HMGA1

Gene Summary

Gene:HMGA1; high mobility group AT-hook 1
Aliases: HMG-R, HMGIY, HMGA1A
Location:6p21
Summary:This gene encodes a non-histone protein involved in many cellular processes, including regulation of inducible gene transcription, integration of retroviruses into chromosomes, and the metastatic progression of cancer cells. The encoded protein preferentially binds to the minor groove of A+T-rich regions in double-stranded DNA. It has little secondary structure in solution but assumes distinct conformations when bound to substrates such as DNA or other proteins. The encoded protein is frequently acetylated and is found in the nucleus. At least seven transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:high mobility group protein HMG-I/HMG-Y
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (34)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 11 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Promoter Regions
  • HMGA2
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Transcription
  • Tumor Markers
  • Staging
  • Soft Tissue Sarcoma
  • RTPCR
  • Soft Tissue Cancers
  • RNA
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Retroviridae
  • Messenger RNA
  • Lipoma
  • Karyotyping
  • Sequence Homology
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Chromosome 6
  • Translocation
  • Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • HMGA1a Protein
  • Pituitary Tumors
  • Base Sequence
  • Leiomyoma
  • Chromosome 12
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Transcriptome
  • Up-Regulation
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • FISH
  • Young Adult
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Stem Cell Factor
  • Proteins
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum
  • Transfection
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • High Mobility Group Proteins
  • Polyps
Tag cloud generated 11 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HMGA1 (cancer-related)

D'Angelo D, Mussnich P, Rosa R, et al.
High mobility group A1 protein expression reduces the sensitivity of colon and thyroid cancer cells to antineoplastic drugs.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:851 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Development of resistance to conventional drugs and novel biological agents often impair long-term chemotherapy. HMGA gene overexpression is often associated with antineoplastic drug resistance and reduced survival. Inhibition of HMGA expression in thyroid cancer cells reduces levels of ATM protein, the main cellular sensor of DNA damage, and enhances cellular sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. HMGA1 overexpression promotes chemoresistance to gemcitabine in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells through an Akt-dependent mechanism.
METHODS: To elucidate the role of HMGA1 proteins in chemoresistance we analyzed resistance to conventional drugs and targeted therapies of human colon carcinoma cells (GEO) that are sensitive to the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor cetuximab, and express minimal levels of HMGA1 and cetuximab-resistant (GEO CR) cells expressing high HMGA1 protein levels.
RESULTS: GEO CR cells were less sensitive than GEO cells to cetuximab and 5-fluorouracil. GEO CR cells silenced for HMGA1 expression were more susceptible than empty vector-transfected cells to the drugs' cytotoxicity. Similar results were obtained with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells expressing or not HMGA1 proteins, treated with doxorubicin or the HDAC inhibitor LBH589. Finally, HMGA1 overexpression promoted the DNA-damage response and stimulated Akt phosphorylation and prosurvival signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the blockage of HMGA1 expression is a promising approach to enhance cancer cell chemosensitivity, since it could increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to antineoplastic drugs by inhibiting the survival signal and DNA damage repair pathways.

Zhang Z, Wang Q, Chen F, Liu J
Elevated expression of HMGA1 correlates with the malignant status and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(2):1213-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) has been suggested to play a significant role in tumor progression, but little is known about the accurate significance of HMGA1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The aim of this study was to identify the role of HMGA1 in NSCLC. The expression status of HMGA1 was observed initially in NSCLC by Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The expression of HMGA1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein was examined in NSCLC and adjacent normal lung tissues through real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, the relationship of HMGA1 expression levels with clinical features and prognosis of NSCLC patients was analyzed. In our results, HMGA1 was overexpressed in NSCLC tissues compared with adjacent normal lung tissues in microarray data (GSE19804). HMGA1 mRNA and protein expressions were markedly higher in NSCLC tissues than in normal lung tissues (P < 0.001 and P = 0.010, respectively). Using immunohistochemistry, high levels of HMGA1 protein were positively correlated with the status of clinical stage (I-II vs. III-IV, P < 0.001), T classification (T1-T vs. T3-T4, P = 0.003), N classification (N0N1 vs. N2-N3, P < 0.001), M classification (M0 vs. M1, P = 0.002), and differentiated degree (high or middle vs. low or undifferentiated, P = 0.003) in NSCLC. Patients with higher HMGA1 expression had a significantly shorter overall survival time than did patients with low HMGA1 expression. Multivariate analysis indicated that the level of HMGA1 expression was an independent prognostic factor (P < 0.001) for the survival of patients with NSCLC. In conclusion, HMGA1 plays an important role on NSCLC progression and prognosis and may act as a convictive biomarker for prognostic prediction.

Esposito F, De Martino M, Petti MG, et al.
HMGA1 pseudogenes as candidate proto-oncogenic competitive endogenous RNAs.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(18):8341-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The High Mobility Group A (HMGA) are nuclear proteins that participate in the organization of nucleoprotein complexes involved in chromatin structure, replication and gene transcription. HMGA overexpression is a feature of human cancer and plays a causal role in cell transformation. Since non-coding RNAs and pseudogenes are now recognized to be important in physiology and disease, we investigated HMGA1 pseudogenes in cancer settings using bioinformatics analysis. Here we report the identification and characterization of two HMGA1 non-coding pseudogenes, HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7. We show that their overexpression increases the levels of HMGA1 and other cancer-related proteins by inhibiting the suppression of their synthesis mediated by microRNAs. Consistently, embryonic fibroblasts from HMGA1P7-overexpressing transgenic mice displayed a higher growth rate and reduced susceptibility to senescence. Moreover, HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7 were overexpressed in human anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, which are highly aggressive, but not in differentiated papillary carcinomas, which are less aggressive. Lastly, the expression of the HMGA1 pseudogenes was significantly correlated with HMGA1 protein levels thereby implicating HMGA1P overexpression in cancer progression. In conclusion, HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7 are potential proto-oncogenic competitive endogenous RNAs.

