Gene Summary

Gene:MOS; v-mos Moloney murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog
Aliases: MSV
Summary:MOS is a serine/threonine kinase that activates the MAP kinase cascade through direct phosphorylation of the MAP kinase activator MEK (MAP2K1; MIM 176872) (Prasad et al., 2008 [PubMed 18246541]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase mos
Source:NCBIAccessed: 08 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
MOS is implicated in:
- ATP binding
- protein serine/threonine kinase activity
- regulation of meiosis
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 08 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cancer DNA
  • TNF
  • Base Sequence
  • Trisomy
  • Breast Cancer
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Transfection
  • Cell Surface Receptors
  • Northern Blotting
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Lung Cancer
  • Karyotyping
  • Cell Line
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • DNA
  • RAS Genes
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos
  • Chromosome 8
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Mutation
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Genes, mos
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • myc Genes
  • Southern Blotting
  • Gene Amplification
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Salivary Gland Cancer
  • Wilms Tumour
  • Retroviridae
  • Oncogenes
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Gene Expression
Tag cloud generated 08 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MOS (cancer-related)

Zhang S, Guo Y, Zhang C, et al.
Primary laryngeal cancer-derived miR-193b induces interleukin-10-expression monocytes.
Cancer Invest. 2015; 33(2):29-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
The pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer (LC) is unclear. Published data indicate that micro RNAs (miRNA) play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. This study aims to elucidate the role of miR-193b in the tumor tolerance of LC. High levels of miR-193b were detected in LC cells as well as in the culture supernatant. Interleukin (IL)-10-expressing Mos were detected in the LC tissue-derived single cells. Treating naïve Mos with a miR-193b induced expression of IL-10 in the Mos. Culturing the IL-10(+) Mos with effector CD8(+) T cells resulted in the suppression of CD8(+) T-cell activities.

Sharifnia T, Rusu V, Piccioni F, et al.
Genetic modifiers of EGFR dependence in non-small cell lung cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(52):18661-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung adenocarcinomas harboring activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represent a common molecular subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. EGFR mutations predict sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and thus represent a dependency in NSCLCs harboring these alterations, but the genetic basis of EGFR dependence is not fully understood. Here, we applied an unbiased, ORF-based screen to identify genetic modifiers of EGFR dependence in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells. This approach identified 18 kinase and kinase-related genes whose overexpression can substitute for EGFR in EGFR-dependent PC9 cells, and these genes include seven of nine Src family kinase genes, FGFR1, FGFR2, ITK, NTRK1, NTRK2, MOS, MST1R, and RAF1. A subset of these genes can complement loss of EGFR activity across multiple EGFR-dependent models. Unbiased gene-expression profiling of cells overexpressing EGFR bypass genes, together with targeted validation studies, reveals EGFR-independent activation of the MEK-ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways. Combined inhibition of PI3K-mTOR and MEK restores EGFR dependence in cells expressing each of the 18 EGFR bypass genes. Together, these data uncover a broad spectrum of kinases capable of overcoming dependence on EGFR and underscore their convergence on the PI3K-AKT and MEK-ERK signaling axes in sustaining EGFR-independent survival.

Sheng-Fowler L, Tu W, Fu H, et al.
A mouse strain defective in both T cells and NK cells has enhanced sensitivity to tumor induction by plasmid DNA expressing both activated H-Ras and c-Myc.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e108926 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As part of safety studies to evaluate the risk of residual cellular DNA in vaccines manufactured in tumorigenic cells, we have been developing in vivo assays to detect and quantify the oncogenic activity of DNA. We generated a plasmid expressing both an activated human H-ras gene and murine c-myc gene and showed that 1 µg of this plasmid, pMSV-T24-H-ras/MSV-c-myc, was capable of inducing tumors in newborn NIH Swiss mice. However, to be able to detect the oncogenicity of dominant activated oncogenes in cellular DNA, a more sensitive system was needed. In this paper, we demonstrate that the newborn CD3 epsilon transgenic mouse, which is defective in both T-cell and NK-cell functions, can detect the oncogenic activity of 25 ng of the circular form of pMSV-T24-H-ras/MSV-c-myc. When this plasmid was inoculated as linear DNA, amounts of DNA as low as 800 pg were capable of inducing tumors. Animals were found that had multiple tumors, and these tumors were independent and likely clonal. These results demonstrate that the newborn CD3 epsilon mouse is highly sensitive for the detection of oncogenic activity of DNA. To determine whether it can detect the oncogenic activity of cellular DNA derived from four human tumor-cell lines (HeLa, A549, HT-1080, and CEM), DNA (100 µg) was inoculated into newborn CD3 epsilon mice both in the presence of 1 µg of linear pMSV-T24-H-ras/MSV-c-myc as positive control and in its absence. While tumors were induced in 100% of mice with the positive-control plasmid, no tumors were induced in mice receiving any of the tumor DNAs alone. These results demonstrate that detection of oncogenes in cellular DNA derived from four human tumor-derived cell lines in this mouse system was not possible; the results also show the importance of including a positive-control plasmid to detect inhibitory effects of the cellular DNA.

Mai J, Huang Y, Mu C, et al.
Bone marrow endothelium-targeted therapeutics for metastatic breast cancer.
J Control Release. 2014; 187:22-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
Effective treatment of cancer metastasis to the bone relies on bone marrow drug accumulation. The surface proteins in the bone marrow vascular endothelium provide docking sites for targeted drug delivery. We have developed a thioaptamer that specifically binds to E-selectin that is overexpressed in the vasculature of tumor and inflammatory tissues. In this study, we tested targeted delivery of therapeutic siRNA loaded in the E-selectin thioaptamer-conjugated multistage vector (ESTA-MSV) drug carrier to bone marrow for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis. We evaluated tumor type- and tumor growth stage-dependent targeting in mice bearing metastatic breast cancer in the bone, and carried out studies to identify factors that determine targeting efficiency. In a subsequent study, we delivered siRNA to knock down expression of the human STAT3 gene in murine xenograft models of human MDA-MB-231 breast tumor, and assessed therapeutic efficacy. Our studies revealed that the CD31(+)E-selectin(+) population accounted for 20.8%, 26.4% and 29.9% of total endothelial cells respectively inside the femur of mice bearing early, middle and late stage metastatic MDA-MB-231 tumors. In comparison, the double positive cells remained at a basal level in mice with early stage MCF-7 tumors, and jumped to 23.9% and 28.2% when tumor growth progressed to middle and late stages. Accumulation of ESTA-MSV inside the bone marrow correlated with the E-selectin expression pattern. There was up to 5-fold enrichment of the targeted MSV in the bone marrow of mice bearing early or late stage MDA-MB-231 tumors and of mice with late stage, but not early stage, MCF-7 tumors. Targeted delivery of STAT3 siRNA in ESTA-MSV resulted in knockdown of STAT3 expression in 48.7% of cancer cells inside the bone marrow. Weekly systemic administration of ESTA-MSV/STAT3 siRNA significantly extended survival of mice with MDA-MB-231 bone metastasis. In conclusion, targeting the overexpressed E-selectin provides an effective approach for tissue-specific drug delivery to the bone marrow. Tumor growth in the bone can be effectively inhibited by blockage of the STAT3 signaling.

