Gene Summary

Gene:MOS; MOS proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase
Aliases: MSV
Summary:MOS is a serine/threonine kinase that activates the MAP kinase cascade through direct phosphorylation of the MAP kinase activator MEK (MAP2K1; MIM 176872) (Prasad et al., 2008 [PubMed 18246541]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase mos
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
MOS is implicated in:
- ATP binding
- protein serine/threonine kinase activity
- regulation of meiosis
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Salivary Gland Cancer
  • Base Sequence
  • Breast Cancer
  • Genes, mos
  • Cell Line
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Cancer DNA
  • Cell Surface Receptors
  • Gene Amplification
  • Mutation
  • Adolescents
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Wilms Tumour
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Oncogenes
  • Chromosome 8
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Trisomy
  • DNA
  • myc Genes
  • Karyotyping
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Retroviridae
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Gene Expression
  • Tongue Neoplasms
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Transfection
  • Cell Differentiation
  • RAS Genes
  • Signal Transduction
  • ErbB Receptors
  • Lung Cancer
  • Antineoplastic Agents
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MOS (cancer-related)

Su J, Lai J, Yang R, et al.
Capecitabine plus bevacizumab versus capecitabine in maintenance treatment for untreated characterised KRAS exon 2 wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective analysis in Chinese postmenopausal women.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2019; 19(1):17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Capecitabine plus bevacizumab (CAP-B) maintenance treatment after 6 cycles of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab (CAPOXB) has demonstrated clinical activity and failure to compromise quality of life in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (MCC) in a previous phase 3 CAIRO3 study. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CAP-B versus CAP in maintenance treatment after 6-cycle CAPOXB induction therapy in Chinese postmenopausal women with untreated characterised KRAS exon 2 wild-type MCC.
METHODS: During 2012-2016, prospectively maintained databases were reviewed to evaluate cohorts with untreated characterised KRAS exon 2 wild-type MCC and stable disease or better after 6-cycle CAPOXB induction treatment. After induction treatment, all patients received either CAP-B or capecitabine (CAP) as maintenance treatment. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were the primary endpoints. Safety was the secondary endpoint.
RESULTS: A total of 263 women with untreated characterised KRAS exon 2 wild-type MCC and stable disease or better after 6-cycle CAPOXB induction treatment were included for the evaluation of efficacy and safety (CAP-B-treated cohort, n = 130 and CAP-treated cohort, n = 133). The mPFS was 11.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-17.4) and 9.2 months (95% CI, 3.6-14.8) for the CAP-B-treated and CAP-treated cohorts, respectively (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32~0.85; P = 0.013). The mOS was 16.2 months (95% CI, 11.4-18.7) and 12.4 months (95% CI, 10.6-15.5) for the CAP-B- and CAP-treated cohorts, respectively (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.51~0.94; P = 0.022). The CAP-B-treated cohort experienced significantly more grade 3 or 4 diarrhoea (P < 0.001) than the CAP-treated cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: CAP-B maintenance treatment after 6-cycle CAPOX-B in Chinese postmenopausal women with untreated KRAS exon 2 wild-type MCC is poorer tolerated but has a more modest, if any, benefit compared with that of CAP maintenance treatment.

Wang Y, Li L, Han R, et al.
Clinical analysis by next-generation sequencing for NSCLC patients with MET amplification resistant to osimertinib.
Lung Cancer. 2018; 118:105-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of osimertinib was compromised by the development of resistance mechanisms, such as MET amplification. However, cohort studies of osimertinib resistance mechanism, and the correlation of MET and progression-free survival (PFS) after osimertinib resistance have been poorly investigated.
OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to study the acquired MET amplification after osimertinib resistance in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients, and interrogate the correlation of clinical prognosis and MET amplification.
METHODS: We performed capture-based sequencing on longitudinal plasma and tissue samples obtained before osimertinib treatment and after resistance development from lung adenocarcinoma patients to investigate the underlying resistance mechanism. We also investigated the correlation of MET amplification and patient prognosis after osimertinib resistance using Kaplan-Meier analysis.
RESULTS: Paired biopsies before osimertinib treatment and after the resistance development revealed underlying resistance mechanisms. In addition, a cohort of 13 patients who developed disease progression after osimertinib resistance was investigated. Patients with MET amplification after osimertinib resistance commonly had inferior median progression-free survival (mPFS) than patients without MET amplification appearance or increase (3.5 months vs. 9.9 months, p = .117). Patients in MET amplification group also displayed poor median overall survival (mOS) compared to MET amplification negative group (15.6 months vs. 30.7 months, p = .885). Furthermore, combinatorial treatment of first/third-generation EGFR-TKI and crizotinib was efficaciously administrated into two patients with newly acquired MET amplification after osimertinib resistance. Partial responses were achieved by them, both clinically and radiographically.
CONCLUSIONS: We investigated the osimertinib resistance mechanism in a small cohort of lung adenocarcinoma patients, and demonstrated MET amplification was correlated with inferior PFS/OS after osimertinib treatment. Moreover, we reported the first clinical evidence of efficacy generated by combination of first-generation EGFR-TKI icotinib and crizotinib after the resistance to osimertinib.

Donnelly DJ, Smith RA, Morin P, et al.
Synthesis and Biologic Evaluation of a Novel
J Nucl Med. 2018; 59(3):529-535 [PubMed] Related Publications
The programmed death protein (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) play critical roles in a checkpoint pathway cancer cells exploit to evade the immune system. A same-day PET imaging agent for measuring PD-L1 status in primary and metastatic lesions could be important for optimizing drug therapy. Herein, we have evaluated the tumor targeting of an anti-PD-L1 adnectin after