Sterenczak KA, Eckardt A, Kampmann A, et al.
HMGA1 and HMGA2 expression and comparative analyses of HMGA2, Lin28 and let-7 miRNAs in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:694 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Humans and dogs are affected by squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (OSCC) in a considerably high frequency. The high mobility group A2 (HMGA2) protein was found to be highly expressed in human OSCC and its expression was suggested to act as a useful predictive and prognostic tool in clinical management of oral carcinomas. Herein the expression of HMGA2 and its sister gene HMGA1 were analysed within human and canine OSCC samples. Additionally, the HMGA negatively regulating miRNAs of the let-7 family as well as the let-7 regulating gene Lin28 were also comparatively analysed. Deregulations of either one of these members could affect the progression of human and canine OSCC.
METHODS: Expression levels of HMGA1, HMGA2, Lin28, let-7a and mir-98 were analysed via relative qPCR in primary human and canine OSCC, thereof derived cell lines and non-neoplastic samples. Additionally, comparative HMGA2 protein expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: In both species, a significant up-regulation of the HMGA2 gene was found within the neoplastic samples while HMGA1 expression did not show significant deregulations. Comparative analyses showed down-regulation of mir-98 in human samples and up-regulation of let-7a and mir-98 in canine neoplastic samples. HMGA2 immunostainings showed higher intensities within the invasive front of the tumours than in the centre of the tumour in both species.
CONCLUSIONS: HMGA2 could potentially serve as tumour marker in both species while HMGA1 might play a minor role in OSCC progression. Comparative studies indicate an inverse correlation of HMGA2 and mir-98 expression in human samples whereas in dogs no such characteristic could be found.

Bois MC, Bois JP, Anavekar NS, et al.
Benign lipomatous masses of the heart: a comprehensive series of 47 cases with cytogenetic evaluation.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(9):1859-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Benign lipomatous lesions of the heart encompass an apparently etiologically diverse group of entities including neoplastic, congenital, and reparative phenomena. Among these, lipomas and lipomatous hypertrophy of the atrial septum (LHAS) represent 2 commonly encountered mass lesions. To date, no study has systematically and comparatively evaluated the morphologic and genetic characteristics of these lesions. Tissue registry archives of Mayo Clinic were queried for cases of cardiac lipoma and LHAS (1994-2011). Clinical, imaging, and pathologic findings were reviewed. Representative cases in each cohort were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HMGA1 and HMGA2 loci rearrangement and for MDM2/CPM locus amplification. Five cases of cardiac lipoma were identified (mean age, 67 years; range, 48-101; 3 men): 4 right atrial and 1 left ventricular. Forty-two cases of LHAS were identified (mean age, 75.6 years; range 45-95; 20 men), 39 of which were autopsy derived. The median size was 3.4 cm for lipomas and 2.8 cm for LHAS (n = 14). A single case each of cardiac lipoma and LHAS were found to harbor HMGA2 rearrangement, whereas no case showed cytogenetic abnormality of HMGA1 or CPM. This represents the largest series of histopathologically confirmed cardiac lipomas from a single institution. In addition, it is the first to evaluate cardiac lipomas and LHAS for genetic alterations associated with extracardiac lipomatous lesions. The genetic and morphologic similarities found provide evidence in support of the neoplastic classification of cardiac lipomas. A single case of LHAS contained an HMGA2 rearrangement, challenging the currently accepted hypothesis of pathogenesis for this lesion.

Werner H, Sarfstein R
Transcriptional and epigenetic control of IGF1R gene expression: implications in metabolism and cancer.
Growth Horm IGF Res. 2014; 24(4):112-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
IGF1R plays an important role in protection from apoptosis, regulation of cell growth, differentiation and oncogenic transformation. IGF1R aberrations lead to intrauterine and postnatal growth failure, microcephaly, mental retardation and deafness. High levels of IGF1R are detected in a diversity of human tumors. IGF1R gene transcription is controlled by complex interactions involving DNA-binding and non DNA-binding transcription factors. This review highlights selected examples of a series of tumor suppressors, including the breast cancer gene-1 (BRCA1), p53, the Wilm's tumor protein-1 (WT1) and the von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL), whose mechanisms of action involve regulation of IGF1R gene expression. IGF1R gene transcription is also dependent on the presence of stimulatory nuclear proteins, including zinc-finger protein Sp1, EWS-WT1, E2F1, Krüppel-like factor-6 (KLF6), high-mobility group A1 (HMGA1), and others. Loss-of-function of tumor suppressor genes, usually caused by mutations, may result in non-functional proteins unable to control IGF1R promoter activity. Impaired regulation of the IGF1R gene is linked to defective cell division, chromosomal instability and increased incidence of cancer.

