Gene Summary

Gene:MBL2; mannose binding lectin 2
Summary:This gene encodes the soluble mannose-binding lectin or mannose-binding protein found in serum. The protein encoded belongs to the collectin family and is an important element in the innate immune system. The protein recognizes mannose and N-acetylglucosamine on many microorganisms, and is capable of activating the classical complement pathway. Deficiencies of this gene have been associated with susceptibility to autoimmune and infectious diseases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mannose-binding protein C
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MBL2 (cancer-related)

Epskamp C, Goudzwaard JA, Fiets E, et al.
Mannose binding lectin and prediction of risk for chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia in patients with a solid tumor.
Cancer Invest. 2019; 37(3):156-162 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) - deficient patients who undergo chemotherapy for a solid tumor might have an increased risk developing febrile neutropenia (FN). We investigated in a prospective cohort study relations between MBL-serum levels and polymorphisms in MBL promotor genotypes (-550H/L and -221X/Y) on incidence and severity of FN. Risk of FN was 17.9% in MBL-deficient and 22.5% in MBL-sufficient patients (RR = 0.796, p = 0.45). Median MBL serum levels at baseline were respectively 1.39 µg/mL and 1.09 µg/mL (p = 0.92) in patients with and without FN. In conclusion, serum MBL and MBL genotypes (-550H/L and -221X/Y) do not determine the risk for developing FN.

Nakamura T, Nakashima C, Komiya K, et al.
Mechanisms of acquired resistance to afatinib clarified with liquid biopsy.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0209384 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although mechanisms of acquired resistance to 1st and 3rd generation EGFR-TKI continue to be elucidated, there have been few clinical investigations into the mechanisms of acquired resistance to the 2nd generation EGFR-TKI afatinib. We analyzed data from 20 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma who acquired resistance to afatinib, including resistance during EGFR-TKI re-challenge. We examined EGFR T790M and C797S mutations, BRAF V600E mutation, and MET amplification with the MBP-QP method and with droplet digital PCR using ctDNA and re-biopsy samples obtained before and after afatinib treatment. Just before afatinib treatment, 15 of the 20 patients were T790M negative and five were positive. Among the T790M negative patients, 40.0% (6/15) became positive at the time of PD under afatinib. In patients positive for T790M, changes in T790M allele frequency were correlated with afatinib treatment efficacy. C797S was not detected in any patients just before afatinib treatment, but it appeared after treatment in three patients, although with very low allele frequency. Two of these three patients, although positive for both C797S and T790M, achieved PR to osimertinib. However, PFS of these patients was somewhat shorter than that of patients positive for T790M only. BRAF V600E was detected in one patient at PD under afatinib. MET amplification was not detected in this study. T790M is associated with acquired resistance to afatinib, as with 1st generation EGFR-TKI, but with somewhat lower frequency. The influence of C797S on resistance to afatinib is less than that of T790M, but C797S might cause shorter PFS under osimertinib.

Liu Z, Zhang A, Zheng L, et al.
The Biological Significance and Regulatory Mechanism of c-Myc Binding Protein 1 (MBP-1).
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
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Endris V, Buchhalter I, Allgäuer M, et al.
Measurement of tumor mutational burden (TMB) in routine molecular diagnostics: in silico and real-life analysis of three larger gene panels.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(9):2303-2312 [PubMed] Related Publications
Assessment of Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB) for response stratification of cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors is emerging as a new biomarker. Commonly defined as the total number of exonic somatic mutations, TMB approximates the amount of neoantigens that potentially are recognized by the immune system. While whole exome sequencing (WES) is an unbiased approach to quantify TMB, implementation in diagnostics is hampered by tissue availability as well as time and cost constrains. Conversely, panel-based targeted sequencing is nowadays widely used in routine molecular diagnostics, but only very limited data are available on its performance for TMB estimation. Here, we evaluated three commercially available larger gene panels with covered genomic regions of 0.39 Megabase pairs (Mbp), 0.53 Mbp and 1.7 Mbp using i) in silico analysis of TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) data and ii) wet-lab sequencing of a total of 92 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer samples grouped in three independent cohorts (non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC; colorectal cancer, CRC; and mixed cancer types) for which matching WES data were available. We observed a strong correlation of the panel data with WES mutation counts especially for the gene panel >1Mbp. Sensitivity and specificity related to TMB cutpoints for checkpoint inhibitor response in NSCLC determined by wet-lab experiments well reflected the in silico data. Additionally, we highlight potential pitfalls in bioinformatics pipelines and provide recommendations for variant filtering. In summary, our study is a valuable data source for researchers working in the field of immuno-oncology as well as for diagnostic laboratories planning TMB testing.