Cai X, Fang JM, Xue P, et al.
The role of IVS14+1 G > A genotype detection in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene and pharmacokinetic monitoring of 5-fluorouracil in the individualized adjustment of 5-fluorouracil for patients with local advanced and metastatic colorectal cancer: a preliminary report.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014; 18(8):1247-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: We retrospectively investigated the relationship between IVS14+1 G > A genotype of the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) gene with plasma concentration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as well as adverse reactions in 80 patients with locally advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty patients with un-resectable locally advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer were treated with Folfox-6 regimen, which repeated every two weeks for at least three cycles. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for DPD gene were analyzed before chemotherapy by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. The plasma concentration of fluorouracil was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after continuous infusion of fluorouracil over 12 h in each cycle. The average values of plasma concentrations in each cycle were calculated, and the factors related to plasma concentration of 5-FU were screened by stepwise regression.
RESULTS: All patients were divided into three groups according to the predictive confidence interval of plasma concentration of 5-FU, and the average plasma concentrations of fluorouracil in each cycle of these three groups were less than or equal to 26.83 mg/L, 26.83-40.62 mg/L, and more than 40.62 mg/L, respectively. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the plasma concentration of fluorouracil was associated with myelosuppression, hand-foot syndrome, diarrhea, overall survival (OS) and DPD genotype. In efficacy, the median progression-free survival PFS (mPFS) and OS (mOS) of group 2 and group 3 were both significantly higher than those of group 1.
CONCLUSIONS: Among the advanced colorectal cancer patients receiving fluorouracil-based chemotherapy, those with plasma concentration of 5-FU above 26.83 mg/L can obtain better survival; for patients with heterozygous DPD IVS14+1 mutation, 5-FU dose should be appropriately reduced according to last plasma concentration to reduce adverse reactions, while the homozygous ones should avoid application of 5-FU and its derivatives.

Venturin M, Carra S, Gaudenzi G, et al.
ADAP2 in heart development: a candidate gene for the occurrence of cardiovascular malformations in NF1 microdeletion syndrome.
J Med Genet. 2014; 51(7):436-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular malformations have a higher incidence in patients with NF1 microdeletion syndrome compared to NF1 patients with intragenic mutation, presumably owing to haploinsufficiency of one or more genes included in the deletion interval and involved in heart development. In order to identify which genes could be responsible for cardiovascular malformations in the deleted patients, we carried out expression studies in mouse embryos and functional studies in zebrafish.
METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression analysis of three candidate genes included in the NF1 deletion interval, ADAP2, SUZ12 and UTP6, performed by in situ hybridisation, showed the expression of ADAP2 murine ortholog in heart during fundamental phases of cardiac morphogenesis. In order to investigate the role of ADAP2 in cardiac development, we performed loss-of-function experiments of zebrafish ADAP2 ortholog, adap2, by injecting two different morpholino oligos (adap2-MO and UTR-adap2-MO). adap2-MOs-injected embryos (morphants) displayed in vivo circulatory and heart shape defects. The molecular characterisation of morphants with cardiac specific markers showed that the injection of adap2-MOs causes defects in heart jogging and looping. Additionally, morphological and molecular analysis of adap2 morphants demonstrated that the loss of adap2 function leads to defective valvulogenesis, suggesting a correlation between ADAP2 haploinsufficiency and the occurrence of valve defects in NF1-microdeleted patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings indicate that ADAP2 has a role in heart development, and might be a reliable candidate gene for the occurrence of cardiovascular malformations in patients with NF1 microdeletion and, more generally, for the occurrence of a subset of congenital heart defects.

Sörensen J, Sandberg D, Sandström M, et al.
First-in-human molecular imaging of HER2 expression in breast cancer metastases using the 111In-ABY-025 affibody molecule.
J Nucl Med. 2014; 55(5):730-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The expression status of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) predicts the response of HER2-targeted therapy in breast cancer. ABY-025 is a small reengineered Affibody molecule targeting a unique epitope of the HER2 receptor, not occupied by current therapeutic agents. This study evaluated the distribution, safety, dosimetry, and efficacy of (111)In-ABY-025 for determining the HER2 status in metastatic breast cancer.
METHODS: Seven patients with metastatic breast cancer and HER2-positive (n = 5) or -negative (n = 2) primary tumors received an intravenous injection of approximately 100 μg (∼ 140 MBq) of (111)In-ABY-025. Planar γ-camera imaging was performed after 30 min, followed by SPECT/CT after 4, 24, and 48 h. Blood levels of radioactivity, antibodies, shed serum HER2, and toxicity markers were evaluated. Lesional HER2 status was verified by biopsies. The metastases were located by (18)F-FDG PET/CT 5 d before (111)In-ABY-025 imaging.
RESULTS: Injection of (111)In-ABY-025 yielded a mean effective dose of 0.15 mSv/MBq and was safe, well tolerated, and without drug-related adverse events. Fast blood clearance allowed high-contrast HER2 images within 4-24 h. No anti-ABY-025 antibodies were observed. When metastatic uptake at 24 h was normalized to uptake at 4 h, the ratio increased in HER2-positive metastases and decreased in negative ones (P < 0.05), with no overlap and confirmation by biopsies. In 1 patient, with HER2-positive primary tumor, (111)In-ABY-025 imaging correctly suggested a HER2-negative status of the metastases. The highest normal-tissue uptake was in the kidneys, followed by the liver and spleen.
CONCLUSION: (111)In-ABY-025 appears safe for use in humans and is a promising noninvasive tool for discriminating HER2 status in metastatic breast cancer, regardless of ongoing HER2-targeted antibody treatment.

