Gene Summary

Gene:ITGB1; integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12)
Summary:Integrins are heterodimeric proteins made up of alpha and beta subunits. At least 18 alpha and 8 beta subunits have been described in mammals. Integrin family members are membrane receptors involved in cell adhesion and recognition in a variety of processes including embryogenesis, hemostasis, tissue repair, immune response and metastatic diffusion of tumor cells. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants which encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:integrin beta-1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (86)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Survival Rate
  • ITGB1 (CD29)
  • Apoptosis
  • p53 Protein
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Vitronectin
  • Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Messenger RNA
  • Chromosome 10
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Cell Division
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Integrins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Extracellular Matrix
  • Fibronectins
  • Western Blotting
  • Testosterone
  • Tumor Markers
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Collagen
  • Staining and Labeling
  • Skin
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Down-Regulation
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Phosphorylation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cell Movement
  • Transcription
  • Gene Expression
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Angiogenesis
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ITGB1 (cancer-related)

Shin SH, Lee KH, Kim BH, et al.
Downregulation of spleen tyrosine kinase in hepatocellular carcinoma by promoter CpG island hypermethylation and its potential role in carcinogenesis.
Lab Invest. 2014; 94(12):1396-405 [PubMed] Related Publications
Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) has predominantly been studied in hematopoietic cells, where it is involved in immunoreceptor-mediated signaling. However, SYK expression has been shown in numerous non-hematopoietic cells, and its downregulation has been shown to be involved in tumor formation and progression. SYK methylation has been demonstrated to identify a subset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases with poor prognosis, but little is known regarding the biological role of SYK in HCC. We found that SYK methylation is a common event in HCC, and is inversely associated with its expression. We established stable HCC cell lines with inducible SYK expression vectors, and compared the differential RNA expression profiles of HCC cell lines with or without the induction of SYK. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the SYK-regulated genes were enriched for genes involved in cell adhesion. Accordingly, we found that the induction of SYK expression increased the adhesion of cells to fibronectin and decreased cell migration and invasion, and that cessation of SYK overexpression increased cell migration and invasion. Our findings suggest that SYK is involved in regulating cell to matrix adhesions, and that SYK loss affects the migration, and invasion of HCC cells.

He XJ, Tao HQ, Hu ZM, et al.
Expression of galectin-1 in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts promotes gastric cancer cell invasion through upregulation of integrin β1.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(11):1402-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increased expression of galectin-1 (Gal-1) in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) has been reported to correlate with progression and prognosis in many cancers. However, rarely have reports sought to determine whether high Gal-1 expression in CAFs in gastric cancer is involved in the tumor process, and the specific mechanism by which it promotes the evolution of gastric cancer is still unknown. In this study, we cultured gastric cancer CAFs, which showed strong expression of Gal-1, and established a co-culture system of CAFs with gastric cancer cells. Specific siRNA and in vitro migration and invasion assays were used to explore the effects of the interaction between Gal-1 expression of CAFs and gastric cancer cells on cell migration and invasion. We found that the overexpression of Gal-1 in CAFs enhanced gastric cancer cell migration and invasion, and these stimulatory effects could be blocked by specific siRNA which reduced the Gal-1 expression level. A set of cancer invasion-associated genes were then chosen to identify the possible mechanism of Gal-1-induced cell invasion. Among these genes, integrin β1 expression in cancer cells was considered to be associated with Gal-1 expression. Pre-blocking of the integrin β1 expression in gastric cancer cells with siRNA could interrupt the invasion-promoting effect of CAFs with high Gal-1 expression. Furthermore, immunohistochemical assay confirmed a positive correlation between Gal-1 and integrin β1 expression. Our results showed that high expression of Gal-1 in CAFs might facilitate gastric cancer cell migration and invasion by upregulating integrin β1 expression in gastric cancer.

Broustas CG, Lieberman HB
RAD9 enhances radioresistance of human prostate cancer cells through regulation of ITGB1 protein levels.
Prostate. 2014; 74(14):1359-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mouse embryonic stem cells null for Rad9 are sensitive to deleterious effects of ionizing radiation exposure. Likewise, integrin β1 is a known radioprotective factor. Previously, we showed that RAD9 downregulation in human prostate cancer cells reduces integrin β1 protein levels and ectopic expression of Mrad9 restores inherent high levels.
METHODS: We used RNA interference to knockdown Rad9 expression in PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells. These cells were then exposed to ionizing radiation, and integrin β1 protein levels were measured by immunoblotting. Survival of irradiated cells was measured by clonogenicity, cell cycle analysis, PARP-1 cleavage, and trypan blue exclusion.
RESULTS: The function of RAD9 in controlling integrin β1 expression is unique and not shared by the other members of the 9-1-1 complex, HUS1 and RAD1. RAD9 or integrin β1 silencing sensitizes DU145 and PC3 cells to ionizing radiation. Irradiation of DU145 cells with low levels of RAD9 induces cleavage of PARP-1 protein. High levels of ionizing radiation have no effect on integrin β1 protein levels. However, when RAD9 downregulation is combined with 10 Gy of ionizing radiation in DU145 or PC3 cells, there is an additional 50% downregulation of integrin β1 compared with levels in unirradiated RAD9 knockdown cells. Finally, PC3 cells growing on fibronectin display increased radioresistance. However, PC3 cells with RAD9 knockdown are no longer protected by fibronectin after treatment with ionizing radiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Downregulation of RAD9 when combined with ionizing radiation results in reduction of ITGB1 protein levels in prostate cancer cells, and increased lethality.