Karageorgopoulou S, Kostakis ID, Gazouli M, et al.
Prognostic and predictive factors in patients with metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):451 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recognizing resistance or susceptibility to the current standard cisplatin and paclitaxel treatment could improve therapeutic outcomes of metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer.
METHODS: Forty-five tissue samples from patients participating in a phase II trial of cisplatin and ifosfamide, with or without paclitaxel were collected for retrograde analysis. Immunohistochemistry and genotyping was performed to test ERCC1, III β-tubulin, COX-2, CD4, CD8 and ERCC1 (C8092A and N118 N) and MDR1 (C3435T and G2677 T) gene polymorphisms, as possible predictive and prognostic markers. Results were statistically analyzed and correlated with patient characteristics and outcomes.
RESULTS: Patients with higher levels of ERCC1 expression had shorter PFS and OS than patients with low ERCC1 expression (mPFS:5.1 vs 10.2 months, p = 0.027; mOS:10.5 vs. 21.4 months, p = 0.006). Patients with TT in the site of ERCC1 N118 N and GT in the site of MDR1 G2677 T polymorphisms had significantly longer PFS (p = 0.006 and p = 0.027 respectively). ERCC1 expression and the ERCC1 N118 N polymorphism remained independent predictors of PFS. Interestingly, high III beta tubulin expression was associated with chemotherapy resistance and fewer responses [5/20 (25%)] compared to lower III β-tubulin expression [15/23 (65.2%)] (p = 0.008). Finally, ΙΙΙ β-tubulin levels and chemotherapy regimen were independent predictors of response to treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: ERCC1 expression proved to be a significant prognostic factor for survival in our metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer population treated with cisplatin based chemotherapy. ERCC1 N118 N and MDR1 G2677 T polymorphism also proved of prognostic significance for disease progression, while overexpression of III β-tubulin was positively correlated with chemotherapy resistance.

Clarke MA, Luhn P, Gage JC, et al.
Discovery and validation of candidate host DNA methylation markers for detection of cervical precancer and cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 141(4):701-710 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been recently introduced as an alternative to cytology for cervical cancer screening. However, since most HPV infections clear without causing clinically relevant lesions, additional triage tests are required to identify women who are at high risk of developing cancer. We performed DNA methylation profiling on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from women with benign HPV16 infection and histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3, and cancer using a bead-based microarray covering 1,500 CpG sites in over 800 genes. Methylation levels in individual CpG sites were compared using a t-test, and results were summarized by computing p-values. A total of 12 candidate genes (ADCYAP1, ASCL1, ATP10, CADM1, DCC, DBC1, HS3ST2, MOS, MYOD1, SOX1, SOX17 and TMEFF2) identified by DNA methylation profiling, plus an additional three genes identified from the literature (EPB41L3, MAL and miR-124) were chosen for validation in an independent set of 167 liquid-based cytology specimens using pyrosequencing and targeted, next-generation bisulfite sequencing. Of the 15 candidate gene markers, 10 had an area under the curve (AUC) of ≥ 0.75 for discrimination of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL+) from

O'Doherty J, Jauregui-Osoro M, Brothwood T, et al.
J Nucl Med. 2017; 58(10):1666-1671 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We report the safety, biodistribution, and internal radiation dosimetry, in humans with thyroid cancer, of

Apsalikov B, Manambaeva Z, Ospanov E, et al.
BRCA1 and TP53 Gene-Mutations: Family Predisposition and Radioecological Risk of Developing Breast Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(8):4059-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Frequencies of polymorphisms of genes BRCA1 and TP53 in breast cancer (BC) patients with a BC family history and radiation history were assessed and compared in the Semey region of Kazakhstan. The study included 60 women directly irradiated by the activities of the Semipalatinsk test site with a calculated effective equivalent dose of 500 mSv and their first generation descendants (group BC+Her+Exp); 65 women with family BC and absence of radiological history - the effective equivalent dose due to anthropogenic sources not exceeding 50 mSv (group BC+Her-Exp). The comparison group consisted of 65 women patients with breast cancer without family and radiological history (BC-Her-Exp). The control group comprised 60 women without breast cancer and without family and radiological history (nonBC). We carried out the genotyping of the polymorphisms c.2311T>C, c.4308T>C and 5382insC of the BRCA1 gene and rs1042522 of the TP53 gene. The frequency of the polymorphism c.2311T>C was significantly higher in patients of the group BC+Her+Exp than in healthy women, and of the polymorphism 5382insC in BC+Her+Exp compared to all other groups. The frequency of the rs1042522 polymorphism of TP53 was significantly higher in all groups of patients with breast cancer compared with the control group. Differences between groups of women with breast cancer were significant only in BC+Her+Exp vs. BC+Her-Exp. Combinations of polymorphisms of the genes BRCA1 and TP53 predominated in women with a family and radiological history.

Nguyen HN, Lie A, Li T, et al.
Human TERT promoter mutation enables survival advantage from MGMT promoter methylation in IDH1 wild-type primary glioblastoma treated by standard chemoradiotherapy.
Neuro Oncol. 2017; 19(3):394-404 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Promoter mutation in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (hTERT) occurs in ~75% of primary glioblastoma (GBM). Although the mutation appears to upregulate telomerase expression and contributes to the maintenance of telomere length, its clinical significance remains unclear.
Methods: We performed hTERT promoter genotyping on 303 isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 wild-type GBM tumors treated with standard chemoradiotherapy. We also stratified 190 GBM patients from the database of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) by hTERT gene expression. We analyzed overall and progression-free survival by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression.
Results: We detected hTERT promoter mutation in 75% of the patients. When included as the only biomarker, hTERT mutation was not prognostic in our patient cohort by Cox regression analysis. However, when hTERT and O6-DNA methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) were included together, we observed an interaction between these 2 factors. To further investigate this interaction, we performed pairwise comparison of the 4 patient subcohorts grouped by hTERT-MGMT status (MUT-M, WT-M, MUT-U, and WT-U). MGMT methylated patients showed improved survival only in the presence of hTERT promoter mutation: MUT-M versus MUT-U (overall survival of 28.3 vs 15.9 mos, log-rank P < .0001 and progression-free survival of 15.4 vs 7.86 mo, log-rank P < .0001). These results were confirmed by Cox analyses. Analogously, the cohort from TCGA demonstrated survival benefit of MGMT promoter methylation only in patients with high hTERT expression. In addition, hTERT mutation was negatively prognostic in our MGMT unmethylated patients, while the analogous association with high expression was not observed in the cohort from TCGA.
Conclusion: The prognostic influence of MGMT promoter methylation depends on hTERT promoter mutation. This interaction warrants further mechanistic investigation.