Yang SYC, Lheureux S, Karakasis K, et al.
Landscape of genomic alterations in high-grade serous ovarian cancer from exceptional long- and short-term survivors.
Genome Med. 2018; 10(1):81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) who received initial debulking surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy can experience highly variable clinical responses. A small percentage of women experience exceptional long-term survival (long term (LT), 10+ years), while others develop primary resistance to therapy and succumb to disease in less than 2 years (short term (ST)). To improve clinical management of HGSOC, there is a need to better characterize clinical and molecular profiles to identify factors that underpin these disparate survival responses.
METHODS: To identify clinical and tumor molecular biomarkers associated with exceptional clinical response or resistance, we conducted an integrated clinical, exome, and transcriptome analysis of 41 primary tumors from LT (n = 20) and ST (n = 21) HGSOC patients.
RESULTS: Younger age at diagnosis, no residual disease post debulking surgery and low CA125 levels following surgery and chemotherapy were clinical characteristics of LT. Tumors from LT survivors had increased somatic mutation burden (median 1.62 vs. 1.22 non-synonymous mutations/Mbp), frequent BRCA1/2 biallelic inactivation through mutation and loss of heterozygosity, and enrichment of activated CD4+, CD8+ T cells, and effector memory CD4+ T cells. Characteristics of ST survival included focal copy number gain of CCNE1, lack of BRCA mutation signature, low homologous recombination deficiency scores, and the presence of ESR1-CCDC170 gene fusion.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that exceptional long- or short-term survival is determined by a concert of clinical, molecular, and microenvironment factors.

Hussain T, Liu B, Shrock MS, et al.
WWOX, the FRA16D gene: A target of and a contributor to genomic instability.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2019; 58(5):324-338 [PubMed] Related Publications
WWOX is one of the largest human genes spanning over 1.11 Mbp in length at chr16q23.1-q23.2 and containing FRA16D, the second most common chromosomal fragile site. FRA16D is a hot spot of genomic instability, prone to breakage and for causing germline and somatic copy number variations (CNVs). Consequentially WWOX is frequent target for deletions in cancer. Esophageal, stomach, colon, bladder, ovarian, and uterine cancers are those most commonly affected by WWOX deep focal deletions. WWOX deletions significantly correlate with various clinicopathological features in esophageal carcinoma. WWOX is also a common target for translocations in multiple myeloma. By mapping R-loop (RNA:DNA hybrid) forming sequences (RFLS) we observe this to be a consistent feature aligning with germline and somatic CNV break points at the edges and core of FRA16D spanning from introns 5 to 8 of WWOX. Germline CNV polymorphisms affecting WWOX are extremely common in humans across different ethnic groups. Importantly, structural variants datasets allowed us to identify a specific hot spot for germline duplications and deletions within intron 5 of WWOX coinciding with the 5' edge of the FRA16D core and various RFLS. Recently, multiple pathogenic CNVs spanning WWOX have been identified associated with neurological conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, infantile epileptic encephalopathies, and other developmental anomalies. Loss of WWOX function has recently been associated with DNA damage repair abnormalities, increased genomic instability, and resistance to chemoradiotherapy. The described observations place WWOX both as a target of and a contributor to genomic instability. Both of these aspects will be discussed in this review.

Buchhalter I, Rempel E, Endris V, et al.
Size matters: Dissecting key parameters for panel-based tumor mutational burden analysis.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(4):848-858 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor mutational burden (TMB) represents a new determinant of clinical benefit from immune checkpoint blockade that identifies responders independent of PD-L1 expression levels and is currently being explored in clinical trials. Although TMB can be measured directly by comprehensive genomic approaches such as whole-genome and exome sequencing, broad availability, short turnaround times, costs and amenability to formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue support the use of gene panel sequencing for approximating TMB in routine diagnostics. However, data on the parameters influencing panel-based TMB estimation are limited. Here, we report an extensive in silico analysis of the TCGA data set that simulates various panel sizes and compositions. We demonstrate that panel size is a critical parameter that influences confidence intervals (CIs) and cutoff values as well as important test parameters including sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. Moreover, we evaluate the Illumina TSO500 panel, which will be made available for TMB estimation, and propose dynamic, entity-specific cutoff values based on current clinical trial data. Optimizing the cost-benefit ratio, our data suggest that panels between 1.5 and 3 Mbp are ideally suited to estimate TMB with small CIs, whereas smaller panels tend to deliver imprecise TMB estimates for low to moderate TMB (0-30 muts/Mbp), connected with insufficient separation of hypermutated tumors from non-hypermutated tumors.

Fiedler D, Heselmeyer-Haddad K, Hirsch D, et al.
Single-cell genetic analysis of clonal dynamics in colorectal adenomas indicates CDX2 gain as a predictor of recurrence.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(7):1561-1573 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Colorectal adenomas are common precancerous lesions with the potential for malignant transformation to colorectal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic polypectomy provides an opportunity for cancer prevention; however, recurrence rates are high. We collected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of 15 primary adenomas with recurrence, 15 adenomas without recurrence, and 14 matched pair samples (primary adenoma and the corresponding recurrent adenoma). The samples were analysed by array-comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) and single-cell multiplex interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (miFISH) to understand clonal evolution, to examine the dynamics of copy number alterations (CNAs) and to identify molecular markers for recurrence prediction. The miFISH probe panel consisted of 14 colorectal carcinogenesis-relevant genes (COX2, PIK3CA, APC, CLIC1, EGFR, MYC, CCND1, CDX2, CDH1, TP53, HER2, SMAD7, SMAD4 and ZNF217), and a centromere probe (CEP10). The aCGH analysis confirmed the genetic landscape typical for colorectal tumorigenesis, that is, CNAs of chromosomes 7, 13q, 18 and 20q. Focal aberrations (≤10 Mbp) were mapped to chromosome bands 6p22.1-p21.33 (33.3%), 7q22.1 (31.4%) and 16q21 (29.4%). MiFISH detected gains of EGFR (23.6%), CDX2 (21.8%) and ZNF217 (18.2%). Most adenomas exhibited a major clone population which was accompanied by multiple smaller clone populations. Gains of CDX2 were exclusively seen in primary adenomas with recurrence (25%) compared to primary adenomas without recurrence (0%). Generation of phylogenetic trees for matched pair samples revealed four distinct patterns of clonal dynamics. In conclusion, adenoma development and recurrence are complex genetic processes driven by multiple CNAs whose evaluations by miFISH, with emphasis on CDX2, might serve as a predictor of recurrence.