Han S, Li Z, Master LM, et al.
Exogenous IGFBP-2 promotes proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance to temozolomide in glioma cells via the integrin β1-ERK pathway.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(7):1400-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 23/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) is significantly increased in the serum of patients with malignant gliomas. High plasma IGFBP-2 levels are correlated with poor prognosis in glioma patients. However, the exact role of exogenous IGFBP-2 in gliomas is unclear.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the MTT cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis, and the transwell migration assay, it was demonstrated that IGFBP-2 treatment stimulated proliferation and invasion in U87 and U251 cell lines and primary SU3 glioma cells. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining revealed that IGFBP-2 promoted ERK phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Moreover, blocking ERK activation using the inhibitor PD98059 markedly reduced the effects of IGFBP-2 in glioma cells. As IGFBP-2 has an integrin-binding domain, the contribution of integrin β1 to these IGFBP-2-mediated processes was examined. Neutralisation or knockdown of the expression of integrin β1 inhibited IGFBP-2-induced ERK activation, cell proliferation, and cell invasion. Significantly, IGFBP-2 induced temozolomide resistance in glioma cells in an integrin β1/ERK-dependent manner.
CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous IGFBP-2 induces proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance in glioma cells via integrin β1/ERK signaling, suggesting that targeting this pathway could represent a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of gliomas. The identification of this pathway in glioma progression provides insight into the mechanism by which serum IGFBP-2 levels can predict the prognosis of glioma patients.

Klahan S, Wu MS, Hsi E, et al.
Computational analysis of mRNA expression profiles identifies the ITG family and PIK3R3 as crucial genes for regulating triple negative breast cancer cell migration.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:536591 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 23/09/2015 Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2/neu). TNBC has worse clinical outcomes than other breast cancer subtypes. However, the key molecules and mechanisms of TNBC migration remain unclear. In this study, we compared two normalized microarray datasets from GEO database between Asian (GSE33926) and non-Asian populations (GSE46581) to determine the molecules and common pathways in TNBC migration. We demonstrated that 16 genes in non-Asian samples and 9 genes in Asian samples are related to TNBC migration. In addition, our analytic results showed that 4 genes, PIK3R3, ITGB1, ITGAL, and ITGA6, were involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Our results indicated potential genes that link to TNBC migration. This study may help identify novel therapeutic targets for drug development in cancer therapy.

Ma WL, Jeng LB, Lai HC, et al.
Androgen receptor enhances cell adhesion and decreases cell migration via modulating β1-integrin-AKT signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 351(1):64-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) has been shown to promote the initiation and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during the early stage of the disease process and to suppress HCC cell invasion during the later stages of the disease. The mechanisms governing these dual yet opposite roles have yet to be elucidated. Using carcinogen-induced HCC in vivo mouse models and the in vitro human HCC cell line SKhep1, we found that knockout of AR in primary HCC cells led to a decrease in HCC cell focal adhesion capacity compared to cells from wildtype mice. Similar results were obtained after adding functional AR into human HCC SKhep1 cells. Further analysis revealed that the role AR plays in adhesion of HCC cells is governed, at least in part, by its ability to up-regulate β1-integrin and activate the PI3K/AKT pathway. We also found that AR-β1-integrin-mediated cell adhesion suppresses cell migration. Those findings indicate that the AR-β1-integrin-PI3K/AKT signaling pathway might play a role in the bimodal function of AR on cell adhesion and migration at the cellular level.

Xu Y, Zhang H, Lit LC, et al.
The kinase LMTK3 promotes invasion in breast cancer through GRB2-mediated induction of integrin β₁.
Sci Signal. 2014; 7(330):ra58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lemur tyrosine kinase 3 (LMTK3) is associated with cell proliferation and endocrine resistance in breast cancer. We found that, in cultured breast cancer cell lines, LMTK3 promotes the development of a metastatic phenotype by inducing the expression of genes encoding integrin subunits. Invasive behavior in various breast cancer cell lines positively correlated with the abundance of LMTK3. Overexpression of LMTK3 in a breast cancer cell line with low endogenous LMTK3 abundance promoted actin cytoskeleton remodeling, focal adhesion formation, and adhesion to collagen and fibronectin in culture. Using SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) proteomic analysis, we found that LMTK3 increased the abundance of integrin subunits α5 and β1, encoded by ITGA5 and ITGB1. This effect depended on the CDC42 Rho family guanosine triphosphatase, which was in turn activated by the interaction between LMTK3 and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), an adaptor protein that mediates receptor tyrosine kinase-induced activation of RAS and downstream signaling. Knockdown of GRB2 suppressed LMTK3-induced CDC42 activation, blocked ITGA5 and ITGB1 expression promoted by the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF), and reduced invasive activity. Furthermore, abundance of LMTK3 positively correlated with that of the integrin β1 subunit in breast cancer patient's tumors. Our findings suggest a role for LMTK3 in promoting integrin activity during breast cancer progression and metastasis.

Naderi A, Vanneste M
Prolactin-induced protein is required for cell cycle progression in breast cancer.
Neoplasia. 2014; 16(4):329-42.e1-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 23/09/2015 Related Publications
Prolactin-induced protein (PIP) is expressed in the majority of breast cancers and is used for the diagnostic evaluation of this disease as a characteristic biomarker; however, the molecular mechanisms of PIP function in breast cancer have remained largely unknown. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive investigation of PIP function using PIP silencing in a broad group of breast cancer cell lines, analysis of expression microarray data, proteomic analysis using mass spectrometry, and biomarker studies on breast tumors. We demonstrated that PIP is required for the progression through G1 phase, mitosis, and cytokinesis in luminal A, luminal B, and molecular apocrine breast cancer cells. In addition, PIP expression is associated with a transcriptional signature enriched with cell cycle genes and regulates key genes in this process including cyclin D1, cyclin B1, BUB1, and forkhead box M1 (FOXM1). It is notable that defects in mitotic transition and cytokinesis following PIP silencing are accompanied by an increase in aneuploidy of breast cancer cells. Importantly, we have identified novel PIP-binding partners in breast cancer and shown that PIP binds to β-tubulin and is necessary for microtubule polymerization. Furthermore, PIP interacts with actin-binding proteins including Arp2/3 and is needed for inside-out activation of integrin-β1 mediated through talin. This study suggests that PIP is required for cell cycle progression in breast cancer and provides a rationale for exploring PIP inhibition as a therapeutic approach in breast cancer that can potentially target microtubule polymerization.

