cohort study. Cases (n = 2,106) and controls (n = 2,063) were genotyped for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in NAT1 and seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in NAT2 that characterized all common alleles for these genes. Well-done meat intake was computed based on responses to a detailed food frequency questionnaire including a question on meat preference. Conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis.
RESULTS: There was no evidence of an increased risk associated with preference for well-done meat, intake of well-done meat, and NAT1 or NAT2 genotypes (jointly or separately).
CONCLUSIONS: These results do not support the hypothesis that exposure to heterocyclic amines is associated with risk of PC. However, additional studies with more precise exposure measures are needed.

Sangrajrang S, Sato Y, Sakamoto H, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in folate and alcohol metabolism and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Thai women.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 123(3):885-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dietary folate as well as polymorphic variants in one-carbon metabolism genes may modulate risk of breast cancer through aberrant DNA methylation and altered nucleotide synthesis and repair. Alcohol is well recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer, and interactions with one-carbon metabolism has also been suggested. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms in the folate and alcohol metabolic pathway are associated with breast cancer risk. Twenty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTR, MTRR, MTHFR, TYMS, ADH1C, ALDH2, GSTP1, NAT1, NAT2, CYP2E1 DRD2, DRD3, and SLC6A4 were genotyped. Five hundred and seventy patients with histopathogically confirmed breast cancer and 497 controls were included in the present study. Association of genotypes with breast cancer risk was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Increased risk was observed for homozygotes at the MTR SNPs (rs1770449 and rs1050993) with the OR = 2.21 (95% CI 1.18-4.16) and OR = 2.24 (95% CI 1.19-4.22), respectively. A stratified analysis by menopausal status indicated the association between the NAT2 SNP (rs1799930) and breast cancer was mainly evident in premenopausal women (OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.20-6.07), while the MTRR SNP (rs162049) was significant in postmenopausal women (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.07-2.44). Furthermore, SNPs of the genes that contribute to alcohol behavior, DRD3 (rs167770), DRD2 (rs10891556), and SLC6A4 (rs140701), were also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. No gene-gene or gene-environment interactions were observed in this study. Our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in folate and alcohol metabolic pathway influence the risk of breast cancer in Thai population.

Han X, Zheng T, Foss FM, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in the metabolic pathway and non-Hodgkin lymphoma survival.
Am J Hematol. 2010; 85(1):51-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metabolic pathway enzymes, such as Cytochrome P450 (CYP), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and N-acetyltransferases (NAT) are involved in activation and detoxification of environmental carcinogens as well as drug metabolism. We hypothesized that the genetic variations in such metabolic pathways may affect NHL prognosis and survival. Follow-up information of 496 female NHL incident cases diagnosed during 1996-2000 in Connecticut were abstracted from the Connecticut Tumor Registry in 2008; survival analyses were conducted by comparing the Kaplan-Meier curves, and hazard ratios (HR) were computed from the Cox Proportional Hazard models adjusting for demographic and tumor characteristics which were suggested by previous studies to be determinants of NHL survival. We identified six SNPs from four metabolism genes (CYP2E1, GSTP1, GSTT1, and NAT1) that were associated with NHL survival. Specifically, polymorphisms in GSTT1 were associated with follicular lymphoma survival; and polymorphisms in CYP2E1, GSTP1, and NAT1 were associated with survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Our study suggests that genetic polymorphisms in metabolic pathways may help improve the prediction of NHL survival and prognosis.

Singh PB, Ragavan N, Ashton KM, et al.
Quantified gene expression levels for phase I/II metabolizing enzyme and estrogen receptor levels in benign prostate from cohorts designated as high-risk (UK) versus low-risk (India) for adenocarcinoma at this organ site: a preliminary study.
Asian J Androl. 2010; 12(2):203-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Risk of clinically significant prostate adenocarcinoma (CaP) varies worldwide, although there is a uniform prevalence of latent disease. A hormone-responsive tissue, the prostate possesses the metabolizing capacity to biotransform a variety of environmental procarcinogens or endogenous hormones. Whether such metabolizing capacity or estrogen receptor (ER) status underlies these demographic differences in susceptibility to CaP remains unclear. With appropriate ethical permission, verified-benign tissues were obtained following transurethral resection of the prostate from a high-risk region (n = 12 UK-resident Caucasians) and a typically low-risk region (n = 14 India-resident Asians). Quantitative gene expression analysis was employed for cytochrome P450 (CYP)1B1, N-acetyltransferase (NAT)1, NAT2, catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), sulfotransferase (SULT)1A1, ERalpha, ERbeta and aromatase (CYP19A1). To quantify the presence or absence of CYP1B1, ERalpha or ERbeta, and to identify their in situ localization, immunohistochemistry was carried out. The two cohorts had reasonably well-matched serum levels of prostate-specific antigen or hormones. Expression levels for the candidate genes investigated were similar. However, clear differences in protein levels for CYP1B1 and ERbeta were noted. Staining for CYP1B1 tended to be nuclear-associated in the basal glandular epithelial cells, and in UK-resident Caucasian tissues was present at a higher (P = 0.006) level compared with that from India-resident Asians. In contrast, a higher level of positive ERbeta staining was noted in prostates from India-resident Asians. These study findings point to differences in metabolizing capacity and ER status in benign prostate tissues that might modulate susceptibility to the emergence of clinically significant CaP in demographically distinct populations.