Grande R, Natoli C, Ciancola F, et al.
Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients ≥75 Years Old in Clinical Practice: A Multicenter Analysis.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0157751 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer patients have a median age of incidence >65years although they are largely under-represented in phase-III trials. This large population contains patients unfit for treatment, those suitable for monotherapy or for doublets and the impact of chemotherapy outside clinical trial is unclear. The aim of the study was to retrospectively analyse Overall Survival(OS) of elderly metastatic colorectal cancer(mCRC) patients treated with chemotherapy in daily practice.
METHODS: Kaplan-Meir method was used for OS, the log-rank or Tarone-Ware test for differences between subgroups, Cox's proportional hazard model to assess the impact of known prognostic factors and treatment.
RESULTS: 751 patients with mCRC observed between January 2000 and January 2013 were collected. Median age was 79 year(75-93); Male/Female 61/39%, ECOG-PS 0-1/2 85/15%; colon/rectum 74/26%; multiple metastatic sites 34%, only liver metastasis in 41% of patients. KRAS status was studied in 35% of patients: 44% of them showed gene mutation. 20.5% of patients did not received any kind of treatment including surgery. Comorbidities observed: cardiovascular 34%, diabetes 14%, hypertension 50%. Primary tumor was resected in 80.6%; surgery of liver metastasis was done in 19% of patients (2.3% of patients >80years). 78% of patients underwent chemotherapy. Median follow up was 12 months(range 1-124). Median OS was 17 months (CI 95%15-19);median OS in no-treated patients was 5 months (4-6); mOS of patients with at least one treatment was 20 months (18-22). In KRAS mutated group median OS was 19months (15-23) while in KRAS wild type patients median OS was 25 months (20-30). At multivariate analysis sex(Female), age(<80y), performance status(0-1), chemotherapy, Surgery of metastasis, Surgery of primary tumor and Site of metastasis(liver) were prognostic factors for OS.
CONCLUSION: The results of our study show that in clinical practice treatment has a positive impact on OS of elderly patients, confirmed at multivariate analysis, included patients with age >80 years old or with a poor performance status (respectively p<0.0001 and p<0.0001). KRAS analysis deserve further evaluation.

Sterman DH, Alley E, Stevenson JP, et al.
Pilot and Feasibility Trial Evaluating Immuno-Gene Therapy of Malignant Mesothelioma Using Intrapleural Delivery of Adenovirus-IFNα Combined with Chemotherapy.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(15):3791-800 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: "In situ vaccination" using immunogene therapy has the ability to induce polyclonal antitumor responses directed by the patient's immune system.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) received two intrapleural doses of a replication-defective adenoviral vector containing the human IFNα2b gene (Ad.IFN) concomitant with a 14-day course of celecoxib followed by chemotherapy. Primary outcomes were safety, toxicity, and objective response rate; secondary outcomes included progression-free and overall survival. Biocorrelates on blood and tumor were measured.
RESULTS: Forty subjects were treated: 18 received first-line pemetrexed-based chemotherapy, 22 received second-line chemotherapy with pemetrexed (n = 7) or gemcitabine (n = 15). Treatment was generally well tolerated. The overall response rate was 25%, and the disease control rate was 88%. Median overall survival (MOS) for all patients with epithelial histology was 21 months versus 7 months for patients with nonepithelial histology. MOS in the first-line cohort was 12.5 months, whereas MOS for the second-line cohort was 21.5 months, with 32% of patients alive at 2 years. No biologic parameters were found to correlate with response, including numbers of activated blood T cells or NK cells, regulatory T cells in blood, peak levels of IFNα in blood or pleural fluid, induction of antitumor antibodies, nor an immune-gene signature in pretreatment biopsies.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of intrapleural Ad.IFN, celecoxib, and chemotherapy proved safe in patients with MPM. OS rate was significantly higher than historical controls in the second-line group. Results of this study support proceeding with a multicenter randomized clinical trial of chemo-immunogene therapy versus standard chemotherapy alone. Clin Cancer Res; 22(15); 3791-800. ©2016 AACR.

Zizzari IG, Napoletano C, Battisti F, et al.
MGL Receptor and Immunity: When the Ligand Can Make the Difference.
J Immunol Res. 2015; 2015:450695 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) facilitate uptake of carbohydrate antigens for antigen presentation, modulating the immune response in infection, homeostasis, autoimmunity, allergy, and cancer. In this review, we focus on the role of the macrophage galactose type C-type lectin (MGL) in the immune response against self-antigens, pathogens, and tumor associated antigens (TAA). MGL is a CLR exclusively expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) and activated macrophages (MØs), able to recognize terminal GalNAc residues, including the sialylated and nonsialylated Tn antigens. We discuss the effects on DC function induced throughout the engagement of MGL, highlighting the importance of the antigen structure in the modulation of immune response. Indeed modifying Tn-density, the length, and steric structure of the Tn-antigens can result in generating immunogens that can efficiently bind to MGL, strongly activate DCs, mimic the effects of a danger signal, and achieve an efficient presentation in HLA classes I and II compartments.

Beuselinck B, Jean-Baptiste J, Couchy G, et al.
RANK/OPG ratio of expression in primary clear-cell renal cell carcinoma is associated with bone metastasis and prognosis in patients treated with anti-VEGFR-TKIs.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 113(9):1313-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bone metastases (BMs) are associated with poor outcome in metastatic clear-cell renal carcinoma (m-ccRCC) treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (anti-VEGFR-TKIs). We aimed to investigate whether expression in the primary tumour of genes involved in the development of BM is associated with outcome in m-ccRCC patients treated with anti-VEGFR-TKIs.
METHODS: Metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma patients with available fresh-frozen tumour and treated with anti-VEGFR-TKIs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) for receptor activator of NF-kB (RANK), RANK-ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), the proto-oncogene SRC and DKK1 (Dickkopf WNT signalling pathway inhibitor-1). Time-to-event analysis by Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox regression.
RESULTS: We included 129 m-ccRCC patients treated between 2005 and 2013. An elevated RANK/OPG ratio was associated with shorter median time to metastasis (HR 0.50 (95% CI 0.29-0.87); P=0.014), shorter time to BM (HR 0.54 (95% CI 0.31-0.97); P=0.037), shorter median overall survival (mOS) since initial diagnosis (HR 2.27 (95% CI 1.44-3.60); P=0.0001), shorter median progression-free survival (HR 0.44 (95% CI 0.28-0.71); P=0.001) and mOS (HR 0.31 (95% CI 0.19-0.52); P<0.0001) on first-line anti-VEGFR-TKIs in the metastatic setting. Higher RANK expression was associated with shorter mOS on first-line anti-VEGFR-TKIs (HR 0.46 (95% CI 0.29-0.73); P=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: RANK/OPG ratio of expression in primary ccRCC is associated with BM and prognosis in patients treated with anti-VEGFR-TKIs. Prospective validation is warranted.