Puca F, Colamaio M, Federico A, et al.
HMGA1 silencing restores normal stem cell characteristics in colon cancer stem cells by increasing p53 levels.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(10):3234-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) proteins are architectural chromatinic proteins, abundantly expressed during embryogenesis and in most cancer tissues, but expressed at low levels or absent in normal adult tissues. Several studies have demonstrated that HMGA1 proteins play a causal role in neoplastic cell transformation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these proteins in the control of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have emerged as a preferred target in cancer therapy, because of their role in cancer recurrence. We observed that HMGA1 is overexpressed in colon tumour stem cell (CTSC) lines compared to normal and colon cancer tissues. We demonstrated that HMGA1 silencing in CTSCs increases stem cell quiescence and reduces self-renewal and sphere-forming efficiency (SFE). The latter, together with the upregulation and asymmetric distribution of NUMB, is indicative of the recovery of an asymmetric division pattern, typical of normal stem cells. We further found that HMGA1 transcriptionally regulates p53, which is known to control the balance between symmetric and asymmetric divisions in CSCs. Therefore, our data indicate a critical role for HMGA1 in regulating both self-renewal and the symmetric/asymmetric division ratio in CSCs, suggesting that blocking HMGA1 function may be an effective anti-cancer therapy.

Martins VC, Busch K, Juraeva D, et al.
Cell competition is a tumour suppressor mechanism in the thymus.
Nature. 2014; 509(7501):465-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell competition is an emerging principle underlying selection for cellular fitness during development and disease. Competition may be relevant for cancer, but an experimental link between defects in competition and tumorigenesis is elusive. In the thymus, T lymphocytes develop from precursors that are constantly replaced by bone-marrow-derived progenitors. Here we show that in mice this turnover is regulated by natural cell competition between 'young' bone-marrow-derived and 'old' thymus-resident progenitors that, although genetically identical, execute differential gene expression programs. Disruption of cell competition leads to progenitor self-renewal, upregulation of Hmga1, transformation, and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) resembling the human disease in pathology, genomic lesions, leukaemia-associated transcripts, and activating mutations in Notch1. Hence, cell competition is a tumour suppressor mechanism in the thymus. Failure to select fit progenitors through cell competition may explain leukaemia in X-linked severe combined immune deficiency patients who showed thymus-autonomous T-cell development after therapy with gene-corrected autologous progenitors.

Xu G, Wang J, Jia Y, et al.
MiR-142-3p functions as a potential tumor suppressor in human osteosarcoma by targeting HMGA1.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014; 33(5):1329-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mounting evidence has shown that aberrant expression of miRNAs correlates with human cancers, and that miRNAs can function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Here, we investigated the role and mechanism of miR-142-3p in human osteosarcoma.
METHODS: We used quantitative real-time RT-PCR to measure the expression of miR-142-3p in human osteosarcoma cell lines and tissues. The roles of miR-142-3p in osteosarcoma development were studied using cultured HOS, MG63 and Saos-2 cells and tumor xenograft analyses in nude mice; their target genes were also investigated.
RESULTS: We found that miR-142-3p was significantly downregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines and clinical specimens. Overexpression of miR-142-3p suppressed osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas miR-142-3p knockdown increased these parameters. The xenograft mouse model also revealed the suppressive effect of miR-142-3p on tumor growth. High mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) was identified as a target of miR-142-3p. Downregulation of HMGA1 induced effects on osteosarcoma cell lines similar to those induced by miR-142-3p. In contrast, restoration of HMGA1 abrogated the effects induced by miR-142-3p up-regulation.
CONCLUSION: These results indicated that miR-142-3p may function as a tumor suppressor by targeting HMGA1 in osteosarcoma.

Xing J, Cao G, Fu C
HMGA1 interacts with β-catenin to positively regulate Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colorectal cancer cells.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2014; 20(4):847-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
The high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein plays an important role in numerous biological processes, such as embryogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a key role in development and cancer. Although previous reports have shown HMGA1 protein level can be induced by Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, however, the specific mechanism of HMGA1 on regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling remains unclear. Here, we reported that HMGA1 interacted with β-catenin by using coimmunoprecipitation approach with exogenous and endogenous protein samples. HMGA1 positively regulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as determined by that HMGA1 increased the TOP-FLASH activity in a dose-dependent manner and β-catenin downstream target gene expression. Moreover, HMGA1 induced proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. Mechanistically, HMGA1 increased the β-catenin-TCF4 complex formation. Importantly, there was a correlation between HMGA1 and β-catenin expression in human colorectal cancer tissues. In summary, HMGA1 positively regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling through interacting with β-catenin, which leads to increase the β-catenin-TCF4 complex formation. This suggests that targeting HMGA1 may be a useful therapeutic option in clinical application.

Huso TH, Resar LM
The high mobility group A1 molecular switch: turning on cancer - can we turn it off?
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2014; 18(5):541-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Emerging evidence demonstrates that the high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) chromatin remodeling protein is a key molecular switch required by cancer cells for tumor progression and a poorly differentiated, stem-like state. Because the HMGA1 gene and proteins are expressed at high levels in all aggressive tumors studied to date, research is needed to determine how to 'turn off' this master regulatory switch in cancer.
AREAS COVERED: In this review, we describe prior studies that underscore the central role of HMGA1 in refractory cancers and we discuss approaches to target HMGA1 in cancer therapy.
EXPERT OPINION: Given the widespread overexpression of HMGA1 in diverse, aggressive tumors, further research to develop technology to target HMGA1 holds immense promise as potent anticancer therapy. Previous work in preclinical models indicates that delivery of short hairpin RNA or interfering RNA molecules to 'switch off' HMGA1 expression dramatically impairs cancer cell growth and tumor progression. The advent of nanoparticle technology to systemically deliver DNA or RNA molecules to tumors brings this approach even closer to clinical applications, although further efforts are needed to translate these advances into therapies for cancer patients.