Yang PJ, Hou MF, Tsai EM, et al.
Breast cancer is associated with methylation and expression of the a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 33 (ADAM33) gene affected by endocrine‑disrupting chemicals.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(5):2766-2777 [PubMed] Related Publications
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 33 (ADAM33) gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates changes in cell adhesion and plays an important role in cancer progression. Since bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are epigenetically toxic, the purpose of this study was to examine whether BPA and phthalate metabolites, including monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono‑n‑butyl phthalate (MBP), mono‑isobutyl phthalate (MIBP), mono(2‑ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2‑ethyl‑5‑hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2‑ethyl‑5‑carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), and mono(2‑ethyl‑5‑oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), have an epigenetic impact on ADAM33 and the incidence of breast cancer. CpG islands of breast cancer microarray datasets obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were used to assess the ADAM33 methylation profile. We designed a case‑control study including 44 cases and 22 age‑matched controls to detect the methylation status of intron 1 in ADAM33 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in blood, using BSP, nested PCR, and bisulfite sequencing, and measured the in vivo gene expression of ADAM33 and the urinary concentrations of endocrine‑disrupting chemicals (EDCs), using real‑time PCR, high‑performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC‑MS). Only one dataset, GSE32393, reached significance (P=0.016). ADAM33 expression and methylation frequencies at CpG site 3 in intron 1 were higher in the control group. We found a positive association between intron 1 methylation level and ADAM33 expression as well as urinary concentrations of MEHHP, MECPP, MEOHP and Σ4MEHP (the sum of MEHP, MECPP, MEHHP, and MEOHP) in the cases. This study suggests that metabolites of phthalate such as MEHHP, MECPP, MEOHP and Σ4MEHP may increase the intron 1 methylation level to elevate ADAM33 gene expression and have a protective effect on reducing the risk of breast cancer.

Hwang K, Koh EJ, Choi EJ, et al.
PD-1/PD-L1 and immune-related gene expression pattern in pediatric malignant brain tumors: clinical correlation with survival data in Korean population.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 139(2):281-291 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: PD-L1 expression has been evaluated as a predictive biomarker for immunotherapy in numerous tumor types. However, very limited data are available in pediatric brain tumors. The aim of this study was to characterize PD-1 and PD-L1 expressions of four pediatric malignant brain tumors and gene expression profile.
METHODS: This study included 89 pediatric patients receiving standard treatment at Seoul National University Children's Hospital and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between 1990 and 2014: atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) 20; ependymoma (EPN) 20; high grade glioma (HGG) 21; and medulloblastoma (MBL) 28. We performed immunohistochemistry assays for PD-1 and PD-L1. To characterize the gene expression, a custom immune-response focused gene panel was used.
RESULTS: PD-1 expression was positive in 7 (35%) AT/RT, 7 (35%) EPN, 4 (19%) HGG, and 3 (11%) MBL patients. PD-L1 expression was positive in 8 (40%) AT/RT, 4 (20%) EPN, and 4 (19%) HGG; negative in all MBL patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall survival of PD-L1 positive patients. The gene expression analysis demonstrated differences in two clustering functional categories: cell-cell signaling and antigen presentation pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: AT/RT, EPN, and HGG showed a relatively higher expression rate of PD-L1 (19-40%). This suggests these tumor types might be good candidates for PD-1 checkpoint blockade. We determined that gene expression may potentially serve as a molecular tool in predicting which patients will respond to immunotherapy. Further investigation is required to better understand the predictive and prognostic role of PD-L1 in pediatric brain tumors.

Bowler E, Porazinski S, Uzor S, et al.
Hypoxia leads to significant changes in alternative splicing and elevated expression of CLK splice factor kinases in PC3 prostate cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):355 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests that one of the ways that cells adapt to hypoxia is through alternative splicing. The aim of this study was firstly to examine the effect of hypoxia on the alternative splicing of cancer associated genes using the prostate cancer cell line PC3 as a model. Secondly, the effect of hypoxia on the expression of several regulators of splicing was examined.
METHODS: PC3 cells were grown in 1% oxygen in a hypoxic chamber for 48 h, RNA extracted and sent for high throughput PCR analysis at the RNomics platform at the University of Sherbrooke, Canada. Genes whose exon inclusion rate PSI (ψ) changed significantly were identified, and their altered exon inclusion rates verified by RT-PCR in three cell lines. The expression of splice factors and splice factor kinases in response to hypoxia was examined by qPCR and western blotting. The splice factor kinase CLK1 was inhibited with the benzothiazole TG003.
RESULTS: In PC3 cells the exon inclusion rate PSI (ψ) was seen to change by > 25% in 12 cancer-associated genes; MBP, APAF1, PUF60, SYNE2, CDC42BPA, FGFR10P, BTN2A2, UTRN, RAP1GDS1, PTPN13, TTC23 and CASP9 (caspase 9). The expression of the splice factors SRSF1, SRSF2, SRSF3, SAM68, HuR, hnRNPA1, and of the splice factor kinases SRPK1 and CLK1 increased significantly in hypoxia. We also observed that the splice factor kinase CLK3, but not CLK2 and CLK4, was also induced in hypoxic DU145 prostate, HT29 colon and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Lastly, we show that the inhibition of CLK1 in PC3 cells with the benzothiazole TG003 increased expression of the anti-apoptotic isoform caspase 9b.
CONCLUSIONS: Significant changes in alternative splicing of cancer associated genes occur in prostate cancer cells in hypoxic conditions. The expression of several splice factors and splice factor kinases increases during hypoxia, in particular the Cdc-like splice factor kinases CLK1 and CLK3. We suggest that in hypoxia the elevated expression of these regulators of splicing helps cells adapt through alternative splicing of key cancer-associated genes. We suggest that the CLK splice factor kinases could be targeted in cancers in which hypoxia contributes to resistance to therapy.