Song J, Zhang J, Wang J, et al.
β1 integrin modulates tumor growth and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(1):302-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to ascertain whether β1 integrin (ITGB1) induces apoptosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) through regulation of the mitochondrial pathway in vitro and in vivo. We generated lentiviral vectors expressing ITGB1 or ITGB1-specific RNAi and an unrelated control vector. After infection of the HT29 cells, we used western blot analysis and flow cytometric analysis to validate the patterns of ITGB1 expression. Proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by colony formation assay, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Upregulation of ITGB1 significantly increased the proliferation of HT29 cells; however, the levels of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 proteins were upregulated while Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9 and p21 were downregulated in the HT29-ITGB1 cells compared to these levels in the controls. Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometric analysis showed that ITGB1 may play a significant role in the apoptosis of CRC cells. Moreover, ITGB1 promoted the proliferation of cells in a xenograft tumor mouse model. TUNEL staining revealed a marked increase in the percentage of positive cells in the HT29-RNAi group (84.3 ± 4.0%), which were more significant than in the HT29-ITGB1 group (48.3 ± 2.9%) and the other two control groups, HT29 (52.0 ± 3.6%) and HT29-NC (49.7 ± 4.5%). These results suggest that ITGB1 regulates the growth and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells.

Lee YH, Kim JH, Song GG
Genome-wide pathway analysis of breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(8):7699-705 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to identify candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might affect susceptibility to breast cancer and then elucidate their potential mechanisms and generate SNP-to-gene-to-pathway hypotheses. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) dataset of breast cancer that included 453,852 SNPs from 1,145 breast cancer patients and 1,142 control subjects of European descent was used in this study. The identify candidate causal SNPs and pathways (ICSNPathway) method was applied to the GWAS dataset. ICSNPathway analysis identified 16 candidate SNPs, 13 genes, and 7 pathways, which together revealed 7 hypothetical biological mechanisms. The strongest hypothetical biological mechanism was that rs3168891 and rs2899849 alter the role of MBIP in the inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (p < 0.001; false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.038). The second strongest mechanism was that rs2229714 modulates RPS6KA1 to affect its role in growth hormone signaling (p = 0.001; FDR = 0.039). The third strongest mechanism was that rs2230394 modulates ITGB1 to regulate the PTEN pathway and hsa04360 (axon guidance pathway) (p < 0.001; FDR = 0.039, 0.041). Use of the ICSNPathway to analyze breast cancer GWAS data identified 16 candidate SNPs, 13 genes (including MBIP, RPS6KA1, and ITGB1), and 7 pathways that might contribute to the susceptibility of patients to breast cancer.

Sayyah J, Bartakova A, Nogal N, et al.
The Ras-related protein, Rap1A, mediates thrombin-stimulated, integrin-dependent glioblastoma cell proliferation and tumor growth.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(25):17689-98 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/06/2015 Related Publications
Rap1 is a Ras family GTPase with a well documented role in ERK/MAP kinase signaling and integrin activation. Stimulation of the G-protein-coupled receptor PAR-1 with thrombin in human 1321N1 glioblastoma cells led to a robust increase in Rap1 activation. This response was sustained for up to 6 h and mediated through RhoA and phospholipase D (PLD). Thrombin treatment also induced a 5-fold increase in cell adhesion to fibronectin, which was blocked by down-regulating PLD or Rap1A or by treatment with a β1 integrin neutralizing antibody. In addition, thrombin treatment led to increases in phospho-focal adhesion kinase (tyrosine 397), ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation, which were significantly inhibited in cells treated with β1 integrin antibody or Rap1A siRNA. To assess the role of Rap1A in tumor formation in vivo, we compared growth of 1321N1 cells stably expressing control, Rap1A or Rap1B shRNA in a mouse xenograft model. Deletion of Rap1A, but not of Rap1B, reduced tumor mass by >70% relative to control. Similar observations were made with U373MG glioblastoma cells in which Rap1A was down-regulated. Collectively, these findings implicate a Rap1A/β1 integrin pathway, activated downstream of G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation and RhoA, in glioblastoma cell proliferation. Moreover, our data demonstrate a critical role for Rap1A in glioblastoma tumor growth in vivo.

Zhan P, Liu L, Liu B, Mao XG
Expression of integrin β1 and its significance in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 9(6):2473-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to examine the expression of integrin β1 in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix and its association with the clinicopathological features of patients. The expression of integrin β1 in 87 SCC cervical tissues and 32 normal cervical tissues was detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot analysis and the immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase method. Integrin β1 expression was greater in SCC cervical tissues compared with that in normal cervical tissues (P<0.05), and its mean expression level in the SCC cervical tissues was also markedly higher compared with that in the normal cervical tissues (P<0.05). In terms of the association between the expression of integrin β1 with clinicopathological features, patients with stage IIA SCC had higher integrin β1 positive rates compared with patients with stage I SCC (P<0.05). The integrin β1 positive rates in SCC tissues with histological grade 3 were also significantly higher than that in the SCC tissues with histological grade 1 (P<0.05). Furthermore, patients with cervical SCC with lymph node metastasis showed increased integrin β1 positive expression compared with those without lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). In conclusion, the expression of integrin β1 protein in cervical SCC tissues was significantly higher than that in the normal cervical tissues, and it increased with the clinical stage and the degree of malignancy.