Yang P, Zhang W, Wang Y, et al.
IDH mutation and MGMT promoter methylation in glioblastoma: results of a prospective registry.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(38):40896-906 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The relative contribution of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations (mIDH) and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation (methMGMT) as biomarkers in glioblastoma remain poorly understood.
METHODS: We investigated the association between methMGMT and mIDH with progression free survival and overall survival in a prospectively collected molecular registry of 274 glioblastoma patients.
RESULTS: For glioblastoma patients who underwent Temozolomide and Radiation Therapy, OS and PFS was most favorable for those with tumors harboring both mIDH and methMGMT (median OS: 35.8 mo, median PFS: 27.5 mo); patients afflicted glioblastomas with either mIDH or methMGMT exhibited intermediate OS and PFS (mOS: 36 and 17.1 mo; mPFS: 12.2 mo and 9.9 mo, respectively); poorest OS and PFS was observed in wild type IDH1 (wtIDH1) glioblastomas that were MGMT promoter unmethylated (mOS: 15 mo, mPFS: 9.7 mo). For patients with wtIDH glioblastomas, TMZ+RT was associated with improved OS and PFS relative to patients treated with RT (OS: 15.4 mo v 9.6 mo, p < 0.001; PFS: 9.9 mo v 6.5 mo, p < 0.001). While TMZ+RT and RT treated mIDH patients exhibited improved overall survival relative to those with wtIDH, there were no differences between the TMZ+RT or RT group. These results suggest that mIDH1 conferred resistance to TMZ. Supporting this hypothesis, exogenous expression of mIDH1 in independent astrocytoma/glioblastoma lines resulted in a 3-10 fold increase in TMZ resistance after long-term passage.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates IDH mutation and MGMT promoter methylation status independently associate with favorable outcome in TMZ+RT treated glioblastoma patients. However, these biomarkers differentially impact clinical TMZ response.

Zhang J, Li D, Lang L, et al.
68Ga-NOTA-Aca-BBN(7-14) PET/CT in Healthy Volunteers and Glioma Patients.
J Nucl Med. 2016; 57(1):9-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: This work was designed to study the safety, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry of a gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR)-targeting, (68)Ga-labeled bombesin (BBN) peptide derivative PET tracer, NOTA-Aca-BBN(7-14) (denoted as (68)Ga-BBN) in healthy volunteers and to assess the level of receptor expression in glioma patients.
METHODS: Four healthy volunteers (2 male and 2 female) underwent whole-body PET/CT at multiple time points after a bolus injection of (68)Ga-BBN (111 ± 148 MBq). Regions of interest were drawn manually over major organs, and time-activity curves were obtained. Dosimetry was calculated using the OLINDA/EXM software. Twelve patients with glioma diagnosed by contrast-enhanced MRI underwent PET/CT at 30-45 min after (68)Ga-BBN injection. Within 1 wk afterward, the tumor was surgically removed and immunohistochemical staining of tumor samples against GRPR was performed and correlated with the PET/CT results.
RESULTS: (68)Ga-BBN was well tolerated in all healthy volunteers, with no adverse symptoms being noticed or reported. (68)Ga-BBN cleared rapidly from the circulation and was excreted mainly through the kidneys and urinary tract. The total effective dose equivalent and effective dose were 0.0335 ± 0.0079 and 0.0276 ± 0.0066 mSv/MBq, respectively. In glioma patients, all MRI-identified lesions showed high signal intensity on (68)Ga-BBN PET/CT. SUVmax and SUVmean were 2.08 ± 0.58 and 1.32 ± 0.37, respectively. With normal brain tissue as background, tumor-to-background ratios were 24.0 ± 8.85 and 13.4 ± 4.54 based on SUVmax and SUVmean, respectively. The immunohistochemical staining confirmed a positive correlation between SUV and GRPR expression level (r(2) = 0.71, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: (68)Ga-BBN is a PET tracer with favorable pharmacokinetics and a favorable dosimetry profile. It has the potential to evaluate GRPR expression in glioma patients and guide GRPR-targeted therapy of glioma.

Keyaerts M, Xavier C, Heemskerk J, et al.
Phase I Study of 68Ga-HER2-Nanobody for PET/CT Assessment of HER2 Expression in Breast Carcinoma.
J Nucl Med. 2016; 57(1):27-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status is one of the major tumor characteristics in breast cancer to guide therapy. Anti-HER2 treatment has clear survival advantages in HER2-positive breast carcinoma patients. Heterogeneity in HER2 expression between primary tumor and metastasis has repeatedly been described, resulting in the need to reassess HER2 status during the disease course. To avoid repeated biopsy with potential bias due to tumor heterogeneity, Nanobodies directed against HER2 have been developed as probes for molecular imaging. Nanobodies, which are derived from unique heavy-chain-only antibodies, are the smallest antigen-binding antibody fragments and have ideal characteristics for PET imaging. The primary aims were assessment of safety, biodistribution, and dosimetry. The secondary aim was to investigate tumor-targeting potential.
METHODS: In total, 20 women with primary or metastatic breast carcinoma (score of 2+ or 3+ on HER2 immunohistochemical assessment) were included. Anti-HER2-Nanobody was labeled with (68)Ga via a NOTA derivative. Administered activities were 53-174 MBq (average, 107 MBq). PET/CT scans for dosimetry assessment were obtained at 10, 60, and 90 min after administration. Physical evaluation and blood analysis were performed for safety evaluation. Biodistribution was analyzed for 11 organs using MIM software; dosimetry was assessed using OLINDA/EXM. Tumor-targeting potential was assessed in primary and metastatic lesions.
RESULTS: No adverse reactions occurred. A fast blood clearance was observed, with only 10% of injected activity remaining in the blood at 1 h after injection. Uptake was seen mainly in the kidneys, liver, and intestines. The effective dose was 0.043 mSv/MBq, resulting in an average of 4.6 mSv per patient. The critical organ was the urinary bladder wall, with a dose of 0.406 mGy/MBq. In patients with metastatic disease, tracer accumulation well above the background level was demonstrated in most identified sites of disease. Primary lesions were more variable in tracer accumulation.
CONCLUSION: (68)Ga-HER2-Nanobody PET/CT is a safe procedure with a radiation dose comparable to other routinely used PET tracers. Its biodistribution is favorable, with the highest uptake in the kidneys, liver, and intestines but very low background levels in all other organs that typically house primary breast carcinoma or tumor metastasis. Tracer accumulation in HER2-positive metastases is high, compared with normal surrounding tissues, and warrants further assessment in a phase II trial.