Okamoto T, Takada K, Sato S, et al.
Clinical and Genetic Implications of Mutation Burden in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2018; 25(6):1564-1571 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is a major histological subtype of lung cancer. In this study, we investigated genomic alterations in LSCC and evaluated the clinical implications of mutation burden (MB) in LSCC.
METHODS: Genomic alterations were determined in Japanese patients with LSCC (N = 67) using next-generation sequencing of 415 known cancer genes. MB was defined as the number of non-synonymous mutations per 1 Mbp. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) protein expression in cancer cells was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis.
RESULTS: TP53 gene mutations were the most common alteration (n = 51/67, 76.1%), followed by gene alterations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (CDKN2B; 35.8%), CDKN2A (31.3%), phosphatase and tensin homolog (30.0%), and sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2, 28.3%). Histological differentiation was significantly poorer in tumors with high MB (greater than or equal to the median MB) compared with that in tumors with low MB (less than the median MB; p = 0.0446). The high MB group had more tumors located in the upper or middle lobe than tumors located in the lower lobe (p = 0.0019). Moreover, cancers in the upper or middle lobes had significantly higher MB than cancers in the lower lobes (p = 0.0005), and tended to show higher PD-L1 protein expression (p = 0.0573). SOX2 and tyrosine kinase non-receptor 2 amplifications were associated with high MB (p = 0.0065 and p = 0.0010, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: The MB level differed according to the tumor location in LSCC, suggesting that the location of cancer development may influence the genomic background of the tumor.

Vander Meeren S, Heyrman B, Renmans W, et al.
Lymphoma-like monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis in a patient population: biology, natural evolution, and differences from CLL-like clones.
Ann Hematol. 2018; 97(7):1219-1227 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-count monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (MBL) with a chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) phenotype is a well-known entity, featuring 1-4% annual risk of progression towards CLL requiring treatment. Lymphoma-like MBL (L-MBL), on the other hand, remains poorly defined and data regarding outcome are lacking. We retrospectively evaluated 33 L-MBL cases within our hospital population and compared them to 95 subjects with CLL-like MBL (C-MBL). Diagnoses of L-MBL were based on asymptomatic B cell clones with Matutes score < 3, B cells < 5.0 × 10

de Kock L, Geoffrion D, Rivera B, et al.
Multiple DICER1-related tumors in a child with a large interstitial 14q32 deletion.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(5):223-230 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germ-line interstitial deletions involving the 14q32 chromosomal region, resulting in 14q32 deletion syndrome, are rare. DICER1 is a recently described cancer-predisposition gene located at 14q32.13. We report the case of a male child with a ∼5.8 Mbp 14q32.13q32.2 germ-line deletion, which included the full DICER1 locus. We reviewed available clinical and pathological material, and conducted genetic analyses. In addition to having congenital dysmorphic features, the child developed multiple DICER1 syndrome-related tumors before age 5 y: a pediatric cystic nephroma (pCN), a ciliary body medulloepithelioma (CBME), and a small lung cyst (consistent with occult pleuropulmonary blastoma Type I/Ir cysts seen in DICER1 mutation carriers). He also developed a cerebral spindle-cell sarcoma with myogenous differentiation. Our investigations revealed that the deletion encompassed 31 protein-coding genes. In addition to the germ-line DICER1 deletion, somatic DICER1 RNase IIIb mutations were found in the CBME (c.5437G > A, p.E1813K), pCN (c.5425G > A, p.G1809R), and sarcoma (c.5125G > A, p.D1709N). The sarcoma also harbored a somatic TP53 mutation: c.844C > T, p.R282W. Additional copy number alterations were identified in the CBME and sarcoma using an OncoScan array. Among the 8 cases with molecularly-defined 14q32 deletions involving DICER1 and for whom phenotypic information is available, our patient and one other developed DICER1-related tumors. Biallelic DICER1 mutations have not previously been reported to cause cerebral sarcoma, which now may be considered a rare manifestation of the DICER1 syndrome. Our study shows that DICER1-related tumors can occur in children with 14q32 deletions and suggests surveillance for such tumors may be warranted.