Barh D, Jain N, Tiwari S, et al.
A novel in silico reverse-transcriptomics-based identification and blood-based validation of a panel of sub-type specific biomarkers in lung cancer.
BMC Genomics. 2013; 14 Suppl 6:S5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer accounts for the highest number of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early diagnosis significantly increases the disease-free survival rate and a large amount of effort has been expended in screening trials and the development of early molecular diagnostics. However, a gold standard diagnostic strategy is not yet available. Here, based on miRNA expression profile in lung cancer and using a novel in silico reverse-transcriptomics approach, followed by analysis of the interactome; we have identified potential transcription factor (TF) markers that would facilitate diagnosis of subtype specific lung cancer. A subset of seven TF markers has been used in a microarray screen and was then validated by blood-based qPCR using stage-II and IV non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Our results suggest that overexpression of HMGA1, E2F6, IRF1, and TFDP1 and downregulation or no expression of SUV39H1, RBL1, and HNRPD in blood is suitable for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma sub-types of NSCLC. Here, E2F6 was, for the first time, found to be upregulated in NSCLC blood samples. The miRNA-TF-miRNA interaction based molecular mechanisms of these seven markers in NSCLC revealed that HMGA1 and TFDP1 play vital roles in lung cancer tumorigenesis. The strategy developed in this work is applicable to any other cancer or disease and can assist in the identification of potential biomarkers.

Suzuki DE, Nakahata AM, Okamoto OK
Knockdown of E2F2 inhibits tumorigenicity, but preserves stemness of human embryonic stem cells.
Stem Cells Dev. 2014; 23(11):1266-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumorigenicity of human pluripotent stem cells is a major threat limiting their application in cell therapy protocols. It remains unclear, however, whether suppression of tumorigenic potential can be achieved without critically affecting pluripotency. A previous study has identified hyperexpressed genes in cancer stem cells, among which is E2F2, a gene involved in malignant transformation and stem cell self-renewal. Here we tested whether E2F2 knockdown would affect the proliferative capacity and tumorigenicity of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Transient E2F2 silencing in hESC significantly inhibited expression of the proto-oncogenes BMI1 and HMGA1, in addition to proliferation of hESC, indicated by a higher proportion of cells in G1, fewer cells in G2/M phase, and a reduced capacity to generate hESC colonies in vitro. Nonetheless, E2F2-silenced cells kept expression of typical pluripotency markers and displayed differentiation capacity in vitro. More importantly, E2F2 knockdown in hESC significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo, which was considerably smaller than tumors generated from control hESC, although displaying typical teratoma traits, a major indicator of pluripotency retention in E2F2-silenced cells. These results suggest that E2F2 knockdown can inhibit hESC proliferation and tumorigenicity without significantly harming stemness, providing a rationale to future protocols aiming at minimizing risks related to therapeutic application of cells and/or products derived from human pluripotent cells.

Boland JM, Fritchie KJ, Erickson-Johnson MR, et al.
Endobronchial lipomatous tumors: clinicopathologic analysis of 12 cases with molecular cytogenetic evidence supporting classification as "lipoma".
Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(11):1715-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lipomatous lesions rarely involve the bronchial tree, and detailed morphologic and molecular cytogenetic analysis of these tumors is lacking. The clinicopathologic features of 12 endobronchial lipomatous neoplasms were studied, with ancillary fluorescence in situ hybridization performed in subsets of cases for CPM, which is amplified in atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas (ALT/WDL), and HMGA1 and HMGA2, which are often rearranged in lipomas. The cases occurred predominately in older men (91%) (age range 44 to 80 y, mean 65 y). Most patients (80%) had a former or current history of heavy smoking (20 to 100 pack-years). Three patients had concurrent pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, and 1 had a history of multiple lung cancers. Most lesions were small (<2.5 cm) and discovered incidentally. A subset of tumors showed atypical morphologic features that would be suggestive of ALT/WDL in soft tissue sites, including regions of fibrosis and scattered hyperchromatic stromal cells. However, all cases with atypia were CPM negative and behaved in a clinically benign manner. Seven cases were tested for HMGA1 and HMGA2 rearrangement; 4 showed HMGA2 rearrangement, and 1 showed HMGA1 rearrangement, consistent with lipomas. Two cases were negative for HMGA1/2 rearrangements. We conclude that endobronchial lipomatous neoplasms represent lipomas, even in the presence of morphologic features suggestive of ALT/WDL. Ancillary fluorescence in situ hybridization testing may be very valuable in the analysis of these rare tumors, as true ALT/WDL seem to be very rare or nonexistent at this anatomic site.

Pegoraro S, Ros G, Piazza S, et al.
HMGA1 promotes metastatic processes in basal-like breast cancer regulating EMT and stemness.
Oncotarget. 2013; 4(8):1293-308 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that progresses to the critical hallmark of metastasis. In the present study, we show that the High Mobility Group A1 (HMGA1) protein plays a fundamental role in this process in basal-like breast cancer subtype. HMGA1 knockdown induces the mesenchymal to epithelial transition and dramatically decreases stemness and self-renewal. Notably, HMGA1 depletion in basal-like breast cancer cell lines reduced migration and invasion in vitro and the formation of metastases in vivo. Mechanistically, HMGA1 activated stemness and key migration-associated genes which were linked to the Wnt/beta-catenin, Notch and Pin1/mutant p53 signalling pathways. Moreover, we identified a specific HMGA1 gene expression signature that was activated in a large subset of human primary breast tumours and was associated with poor prognosis. Taken together, these data provide new insights into the role of HMGA1 in the acquisition of aggressive features in breast cancer.