Krause U, Ryan DM, Clough BH, Gregory CA
An unexpected role for a Wnt-inhibitor: Dickkopf-1 triggers a novel cancer survival mechanism through modulation of aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1 activity.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1093 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
It is widely accepted that canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling is required for the differentiation of osteoprogenitors into osteoblasts. Furthermore, tumor-derived secretion of the cWnt-antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) is known to cause bone destruction, inhibition of repair and metastasis in many bone malignancies, but its role in osteosarcoma (OS) is still under debate. In this study, we examined the role of Dkk-1in OS by engineering its overexpression in the osteochondral sarcoma line MOS-J. Consistent with the known role of Dkk-1 in osteoblast differentiation, Dkk-1 inhibited osteogenesis by the MOSJ cells themselves and also in surrounding tissue when implanted in vivo. Surprisingly, Dkk-1 also had unexpected effects on MOSJ cells in that it increased proliferation and resistance to metabolic stress in vitro and caused the formation of larger and more destructive tumors than controls upon orthotopic implantation. These effects were attributed in part to upregulation of the stress response enzyme and cancer stem cell marker aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1). Direct inhibition of ALDH1 reduced viability under stressful culture conditions, whereas pharmacological inhibition of cWnt or overexpression of ALDH1 had a protective effect. Furthermore, we observed that ALDH1 was transcriptionally activated in a c-Jun-dependent manner through a pathway consisting of RhoA, MAP-kinase-kinase-4 and Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK), indicating that noncanonical planar cell polarity-like Wnt signaling was the mechanism responsible. Together, our results therefore demonstrate that Dkk-1 enhances resistance of OS cells to stress by tipping the balance of Wnt signaling in favor of the non-canonical Jun-mediated Wnt pathways. In turn, this results in transcriptional activation of ALDH1 through Jun-responsive promoter elements. This is the first report linking Dkk-1 to tumor stress resistance, further supporting the targeting of Dkk-1 not only to prevent and treat osteolytic bone lesions but also to reduce numbers of stress-resistant tumor cells.

Karachaliou N, Papadaki C, Lagoudaki E, et al.
Predictive value of BRCA1, ERCC1, ATP7B, PKM2, TOPOI, TOPΟ-IIA, TOPOIIB and C-MYC genes in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) who received first line therapy with cisplatin and etoposide.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74611 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive value of genes involved in the action of cisplatin-etoposide in Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC).
METHODS: 184 SCLC patients' primary tumour samples were analyzed for ERCCI, BRCA1, ATP7B, PKM2 TOPOI, TOPOIIA, TOPOIIB and C-MYC mRNA expression. All patients were treated with cisplatin-etoposide.
RESULTS: The patients' median age was 63 years and 120 (65%) had extended stage, 75 (41%) had increased LDH serum levels and 131 (71%) an ECOG performance status was 0-1. Patients with limited stage, whose tumours expressed high ERCC1 (p=0.028), PKM2 (p=0.046), TOPOI (p=0.008), TOPOIIA (p=0.002) and TOPOIIB (p<0.001) mRNA had a shorter Progression Free Survival (PFS). In limited stage patients, high expression of ERCC1 (p=0.014), PKM2 (p=0.026), TOPOIIA (p=0.021) and TOPOIIB (p=0.019) was correlated with decreased median overall survival (mOS) while in patients with extended stage, only high TOPOIIB expression had a negative impact on Os (p=0.035). The favorable expression signature expression signature (low expression of ERCC1, PKM2, TOPOIIA and TOPOIIB) was correlated with significantly better PFS and Os in both LS-SCLC (p<0.001 and p=0.007, respectively) and ES-SCLC (p=0.007 and (p=0.011, respectively) group. The unfavorable expression signature was an independent predictor for poor PFS (HR: 3.18; p=0.002 and HR: 3.14; p=0.021) and Os (HR: 4.35; p=0.001and HR: 3.32; p=0.019) in both limited and extended stage, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Single gene's expression analysis as well as the integrated analysis of ERCC1, PKM2, TOPOIIA and TOPOIIB may predict treatment outcome in patients with SCLC. These findings should be further validated in a prospective study.

Chen Y, Lin G, Guo ZQ, et al.
Effects of MICA expression on the prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer and the efficacy of CIK therapy.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69044 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical significance of the expression of MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and explore the relationship between MICA expression and the efficacy of cytokine-induced killer cell (CIK) therapy for treating advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
METHODS: We obtained data on 222 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, including data on MICA expression, age, gender, ECOG score, pathological type, stage, treatment history (including 38 patients who were given autologous CIK cell infusion), and overall survival (OS). MICA expression in lung cancer tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Analyses of MICA expression, and CIK therapy association with survival outcomes were performed using Cox proportional models, Kaplan-Meier methods, and the log-rank test.
RESULT: s MICA was expressed in both membrane and cytoplasm. MICA expression correlated with the stage of lung cancer, ECOG score, gender and age. Multivariate COX regression analysis showed that the expression of MICA was an independent prognostic factor of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (p = 0.002). In subgroup analysis, we divided the 222 patients into CIK and control groups. In the CIK group, the medium OS (mOS) of patients with a high expression of MICA was longer than in those with low expression of MICA (27 months vs. 13 months). In the control group, the mOS in patients with a high expression of MICA was shorter than in patients with low MICA expression (9 months vs. 18 months). COX regression analysis showed that the MICA expression affects the effect of CIK therapy (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSION: 1) The high expression of MICA is one of the indicators of a poor prognosis for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients. 2) The high expression of MICA might be one of the predictive factors for successful CIK therapy.

Ovcaricek T, Cufer T, Kern I, et al.
Efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in routine clinical practice: epidermal growth factor mutations and their implications.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2013 Apr-Jun; 9(2):261-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor (EGFR) gene confer sensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). TKI treatment efficacy and EGFR mutation implications were evaluated in clinically selected advanced NSCLC patients treated with TKIs in routine clinical practice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review for clinicopathological characteristics and mutation status (EGFR, KRAS) analysis of 40 consecutive patients treated with TKIs between 2005 and 2010 was performed.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: PFS and OS were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, the log-rank test was used to test for differences. The strength of the associations between the EGFR mutation status and clinicopathological characteristics were tested with the Mann-Whitney U-test or the Kruskal-Wallis H-test.
RESULTS: The prevalence of EGFR mutations was 45% with a predominance of deletion mutations in exon 19 (55.5%). Significant correlations between gender, histology, and EGFR mutations were observed. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) for the entire group of patients was 8.7 months and median overall survival (mOS) was not yet reached. Patients with EGFR mutant tumors derived significantly higher benefit from TKI therapy compared to patients with mutation-negative disease; with mPFS of 22.0 vs. 3.2 months (HR: 3.9, 95% CI 1.56-9.89) and with a trend towards better OS (probability of survival at 12 months 82.0 vs. 63.0%, P = 0.080).
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that screening for EGFR mutations is reliable in a routine clinical setting and might allow for a better selection of NSCLC patients for anti-EGFR TKI therapy.