Liang YH, Lin YL, Liau JY, et al.
Cetuximab Might Be Detrimental to Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients with KRAS Codon 12 Mutations.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(7):4207-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies benefit patients with wild-type KRAS exon 2 metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, their effect in KRAS-mutant mCRC remains unclear.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study enrolling 163 patients with unresectable KRAS-mutant mCRC diagnosed at the National Taiwan University Hospital between 2007 and 2011.
RESULTS: The median overall survival (mOS) was 29.5 months in patients who had never used cetuximab and 19.0 months in those who had (p=0.040). The mOS was 32.0 months in patients with mutant KRAS codon 12 who had never used cetuximab and 17.5 months in those who had (p=0.017). In patients with mutant KRAS codon 13, the mOS was not significantly different. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that absence of cetuximab treatment was an independent prognostic factor for longer mOS in patients with unresectable KRAS-mutant mCRC.
CONCLUSION: Cetuximab usage might be detrimental to patients with mCRC with mutant KRAS codon 12.

Yoon H, Kim N, Shin CM, et al.
Risk Factors for Metachronous Gastric Neoplasms in Patients Who Underwent Endoscopic Resection of a Gastric Neoplasm.
Gut Liver. 2016; 10(2):228-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To identify the risk factors for metachronous gastric neoplasms in patients who underwent an endoscopic resection of a gastric neoplasm.
METHODS: We prospectively collected clinicopathologic data and measured the methylation levels of HAND1, THBD, APC, and MOS in the gastric mucosa by methylation-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction in patients who underwent endoscopic resection of gastric neoplasms.
RESULTS: A total of 257 patients with gastric neoplasms (113 low-grade dysplasias, 25 highgrade dysplasias, and 119 early gastric cancers) were enrolled. Metachronous gastric neoplasm developed in 7.4% of patients during a mean follow-up of 52 months. The 5-year cumulative incidence of metachronous gastric neoplasm was 4.8%. Multivariate analysis showed that moderate/severe corpus intestinal metaplasia and family history of gastric cancer were independent risk factors for metachronous gastric neoplasm development; the hazard ratios were 4.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 13.87; p=0.022) and 3.52 (95% CI, 1.09 to 11.40; p=0.036), respectively. The methylation level of MOS was significantly elevated in patients with metachronous gastric neoplasms compared age- and sex-matched patients without metachronous gastric neoplasms (p=0.020).
CONCLUSIONS: In patients who underwent endoscopic resection of gastric neoplasms, moderate/severe corpus intestinal metaplasia and a family history of gastric cancer were independent risk factors for metachronous gastric neoplasm, and MOS was significantly hypermethylated in patients with metachronous gastric neoplasms.

Wei B, Han Q, Xu L, et al.
Effects of JWA, XRCC1 and BRCA1 mRNA expression on molecular staging for personalized therapy in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:331 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA damage repair genes JWA, XRCC1 and BRCA1 were associated with clinical outcomes and could convert the response to the cisplatin-based therapy in some carcinomas. The synergistic effects of JWA, XRCC1 and BRCA1 mRNA expression on personalized therapy remain unknown in advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
METHODS: We employed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine the expression of JWA, XRCC1 and BRCA1 mRNA in paraffin-embedded specimen from 172 patients with advanced ESCC who underwent the first-line cisplatin-or docetaxel-based treatments.
RESULTS: High JWA or XRCC1mRNA expression was correlated with longer median overall survival (mOS) in all the patients (both P<0.001) or in subgroups with different regimens (all P<0.05), but not correlated with response rate (RR, all P>0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that high JWA (HR 0.22; 95% CI 0.13-0.37; P<0.001) or XRCC1 (HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.21-0.63; P<0.001) mRNA expression emerged as the independent prognostic factors for ESCC patients in this cohort. But no significant difference in prognostic efficacy was found between JWA plus XRCC1 and JWA alone through ROC analysis. Further subgroup analysis showed cisplatin-based treatments could improve mOS of patients with low JWA expression (P<0.05), especially in those with low BRCA1 expression simultaneously (P<0.001); while in patients with high JWA expression, high BRCA1 mRNA expression was correlated with increased mOS in docetaxel-based treatments (P=0.044).
CONCLUSION: JWA, XRCC1and BRCA1 mRNA expression could be used as predictive markers in molecular staging for personalized therapy in patients with advanced ESCC who received first-line cisplatin- or docetaxel-based treatments.

Deng Z, Li Y, Fan J, et al.
Circulating peptidome to indicate the tumor-resident proteolysis.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:9327 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor-resident proteases (TRPs) are regarded as informative biomarkers for staging cancer progression and evaluating therapeutic efficacy. Currently in the clinic, measurement of TRP is dependent on invasive biopsies, limiting their usefulness as monitoring tools. Here we identified circulating peptides naturally produced by TRPs, and evaluated their potential to monitor the efficacy of anti-tumor treatments. We established a mouse model for ovarian cancer development and treatment by orthotopic implantation of the human drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell line HeyA8-MDR, followed by porous silicon particle- or multistage vector (MSV) - enabled EphA2 siRNA therapy. Immunohistochemistry staining of tumor tissue revealed decreased expression of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) in mice exhibiting positive responses to MSV-EphA2 siRNA treatment. We demonstrated, via an ex vivo proteolysis assay, that C3f peptides can act as substrates of MMP-9, which cleaves C3f at L1311-L1312 into two peptides (SSATTFRL and LWENGNLLR). Importantly, we showed that these two C3f-derived fragments detected in serum were primarily generated by tumor-resident, but not blood-circulating, MMP-9. Our results suggested that the presence of the circulating fragments specially derived from the localized cleavage in tumor microenvironment can be used to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of anti-cancer treatment, assessed through a relatively noninvasive and user-friendly proteomics approach.