Demokan S, Suoglu Y, Gözeler M, et al.
N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 gene sequence variants and risk of head and neck cancer.
Mol Biol Rep. 2010; 37(7):3217-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polymorphisms that alter the function of genes involved in the activation or detoxification of carcinogenic compounds can influence an individuals risk of developing cancer. Polymorphic changes modulating the acetylation capacity of the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) genes have been implicated in the risk of developing cancer. In this study the role of genetically determined individual NAT1 and NAT2 genotypes, haplotypes and haplotype combinations in the predisposition to head and neck cancer was investigated. Polymorphic regions of the NAT1 and NAT2 genes were analyzed in patients with head and neck cancer and healthy individuals by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Distribution of the genotypes, allele frequencies, diplotypes and haplotypes and correlation with clinical characteristics were evaluated. No association was observed between the NAT1*3, NAT1*10, NAT1*11, NAT2*5 and NAT2*6 genotypes and risk of head and neck cancer. The NAT2*7 slow genotype was associated with reduced risk of disease. A significant association was observed between the fast acetylator NAT2*4/NAT1*10 diplotype and risk of head and neck cancer. Combined haplotypes harboring the T1088A and C1095A variants characterizing the NAT1*10 allele were associated with increased risk. Our results suggest that NAT1 and NAT2 gene combinations may influence the risk of developing head and neck cancer.

Koutros S, Berndt SI, Sinha R, et al.
Xenobiotic metabolizing gene variants, dietary heterocyclic amine intake, and risk of prostate cancer.
Cancer Res. 2009; 69(5):1877-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We recently reported that heterocyclic amines (HCA) are associated with prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We now use extensive genetic data from this resource to determine if risks associated with dietary HCAs {2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-b]quinoxaline (MeIQx); and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx)} from cooked meat are modified by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes involved in HCA metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTP1, NAT1, NAT2, SULT1A1, SULT1A2, and UGT1A locus). We conducted a nested case-control study that included 1,126 prostate cancer cases and 1,127 controls selected for a genome-wide association study for prostate cancer. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), and P values for the interaction between SNPs, HCA intake, and risk of prostate cancer. The strongest evidence for an interaction was noted between DiMeIQx and MeIQx and the polymorphism rs11102001 downstream of the GSTM3 locus (P(interaction) = 0.001 for both HCAs; statistically significant after correction for multiple testing). Among men carrying the A variant, the risk of prostate cancer associated with high DiMeIQx intake was 2-fold greater than that with low intake (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.7). The SNP rs11102001, which encodes a nonsynonymous amino acid change P356S in EPS8L3, is a potential candidate modifier of the effect of HCAs on prostate cancer risk. The observed effect provides evidence to support the hypothesis that HCAs may act as promoters of malignant transformation by altering mitogenic signaling.

John K, Ragavan N, Pratt MM, et al.
Quantification of phase I/II metabolizing enzyme gene expression and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adduct levels in human prostate.
Prostate. 2009; 69(5):505-19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Studies of migrant populations suggest that dietary and/or environmental factors play a crucial role in the etiology of prostatic adenocarcinoma (CaP). The human prostate consists of the peripheral zone (PZ), transition zone (TZ), and central zone (CZ); CaP occurs most often in the PZ.
METHODS: To investigate the notion that an underlying differential expression of phase I/II genes, and/or the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts might explain the elevated PZ susceptibility, we examined prostate tissues (matched tissue sets consisting of PZ and TZ) from men undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy for CaP (n = 26) or cystoprostatectomy (n = 1). Quantitative gene expression analysis was employed for cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP1A2, as well as N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT).
RESULTS: CYP1B1, NAT1, and COMT were expressed in all tissue sets; levels of CYP1B1 and NAT1 were consistently higher in the PZ compared to TZ. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of CYP1B1 (nuclear-associated and primarily in basal epithelial cells) and NAT1. Normal tissue from 23 of these aforementioned 27 matched tissue sets was analyzed for PAH-DNA adduct levels using antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7,t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPDE). PAH-DNA adduct levels were highest in glandular epithelial cells, but a comparison of PZ and TZ showed no significant differences.
CONCLUSION: Although expression of activating and/or detoxifying enzymes may be higher in the PZ, PAH-DNA adduct levels appear to be similar in both zones. Therefore, factors other than PAH-DNA adducts may be responsible for promotion of tumor formation in the human prostate.

Agúndez JA
Polymorphisms of human N-acetyltransferases and cancer risk.
Curr Drug Metab. 2008; 9(6):520-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human arylamine N-acetyltransferases (CoASAc; NAT, EC NAT1 and NAT2 play a key role in the metabolism of drugs and environmental chemicals and in the metabolic activation and detoxification of procarcinogens. Phenotyping analyses have revealed an association between NAT enzyme activities and the risk of developing several forms of cancer. As genotyping procedures have become available for NAT1 and NAT2 gene variations, hundreds of association studies on NAT polymorphisms and cancer risk have been conducted. Here we review the findings obtained from these studies. Evidence for a putative association of NAT1 polymorphism and myeloma, lung and bladder cancer, as well as association of NAT2 polymorphisms with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, liver, colorectal and bladder cancer have been reported. In contrast, no consistent evidence for a relevant association of NAT polymorphisms with brain, head & neck, breast, gastric, pancreatic or prostate cancer have been described. Although preliminary data are available, further well-powered studies are required to fully elucidate the role of NAT1 in most human cancers, and that of NAT2 in astrocytoma, meningioma, esophageal, renal, cervical and testicular cancers, as well as in leukaemia and myeloma. This review discusses controversial findings on cancer risk and putative causes of heterogeneity in the proposed associations, and it identifies topics that require further investigation, particularly mechanisms underlying association of NAT polymorphisms and risk for subsets of cancer patients with specific exposures, putative epistatic contribution of polymorphism for other xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases of Cytochrome P450 enzymes, and genetic plus environmental interaction.

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