Lee SY, Kim JM, Cho SY, et al.
TIMP-1 modulates chemotaxis of human neural stem cells through CD63 and integrin signalling.
Biochem J. 2014; 459(3):565-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
We recently reported that hNSCs (human neural stem cells) have the interesting characteristic of migration towards an intracranial glioma. However, the molecules and mechanisms responsible for tumour tropism are unclear. In the present study, we used microarray and proteomics analyses to identify a novel chemoattractant molecule, TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1), secreted from human brain tumour tissues. We demonstrate that TIMP-1 significantly enhances hNSC adhesion and migration in a cell culture system. These effects were critically dependent on CD63, as shRNA-mediated ablation of CD63 expression attenuated the response. TIMP-1 significantly increased the number of FAs (focal adhesions) and cytoskeletal reorganization for cell migration in hNSCs, whereas knockdown of CD63 resulted in decreased hNSC spreading, FAs and migration, even after TIMP-1 treatment. In addition, TIMP-1 binding to CD63 activated β1 integrin-mediated signalling through Akt and FAK phosphorylation, leading to pattern changes in distribution of vinculin and F-actin (filamentous actin). Furthermore, inactivation of β1 integrin by use of a blocking antibody or inhibition of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) signalling impaired the migration of hNSCs towards TIMP-1. Collectively, our results underline TIMP-1 as a novel and effective key regulator of CD63 and β1 integrin-mediated signalling, which regulates hNSC adhesion and migration.

Lu YC, Chen CN, Chu CY, et al.
Calreticulin activates β1 integrin via fucosylation by fucosyltransferase 1 in J82 human bladder cancer cells.
Biochem J. 2014; 460(1):69-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fucosylation regulates various pathological events in cells. We reported that different levels of CRT (calreticulin) affect the cell adhesion and metastasis of bladder cancer. However, the precise mechanism of tumour metastasis regulated by CRT remains unclear. Using a DNA array, we identified FUT1 (fucosyltransferase 1) as a gene regulated by CRT expression levels. CRT regulated cell adhesion through α1,2-linked fucosylation of β1 integrin and this modification was catalysed by FUT1. To clarify the roles for FUT1 in bladder cancer, we transfected the human FUT1 gene into CRT-RNAi stable cell lines. FUT1 overexpression in CRT-RNAi cells resulted in increased levels of β1 integrin fucosylation and rescued cell adhesion to type-I collagen. Treatment with UEA-1 (Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1), a lectin that recognizes FUT1-modified glycosylation structures, did not affect cell adhesion. In contrast, a FUT1-specific fucosidase diminished the activation of β1 integrin. These results indicated that α1,2-fucosylation of β1 integrin was not involved in integrin-collagen interaction, but promoted β1 integrin activation. Moreover, we demonstrated that CRT regulated FUT1 mRNA degradation at the 3'-UTR. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that CRT stabilized FUT1 mRNA, thereby leading to an increase in fucosylation of β1 integrin. Furthermore, increased fucosylation levels activate β1 integrin, rather than directly modifying the integrin-binding sites.

Bai X, Yang Q, Shu W, et al.
Prostaglandin E2 upregulates β1 integrin expression via the E prostanoid 1 receptor/nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway in non-small-cell lung cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 9(5):1729-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) E prostanoid (EP)1 receptor shown to be associated with lung cancer cell invasion. However, the mechanism of EP1 receptor-mediated cell migration remains to be elucidated. β1 integrin is an essential regulator of the tumorigenic properties of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. To date, little is known regarding the association between the EP1 receptor and β1 integrin expression. The present study investigated the effect of EP1 receptor activation on β1 integrin expression and cell migration in NSCLC cells. A total of 34 patients with clinical diagnosis of NSCLC and 10 patients with benign disease were recruited for the present study. The expression levels of the EP1 receptor and β1 integrin expression were studied in resected lung tissue using immunohistochemistry. A statistical analysis was performed using Stata se12.0 software. The effects of PGE2, EP1 agonist 17-phenyl trinor-PGE2 (17-PT-PGE2) and the nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κB) inhibitor on β1 integrin expression were investigated on A549 cells. The expression of β1 integrin and the phosphorylation of NF-κB‑p65 Ser536 was investigated by western blot analysis. Cell migration was assessed by a transwell assay. The results demonstrated that β1 integrin and EP1 receptor expression exhibited a positive correlation of evident significance in the 44 samples. The in vitro migration assay revealed that cell migration was increased by 30% when the cells were treated with 5 µM 17-PT-PGE2 and that the pre-treatment of β1 integrin monoclonal antibody inhibited 17-PT-PGE2‑mediated cell migration completely. PGE2 and 17-PT-PGE2 treatment increased β1 integrin expression. RNA interference against the EP1 receptor blocked the PGE2-mediated β1 integrin expression in A549 cells. Treatment with 17-PT-PGE2 induced NF-κB activation, and the selective NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate inhibited 17-PT-PGE2-mediated β1 integrin expression. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the PGE2 EP1 receptor regulates β1 integrin expression and cell migration in NSCLC cells by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway. Targeting the PGE2/EP1/β1 integrin signaling pathway may aid in the development of new therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of this type of cancer.