Zhang S, Guo Y, Zhang C, et al.
Primary laryngeal cancer-derived miR-193b induces interleukin-10-expression monocytes.
Cancer Invest. 2015; 33(2):29-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
The pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer (LC) is unclear. Published data indicate that micro RNAs (miRNA) play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. This study aims to elucidate the role of miR-193b in the tumor tolerance of LC. High levels of miR-193b were detected in LC cells as well as in the culture supernatant. Interleukin (IL)-10-expressing Mos were detected in the LC tissue-derived single cells. Treating naïve Mos with a miR-193b induced expression of IL-10 in the Mos. Culturing the IL-10(+) Mos with effector CD8(+) T cells resulted in the suppression of CD8(+) T-cell activities.

Sharifnia T, Rusu V, Piccioni F, et al.
Genetic modifiers of EGFR dependence in non-small cell lung cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(52):18661-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung adenocarcinomas harboring activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represent a common molecular subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. EGFR mutations predict sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and thus represent a dependency in NSCLCs harboring these alterations, but the genetic basis of EGFR dependence is not fully understood. Here, we applied an unbiased, ORF-based screen to identify genetic modifiers of EGFR dependence in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells. This approach identified 18 kinase and kinase-related genes whose overexpression can substitute for EGFR in EGFR-dependent PC9 cells, and these genes include seven of nine Src family kinase genes, FGFR1, FGFR2, ITK, NTRK1, NTRK2, MOS, MST1R, and RAF1. A subset of these genes can complement loss of EGFR activity across multiple EGFR-dependent models. Unbiased gene-expression profiling of cells overexpressing EGFR bypass genes, together with targeted validation studies, reveals EGFR-independent activation of the MEK-ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways. Combined inhibition of PI3K-mTOR and MEK restores EGFR dependence in cells expressing each of the 18 EGFR bypass genes. Together, these data uncover a broad spectrum of kinases capable of overcoming dependence on EGFR and underscore their convergence on the PI3K-AKT and MEK-ERK signaling axes in sustaining EGFR-independent survival.

Sheng-Fowler L, Tu W, Fu H, et al.
A mouse strain defective in both T cells and NK cells has enhanced sensitivity to tumor induction by plasmid DNA expressing both activated H-Ras and c-Myc.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e108926 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As part of safety studies to evaluate the risk of residual cellular DNA in vaccines manufactured in tumorigenic cells, we have been developing in vivo assays to detect and quantify the oncogenic activity of DNA. We generated a plasmid expressing both an activated human H-ras gene and murine c-myc gene and showed that 1 µg of this plasmid, pMSV-T24-H-ras/MSV-c-myc, was capable of inducing tumors in newborn NIH Swiss mice. However, to be able to detect the oncogenicity of dominant activated oncogenes in cellular DNA, a more sensitive system was needed. In this paper, we demonstrate that the newborn CD3 epsilon transgenic mouse, which is defective in both T-cell and NK-cell functions, can detect the oncogenic activity of 25 ng of the circular form of pMSV-T24-H-ras/MSV-c-myc. When this plasmid was inoculated as linear DNA, amounts of DNA as low as 800 pg were capable of inducing tumors. Animals were found that had multiple tumors, and these tumors were independent and likely clonal. These results demonstrate that the newborn CD3 epsilon mouse is highly sensitive for the detection of oncogenic activity of DNA. To determine whether it can detect the oncogenic activity of cellular DNA derived from four human tumor-cell lines (HeLa, A549, HT-1080, and CEM), DNA (100 µg) was inoculated into newborn CD3 epsilon mice both in the presence of 1 µg of linear pMSV-T24-H-ras/MSV-c-myc as positive control and in its absence. While tumors were induced in 100% of mice with the positive-control plasmid, no tumors were induced in mice receiving any of the tumor DNAs alone. These results demonstrate that detection of oncogenes in cellular DNA derived from four human tumor-derived cell lines in this mouse system was not possible; the results also show the importance of including a positive-control plasmid to detect inhibitory effects of the cellular DNA.

Mai J, Huang Y, Mu C, et al.
Bone marrow endothelium-targeted therapeutics for metastatic breast cancer.
J Control Release. 2014; 187:22-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Effective treatment of cancer metastasis to the bone relies on bone marrow drug accumulation. The surface proteins in the bone marrow vascular endothelium provide docking sites for targeted drug delivery. We have developed a thioaptamer that specifically binds to E-selectin that is overexpressed in the vasculature of tumor and inflammatory tissues. In this study, we tested targeted delivery of therapeutic siRNA loaded in the E-selectin thioaptamer-conjugated multistage vector (ESTA-MSV) drug carrier to bone marrow for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis. We evaluated tumor type- and tumor growth stage-dependent targeting in mice bearing metastatic breast cancer in the bone, and carried out studies to identify factors that determine targeting efficiency. In a subsequent study, we delivered siRNA to knock down expression of the human STAT3 gene in murine xenograft models of human MDA-MB-231 breast tumor, and assessed therapeutic efficacy. Our studies revealed that the CD31(+)E-selectin(+) population accounted for 20.8%, 26.4% and 29.9% of total endothelial cells respectively inside the femur of mice bearing early, middle and late stage metastatic MDA-MB-231 tumors. In comparison, the double positive cells remained at a basal level in mice with early stage MCF-7 tumors, and jumped to 23.9% and 28.2% when tumor growth progressed to middle and late stages. Accumulation of ESTA-MSV inside the bone marrow correlated with the E-selectin expression pattern. There was up to 5-fold enrichment of the targeted MSV in the bone marrow of mice bearing early or late stage MDA-MB-231 tumors and of mice with late stage, but not early stage, MCF-7 tumors. Targeted delivery of STAT3 siRNA in ESTA-MSV resulted in knockdown of STAT3 expression in 48.7% of cancer cells inside the bone marrow. Weekly systemic administration of ESTA-MSV/STAT3 siRNA significantly extended survival of mice with MDA-MB-231 bone metastasis. In conclusion, targeting the overexpressed E-selectin provides an effective approach for tissue-specific drug delivery to the bone marrow. Tumor growth in the bone can be effectively inhibited by blockage of the STAT3 signaling.