Shin CM, Kim N, Lee HS, et al.
Changes in aberrant DNA methylation after Helicobacter pylori eradication: a long-term follow-up study.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(9):2034-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Changes of DNA methylation in gastric mucosae after eradication of Helicobacter pylori have not been clarified yet. From this background, we investigated time course of DNA methylation following H. pylori eradication in 221 successfully H. pylori eradicated subjects with endoscopic follow-up at least for 6 months, including 114 controls, 53 subjects with gastric dysplasia and 54 patients with early gastric cancer. All dysplasia and gastric cancer patients underwent endoscopic resection at the time of enrollment. The methylation levels in LOX, APC and MOS genes from noncancerous gastric mucosae using quantitative methylation-specific PCR, as well as the histologic findings of gastric mucosae, were compared before and after eradication. Average follow-up duration was 26.0 months (range: 6 to 76 months). H. pylori eradication decreased methylation levels in LOX (p-value for slope < 0.001) but not in APC. In MOS, decrease of its methylation level following H. pylori eradication was significant among controls without intestinal metaplasia (IM) (p-value for slope < 0.05); however, it was not observed among patients with IM or those with dysplasia or gastric cancer. After H. pylori eradication, methylation level in MOS persistently increased in patients with dysplasia or gastric cancer (p < 0.01). In conclusion, H. pylori eradication decreases aberrant DNA methylation with gene-specific manner. Methylation level in MOS is associated with IM and may be used as a surrogate marker for gastric cancer risk, regardless of H. pylori eradication history.

Zhang JG, Zhang X, Lin A, Yan WH
Lesion HLA-F expression is irrelevant to prognosis for patients with gastric cancer.
Hum Immunol. 2013; 74(7):828-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alteration of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antigen expression has been supposed to play critical roles in progression of malignancies. However, clinical significance of the non-classical HLA class I antigen HLA-F remains largely unknown. In this study, HLA-F expression in 277 primary gastric cancer (GC) lesions was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Data revealed that HLA-F expression was observed in 71.1% (197/277) of the GC lesions. Lesion HLA-F expression was unrelated to the clinicoparameters such as gender, age, depth of tumor invasion and disease stage. Survival analysis revealed that HLA-F expression in GC lesion was unrelated to patient prognosis (p=0.190). The mean overall survival time (MOS) for lesion HLA-F negative and positive patients was 11.3 months (95% CI: 9.3-13.3) and 13.9 months (95% CI: 10.5-17.3), respectively. In conclusion, our study provided the evidence that HLA-F expression was unrelated to prognosis for patients with gastric cancer.

Georges S, Chesneau J, Hervouet S, et al.
A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 12 produced by tumour cells accelerates osteosarcoma tumour progression and associated osteolysis.
Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49(9):2253-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour in children and adolescents for whom the prognosis remains unfavourable despite treatment protocols that combine chemotherapy and surgery. Metalloproteinases decisively contribute to cancer development and promotion by regulating cell growth, angiogenesis or inflammation. However, their role in osteosarcoma remains still unknown.
METHODS: A screening of a large panel of metalloproteinases and their inhibitors, carried out in osteolytic (K7M2 and POS-1) or osteoblastic (MOS-J) mouse osteosarcoma models, shows that a member of a family of cell surface metallopeptidases, A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12), is highly expressed in the K7M2 and POS-1 cell lines and weakly expressed in the MOS-J cell line. To investigate whether ADAM12, involved in several pathologic conditions characterised by abnormal cell growth, plays a role in osteosarcoma tumour growth, ADAM12 was overexpressed in MOS-J and downregulated in K7M2 cells.
RESULTS: In vivo experiments demonstrated that ADAM12 favours tumour growth, leading to a significant modification in animal survival. In vitro assays showed that ADAM12 knockdown in K7M2 cells slows cell proliferation. In addition, the study of microarchitectural parameters, assessed by micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis, showed that ADAM12 favours bone osteolysis, as demonstrated both in an ADAM12 overexpressing (MOS-J) and a knockdown (K7M2) model. Histological analysis showed that ADAM12 inhibited osteoblast activity and therefore enhanced bone resorption.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that ADAM12 expression not only favours tumour growth but also associates enhanced osteolysis with a significant reduction in animal survival, suggesting that ADAM12 could be a new therapeutic target in osteosarcoma.

Xavier C, Vaneycken I, D'huyvetter M, et al.
Synthesis, preclinical validation, dosimetry, and toxicity of 68Ga-NOTA-anti-HER2 Nanobodies for iPET imaging of HER2 receptor expression in cancer.
J Nucl Med. 2013; 54(5):776-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Nanobodies are the smallest fully functional antigen-binding antibody fragments possessing ideal properties as probes for molecular imaging. In this study we labeled the anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) Nanobody with (68)Ga via a 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) derivative and assessed its use for HER2 iPET imaging.
METHODS: The 2Rs15dHis6 Nanobody and the lead optimized current-good-manufacturing-practice grade analog 2Rs15d were conjugated with S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) to enable fast and efficient (68)Ga labeling. Biodistribution and PET/CT studies were performed on HER2-positive and -negative tumor xenografts. The effect of injected mass on biodistribution was evaluated. The biodistribution data were extrapolated to calculate radiation dose estimates for the adult female using OLINDA software. A single-dose extended-toxicity study for NOTA-2Rs15d was performed on healthy mice up to a dose of 10 mg/kg.
RESULTS: Radiolabeling was quantitative (>97%) after 5 min of incubation at room temperature; specific activity was 55-200 MBq/nmol. Biodistribution studies showed fast and specific uptake (percentage injected activity [%IA]) in HER2-positive tumors (3.13 ± 0.06 and 4.34 ± 0.90 %IA/g for (68)Ga-NOTA-2Rs15dHis6 and (68)Ga-NOTA-2Rs15d, respectively, at 1 h after injection) and high tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios at 1 h after injection, resulting in high-contrast PET/CT images with high specific tumor uptake. A remarkable finding of the biodistribution studies was that kidney uptake was reduced by 60% for the Nanobody lacking the C-terminal His6 tag. The injected mass showed an effect on the general biodistribution: a 100-fold increase in NOTA-2Rs15d mass decreased liver uptake from 7.43 ± 1.89 to 2.90 ± 0.26 %IA/g whereas tumor uptake increased from 2.49 ± 0.68 to 4.23 ± 0.99 %IA/g. The calculated effective dose, based on extrapolation of mouse data, was 0.0218 mSv/MBq, which would yield a radiation dose of 4 mSv to a patient after injection of 185 MBq of (68)Ga-NOTA-2Rs15d. In the toxicity study, no adverse effects were observed after injection of a 10 mg/kg dose of NOTA-2Rs15d.
CONCLUSION: A new anti-HER2 PET tracer, (68)Ga-NOTA-2Rs15d, was synthesized via a rapid procedure under mild conditions. Preclinical validation showed high-specific-contrast imaging of HER2-positive tumors with no observed toxicity. (68)Ga-NOTA-2Rs15d is ready for first-in-human clinical trials.