Chen CC, Chen LL, Hsu YT, et al.
The endothelin-integrin axis is involved in macrophage-induced breast cancer cell chemotactic interactions with endothelial cells.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(14):10029-44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/04/2015 Related Publications
Elevated macrophage infiltration in tumor tissues is associated with breast cancer metastasis. Cancer cell migration/invasion toward angiogenic microvasculature is a key step in metastatic spread. We therefore studied how macrophages stimulated breast cancer cell interactions with endothelial cells. Macrophages produced cytokines, such as interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α, to stimulate endothelin (ET) and ET receptor (ETR) expression in breast cancer cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). ET-1 was induced to a greater extent from HUVECs than from breast cancer cells, resulting in a density difference that facilitated cancer cell chemotaxis toward HUVECs. Macrophages also stimulated breast cancer cell adhesion to HUVECs and transendothelial migration, which were repressed by ET-1 antibody or ETR inhibitors. The ET axis induced integrins, such as αV and β1, and their counterligands, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-2 and P-selectin, in breast cancer cells and HUVECs, and antibodies against these integrins efficiently suppressed macrophage-stimulated breast cancer cell interactions with HUVECs. ET-1 induced Ets-like kinase-1 (Elk-1), signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) phosphorylation in breast cancer cells. The use of inhibitors to prevent their phosphorylation or ectopic overexpression of dominant-negative IκBα perturbed ET-1-induced integrin αV and integrin β1 expression. The physical associations of these three transcriptional factors with the gene promoters of the two integrins were furthermore evidenced by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Finally, our mouse orthotopic tumor model revealed an ET axis-mediated lung metastasis of macrophage-stimulated breast cancer cells, suggesting that the ET axis was involved in macrophage-enhanced breast cancer cell endothelial interactions.

Truong HH, Xiong J, Ghotra VP, et al.
β1 integrin inhibition elicits a prometastatic switch through the TGFβ-miR-200-ZEB network in E-cadherin-positive triple-negative breast cancer.
Sci Signal. 2014; 7(312):ra15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) through integrin adhesion receptors provide cancer cells with physical and chemical cues that act together with growth factors to support survival and proliferation. Antagonists that target integrins containing the β1 subunit inhibit tumor growth and sensitize cells to irradiation or cytotoxic chemotherapy in preclinical breast cancer models and are under clinical investigation. We found that the loss of β1 integrins attenuated breast tumor growth but markedly enhanced tumor cell dissemination to the lungs. When cultured in three-dimensional ECM scaffolds, antibodies that blocked β1 integrin function or knockdown of β1 switched the migratory behavior of human and mouse E-cadherin-positive triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells from collective to single cell movement. This switch involved activation of the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling network that led to a shift in the balance between miR-200 microRNAs and the transcription factor zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2), resulting in suppressed transcription of the gene encoding E-cadherin. Reducing the abundance of a TGFβ receptor, restoring the ZEB/miR-200 balance, or increasing the abundance of E-cadherin reestablished cohesion in β1 integrin-deficient cells and reduced dissemination to the lungs without affecting growth of the primary tumor. These findings reveal that β1 integrins control a signaling network that promotes an epithelial phenotype and suppresses dissemination and indicate that targeting β1 integrins may have undesirable effects in TNBC.

Kowalczuk O, Burzykowski T, Niklinska WE, et al.
CXCL5 as a potential novel prognostic factor in early stage non-small cell lung cancer: results of a study of expression levels of 23 genes.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4619-28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/04/2015 Related Publications
As the current staging system is imprecise for estimating prognosis of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is important to identify other methods for selecting high-risk patients after failed surgical treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of 23 genes as putative prognostic markers in early stage NSCLC. The study was performed on 109 pairs of tumor and matched unaffected lung tissue surgical specimens taken from stage I and II NSCLC patients. We evaluated the mRNA level of 23 genes using the real-time PCR method. The difference in the expression between the tumor and normal tissue for each gene was analyzed using a general linear model. The influence of gene expression on survival was analyzed by using the proportional hazards model. Eighteen out of the 23 genes showed statistically significant differences in expression between the tumor and non-tumor tissue. For 12 genes (ITGB1, ITGB3, CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCR3, CXCR4, TNF, CHKA, AGFG1, and CTC1), the expression was lower, and for six genes (ITGA5, IL8, IL6, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL12), it was higher in the tumor tissue as compared to the matched normal tissue. Expression changes were more pronounced in squamous cell carcinomas than in adenocarcinomas or large cell carcinomas. Of all the analyzed genes, only CXCL5 was found to statistically significantly (p = 0.04) influence both overall and disease-free survival. Among the 23 genes previously suggested to be relevant for early staged NSCLC patients' postoperative outcome, only CXCL5 showed a statistically significant prognostic effect.

Zhao Y, Miao G, Li Y, et al.
MicroRNA- 130b suppresses migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells through downregulation of integrin β1 [corrected].
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e87938 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/04/2015 Related Publications
MicroRNA 130b (miR-130b) is significantly dysregulated in various human tumor types. In this study, using a microarray assay, we characterized the upregulation of miR-130b expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens. However, there is limited knowledge about the roles of aberrant miR-130b expression in CRC. Our studies in CRC cells demonstrated that miR-130b significantly decreases cell migration and invasion, but it has no evidently effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis. In the overexpression miR-130b CRC cells and the CRC specimens, we observed a decreased level of integrin β1 protein, which is considered as a key molecule involved in cell motility. The targeting of the 3'-UTR region of integrin β1 gene by miR-130b was revealed using a luciferase reporter assay. The regulation of integrin β1 by miR-130b was further shown using the miR-130b mimics and the inhibitor of miR-130b. The impaired motility of the miR-130b overexpression cells is recovered partly by the expression of integrin β1 lacking the 3'-UTR. Additionally, the knockdown of integrin β1 also gives rise to a decrease in cell migration and invasion, which is similar to the impeded motility due to overexpression of miR-130b in CRC cells. Furthermore, the inverse expressions of miR-130b and integrin β1 were observed in CRC specimens. In summary, these data demonstrate that miR-130b downregulates its target-integrin β1, leading to the impaired migration and invasion of CRC cells.