Cai X, Fang JM, Xue P, et al.
The role of IVS14+1 G > A genotype detection in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene and pharmacokinetic monitoring of 5-fluorouracil in the individualized adjustment of 5-fluorouracil for patients with local advanced and metastatic colorectal cancer: a preliminary report.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014; 18(8):1247-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: We retrospectively investigated the relationship between IVS14+1 G > A genotype of the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) gene with plasma concentration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as well as adverse reactions in 80 patients with locally advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty patients with un-resectable locally advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer were treated with Folfox-6 regimen, which repeated every two weeks for at least three cycles. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for DPD gene were analyzed before chemotherapy by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. The plasma concentration of fluorouracil was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after continuous infusion of fluorouracil over 12 h in each cycle. The average values of plasma concentrations in each cycle were calculated, and the factors related to plasma concentration of 5-FU were screened by stepwise regression.
RESULTS: All patients were divided into three groups according to the predictive confidence interval of plasma concentration of 5-FU, and the average plasma concentrations of fluorouracil in each cycle of these three groups were less than or equal to 26.83 mg/L, 26.83-40.62 mg/L, and more than 40.62 mg/L, respectively. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the plasma concentration of fluorouracil was associated with myelosuppression, hand-foot syndrome, diarrhea, overall survival (OS) and DPD genotype. In efficacy, the median progression-free survival PFS (mPFS) and OS (mOS) of group 2 and group 3 were both significantly higher than those of group 1.
CONCLUSIONS: Among the advanced colorectal cancer patients receiving fluorouracil-based chemotherapy, those with plasma concentration of 5-FU above 26.83 mg/L can obtain better survival; for patients with heterozygous DPD IVS14+1 mutation, 5-FU dose should be appropriately reduced according to last plasma concentration to reduce adverse reactions, while the homozygous ones should avoid application of 5-FU and its derivatives.

Venturin M, Carra S, Gaudenzi G, et al.
ADAP2 in heart development: a candidate gene for the occurrence of cardiovascular malformations in NF1 microdeletion syndrome.
J Med Genet. 2014; 51(7):436-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular malformations have a higher incidence in patients with NF1 microdeletion syndrome compared to NF1 patients with intragenic mutation, presumably owing to haploinsufficiency of one or more genes included in the deletion interval and involved in heart development. In order to identify which genes could be responsible for cardiovascular malformations in the deleted patients, we carried out expression studies in mouse embryos and functional studies in zebrafish.
METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression analysis of three candidate genes included in the NF1 deletion interval, ADAP2, SUZ12 and UTP6, performed by in situ hybridisation, showed the expression of ADAP2 murine ortholog in heart during fundamental phases of cardiac morphogenesis. In order to investigate the role of ADAP2 in cardiac development, we performed loss-of-function experiments of zebrafish ADAP2 ortholog, adap2, by injecting two different morpholino oligos (adap2-MO and UTR-adap2-MO). adap2-MOs-injected embryos (morphants) displayed in vivo circulatory and heart shape defects. The molecular characterisation of morphants with cardiac specific markers showed that the injection of adap2-MOs causes defects in heart jogging and looping. Additionally, morphological and molecular analysis of adap2 morphants demonstrated that the loss of adap2 function leads to defective valvulogenesis, suggesting a correlation between ADAP2 haploinsufficiency and the occurrence of valve defects in NF1-microdeleted patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings indicate that ADAP2 has a role in heart development, and might be a reliable candidate gene for the occurrence of cardiovascular malformations in patients with NF1 microdeletion and, more generally, for the occurrence of a subset of congenital heart defects.

Sörensen J, Sandberg D, Sandström M, et al.
First-in-human molecular imaging of HER2 expression in breast cancer metastases using the 111In-ABY-025 affibody molecule.
J Nucl Med. 2014; 55(5):730-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The expression status of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) predicts the response of HER2-targeted therapy in breast cancer. ABY-025 is a small reengineered Affibody molecule targeting a unique epitope of the HER2 receptor, not occupied by current therapeutic agents. This study evaluated the distribution, safety, dosimetry, and efficacy of (111)In-ABY-025 for determining the HER2 status in metastatic breast cancer.
METHODS: Seven patients with metastatic breast cancer and HER2-positive (n = 5) or -negative (n = 2) primary tumors received an intravenous injection of approximately 100 μg (∼ 140 MBq) of (111)In-ABY-025. Planar γ-camera imaging was performed after 30 min, followed by SPECT/CT after 4, 24, and 48 h. Blood levels of radioactivity, antibodies, shed serum HER2, and toxicity markers were evaluated. Lesional HER2 status was verified by biopsies. The metastases were located by (18)F-FDG PET/CT 5 d before (111)In-ABY-025 imaging.
RESULTS: Injection of (111)In-ABY-025 yielded a mean effective dose of 0.15 mSv/MBq and was safe, well tolerated, and without drug-related adverse events. Fast blood clearance allowed high-contrast HER2 images within 4-24 h. No anti-ABY-025 antibodies were observed. When metastatic uptake at 24 h was normalized to uptake at 4 h, the ratio increased in HER2-positive metastases and decreased in negative ones (P < 0.05), with no overlap and confirmation by biopsies. In 1 patient, with HER2-positive primary tumor, (111)In-ABY-025 imaging correctly suggested a HER2-negative status of the metastases. The highest normal-tissue uptake was in the kidneys, followed by the liver and spleen.
CONCLUSION: (111)In-ABY-025 appears safe for use in humans and is a promising noninvasive tool for discriminating HER2 status in metastatic breast cancer, regardless of ongoing HER2-targeted antibody treatment.