Grygalewicz B, Woroniecka R, Rymkiewicz G, et al.
The 11q-Gain/Loss Aberration Occurs Recurrently in MYC-Negative Burkitt-like Lymphoma With 11q Aberration, as Well as MYC-Positive Burkitt Lymphoma and MYC-Positive High-Grade B-Cell Lymphoma, NOS.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2017; 149(1):17-28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Objectives: The latest revision of lymphoma's World Health Organization classification describes the new provisional entity "Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration" (BLL, 11q) as lacking MYC rearrangement, but harboring the specific11q-gain/loss aberration. We report genetic characteristics of 11 lymphoma cases with this aberration.
Methods: Classical cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and single nucleotide polymorphism/array comparative genomic hybridization.
Results: The 11q aberrations were described as duplication, inversion, and deletion. Array comparative genomic hybridization showed two types of duplication: bigger than 50 megabase pairs (Mbp) and smaller than 20 Mbp, which were associated with bulky tumor larger than 20 cm and amplification of the 11q23.3 region, including KMT2A. Six cases revealed a normal FISH status of MYC and were diagnosed as BLL,11q. Five cases showed MYC rearrangement and were diagnosed as Burkitt lymphoma (BL) or high-grade B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (HGBL, NOS).
Conclusions: The 11q-gain/loss is not specific for BLL, 11q, but occurs recurrently in MYC-positive BL and MYC-positive HGBL.

Oh J, Kim Y, Che L, et al.
Regulation of cAMP and GSK3 signaling pathways contributes to the neuronal conversion of glioma.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(11):e0178881 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Glioma is the most malignant type of primary central nervous system tumors, and has an extremely poor prognosis. One potential therapeutic approach is to induce the terminal differentiation of glioma through the forced expression of pro-neural factors. Our goal is to show the proof of concept of the neuronal conversion of C6 glioma through the combined action of small molecules. We investigated the various changes in gene expression, cell-specific marker expression, signaling pathways, physiological characteristics, and morphology in glioma after combination treatment with two small molecules (CHIR99021, a glycogen synthase kinase 3 [GSK3] inhibitor and forskolin, a cyclic adenosine monophosphate [cAMP] activator). Here, we show that the combined action of CHIR99021 and forskolin converted malignant glioma into fully differentiated neurons with no malignant characteristics; inhibited the proliferation of malignant glioma; and significantly down-regulated gene ontology and gene expression profiles related to cell division, gliogenesis, and angiogenesis in small molecule-induced neurons. In vivo, the combined action of CHIR99021 and forskolin markedly delayed neurological deficits and significantly reduced the tumor volume. We suggest that reprogramming technology may be a potential treatment strategy replacing the therapeutic paradigm of traditional treatment of malignant glioma, and a combination molecule comprising a GSK3 inhibitor and a cAMP inducer could be the next generation of anticancer drugs.

Chaber R, Gurgul A, Wróbel G, et al.
Whole-genome DNA methylation characteristics in pediatric precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL).
PLoS One. 2017; 12(11):e0187422 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
In addition to genetic alterations, epigenetic abnormalities have been shown to underlie the pathogenesis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-the most common pediatric cancer. The purpose of this study was to characterize the whole genome DNA methylation profile in children with precursor B-cell ALL (BCP ALL) and to compare this profile with methylation observed in normal bone marrow samples. Additional efforts were made to correlate the observed methylation patterns with selected clinical features. We assessed DNA methylation from bone marrow samples obtained from 38 children with BCP ALL at the time of diagnosis along with 4 samples of normal bone marrow cells as controls using Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip Array. Patients were diagnosed and stratified into prognosis groups according to the BFM ALL IC 2009 protocol. The analysis of differentially methylated sites across the genome as well as promoter methylation profiles allowed clear separation of the leukemic and control samples into two clusters. 86.6% of the promoter-associated differentially methylated sites were hypermethylated in BCP ALL. Seven sites were found to correlate with the BFM ALL IC 2009 high risk group. Amongst these, one was located within the gene body of the MBP gene and another was within the promoter region- PSMF1 gene. Differentially methylated sites that were significantly related with subsets of patients with ETV6-RUNX1 fusion and hyperdiploidy. The analyzed translocations and change of genes' sequence context does not affect methylation and methylation seems not to be a mechanism for the regulation of expression of the resulting fusion genes.

Bouska A, Bi C, Lone W, et al.
Adult high-grade B-cell lymphoma with Burkitt lymphoma signature: genomic features and potential therapeutic targets.
Blood. 2017; 130(16):1819-1831 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The adult high-grade B-cell lymphomas sharing molecular features with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) are highly aggressive lymphomas with poor clinical outcome. High-resolution structural and functional genomic analysis of adult Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and high-grade B-cell lymphoma with BL gene signature (adult-molecularly defined BL [mBL]) revealed the MYC-ARF-p53 axis as the primary deregulated pathway. Adult-mBL had either unique or more frequent genomic aberrations (del13q14, del17p, gain8q24, and gain18q21) compared with pediatric-mBL, but shared commonly mutated genes. Mutations in genes promoting the tonic B-cell receptor (BCR)→PI3K pathway (

Li SJ, Liu CS, Li HJ, et al.
A novel engineered interferon-α hybrid molecule increases anticancer efficacy of doxorubicin in breast cancer chemotherapy.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(3):949-958 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most common carcinoma among Chinese women. Interferon α (IFNα) has been used to treat various types of cancer, including breast cancer, but its antitumor activity is relative low, which significantly hinders its clinical application. In this study, we utilized a Ph.D.-12 peptide library screening system to identify a short peptide that specifically binds to MCF-7 breast cancer cells. By fusing the MCF-7 binding peptide (MBP) to the C-terminus of IFNα, we constructed an engineered IFNα-MBP fusion molecule (IMBP), and applied this novel fusion protein to the treatment of breast cancer. We found that IMBP exhibited significantly higher activity than wild-type IFNα in inhibiting cell growth and inducing cell apoptosis. Additionally, IMBP potentiated the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin-based breast cancer chemotherapy via the activation of cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis pathway genes including p53, p21, CDK2, cyclin A, caspase 9, Bcl-2 and Bax. The enhanced activity of the synthetic IMBP was also associated with the activation of signal transducer and activation of transcription 1 (STAT1) pathway target genes (STAT1, IFIT1, IFITM1 and MX1). This study evaluated the potential value of the synthetic IMBP as a novel anti-breast cancer agent.