Zha R, Guo W, Zhang Z, et al.
Genome-wide screening identified that miR-134 acts as a metastasis suppressor by targeting integrin β1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e87665 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/04/2015 Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, single-stranded, non-coding RNAs that play pivotal roles in human cancer development and progression, such as tumor metastasis. Here, we identified the miRNAs that regulate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell migration by a high-throughput screening method using the classical wound-healing assay with time-lapse video microscopy and validation with a transwell migration assay. Eleven miRNAs (miR-134, -146b-3p, -188-3p, -525-3p, -661, -767-5p, -891a, -891b, -1244, -1247 and miR-1471) were found to promote or inhibit HCC cell migration. Further investigation revealed that miR-134 suppressed the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo, and integrin beta 1 (ITGB1) was a direct and functional target gene of miR-134. Moreover, miR-134 inhibited the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the activation of RhoA downstream of the ITGB1 pathway, thereby decreasing stress fiber formation and cell adhesion in HCC cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that miR-134 is a novel metastasis suppressor in HCC and could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC.

Sossey-Alaoui K, Pluskota E, Davuluri G, et al.
Kindlin-3 enhances breast cancer progression and metastasis by activating Twist-mediated angiogenesis.
FASEB J. 2014; 28(5):2260-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
The FERM domain containing protein Kindlin-3 has been recognized as a major regulator of integrin function in hematopoietic cells, but its role in neoplasia is totally unknown. We have examined the relationship between Kindlin-3 and breast cancer in mouse models and human tissues. Human breast tumors showed a ∼7-fold elevation in Kindlin-3 mRNA compared with nonneoplastic tissue by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Kindlin-3 overexpression in a breast cancer cell line increased primary tumor growth and lung metastasis by 2.5- and 3-fold, respectively, when implanted into mice compared with cells expressing vector alone. Mechanistically, the Kindlin-3-overexpressing cells displayed a 2.2-fold increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and enhanced β1 integrin activation. Increased VEGF secretion resulted from enhanced production of Twist, a transcription factor that promotes tumor angiogenesis. Knockdown of Twist diminished VEGF production, and knockdown of β1 integrins diminished Twist and VEGF production by Kindlin-3-overexpressing cells, while nontargeting small interfering RNA had no effect on expression of these gene products. Thus, Kindlin-3 influences breast cancer progression by influencing the crosstalk between β1 integrins and Twist to increase VEGF production. This signaling cascade enhances breast cancer cell invasion and tumor angiogenesis and metastasis.

Okamoto T, Iwata S, Yamazaki H, et al.
CD9 negatively regulates CD26 expression and inhibits CD26-mediated enhancement of invasive potential of malignant mesothelioma cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e86671 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV is a cell surface glycoprotein which consists of multiple functional domains beside its ectopeptidase site. A growing body of evidence indicates that elevated expression of CD26 correlates with disease aggressiveness and invasive potential of selected malignancies. To further explore the molecular mechanisms involved in this clinical behavior, our current work focused on the interaction between CD26 and CD9, which were recently identified as novel markers for cancer stem cells in malignant mesothelioma. We found that CD26 and CD9 co-modulated and co-precipitated with each other in the malignant mesothelioma cell lines ACC-MESO1 and MSTO-211H. SiRNA study revealed that depletion of CD26 led to increased CD9 expression, while depletion of CD9 resulted in increased CD26 expression. Consistent with these findings was the fact that gene transfer of CD26 into CD26-negative MSTO-211H cells reduced CD9 expression. Cell invasion assay showed that overexpression of CD26 or gene depletion of CD9 led to enhanced invasiveness, while CD26 gene depletion resulted in reduced invasive potential. Furthermore, our work suggested that this enhanced invasiveness may be partly mediated by α5β1 integrin, since co-precipitation studies demonstrated an association between CD26 and α5β1 integrin. Finally, gene depletion of CD9 resulted in elevated protein levels and tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK and Cas-L, which are downstream of β1 integrin, while depletion of CD26 led to a reduction in the levels of these molecules. Collectively, our findings suggest that CD26 potentiates tumor cell invasion through its interaction with α5β1 integrin, and CD9 negatively regulates tumor cell invasion by reducing the level of CD26-α5β1 integrin complex through an inverse correlation between CD9 and CD26 expression. Our results also suggest that CD26 and CD9 serve as potential biomarkers as well as promising molecular targets for novel therapeutic approaches in malignant mesothelioma and other malignancies.