Krause U, Ryan DM, Clough BH, Gregory CA
An unexpected role for a Wnt-inhibitor: Dickkopf-1 triggers a novel cancer survival mechanism through modulation of aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1 activity.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1093 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It is widely accepted that canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling is required for the differentiation of osteoprogenitors into osteoblasts. Furthermore, tumor-derived secretion of the cWnt-antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) is known to cause bone destruction, inhibition of repair and metastasis in many bone malignancies, but its role in osteosarcoma (OS) is still under debate. In this study, we examined the role of Dkk-1in OS by engineering its overexpression in the osteochondral sarcoma line MOS-J. Consistent with the known role of Dkk-1 in osteoblast differentiation, Dkk-1 inhibited osteogenesis by the MOSJ cells themselves and also in surrounding tissue when implanted in vivo. Surprisingly, Dkk-1 also had unexpected effects on MOSJ cells in that it increased proliferation and resistance to metabolic stress in vitro and caused the formation of larger and more destructive tumors than controls upon orthotopic implantation. These effects were attributed in part to upregulation of the stress response enzyme and cancer stem cell marker aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1). Direct inhibition of ALDH1 reduced viability under stressful culture conditions, whereas pharmacological inhibition of cWnt or overexpression of ALDH1 had a protective effect. Furthermore, we observed that ALDH1 was transcriptionally activated in a c-Jun-dependent manner through a pathway consisting of RhoA, MAP-kinase-kinase-4 and Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK), indicating that noncanonical planar cell polarity-like Wnt signaling was the mechanism responsible. Together, our results therefore demonstrate that Dkk-1 enhances resistance of OS cells to stress by tipping the balance of Wnt signaling in favor of the non-canonical Jun-mediated Wnt pathways. In turn, this results in transcriptional activation of ALDH1 through Jun-responsive promoter elements. This is the first report linking Dkk-1 to tumor stress resistance, further supporting the targeting of Dkk-1 not only to prevent and treat osteolytic bone lesions but also to reduce numbers of stress-resistant tumor cells.

Karachaliou N, Papadaki C, Lagoudaki E, et al.
Predictive value of BRCA1, ERCC1, ATP7B, PKM2, TOPOI, TOPΟ-IIA, TOPOIIB and C-MYC genes in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) who received first line therapy with cisplatin and etoposide.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74611 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive value of genes involved in the action of cisplatin-etoposide in Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC).
METHODS: 184 SCLC patients' primary tumour samples were analyzed for ERCCI, BRCA1, ATP7B, PKM2 TOPOI, TOPOIIA, TOPOIIB and C-MYC mRNA expression. All patients were treated with cisplatin-etoposide.
RESULTS: The patients' median age was 63 years and 120 (65%) had extended stage, 75 (41%) had increased LDH serum levels and 131 (71%) an ECOG performance status was 0-1. Patients with limited stage, whose tumours expressed high ERCC1 (p=0.028), PKM2 (p=0.046), TOPOI (p=0.008), TOPOIIA (p=0.002) and TOPOIIB (p<0.001) mRNA had a shorter Progression Free Survival (PFS). In limited stage patients, high expression of ERCC1 (p=0.014), PKM2 (p=0.026), TOPOIIA (p=0.021) and TOPOIIB (p=0.019) was correlated with decreased median overall survival (mOS) while in patients with extended stage, only high TOPOIIB expression had a negative impact on Os (p=0.035). The favorable expression signature expression signature (low expression of ERCC1, PKM2, TOPOIIA and TOPOIIB) was correlated with significantly better PFS and Os in both LS-SCLC (p<0.001 and p=0.007, respectively) and ES-SCLC (p=0.007 and (p=0.011, respectively) group. The unfavorable expression signature was an independent predictor for poor PFS (HR: 3.18; p=0.002 and HR: 3.14; p=0.021) and Os (HR: 4.35; p=0.001and HR: 3.32; p=0.019) in both limited and extended stage, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Single gene's expression analysis as well as the integrated analysis of ERCC1, PKM2, TOPOIIA and TOPOIIB may predict treatment outcome in patients with SCLC. These findings should be further validated in a prospective study.

Chen Y, Lin G, Guo ZQ, et al.
Effects of MICA expression on the prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer and the efficacy of CIK therapy.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69044 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical significance of the expression of MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and explore the relationship between MICA expression and the efficacy of cytokine-induced killer cell (CIK) therapy for treating advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
METHODS: We obtained data on 222 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, including data on MICA expression, age, gender, ECOG score, pathological type, stage, treatment history (including 38 patients who were given autologous CIK cell infusion), and overall survival (OS). MICA expression in lung cancer tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Analyses of MICA expression, and CIK therapy association with survival outcomes were performed using Cox proportional models, Kaplan-Meier methods, and the log-rank test.
RESULT: s MICA was expressed in both membrane and cytoplasm. MICA expression correlated with the stage of lung cancer, ECOG score, gender and age. Multivariate COX regression analysis showed that the expression of MICA was an independent prognostic factor of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (p = 0.002). In subgroup analysis, we divided the 222 patients into CIK and control groups. In the CIK group, the medium OS (mOS) of patients with a high expression of MICA was longer than in those with low expression of MICA (27 months vs. 13 months). In the control group, the mOS in patients with a high expression of MICA was shorter than in patients with low MICA expression (9 months vs. 18 months). COX regression analysis showed that the MICA expression affects the effect of CIK therapy (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSION: 1) The high expression of MICA is one of the indicators of a poor prognosis for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients. 2) The high expression of MICA might be one of the predictive factors for successful CIK therapy.

Ovcaricek T, Cufer T, Kern I, et al.
Efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in routine clinical practice: epidermal growth factor mutations and their implications.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2013 Apr-Jun; 9(2):261-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor (EGFR) gene confer sensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). TKI treatment efficacy and EGFR mutation implications were evaluated in clinically selected advanced NSCLC patients treated with TKIs in routine clinical practice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review for clinicopathological characteristics and mutation status (EGFR, KRAS) analysis of 40 consecutive patients treated with TKIs between 2005 and 2010 was performed.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: PFS and OS were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, the log-rank test was used to test for differences. The strength of the associations between the EGFR mutation status and clinicopathological characteristics were tested with the Mann-Whitney U-test or the Kruskal-Wallis H-test.
RESULTS: The prevalence of EGFR mutations was 45% with a predominance of deletion mutations in exon 19 (55.5%). Significant correlations between gender, histology, and EGFR mutations were observed. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) for the entire group of patients was 8.7 months and median overall survival (mOS) was not yet reached. Patients with EGFR mutant tumors derived significantly higher benefit from TKI therapy compared to patients with mutation-negative disease; with mPFS of 22.0 vs. 3.2 months (HR: 3.9, 95% CI 1.56-9.89) and with a trend towards better OS (probability of survival at 12 months 82.0 vs. 63.0%, P = 0.080).
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that screening for EGFR mutations is reliable in a routine clinical setting and might allow for a better selection of NSCLC patients for anti-EGFR TKI therapy.

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