Rabi T, Huwiler A, Zangemeister-Wittke U
AMR-Me inhibits PI3K/Akt signaling in hormone-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and inactivates NF-κB in hormone-independent MDA-MB-231 cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2014; 53(7):578-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
AMR-Me, a C-28 methylester derivative of triterpenoid compound Amooranin isolated from Amoora rohituka stem bark and the plant has been reported to possess multitude of medicinal properties. Our previous studies have shown that AMR-Me can induce apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptotic and MAPK signaling pathways by regulating the expression of apoptosis related genes in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. However, the molecular mechanism of AMR-Me induced apoptotic cell death remains unclear. Our results showed that AMR-Me dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells under serum-free conditions supplemented with 1 nM estrogen (E2) with an IC50 value of 0.15 µM, 0.45 µM, respectively. AMR-Me had minimal effects on human normal breast epithelial MCF-10A + ras and MCF-10A cells with IC50 value of 6 and 6.5 µM, respectively. AMR-Me downregulated PI3K p85, Akt1, and p-Akt in an ERα-independent manner in MCF-7 cells and no change in expression levels of PI3K p85 and Akt were observed in MDA-MB-231 cells treated under similar conditions. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 suppressed Akt activation similar to AMR-Me and potentiated AMR-Me induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. EMSA revealed that AMR-Me inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) DNA binding activity in MDA-MB-231 cells in a time-dependent manner and abrogated EGF induced NF-κB activation. From these studies we conclude that AMR-Me decreased ERα expression and effectively inhibited Akt phosphorylation in MCF-7 cells and inactivate constitutive nuclear NF-κB and its regulated proteins in MDA-MB-231 cells. Due to this multifactorial effect in hormone-dependent and independent breast cancer cells AMR-Me deserves attention for use in breast cancer prevention and therapy.

Bhattacharyya S, Kurdziel K, Wei L, et al.
Zirconium-89 labeled panitumumab: a potential immuno-PET probe for HER1-expressing carcinomas.
Nucl Med Biol. 2013; 40(4):451-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Anti-HER1 monoclonal antibody (mAb), panitumumab (Vectibix) is a fully human mAb approved by the FDA for the treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, HER1)-expressing colorectal cancers. By combining the targeted specificity of panitumumab with the quantitative in vivo imaging capabilities of PET, we evaluated the potential of (89)Zr-DFO-panitumumab PET/CT imaging and performed non-invasive, in vivo imaging of HER1 expression and estimated human dosimetry.
METHODS: Panitumumab was radiolabeled with (89)Zr using a derivative of desferrioxamine (DFO-Bz-NCS) and with (111)In using CHX-A" DTPA as bifunctional chelators. Comparative biodistribution/dosimetry of both radiotracers was performed in non-tumor bearing athymic nude mice (n=2 females and n=2 males) over 1-week following i.v. injection of either using (89)Zr-DFO-panitumumab or (111)In-CHX-A"-DTPA-panitumumab. Micro-PET/CT imaging of female athymic nude mice bearing human breast cancer tumors (n=5 per tumor group) with variable HER1-expression very low (BT-474), moderate (MDA-MB-231), and very high (MDA-MB-468) was performed at over 1 week following i.v. injection of (89)Zr-DFO-panitumumab.
RESULTS: Radiochemical yield and purity of (89)Zr-Panitumumab was >70% and >98% respectively with specific activity 150 ± 10 MBq/mg of panitumumab in a ~4 hr synthesis time. Biodistribution of (111)In-CHX-A" DTPA -panitumumab and (89)Zr-DFO-panitumumab in athymic non-tumor bearing nude mice displayed similar percent injected dose per gram of tissue with prominent accumulation of both tracers in the lymph nodes, a known clearance mechanism of panitumumab. Also exhibited was prolonged blood pool with no evidence of targeted accumulation in any organ. Human radiation dose estimates showed similar biodistributions with estimated human effective doses of 0.578 and 0.183 mSv/MBq for (89)Zr-DFO-panitumumab and (111)In-CHX-A"-DTPA-panitumumab, respectively. Given the potential quantitative and image quality advantages of PET, imaging of tumor bearing mice was only performed using (89)Zr-DFO-panitumumab. Immuno-PET imaging of (89)Zr-DFO-panitumumab in mice bearing breast cancer xenograft tumors with variable HER1 expression showed high tumor uptake (SUV >7) in the MDA-MB-468 high HER1-expressing mice and a strong correlation between HER1-expression level and tumor uptake (R(2)= 0.857, P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS: (89)Zr-DFO-panitumumab can prepared with high radiochemical purity and specific activity. (89)Zr-DFO-panitumumab microPET/CT showed uptake corresponding to HER-1 expression. Due to poor clearance, initial dosimetry estimates suggest that only a low dose (89)Zr-DFO-panitumumab shows favorable human dosimetry; however due to high tumor uptake, the use of (89)Zr-DFO-panitumumab is expected to be clinically feasible.

Shen H, Rodriguez-Aguayo C, Xu R, et al.
Enhancing chemotherapy response with sustained EphA2 silencing using multistage vector delivery.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(7):1806-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: RNA interference has the potential to specifically knockdown the expression of target genes and thereby transform cancer therapy. However, lack of effective delivery of siRNA has dramatically limited its in vivo applications. We have developed a multistage vector (MSV) system, composed of discoidal porous silicon particles loaded with nanotherapeutics, that directs effective delivery and sustained release of siRNA in tumor tissues. In this study, we evaluated therapeutic efficacy of MSV-loaded EphA2 siRNA (MSV/EphA2) with murine orthotopic models of metastatic ovarian cancers as a first step toward development of a new class of nanotherapeutics for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor accumulation of MSV/EphA2 and sustained release of siRNA from MSV were analyzed after intravenous administration of MSV/siRNA. Nude mice with metastatic SKOV3ip2 tumors were treated with MSV/EphA2 and paclitaxel, and therapeutic efficacy was assessed. Mice with chemotherapy-resistant HeyA8 ovarian tumors were treated with a combination of MSV/EphA2 and docetaxel, and enhanced therapeutic efficacy was evaluated.
RESULTS: Treatment of SKOV3ip2 tumor mice with MSV/EphA2 biweekly for 6 weeks resulted in dose-dependent (5, 10, and 15 μg/mice) reduction of tumor weight (36%, 64%, and 83%) and number of tumor nodules compared with the control groups. In addition, tumor growth was completely inhibited when mice were treated with MSV/EphA2 in combination with paclitaxel. Furthermore, combination treatment with MSV/EphA2 and docetaxel inhibited growth of HeyA8-MDR tumors, which were otherwise resistant to docetaxel treatment.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that MSV/EphA2 merits further development as a novel therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer.