Takahashi Y, Sawada G, Sato T, et al.
Microarray analysis reveals that high mobility group A1 is involved in colorectal cancer metastasis.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(3):1488-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor size indicates the extent of cell proliferation in most cases of colorectal cancer (CRC), although there are some advanced small tumors with metastases. Lymph node metastasis is a significant factor that greatly impacts disease prognosis in CRC cases. The underlying factors that cause lymph node metastasis in CRC cells are not fully understood. We investigated the mechanism that might induce CRC metastasis by focusing on smaller sized (<2 cm) invasive tumors. We carried out gene expression array analysis for CRC cases; group 1 consisted of 6 cases with tumors <2 cm with metastases, and group 2 consisted of 65 cases with tumors >2 cm without metastases. Results were validated using gene expression array data from an additional 77 cases and another bulk case set of 172 cases. Gene ontology and pathway analysis using microarray data revealed that anti-apoptotic activity had a crucial role in CRC metastasis. High mobility group A1 (HMGA1) was identified as a biomarker for poor prognosis and metastasis formation. HMGA1 expression levels were higher in lymph node-positive cases than in lymph node-negative cases, even in subgroup analysis of submucosal invasive cases. The present study strongly supports the clinical significance of HMGA1 expression as a predictive indicator of lymph node metastasis in CRC cases, even in submucosal invasive cases which could be cured by local resection.

Schubert M, Spahn M, Kneitz S, et al.
Distinct microRNA expression profile in prostate cancer patients with early clinical failure and the impact of let-7 as prognostic marker in high-risk prostate cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e65064 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The identification of additional prognostic markers to improve risk stratification and to avoid overtreatment is one of the most urgent clinical needs in prostate cancer (PCa). MicroRNAs, being important regulators of gene expression, are promising biomarkers in various cancer entities, though the impact as prognostic predictors in PCa is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify specific miRNAs as potential prognostic markers in high-risk PCa and to validate their clinical impact.
METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed miRNA-microarray analysis in a high-risk PCa study group selected by their clinical outcome (clinical progression free survival (CPFS) vs. clinical failure (CF)). We identified seven candidate miRNAs (let-7a/b/c, miR-515-3p/5p, -181b, -146b, and -361) that showed differential expression between both groups. Further qRT-PCR analysis revealed down-regulation of members of the let-7 family in the majority of a large, well-characterized high-risk PCa cohort (n = 98). Expression of let-7a/b/and -c was correlated to clinical outcome parameters of this group. While let-7a showed no association or correlation with clinical relevant data, let-7b and let-7c were associated with CF in PCa patients and functioned partially as independent prognostic marker. Validation of the data using an independent high-risk study cohort revealed that let-7b, but not let-7c, has impact as an independent prognostic marker for BCR and CF. Furthermore, we identified HMGA1, a non-histone protein, as a new target of let-7b and found correlation of let-7b down-regulation with HMGA1 over-expression in primary PCa samples.
CONCLUSION: Our findings define a distinct miRNA expression profile in PCa cases with early CF and identified let-7b as prognostic biomarker in high-risk PCa. This study highlights the importance of let-7b as tumor suppressor miRNA in high-risk PCa and presents a basis to improve individual therapy for high-risk PCa patients.

Lin Y, Chen H, Hu Z, et al.
miR-26a inhibits proliferation and motility in bladder cancer by targeting HMGA1.
FEBS Lett. 2013; 587(15):2467-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is increasingly clear that microRNAs play a crucial role in tumorigenesis. Recently, emerging evidence suggested that miR-26a is aberrantly expressed in tumor tissues. In our study, frequent down-regulation of miR-26a was observed in 10 human bladder cancer tissues. Forced expression of miR-26a in the bladder cancer cell line T24 inhibited cell proliferation and impaired cell motility. High mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1), a gene that modulates cell cycle transition and cell motility, was verified as a novel target of miR-26a in bladder cancer. These findings indicate an important role for miR-26a in the molecular etiology of bladder cancer and implicate the potential application of miR-26a in bladder cancer therapy.

Shah SN, Cope L, Poh W, et al.
HMGA1: a master regulator of tumor progression in triple-negative breast cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e63419 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Emerging evidence suggests that tumor cells metastasize by co-opting stem cell transcriptional networks, although the molecular underpinnings of this process are poorly understood. Here, we show for the first time that the high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) gene drives metastatic progression in triple negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, Hs578T) by reprogramming cancer cells to a stem-like state. Silencing HMGA1 expression in invasive, aggressive breast cancer cells dramatically halts cell growth and results in striking morphologic changes from mesenchymal-like, spindle-shaped cells to cuboidal, epithelial-like cells. Mesenchymal genes (Vimentin, Snail) are repressed, while E-cadherin is induced in the knock-down cells. Silencing HMGA1 also blocks oncogenic properties, including proliferation, migration, invasion, and orthotopic tumorigenesis. Metastatic progression following mammary implantation is almost completely abrogated in the HMGA1 knock-down cells. Moreover, silencing HMGA1 inhibits the stem cell property of three-dimensional mammosphere formation, including primary, secondary, and tertiary spheres. In addition, knock-down of HMGA1 depletes cancer initiator/cancer stem cells and prevents tumorigenesis at limiting dilutions. We also discovered an HMGA1 signature in triple negative breast cancer cells that is highly enriched in embryonic stem cells. Together, these findings indicate that HMGA1 is a master regulator of tumor progression in breast cancer by reprogramming cancer cells through stem cell transcriptional networks. Future studies are needed to determine how to target HMGA1 in therapy.