Tsangaris GT, Dimas K, Malamou A, et al.
Molecular Proteomic Characterization of a Pediatric Medulloblastoma Xenograft.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2017 Jul-Aug; 14(4):267-275 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Medulloblastoma (MBL), an archetypal primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebellum, is the most common pediatric central nervous system malignancy representing approximately 20% of all childhood brain tumors. Herein, we report on a new xenotransplantable tumor cell line, derived from a 6-year-old female patient with cerebellar medulloblastoma, and the completele proteome molecular characterization of subsequent tumors from MBL xenotrasplanted mice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumors were grown in nude mice as subcutaneous xenografts (MBLX) composed of small round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm. Tumor specimen were extracted from animals upon their sacrifice and their molecular proteomic content was analyzed by 2-DE coupled to MALDI-TOF MS analysis.
RESULTS: Altogether 350 single-gene products were identified through the current approach, reported as the MBLX database.
CONCLUSION: This new xenotransplantable tumor model, offers the scientific community valuable insight on the validity of xenografts altogether, while providing the means for a novel experimental model towards the study of human MBL.

Chang YW, Oh CH, Kim JW, et al.
Combination of Helicobacter pylori infection and the interleukin 8 -251 T > A polymorphism, but not the mannose-binding lectin 2 codon 54 G > A polymorphism, might be a risk factor of gastric cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):388 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) acts in the innate immune response to Helicobacter pylori. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a potent cytokine produced by gastric epithelial cells in response to H. pylori. We aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms in MBL2 and IL-8 influence susceptibility to H. pylori infection, and the associations of these polymorphisms with the risk of gastroduodenal diseases in a Korean population.
METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 176 H. pylori-negative control subjects, 221 subjects with H. pylori-positive non-atrophic gastritis, 52 mild atrophic gastritis (AG), 61 severe AG, 175 duodenal ulcer, and 283 gastric cancer (GC). Allele-specific PCR-RFLP was conducted for polymorphisms in MBL2 exon 1 (codon 52, 54, and 57) and IL-8 -251 T > A. IL-8 levels in gastric mucosal tissues and serum MBL levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS: MBL2 exon 1 polymorphic variants were found only in codon 54, and the allele frequencies did not differ significantly between the control and disease groups. Although serum MBL levels in codon 54 A/A mutants were markedly low, it did not influence susceptibility to H. pylori infection or the risk of gastroduodenal diseases. IL-8 levels were significantly different between T/T wild type, T/A heterozygote, and A/A mutant genotypes. IL-8 -251 A allele carriers (A/A + T/A) showed increased IL-8 levels, and were significantly associated with the risk of severe AG and GC.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that a combination of H. pylori infection and the IL-8 -251 T > A polymorphism might increase the risk of severe AG and GC in a Korean population.

Leiss L, Mutlu E, Øyan A, et al.
Tumour-associated glial host cells display a stem-like phenotype with a distinct gene expression profile and promote growth of GBM xenografts.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):108 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of glial host cells in brain tumours. However, supporting stromal cells have been shown to foster tumour growth in other cancers.
METHODS: We isolated stromal cells from patient-derived glioblastoma (GBM) xenografts established in GFP-NOD/scid mice. With simultaneous removal of CD11b
RESULTS: TAGs were highly enriched for the expression of glial cell proteins including GFAP and myelin basic protein (MBP), and immature markers such as Nestin and O4. A fraction of TAGs displayed sphere formation in stem cell medium. Moreover, TAGs promoted brain tumour growth in vivo when co-implanted with glioma cells, compared to implanting only glioma cells, or glioma cells and unconditioned glial cells from mice without tumours. Genome-wide microarray analysis of TAGs showed an expression profile distinct from glial cells from healthy mice brains. Notably, TAGs upregulated genes associated with immature cell types and self-renewal, including Pou3f2 and Sox2. In addition, TAGs from highly angiogenic tumours showed upregulation of angiogenic factors, including Vegf and Angiopoietin 2. Immunohistochemistry of three GBMs, two patient biopsies and one GBM xenograft, confirmed that the expression of these genes was mainly confined to TAGs in the tumour bed. Furthermore, their expression profiles displayed a significant overlap with gene clusters defining prognostic subclasses of human GBMs.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that glial host cells in brain tumours are functionally distinct from glial cells of healthy mice brains. Furthermore, TAGs display a gene expression profile with enrichment for genes related to stem cells, immature cell types and developmental processes. Future studies are needed to delineate the biological mechanisms regulating the brain tumour-host interplay.