Abhinav K, Aquilina K, Gbejuade H, et al.
A pilot study of glioblastoma multiforme in elderly patients: treatments, O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status and survival.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013; 115(8):1375-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Elderly Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients have a worse prognosis and receive variable treatments. MGMT gene promoter methylation is linked with improved survival in GBM. We examined treatments administered and survival including in relation to MGMT methylation status in elderly GBM patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients ≥65 years with diagnosed GBM between 1/01/2007 and 30/04/2009 and undergoing either a biopsy, subtotal (STR) or gross total resection (GTR) were included. The collected information included MGMT status [methylated (ME) vs. unmethylated (UN)] and survival data. p<0.05 was considered significant.
RESULTS: 59 patients were identified with median age at diagnosis being 72.68 years (65.72-85.04). Treatment included surgery (25 GTR, 8 STR, 26 biopsy), chemoradiation (22) and radiotherapy alone (20). Overall median overall survival (MOS) was 219 days. MOS with chemoradiation was 316 days vs. 143 days without it (p=0.011). 47 patients had definite MGMT status (28 ME, 19 UN). In ME patients, 9/28 received temozolamide compared to 10/19 in UN category. Temozolamide administration in patients with definite MGMT status was based on WHO performance status (p=0.007). MOS in UN group was 308 days vs. 167 days in ME group (p=0.068). In a multivariate Cox model including use of temozolamide, WHO score and methylation status, only temozolamide use was significantly associated with a reduced risk for death (HR 0.443, 95% CI 0.200-0.982, p=0.045).
CONCLUSIONS: In this small cohort of patients, chemoradiation in suitable elderly GBM patients seemed to afford a survival benefit. MGMT methylation was not associated with an improved survival with temozolamide being the only factor leading to a better survival. Temozolamide use should be considered irrespective of MGMT status in this population with future large prospective studies needed to elucidate this further.

Gao Y, Zhu J, Zhang X, et al.
BRCA1 mRNA expression as a predictive and prognostic marker in advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma treated with cisplatin- or docetaxel-based chemotherapy/chemoradiotherapy.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e52589 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The molecular backgrounds that determine therapeutic effectiveness in esophageal cancer remain largely unknown. Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) expression has been found to switch the response to cisplatin- or paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. It remains unclear how variations in BRCA1 expression influence clinical outcomes in esophageal cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to examine BRCA1 mRNA expressions in paraffin-embedded specimens from 144 patients with advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who received cisplatin- or docetaxel-based first-line treatments.
RESULTS: Low BRCA1 mRNA expression correlated with increased response rate (RR; P = 0.025 and 0.017, respectively) and median overall survival (mOS; P = 0.002 and P<0.001, respectively) in cisplatin-based chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy group and also correlated with decreased RR (P = 0.017 and 0.024, respectively) and mOS (both P<0.001) in docetaxel-based chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy group. Multivariate analysis revealed that low BRCA1 expression was an independent prognostic factor in cisplatin-based chemotherapy (HR 0.29; 95%CI 0.12-0.71; P = 0.007) or chemoradiotherapy (HR 0.12; 95%CI 0.04-0.37; P<0.001) group and higher risk for mortality in docetaxel-based chemotherapy (HR 5.02; 95%CI 2.05-12.28; P<0.001) or chemoradiotherapy (HR 7.02; 95%CI 2.37-27.77; P<0.001) group.
CONCLUSIONS: BRCA1 mRNA expression could be used as a predictive and prognostic marker in esophageal cancer who underwent first-line cisplatin- or docetaxel-based treatments.

Xu R, Huang Y, Mai J, et al.
Multistage vectored siRNA targeting ataxia-telangiectasia mutated for breast cancer therapy.
Small. 2013; 9(9-10):1799-808 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein plays a central role in DNA damage response and cell cycle checkpoints, and may be a promising target for cancer therapy if normal tissue toxicity could be avoided. The strategy presented here to target ATM for breast cancer therapy involves the use of liposomal-encapsulated, gene-specific ATM siRNA delivered with a well-characterized porous silicon-based multistage vector (MSV) delivery system (MSV/ATM). Biweekly treatment of MSV/ATM suppressed ATM expression in tumor tissues, and consequently inhibited growth of MDA-MB-231 orthotopic tumor in nude mice. At the therapeutic dosage, neither free liposomal ATM siRNA nor MSV/ATM triggered an acute immune response in BALB/c mice, including changes in serum cytokines, chemokines or colony-stimulating factors. Weekly treatments of mice with free liposomal ATM siRNA or MSV/ATM for 4 weeks did not cause significant changes in body weight, hematology, blood biochemistry, or major organ histology. These results indicate that MSV/ATM is biocompatible and efficacious in inhibiting tumor growth, and that further preclinical evaluation is warranted for the development of MSV/ATM as a potential therapeutic agent.

Kanamori M, Sano A, Yasuda T, et al.
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization for genomic-wide screening of DNA copy number alterations in aggressive bone tumors.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 31:100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The genetic pathways of aggressive changes of bone tumors are still poorly understood. It is very important to analyze DNA copy number alterations (DCNAs), to identify the molecular events in the step of progression to the aggressive change of bone tissue.
METHODS: Genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) was used to investigate DCNAs of 14 samples from 13 aggressive bone tumors, such as giant cell tumors (GCTs) and osteosarcoma (OS), etc.
RESULTS: Primary aggressive bone tumors had copy number gains of 17.8±12.7% in the genome, and losses of 17.3±11.4% in 287 target clones (threshold for each DCNA: ≦085, 1.15≦). Genetic unstable cases, which were defined by the total DCNAs aberration ≧30%, were identified in 9 of 13 patients (3 of 7 GCTs and all malignant tumors). High-level amplification of TGFβ2, CCND3, WI-6509, SHGC-5557, TCL1A, CREBBP, HIC1, THRA, AFM217YD10, LAMA3, RUNX1 and D22S543, were commonly observed in aggressive bone tumors. On the other hand, NRAS, D2S447, RAF1, ROBO1, MYB, MOS, FGFR2, HRAS, D13S319, D13S327, D18S552, YES1 and DCC, were commonly low. We compared genetic instability between a primary OS and its metastatic site in Case #13. Metastatic lesion showed increased 9 DCNAs of remarkable change (m/p ratio ≧1.3 folds), compared to a primary lesion. D1S214, D1S1635, EXT1, AFM137XA11, 8 M16/SP6, CCND2, IGH, 282 M15/SP6, HIC1 and LAMA3, were overexpressed. We gave attention to HIC1 (17p13.3), which was common high amplification in this series.
CONCLUSION: Our results may provide several entry points for the identification of candidate genes associated with aggressive change of bone tumors. Especially, the locus 17p11-13 including HIC1 close to p53 was common high amplification in this series and review of the literature.