Di Cello F, Shin J, Harbom K, Brayton C
Knockdown of HMGA1 inhibits human breast cancer cell growth and metastasis in immunodeficient mice.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 434(1):70-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The high mobility group A1 gene (HMGA1) has been previously implicated in breast carcinogenesis, and is considered an attractive target for therapeutic intervention because its expression is virtually absent in normal adult tissue. Other studies have shown that knockdown of HMGA1 reduces the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cells in vitro. Therefore, we sought to determine if silencing HMGA1 can affect breast cancer development and metastatic progression in vivo. We silenced HMGA1 expression in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 using an RNA interference vector, and observed a significant reduction in anchorage-independent growth and tumorsphere formation, which respectively indicate loss of tumorigenesis and self-renewal ability. Moreover, silencing HMGA1 significantly impaired xenograft growth in immunodeficient mice, and while control cells metastasized extensively to the lungs and lymph nodes, HMGA1-silenced cells generated only a few small metastases. Thus, our results show that interfering with HMGA1 expression reduces the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of breast cancer cells in vivo, and lend further support to investigations into targeting HMGA1 as a potential treatment for breast cancer.

Bianchini L, Birtwisle L, Saâda E, et al.
Identification of PPAP2B as a novel recurrent translocation partner gene of HMGA2 in lipomas.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(6):580-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most lipomas are characterized by translocations involving the HMGA2 gene in 12q14.3. These rearrangements lead to the fusion of HMGA2 with an ectopic sequence from the translocation chromosome partner. Only five fusion partners of HMGA2 have been identified in lipomas so far. The identification of novel fusion partners of HMGA2 is important not only for diagnosis in soft tissue tumors but also because these genes might have an oncogenic role in other tumors. We observed that t(1;12)(p32;q14) was the second most frequent translocation in our series of lipomas after t(3;12)(q28;q14.3). We detected overexpression of HMGA2 mRNA and protein in all t(1;12)(p32;q14) lipomas. We used a fluorescence in situ hybridization-based positional cloning strategy to characterize the 1p32 breakpoint. In 11 cases, we identified PPAP2B, a member of the lipid phosphate phosphatases family as the 1p32 target gene. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis followed by nucleotide sequencing of the fusion transcript indicated that HMGA2 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) fused with exon 6 of PPAP2B in one case. In other t(1;12) cases, the breakpoint was extragenic, located in the 3'region flanking PPAP2B 3'UTR. Moreover, in one case showing a t(1;6)(p32;p21) we observed a rearrangement of PPAP2B and HMGA1, which suggests that HMGA1 might also be a fusion partner for PPAP2B. Our results also revealed that adipocytic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue was associated with a significant decrease in PPAP2B mRNA expression suggesting that PPAP2B might play a role in adipogenesis.

De Marco C, Rinaldo N, Bruni P, et al.
Multiple genetic alterations within the PI3K pathway are responsible for AKT activation in patients with ovarian carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e55362 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway is activated in multiple cancers including ovarian carcinoma (OC). However, the relative contribution of the single components within the PI3K pathway to AKT activation in OC is still unclear. We examined 98 tumor samples from Italian OC patients for alterations in the members of the PI3K pathway. We report that AKT is significantly hyperactive in OC compared to normal tissue (n = 93; p<0.0001) and that AKT activation is preferentially observed in the elderly (>58 years old; n = 93; p<0.05). The most frequent alteration is the overexpression of the p110α catalytic subunit of PI3K (63/93, ∼68%); less frequent alterations comprise the loss of PTEN (24/89, 27%) and the overexpression of AKT1 (18/96, 19%) or AKT2 (11/88,12.5%). Mutations in the PIK3CA or KRAS genes were detected at lower frequency (12% and 10%, respectively) whereas mutations in AKT1 or AKT2 genes were absent. Although many tumors presented a single lesion (28/93, of which 23 overexpressed PIK3CA, 1 overexpressed AKT and 4 had lost PTEN), many OC (35/93) presented multiple alterations within the PI3K pathway. Apparently, aberrant PI3K signalling was mediated by activation of the canonical downstream AKT-dependent mTOR/S6K1/4EBP1 pathway and by regulation of expression of oncogenic transcription factors that include HMGA1, JUN-B, FOS and MYC but not by AKT-independent activation of SGK3. FISH analysis indicated that gene amplification of PIK3CA, AKT1 and AKT2 (but not of PI3KR1) and the loss of PTEN are common and may account for changes in the expression of the corresponding proteins. In conclusion, our results indicate that p110α overexpression represents the most frequent alteration within the PI3K/AKT pathway in OC. However, p110α overexpression may not be sufficient to activate AKT signalling and drive ovarian tumorigenesis since many tumors overexpressing PI3K presented at least one additional alteration.

Mussnich P, D'Angelo D, Leone V, et al.
The High Mobility Group A proteins contribute to thyroid cell transformation by regulating miR-603 and miR-10b expression.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(3):531-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
The overexpression of the HMGA1 proteins is a feature of human malignant neoplasias and has a causal role in cell transformation. The aim of our study has been to investigate the microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) regulated by the HMGA1 proteins in the process of cell transformation analyzing the miRNA expression profile of v-ras-Ki oncogene-transformed thyroid cells expressing or not HMGA1 proteins. We demonstrate that, among the miRNAs regulated by cell transformation, there are miR-10b, miR-21, miR-125b, miR-221 and miR-222 that are positively and miR-34a and miR-603 that are negatively regulated by HMGA1 expression. Then, we focused our attention on the miR-10b and miR-603 whose expression was dependent on the presence of HMGA1 also in other cell systems. We found that miR-10b is able to target the PTEN gene, whereas miR-603 targets the CCND1 and CCND2 genes coding for the cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 proteins, respectively. Moreover, functional studies showed that miR-10b and miR-603 regulate positively and negatively, respectively, cell proliferation and migration suggesting a role of their dysregulation in thyroid cell transformation.