Chen CH, Wang SH, Liu CH, et al.
β-1,4-Galactosyltransferase III suppresses β1 integrin-mediated invasive phenotypes and negatively correlates with metastasis in colorectal cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(6):1258-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis often occurs in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and is the main difficulty in cancer treatment. The upregulation of poly-N-acetyllactosamine-related glycosylation is found in CRC patients and is associated with progression and metastasis in cancer. β-1,4-Galactosyltransferase III (B4GALT3) is an enzyme responsible for poly-N-acetyllactosamine synthesis, and therefore, we investigated its expression in CRC patients. We found that B4GALT3 negatively correlated with poorly differentiated histology (P < 0.001), advanced stages (P = 0.0052), regional lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0018) and distant metastasis (P = 0.0463) in CRC patients. B4GALT3 overexpression in CRC cells suppressed cell migration, invasion and adhesion, whereas B4GALT3 knockdown enhanced malignant cell phenotypes. The β1 integrin-blocking antibody reversed the B4GALT3-mediated increase in cell invasion. B4GALT3 expression altered glycosylation on the N-glycan of β1 integrin probably through changes in poly-N-acetyllactosamine expression. Furthermore, more activated β1 integrin along with the activation of its downstream signaling transduction were found in B4GALT3 knockdown cells, whereas overexpression of B4GALT3 suppressed the expression of active β1 integrin and inhibited its downstream signaling. Our results suggest that B4GALT3 is negatively associated with CRC metastasis and suppresses cell invasiveness through inhibiting activation of β1 integrin.

Jing Y, Jia D, Wong CM, et al.
SERPINA5 inhibits tumor cell migration by modulating the fibronectin-integrin β1 signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Oncol. 2014; 8(2):366-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
In our previous study, we identified 1241 loci with somatic copy number alterations in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 arrays, and a putative cancer gene SERPINA5 was uncovered in a novel chromosomal region with recurrent copy number loss at 14q31.1-32.13. The SERPINA5 was reported to be deregulated in renal, breast, prostate and ovarian cancers. However, the roles of SERPINA5 in cancer remain greatly elusive. In this study, we found that the DNA dosage and expression level of the SERPINA5 gene were significantly decreased in HCC by quantitative real-time PCR. Notably, the expression levels of SERPINA5 negatively correlated with malignant progression of HCC. The SERPINA5 gene was further observed to reduce in vitro and in vivo metastatic potential of HCC cells. Moreover, secreted SERPINA5 protein also could inhibit the metastatic ability of HCC cells. Finally, we discovered that one of the mechanisms explaining SERPINA5 inhibition of HCC metastasis is through direct interaction with fibronectin and disruption of the fibronectin-integrin signaling pathway. These findings highlight an important role of SERPINA5 in the regulation of migratory and metastatic potentials of HCC and suggest a potential application of SERPINA5 in cancer treatment.

Romagnoli M, Mineva ND, Polmear M, et al.
ADAM8 expression in invasive breast cancer promotes tumor dissemination and metastasis.
EMBO Mol Med. 2014; 6(2):278-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
The transmembrane metalloprotease-disintegrin ADAM8 mediates cell adhesion and shedding of ligands, receptors and extracellular matrix components. Here, we report that ADAM8 is abundantly expressed in breast tumors and derived metastases compared to normal tissue, especially in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs). Furthermore, high ADAM8 levels predicted poor patient outcome. Consistently, ADAM8 promoted an aggressive phenotype of TNBC cells in culture. In a mouse orthotopic model, tumors derived from TNBC cells with ADAM8 knockdown failed to grow beyond a palpable size and displayed poor vascularization. Circulating tumor cells and brain metastases were also significantly reduced. Mechanistically, ADAM8 stimulated both angiogenesis through release of VEGF-A and transendothelial cell migration via β1-integrin activation. In vivo, treatment with an anti-ADAM8 antibody from the time of cell inoculation reduced primary tumor burden and metastases. Furthermore, antibody treatment of established tumors profoundly decreased metastases in a resection model. As a non-essential protein under physiological conditions, ADAM8 represents a promising novel target for treatment of TNBCs, which currently lack targeted therapies and frequently progress with fatal dissemination.

Weitzenfeld P, Meron N, Leibovich-Rivkin T, et al.
Progression of luminal breast tumors is promoted by ménage à trois between the inflammatory cytokine TNFα and the hormonal and growth-supporting arms of the tumor microenvironment.
Mediators Inflamm. 2013; 2013:720536 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Breast cancer progression is strongly linked to inflammatory processes, aggravating disease course. The impacts of the inflammatory cytokine TNF α on breast malignancy are not fully substantiated, and they may be affected by cooperativity between TNF α and other protumoral mediators. Here, we show that together with representatives of other important arms of the tumor microenvironment, estrogen (hormonal) and EGF (growth-supporting), TNF α potently induced metastasis-related properties and functions in luminal breast tumor cells, representing the most common type of breast cancer. Jointly, TNFα + Estrogen + EGF had a stronger effect on breast cancer cells than each element alone, leading to the following: (1) extensive cell spreading and formation of FAK/paxillin-enriched cellular protrusions; (2) elevated proportion of tumor cells coexpressing high levels of CD44 and β 1 and VLA6; (3) EMT and cell migration; (4) resistance to chemotherapy; (5) release of protumoral factors (CXCL8, CCL2, MMPs). Importantly, the tumor cells used in this study are known to be nonmetastatic under all conditions; nevertheless, they have acquired high metastasizing abilities in vivo in mice, following a brief stimulation by TNFα + Estrogen + EGF. These dramatic findings indicate that TNF α can turn into a strong prometastatic factor, suggesting a paradigm shift in which clinically approved inhibitors of TNFα would be applied in breast cancer therapy.