Liu Y, Wu C, Zhu T, Sun W
LMO2 Enhances Lamellipodia/Filopodia Formation in Basal-Type Breast Cancer Cells by Mediating ARP3-Profilin1 Interaction.
Med Sci Monit. 2017; 23:695-703 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND The human LMO2 gene was first cloned from an acute T lymphocytic leukemia patient; it is primarily expressed in hematopoietic and vascular endothelial systems, and functions as a pivotal transcriptional regulator during embryonic hematopoiesis and angiogenesis. However, some recent reports indicated that LMO2 is widely expressed in many tissues and tumors, predominantly in cytoplasm, and revealed complicated functions on tumor behaviors in a variety of cancer types. As an adaptor molecule, binding partners and function details of LMO2 in these solid tumors need to be further investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, we used yeast two-hybrid method to screen potential LMO2 interacting partners, MBP-pulldown, and co-immunoprecipitation assay to confirm protein-protein interactions, and confocal microscopy to reveal the subcellular localization of relevant proteins and actin cytoskeleton changes in relevant cells. RESULTS We found that ARP3 and profilin1 were 2 binding partners of LMO2, primarily in cytoplasm. LMO2. Functionally, LMO2 mediated the assembly of a complex including ARP3, profilin1, and actin monomer, increased actin monomer binding to profilin1, and promoted lamellipodia/filopodia formation in basal-type breast cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS Our data indicate a novel functional mechanism of LMO2 in facilitating the delivery of actin monomers to the branched microfilament and increasing lamellipodia/filopodia formation in basal-type breast cancer cells, suggesting a cancer-promoting role of LMO2 in a subtype-dependent manner and its potential as a subtype-specific biomarker for clinical treatment of breast cancers.

Cai W, Xiong Chen Z, Rane G, et al.
Wanted DEAD/H or Alive: Helicases Winding Up in Cancers.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017; 109(6) [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is one of the most studied areas of human biology over the past century. Despite having attracted much attention, hype, and investments, the search to find a cure for cancer remains an uphill battle. Recent discoveries that challenged the central dogma of molecular biology not only further increase the complexity but also demonstrate how various types of noncoding RNAs such as microRNA and long noncoding RNA, as well as their related processes such as RNA editing, are important in regulating gene expression. Parallel to this aspect, an increasing number of reports have focused on a family of proteins known as DEAD/H-box helicases involved in RNA metabolism, regulation of long and short noncoding RNAs, and novel roles as "editing helicases" and their association with cancers. This review summarizes recent findings on the roles of RNA helicases in various cancers, which are broadly classified into adult solid tumors, childhood solid tumors, leukemia, and cancer stem cells. The potential small molecule inhibitors of helicases and their therapeutic value are also discussed. In addition, analyzing next-generation sequencing data obtained from public portals and reviewing existing literature, we provide new insights on the potential of DEAD/H-box helicases to act as pharmacological drug targets in cancers.

Jamieson D, Sunter N, Muro S, et al.
Pharmacogenetic association of MBL2 and CD95 polymorphisms with grade 3 infection following adjuvant therapy for breast cancer with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide.
Eur J Cancer. 2017; 71:15-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Life-threatening infection as an adverse reaction to cytotoxic therapy of cancer remains a major problem, potentially limiting efficacy. Administration of colony-stimulation factors benefits only a minority of patients, and improved stratification guidelines are needed to identify those patients likely to benefit. We investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two genes related to immune function to identify associations with severe infection following treatment of breast cancer with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. CD95 mediates the extrinsic apoptosis pathway in haematopoietic cells and a CD95 promoter SNP (rs2234767) has been shown to result in reduced expression of the receptor. MBL2 activates the classical complement pathway in the presence of pathogens and independently of antibodies. Numerous SNPs have been described including a promoter SNP (rs7096206) which results in decreased expression of the protein. Homozygotes for the CD95 minor allele were more likely to experience a grade 3 infection than heterozygote and homozygote wild-type patients (29%, 3% and 5%, respectively p=0.048). CD95 minor allele homozygotes also had higher basal white blood cell and neutrophil counts compared with wild-type allele carriers, which was sustained throughout therapy. There was an allele-dose association between the MBL2 SNP and grade 3 infection, with 2, 8 and 17% of wild-type homozygotes, heterozygotes and minor allele homozygotes, respectively, experiencing grade 3 infection (p=0.02). These associations demonstrate the utility of a pharmacogenetic approach to identify individuals more likely to acquire a life-threatening infection during chemotherapy. The apparent association with a CD95 SNP and a mild neutrophilia merits further investigation.

Huang Z, Huang Q, Ji L, et al.
Epigenetic regulation of active Chinese herbal components for cancer prevention and treatment: A follow-up review.
Pharmacol Res. 2016; 114:1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modification, and other patterns. These processes are associated with carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Thus, epigenetic modification-related enzymes, such as DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), histone methyltransferases (HMTs), histone demethylases (HDMTs), histone acetyltransferases (HATs), and histone deacetylases (HDACs), as well as some related proteins, including methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBPs) and DNMT1-associated protein (DMAP 1), are considered as potential targets for cancer prevention and therapy. Numerous natural compounds, mainly derived from Chinese herbs and chemically ranging from polyphenols and flavonoids to mineral salts, inhibit the growth and development of various cancers by targeting multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. This review summarizes the epigenetic mechanisms by which active compounds from Chinese herbs exert their anti-cancer effect. A subset of these compounds, such as curcumin and resveratrol, affect multiple epigenetic processes, including DNMT inhibition, HDAC inactivation, MBP suppression, HAT activation, and microRNA modulation. Other compounds also regulate epigenetic modification processes, but the underlying mechanisms and clear targets remain unknown. Accordingly, further studies are required.