Taudien S, Gäbel G, Kuss O, et al.
Association studies of the copy-number variable ß-defensin cluster on 8p23.1 in adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis.
BMC Res Notes. 2012; 5:629 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human ß-defensins are a family of antimicrobial peptides located at the mucosal surface. Both sequence multi-site variations (MSV) and copy-number variants (CNV) of the defensin-encoding genes are associated with increased risk for various diseases, including cancer and inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis and acute pancreatitis. In a case-control study, we investigated the association between MSV in DEFB104 as well as defensin gene (DEF) cluster copy number (CN), and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and chronic pancreatitis (CP).
RESULTS: Two groups of PDAC (N=70) and CP (N=60) patients were compared to matched healthy control groups CARLA1 (N=232) and CARLA2 (N=160), respectively. Four DEFB104 MSV were haplotyped by PCR, cloning and sequencing. DEF cluster CN was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.Neither the PDAC nor the CP cohorts show significant differences in the DEFB104 haplotype distribution compared to the respective control groups CARLA1 and CARLA2, respectively.The diploid DEF cluster CN exhibit a significantly different distribution between PDAC and CARLA1 (Fisher's exact test P=0.027), but not between CP and CARLA2 (P=0.867).
CONCLUSION: Different DEF cluster b CN distribution between PDAC patients and healthy controls indicate a potential protective effect of higher CNs against the disease.

Jee KJ, Persson M, Heikinheimo K, et al.
Genomic profiles and CRTC1-MAML2 fusion distinguish different subtypes of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
Mod Pathol. 2013; 26(2):213-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common salivary gland malignancy, and includes a spectrum of lesions ranging from non-aggressive low-grade tumors to aggressive high-grade tumors. To further characterize this heterogeneous group of tumors we have performed a comprehensive analysis of copy number alterations and CRTC1-MAML2 fusion status in a series of 28 mucoepidermoid carcinomas. The CRTC1-MAML2 fusion was detected by RT-PCR or fluorescence in situ hybridization in 18 of 28 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (64%). All 15 low-grade tumors were fusion-positive whereas only 3 of 13 high-grade tumors were fusion-positive. High-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed that fusion-positive tumors had significantly fewer copy number alterations/tumor compared with fusion-negative tumors (1.5 vs 9.5; P=0.002). Twelve of 18 fusion-positive tumors had normal genomic profiles whereas only 1 out of 10 fusion-negative tumors lacked copy number alterations. The profiles of fusion-positive and fusion-negative tumors were very similar to those of low- and high-grade tumors. Thus, low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas had significantly fewer copy number alterations/tumor compared with high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (0.7 vs 8.6; P<0.0001). The most frequent copy number alterations detected were losses of 18q12.2-qter (including the tumor suppressor genes DCC, SMAD4, and GALR1), 9p21.3 (including the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A/B), 6q22.1-q23.1, and 8pter-p12.1, and gains of 8q24.3 (including the oncogene MAFA), 11q12.3-q13.2, 3q26.1-q28, 19p13.2-p13.11, and 8q11.1-q12.2 (including the oncogenes LYN, MOS, and PLAG1). On the basis of these results we propose that mucoepidermoid carcinoma may be subdivided in (i) low-grade, fusion-positive mucoepidermoid carcinomas with no or few genomic imbalances and favorable prognosis, (ii) high-grade, fusion-positive mucoepidermoid carcinomas with multiple genomic imbalances and unfavorable prognosis, and (iii) a heterogeneous group of high-grade, fusion-negative adenocarcinomas with multiple genomic imbalances and unfavorable outcome. Taken together, our studies indicate that molecular genetic analysis can be a useful adjunct to histologic scoring of mucoepidermoid carcinoma and may lead to development of new clinical guidelines for management of these patients.

Pfeifer A, Knigge U, Mortensen J, et al.
Clinical PET of neuroendocrine tumors using 64Cu-DOTATATE: first-in-humans study.
J Nucl Med. 2012; 53(8):1207-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The use of positron emitter-labeled compounds for somatostatin receptor imaging (SRI) has become attractive because of the prospect of improved spatial resolution, accelerated imaging procedures, and the ability to quantify tissue radioactivity concentrations. This paper provides results from first-in-humans use of (64)Cu-DOTATATE, an avidly binding somatostatin receptor ligand linked to a radioisotope with intermediate half-life and favorable positron energy (half-life, 12.7 h; maximum positron energy, 0.653 MeV).
METHODS: In a prospective setup, 14 patients with a history of neuroendocrine tumors underwent both PET/CT with (64)Cu-DOTATATE and SPECT/CT with our current routine imaging agent (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-octreotide. After intravenous injection of 193-232 MBq of (64)Cu-DOTATATE, whole-body PET scans were acquired at 1 h (n = 14), 3 h (n = 12), and 24 h (n = 5) after administration. Tissue radioactivity concentrations for normal organs and lesions were quantified, and standardized uptake values were calculated for the early (1 h) and delayed (3 h) scans. Using the data for 5 patients, we assessed the radiation dose with OLINDA/EXM software. Furthermore, the clinical performance of (64)Cu-DOTATATE with respect to lesion detection was compared with conventional SRI.
RESULTS: SRI with (64)Cu-DOTATATE produced images of excellent quality and high spatial resolution. Images were characterized by high and stable tumor-to-background ratios over an imaging time window of at least 3 h. Compared with conventional scintigraphy, (64)Cu-DOTATATE PET identified additional lesions in 6 of 14 patients (43%). In 5 patients, lesions were localized in organs and organ systems not previously known as metastatic sites, including the early-stage detection of a secondary neuroendocrine tumor in a patient with a known mutation in the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I gene. All major additional findings seen only on PET could be confirmed on the basis of a clinical follow-up interval of 18 mo. Calculated radiation dose estimates yielded an effective dose of 6.3 mSv for an injected activity of 200 MBq of (64)Cu-DOTATATE, with the liver being the organ with the highest absorbed radiation dose (0.16 mGy/MBq).
CONCLUSION: This first-in-humans study supports the clinical use of (64)Cu-DOTATATE for SRI with excellent imaging quality, reduced radiation burden, and increased lesion detection rate when compared with (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-octreotide.

Suzuki K, Yamashita S
Low-dose radiation exposure and carcinogenesis.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2012; 42(7):563-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Absorption of energy from ionizing radiation by the genetic material in the cell leads to damage to DNA, which in turn leads to cell death, chromosome aberrations and gene mutations. While early or deterministic effects result from organ and tissue damage caused by cell killing, latter two are considered to be involved in the initial events that lead to the development of cancer. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the dose-response relationships for cancer induction and quantitative evaluations of cancer risk following exposure to moderate to high doses of low-linear energy transfer radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been applied to assessment of the risks resulting from exposure to moderate and high doses of ionizing radiation; however, a statistically significant increase has hardly been described for radiation doses below 100 mSv. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the physical and biological features of low-dose radiation and discusses the possibilities of induction of cancer by low-dose radiation.