Milinkovic V, Bankovic J, Rakic M, et al.
Identification of novel genetic alterations in samples of malignant glioma patients.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e82108 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant human brain tumor. High level of genomic instability detected in glioma cells implies that numerous genetic alterations accumulate during glioma pathogenesis. We investigated alterations in AP-PCR DNA profiles of 30 glioma patients, and detected specific changes in 11 genes not previously associated with this disease: LHFPL3, SGCG, HTR4, ITGB1, CPS1, PROS1, GP2, KCNG2, PDE4D, KIR3DL3, and INPP5A. Further correlations revealed that 8 genes might play important role in pathogenesis of glial tumors, while changes in GP2, KCNG2 and KIR3DL3 should be considered as passenger mutations, consequence of high level of genomic instability. Identified genes have a significant role in signal transduction or cell adhesion, which are important processes for cancer development and progression. According to our results, LHFPL3 might be characteristic of primary glioblastoma, SGCG, HTR4, ITGB1, CPS1, PROS1 and INPP5A were detected predominantly in anaplastic astrocytoma, suggesting their role in progression of secondary glioblastoma, while alterations of PDE4D seem to have important role in development of both glioblastoma subtypes. Some of the identified genes showed significant association with p53, p16, and EGFR, but there was no significant correlation between loss of PTEN and any of identified genes. In conclusion our study revealed genetic alterations that were not previously associated with glioma pathogenesis and could be potentially used as molecular markers of different glioblastoma subtypes.

Schwartz MP, Rogers RE, Singh SP, et al.
A quantitative comparison of human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells and primary human dermal fibroblasts identifies a 3D migration mechanism with properties unique to the transformed phenotype.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e81689 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Here, we describe an engineering approach to quantitatively compare migration, morphologies, and adhesion for tumorigenic human fibrosarcoma cells (HT-1080s) and primary human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs) with the aim of identifying distinguishing properties of the transformed phenotype. Relative adhesiveness was quantified using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) arrays and proteolytic 3-dimensional (3D) migration was investigated using matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-degradable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels ("synthetic extracellular matrix" or "synthetic ECM"). In synthetic ECM, hDFs were characterized by vinculin-containing features on the tips of protrusions, multipolar morphologies, and organized actomyosin filaments. In contrast, HT-1080s were characterized by diffuse vinculin expression, pronounced β1-integrin on the tips of protrusions, a cortically-organized F-actin cytoskeleton, and quantitatively more rounded morphologies, decreased adhesiveness, and increased directional motility compared to hDFs. Further, HT-1080s were characterized by contractility-dependent motility, pronounced blebbing, and cortical contraction waves or constriction rings, while quantified 3D motility was similar in matrices with a wide range of biochemical and biophysical properties (including collagen) despite substantial morphological changes. While HT-1080s were distinct from hDFs for each of the 2D and 3D properties investigated, several features were similar to WM239a melanoma cells, including rounded, proteolytic migration modes, cortical F-actin organization, and prominent uropod-like structures enriched with β1-integrin, F-actin, and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM/CD146/MUC18). Importantly, many of the features observed for HT-1080s were analogous to cellular changes induced by transformation, including cell rounding, a disorganized F-actin cytoskeleton, altered organization of focal adhesion proteins, and a weakly adherent phenotype. Based on our results, we propose that HT-1080s migrate in synthetic ECM with functional properties that are a direct consequence of their transformed phenotype.

Jahangiri A, Aghi MK, Carbonell WS
β1 integrin: Critical path to antiangiogenic therapy resistance and beyond.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(1):3-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Angiogenesis is an important tissue-level program supporting the growth of highly aggressive cancers and early-stage metastases. However, rapid emergence of resistance to antiangiogenic therapies, such as bevacizumab, greatly limits the clinical utility of these promising approaches. The mechanisms of resistance to antiangiogenic therapy remain incompletely understood. The tumor microenvironment has been demonstrated to be a source of broad therapeutic resistance in multiple cancers. Much of the interaction between the cells comprising a tumor and their microenvironment is driven by integrins. Notably, signaling downstream of integrins in tumor cells promotes fundamental programs vital to aggressive cancer biology, including proliferation, growth, invasion, and survival signaling. These functions then can contribute to malignant phenotypes, including metastasis, therapy resistance, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis. Accordingly, we found β1 integrin to be functionally upregulated in tumor specimens from patients after bevacizumab failure and in xenograft models of bevacizumab resistance. Inhibition of β1 in tumor cells with stable gene knockdown or treatment with OS2966, a neutralizing β1 integrin monoclonal antibody, attenuated aggressive tumor phenotypes in vitro and blocked growth of bevacizumab-resistant tumor xenografts in vivo. Thus, β1 integrins promote resistance to antiangiogenic therapy through potentiation of multiple malignant programs facilitated by interactions with the tumor microenvironment. The elucidation of this mechanism creates an outstanding opportunity for improving patient outcomes in cancer.

Onodera Y, Nam JM, Bissell MJ
Increased sugar uptake promotes oncogenesis via EPAC/RAP1 and O-GlcNAc pathways.
J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(1):367-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
There is a considerable resurgence of interest in the role of aerobic glycolysis in cancer; however, increased glycolysis is frequently viewed as a consequence of oncogenic events that drive malignant cell growth and survival. Here we provide evidence that increased glycolytic activation itself can be an oncogenic event in a physiologically relevant 3D culture model. Overexpression of glucose transporter type 3 (GLUT3) in nonmalignant human breast cells activated known oncogenic signaling pathways, including EGFR, β1 integrin, MEK, and AKT, leading to loss of tissue polarity and increased growth. Conversely, reduction of glucose uptake in malignant cells promoted the formation of organized and growth-arrested structures with basal polarity, and suppressed oncogenic pathways. Unexpectedly and importantly, we found that unlike reported literature, in 3D the differences between "normal" and malignant phenotypes could not be explained by HIF-1α/2α, AMPK, or mTOR pathways. Loss of epithelial integrity involved activation of RAP1 via exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC), involving also O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification downstream of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. The former, in turn, was mediated by pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) interaction with soluble adenylyl cyclase. Our findings show that increased glucose uptake activates known oncogenic pathways to induce malignant phenotype, and provide possible targets for diagnosis and therapeutics.

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