Wang HL, Lu X, Yang X, Xu N
Association of MBL2 exon1 polymorphisms with high-risk human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancers: a meta-analysis.
Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016; 294(6):1109-1116 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is the main known cause of cervical cancer. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a recognition molecule that mediates phagocytosis and activates complement.
METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association of MBL-2 functional polymorphisms with HPV infection and cervical cancer (CC).
RESULTS: The meta-analyses indicated an association between the MBL2 exon 1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to HPV infection in the recessive model (OO vs. AA + AO, p = 0.042, 95 % CI 1.02-3.15), and O/O vs. A/A mode (P = 0.023, 95 % CI 1.10-3.40) in Caucasian. Meanwhile, there was a significant association between MBL2 exon 1 polymorphisms and cervical cancer risk in AO vs. AA model (p = 0.035, 95 % CI 1.03-2.26), and Allelic model (O vs. A, p = 0.022, 95 % CI 1.05-1.96) as compared to HR-HPV-infected patients with CC vs. healthy controls in Caucasian. In addition, no an association was observed between MBL2 -550 H/L and -221 X/Y polymorphisms and HPV infection among Caucasians, but we found an association between the MBL2 -550 H/L polymorphism and susceptibility to HR-HPV infection in recessive model (HH vs. LL + LH, p = 0.003, 95 % CI 1.18-2.23), HH vs. LL model (p = 0.021, 95 % CI 1.07-2.19), and allelic model(H vs. L, p = 0.042, 95 % CI 1.01-1.40) in Asians.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, we suggest that the MBL2 gene exon1 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of high-risk HPV infection and cervical cancer development among Caucasians. Additionally, no significant association was found between the MBL2 -550 H/L or -221 X/Y polymorphisms and HPV infection in Caucasians, but there may be potential links in Asians.

Rehman SU, Rauf M, Abbas Z, et al.
Role of Some Predominant Host Immunomodulators' Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Severity of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection.
Viral Immunol. 2016; 29(10):536-545 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatitis B and C infections can be either acute or chronic. The chronic infection can culminate in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Influence of the host genetic makeup on conversion of acute to chronic infection, development of cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma is an interesting area of research. Variability in different immune system genes may account for such differences in the outcome of infection. This article discusses single nucleotide polymorphisms in different host immunomodulator genes that have been frequently reported to influence the outcome of infection and severity of disease. The genetic variability could be utilized for the prediction of disease outcome and treatment responses.

Su C, Lin Y, Cai L, et al.
Association between mannose-binding lectin variants, haplotypes and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: A case-control study.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:32147 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The innate immunity gene mannose-binding lectin2 (MBL2) has played an important role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and the relationship between MBL2 variants and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk has not yet been identified. In total, 315 HCC cases and 315 healthy controls were enrolled and blood samples were acquired. High resolution melt analysis (HRM) was employed to genotype 6 polymorphisms in MBL2 gene. Increased HCC risk in carriers of LL genotype of -550 polymorphism with an adjusted OR (AOR) of 1.61 (95%CI = 1.00-2.57) was observed but no significant association detected in HL genotype. Both YX and XX genotype demonstrated a significantly elevated HCC risk in the analysis of -221 polymorphism. The B variants in codon 54 was also significantly associated with elevated HCC risk. HYB was identified as the protective factor of HCC while LXB was significantly associated with increase HCC risk. ELISA technique revealed that the MBL2 protein was significantly reduced in HCC cases. Moreover, both IL-1β and IL-6 were inversely associated with plasma MBL2 level.The mutations in MBL2 could lead to compromised innate immunity, and possibly lead to elevated HCC risk, and a novel haplotype HXB has been identified with a rate of 12.5%.

Barrio S, Shanafelt TD, Ojha J, et al.
Genomic characterization of high-count MBL cases indicates that early detection of driver mutations and subclonal expansion are predictors of adverse clinical outcome.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(1):170-176 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
High-count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is an asymptomatic expansion of clonal B cells in the peripheral blood without other manifestations of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Yearly, 1% of MBLs evolve to CLL requiring therapy; thus being critical to understand the biological events that determine which MBLs progress to intermediate/advanced CLL. In this study, we performed targeted deep sequencing on 48 high-count MBLs, 47 of them with 2-4 sequential samples analyzed, exploring the mutation status of 21 driver genes and evaluating clonal evolution. We found somatic non-synonymous mutations in 25 MBLs (52%) at the initial time point analyzed, including 12 (25%) with >1 mutated gene. In cases that subsequently progressed to CLL, mutations were detected 41 months (median) prior to progression. Excepting NOTCH1, TP53 and XPO1, which showed a lower incidence in MBL, genes were mutated with a similar prevalence to CLL, indicating the early origin of most driver mutations in the MBL/CLL continuum. MBLs with mutations at the initial time point analyzed were associated with shorter time-to-treatment (TTT). Furthermore, MBLs showing subclonal expansion of driver mutations on sequential evaluation had shorter progression time to CLL and shorter TTT. These findings support that clonal evolution has prognostic implications already at the pre-malignant MBL stage, anticipating which individuals will progress earlier to CLL.

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