Papadaki C, Sfakianaki M, Ioannidis G, et al.
ERCC1 and BRAC1 mRNA expression levels in the primary tumor could predict the effectiveness of the second-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy in pretreated patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol. 2012; 7(4):663-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The potential predictive role of BRCA1 and ERCC1 expression levels in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving second-line platinum-based chemotherapy was investigated.
METHODS: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction after reverse transcription was used to assess the expression levels of BRCA1 and ERCC1 in 100 microdissected primary tumors from platinum-naive NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy in the second-line setting.
RESULTS: Low ERCC1 mRNA levels were significantly associated with higher response rate (p = 0.011), longer median progression-free survival (PFS; p = 0.029), and median overall survival (mOS; p = 0.001) after the initiation of the second-line treatment. Similarly, low BRCA1 expression level was significantly correlated with higher response rate (p = 0.022), longer PFS (p = 0.041), and mOS (p = 0.005). In addition, patients with low ERCC1 and BRCA1 mRNA experienced increased median PFS (p = 0.021) and mOS (p < 0.001) in comparison with those who had both genes upregulated. A multivariate analysis revealed that low ERCC1 and low BRCA1 expression levels were significantly associated with increased PFS (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4-0.8; p = 0.029 and HR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9; p = 0.043, respectively) and OS (HR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.7; p = 0.003 and HR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9; p = 0.038, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the ERCC1 and BRCA1 mRNA expression levels in the primary tumor at the time of diagnosis could be used for the prediction of platinum sensitivity in the treatment of NSCLC in the second-line setting. Cross-validation studies are warranted.

Shin CM, Kim N, Park JH, et al.
Prediction of the risk for gastric cancer using candidate methylation markers in the non-neoplastic gastric mucosae.
J Pathol. 2012; 226(4):654-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant DNA methylation is frequently found during gastric carcinogenesis. Recently, we identified potential methylation markers important for Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis using an Illumina methylation chip assay. In this study, we evaluated the candidate genes as markers for gastric cancer (GC) in a large Korean population. DNA methylation of PTPN6, MOS, DCC, CRK, and VAV1 was evaluated in non-neoplastic gastric specimens using quantitative methylation-specific PCR in patients with GC (n = 207) and their age- and gender-matched controls (n = 207). Methylation levels in 125 GC samples were also compared. H. pylori infection status was categorized as negative, active, or past infection according to the results of endoscopy-based tests (CLOtest, histology, and culture), H. pylori serology, and serum pepsinogen test. In the controls, active H. pylori infection increased methylation levels in DCC, CRK, MOS, and VAV1 but decreased methylation levels in PTPN6 (all p < 0.05); the methylation levels in MOS remained increased in patients with past H. pylori infection compared to H. pylori-negative subjects (p < 0.001). Methylation levels in MOS in non-neoplastic gastric mucosae increased in the presence of GC, regardless of H. pylori infection status (p < 0.01). Methylation levels in all genes but DCC decreased significantly in GC specimens compared to neoplastic gastric mucosae (p < 0.01); however, methylation levels in GC tissues were not correlated with those in their background gastric mucosae. Hypomethylation of MOS in GC tissues was associated with tumour invasion, nodal metastasis, and undifferentiated histology (p < 0.05). To summarize, among the candidate genes, DNA methylation of MOS may reflect the duration of H. pylori exposure and may be a marker for the development of GC.

Haferlach C, Kern W, Schindela S, et al.
Gene expression of BAALC, CDKN1B, ERG, and MN1 adds independent prognostic information to cytogenetics and molecular mutations in adult acute myeloid leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012; 51(3):257-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression of BAALC, ERG, and MN1 is associated with outcome in normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, the expression of these markers and of EVI1 and CDKN1B was determined using oligonucleotide microarrays in 286 AML comprising all cytogenetic groups. Higher expression of each gene was associated with an inferior outcome: CDKN1B, median overall survival (mOS): 14.9 months vs. not reached (nr), P = 0.005, median event-free survival (mEFS): 9.7 vs. 31.0 months, P = 0.013; BAALC, no impact on OS, mEFS: 6.2 vs. 13.0 months, P = 0.03; ERG: mOS: 12.5 months vs. nr, P = 0.002, mEFS: 8.1 vs. 15.7 months, P = 0.001; MN1: mOS: 12.3 months vs. nr, P = 0.004, mEFS: 8.1 vs. 16.7 months, P = 0.001. A multivariate analysis revealed an independent impact on OS for CDKN1B, ERG, and MN1 expression. A novel score based on BAALC, CDKN1B, ERG, and MN1 expression had an impact on OS and EFS independent of cytogenetics and age. A score taking into account gene expression and karyotype allowed the separation of four prognostic groups with significant differences in OS and EFS (OS at 2 years: 90.4%, 56.4%, 34.0%, 12.6%; mEFS: n.r., 18.1 months, 8.7 months, 2.5 months). The impact on outcome of this score was independent of NPM1mut/FLT3-ITD- status, MLL-PTD, and age.

Inno A, Di Salvatore M, Cenci T, et al.
Is there a role for IGF1R and c-MET pathways in resistance to cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer?
Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2011; 10(4):325-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The KRAS mutation is not responsible for all cases of resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), and new predictive and prognostic factors are actively being sought.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of a cetuximab-containing treatment in 73 patients with mCRC according to KRAS and BRAF mutational status as well as PTEN, c-MET, and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) expression.
RESULTS: Overall response rate (ORR), median progression-free survival (mPFS), and median overall survival (mOS) were significantly lower in patients with KRAS mutation than in patients with KRAS wild-type; among the population with KRAS wild-type, only 2 patients with BRAF mutations were found and neither of them achieved a response. No significant association was found between PTEN and clinical outcome. Compared with low/normal expression, c-MET overexpression significantly correlated with shorter mPFS and mOS: 3 vs. 5 months (P = .018) and 11 vs. 10 months (P = .037), respectively. In patients with high IGF1R expression, mOS was significantly longer than in those with low/normal expression (14 vs. 8 months; P = .015).
CONCLUSION: KRAS mutation significantly correlates with a worse outcome in patients treated with cetuximab, whereas no definitive inference can be drawn about the role of BRAF mutation and PTEN loss of expression. Instead, c-MET overexpression might represent a negative prognostic factor in mCRC and may have a role in resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. Interestingly, IGF1R overexpression seems a favorable prognostic factor in mCRC.

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