Di Cello F, Dhara S, Hristov AC, et al.
Inactivation of the Cdkn2a locus cooperates with HMGA1 to drive T-cell leukemogenesis.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2013; 54(8):1762-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive leukemia with high relapse rates compared to B-lineage ALL. We previously showed that HMGA1a transgenic mice develop aggressive T-ALL, indicating that HMGA1 causes leukemic transformation in vivo. HMGA1 is also highly expressed in embryonic stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells and diverse, refractory human cancers. Disruption of the CDKN2A tumor suppressor locus occurs in most cases of T-ALL and is thought to contribute to leukemic transformation. To determine whether loss of function of CDKN2A cooperates with HMGA1 in T-ALL, we crossed HMGA1a transgenics onto a Cdkn2a null background. We discovered that T-ALL is markedly accelerated in HMGA1a transgenic Cdkn2a null mice. In addition, these mice recapitulate salient clinical and pathologic features of human T-ALL. HMGA1 is also highly overexpressed in human T-ALL. These findings suggest that HMGA1 plays a causative role in T-ALL and could represent a rational therapeutic target.

Xi Y, Li YS, Tang HB
High mobility group A1 protein acts as a new target of Notch1 signaling and regulates cell proliferation in T leukemia cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2013; 374(1-2):173-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Active mutations of Notch1 play pivotal roles during leukemogenesis, but the downstream targets and molecular mechanisms of activated Notch1 signaling have not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we detected the overexpression of the high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) and activation of Notch1 signaling in mouse thymic lymphomas. A direct regulation of Notch1 on HMGA1 transcription was demonstrated and two Notch1/RBPJ cobinding sites of T/CTCCCACA were found in HMGA1 promoter regions. It was the first time demonstrated that HMGA1 was the downstream target of Notch1 signaling. Moreover, knockdown of HMGA1 resulted in significantly impaired cell growth and decreased expressions of cyclin D and cyclin E in human T leukemia cells. The formation of complexes was also observed between HMGA1 and retinoblastoma (RB) protein indicating a mechanism of cell cycle regulation. These findings suggest that activated HMGA1 regulates cell proliferation through the Notch1 signaling pathway, which represents an important molecular pathway leading to leukemogenesis.

Liang L, Li X, Zhang X, et al.
MicroRNA-137, an HMGA1 target, suppresses colorectal cancer cell invasion and metastasis in mice by directly targeting FMNL2.
Gastroenterology. 2013; 144(3):624-635.e4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Formin-like (FMNL)2 is up-regulated in colorectal tumors and has been associated with tumor progression, but little is known about regulatory mechanisms. We investigated whether microRNAs regulate levels of FMNL2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells.
METHODS: We used real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses to measure levels of miR-137, high-mobility group AT-hook (HMGA)1, and FMNL2 in CRC cells and tissue samples from patients (n = 50). We used luciferase reporter assays to determine the association between miR-137 and the FMNL2 3' untranslated region, and HMGA1 and the miR-137 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to assess direct binding of HMGA1 to the miR-137 promoter.
RESULTS: miR-137 and miR-142-3p were predicted to bind FMNL2 based on bioinformatic data. Only the level of miR-137 had a significant inverse correlation with the level of FMNL2 protein in CRC cell lines and tissues. FMNL2 messenger RNA was targeted by miR-137; expression of miR-137 inhibited proliferation and invasion by CRC cells in vitro, and metastasis to liver and intestine by CRC xenografts in nude mice. HMGA1 bound to the promoter of miR-137 and activated its transcription, which reduced levels of FMNL2 in CRC cells. Ectopic expression of miR-137 in CRC cells inhibited phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt, which reduced levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9, and vascular endothelial growth factor; it also reduced invasiveness of CRC cells, inhibiting signaling via phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, Akt, and MAPK.
CONCLUSIONS: Levels of miR-137 and HMGA1 are reduced, and levels of FMNL2 are increased, in CRC samples compared with adjacent normal mucosa. In CRC cells, miR-137 targets FMNL2 messenger RNA and is regulated by the transcription factor HMGA1. Expression of miR-137 reduces CRC cell invasion in vitro and metastasis of tumor xenografts in mice. FMNL2 appears to activate phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, protein kinase B (Akt), and MAPK signaling pathways.

Schoenmakers EF, Bunt J, Hermers L, et al.
Identification of CUX1 as the recurrent chromosomal band 7q22 target gene in human uterine leiomyoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(1):11-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine leiomyomas are benign solid tumors of mesenchymal origin which occur with an estimated incidence of up to 77% of all women of reproductive age. The majority of these tumors remains symptomless, but in about a quarter of cases they cause leiomyoma-associated symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, menorrhagia-induced anemia, and impaired fertility. As a consequence, they are the most common indication for pre-menopausal hysterectomy in the USA and Japan and annually translate into a multibillion dollar healthcare problem. Approximately 40% of these neoplasms present with recurring structural cytogenetic anomalies, including del(7)(q22), t(12;14)(q15;q24), t(1;2)(p36;p24), and anomalies affecting 6p21 and/or 10q22. Using positional cloning strategies, we and others previously identified HMGA1, HMGA2, RAD51L1, MORF, and, more recently, NCOA1 as primary target (fusion) genes associated with tumor initiation in four of these distinct cytogenetic subgroups. Despite the fact that the del(7)(q22) subgroup is the largest among leiomyomas, and was first described more than twenty years ago, the 7q22 leiomyoma target gene still awaits unequivocal identification. We here describe a positional cloning effort from two independent uterine leiomyomas, containing respectively a pericentric and a paracentric chromosomal inversion, both affecting band 7q22. We found that both chromosomal inversions target the cut-like homeobox 1 (CUX1) gene on chromosomal band 7q22.1 in a way which is functionally equivalent to the more frequently observed del(7q) cases, and which is compatible with a mono-allelic knock-out scenario, similar as was previously described for the cytogenetic subgroup showing chromosome 14q involvement.

Bush BM, Brock AT, Deng JA, et al.
The Wnt/β-catenin/T-cell factor 4 pathway up-regulates high-mobility group A1 expression in colon cancer.
Cell Biochem Funct. 2013; 31(3):228-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) encodes proteins that act as mediators in viral integration, modification of chromatin structure, neoplastic transformation and metastatic progression. Because HMGA1 is overexpressed in most cancers and has transcriptional relationships with several Wnt-responsive genes, we explored the involvement of HMGA1 in Wnt/β-catenin/TCF-4 signalling. In adenomatous polyposis coli (APC(Min/+)) mice, we observed significant up-regulation of HMGA1 mRNA and protein in intestinal tumours when compared with normal intestinal mucosa. Conversely, restoration of Wnt signalling by the zinc induction of wild-type APC resulted in HMGA1 down-regulation in HT-29 cells. Because APC mutations are associated with mobilization of the β-catenin/TCF-4 transcriptional complex and subsequent activation of downstream oncogenic targets, we analyzed the 5'-flanking sequence of HMGA1 for putative TCF-4 binding elements. We identified two regions that specifically bind the β-catenin/TCF-4 complex in vitro and in vivo, identifying HMGA1 as an immediate target of the β-catenin/TCF-4 signalling pathway in colon cancer. Collectively, these findings strongly implicate Wnt/β-catenin/TCF-4 signalling in regulating HMGA1 to further expand the extensive regulatory network affected by Wnt/β-catenin/TCF-4 signalling.

Hillion J, Smail SS, Di Cello F, et al.
The HMGA1-COX-2 axis: a key molecular pathway and potential target in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Pancreatology. 2012 Jul-Aug; 12(4):372-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CONTEXT: Although pancreatic cancer is a common, highly lethal malignancy, the molecular events that enable precursor lesions to become invasive carcinoma remain unclear. We previously reported that the high-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein is overexpressed in >90% of primary pancreatic cancers, with absent or low levels in early precursor lesions.
METHODS: Here, we investigate the role of HMGA1 in reprogramming pancreatic epithelium into invasive cancer cells. We assessed oncogenic properties induced by HMGA1 in non-transformed pancreatic epithelial cells expressing activated K-RAS. We also explored the HMGA1-cyclooxygenase (COX-2) pathway in human pancreatic cancer cells and the therapeutic effects of COX-2 inhibitors in xenograft tumorigenesis.
RESULTS: HMGA1 cooperates with activated K-RAS to induce migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent cell growth in a cell line derived from normal human pancreatic epithelium. Moreover, HMGA1 and COX-2 expression are positively correlated in pancreatic cancer cell lines (r(2) = 0.93; p < 0.001). HMGA1 binds directly to the COX-2 promoter at an AT-rich region in vivo in three pancreatic cancer cell lines. In addition, HMGA1 induces COX-2 expression in pancreatic epithelial cells, while knock-down of HMGA1 results in repression of COX-2 in pancreatic cancer cells. Strikingly, we also discovered that Sulindac (a COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor) or Celecoxib (a more specific COX-2 inhibitor) block xenograft tumorigenesis from pancreatic cancer cells expressing high levels of HMGA1.
CONCLUSIONS: Our studies identify for the first time an important role for the HMGA1-COX-2 pathway in pancreatic cancer and suggest that targeting this pathway could be effective to treat, or even prevent, pancreatic cancer.

Ha TK, Her NG, Lee MG, et al.
Caveolin-1 increases aerobic glycolysis in colorectal cancers by stimulating HMGA1-mediated GLUT3 transcription.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(16):4097-109 [PubMed] Related Publications
Caveolin-1 (CAV1) acts as a growth suppressor in various human malignancies, but its expression is elevated in many advanced cancers, suggesting the oncogenic switch of its role during tumor progression. To understand the molecular basis for the growth-promoting function of CAV1, we characterized its expression status, differential roles for tumor growth, and effect on glucose metabolism in colorectal cancers. Abnormal elevation of CAV1 was detected in a substantial fraction of primary tumors and cell lines and tightly correlated with promoter CpG sites hypomethylation. Depletion of elevated CAV1 led to AMPK activation followed by a p53-dependent G1 cell-cycle arrest and autophagy, suggesting that elevated CAV1 may contribute to ATP generation. Furthermore, CAV1 depletion downregulated glucose uptake, lactate accumulation, and intracellular ATP level, supporting that aerobic glycolysis is enhanced by CAV1. Consistently, CAV1 was shown to stimulate GLUT3 transcription via an HMGA1-binding site within the GLUT3 promoter. HMGA1 was found to interact with and activate the GLUT3 promoter and CAV1 increased the HMGA1 activity by enhancing its nuclear localization. Ectopic expression of HMGA1 increased glucose uptake, whereas its knockdown caused AMPK activation. In addition, GLUT3 expression was strongly induced by cotransfection of CAV1 and HMGA1, and its overexpression was observed predominantly in tumors harboring high levels of CAV1 and HMGA1. Together, these data show that elevated CAV1 upregulates glucose uptake and ATP production through HMGA1-mediated GLUT3 transcription, suggesting that CAV1 may render tumor cells growth advantages by enhancing aerobic glycolysis.

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