Gene Summary

Gene:FUT4; fucosyltransferase 4 (alpha (1,3) fucosyltransferase, myeloid-specific)
Summary:The product of this gene transfers fucose to N-acetyllactosamine polysaccharides to generate fucosylated carbohydrate structures. It catalyzes the synthesis of the non-sialylated antigen, Lewis x (CD15). [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:alpha-(1,3)-fucosyltransferase 4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (3)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cell Line
  • CD Antigens
  • Sialyltransferases
  • Western Blotting
  • Promoter Regions
  • Liver
  • Veratrum Alkaloids
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Infant
  • Breast Cancer
  • Transcription Factors
  • Fucosyltransferases
  • Transfection
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Sulfotransferases
  • Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Glycoproteins
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Messenger RNA
  • RT-PCR
  • Lewis Blood-Group System
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Tumor Markers
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Oligosaccharides
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • Transcription
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Signal Transduction
  • DNA Methylation
  • Young Adult
  • Base Sequence
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Chromosome 11
  • Antigens, CD15
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FUT4 (cancer-related)

Chen Z, Gulzar ZG, St Hill CA, et al.
Increased expression of GCNT1 is associated with altered O-glycosylation of PSA, PAP, and MUC1 in human prostate cancers.
Prostate. 2014; 74(10):1059-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Protein glycosylation is a common posttranslational modification and glycan structural changes have been observed in several malignancies including prostate cancer. We hypothesized that altered glycosylation could be related to differences in gene expression levels of glycoprotein synthetic enzymes between normal and malignant prostate tissues.
METHODS: We interrogated prostate cancer gene expression data for reproducible changes in expression of glycoprotein synthetic enzymes. Over-expression of GCNT1 was validated in prostate samples using RT-PCR. ELISA was used to measure core 2 O-linked glycan sialyl Lewis X (sLe(x) ) of prostate specific antigen (PSA), Mucin1 (MUC1), and prostatic acidic phosphatase (PAP) proteins.
RESULTS: A key glycosyltransferase, GCNT1, was consistently over-expressed in several prostate cancer gene expression datasets. RT-PCR confirmed increased transcript levels in cancer samples compared to normal prostate tissue in fresh-frozen prostate tissue samples. ELISA using PSA, PAP, and MUC1 capture antibodies and a specific core 2 O-linked sLe(x) detection antibody demonstrated elevation of this glycan structure in cancer compared to normal tissues for MUC1 (P = 0.01), PSA (P = 0.03) and near significant differences in PAP sLe(x) levels (P = 0.06). MUC1, PSA and PAP protein levels alone were not significantly different between paired normal and malignant prostate samples.
CONCLUSIONS: GCNT1 is over-expressed in prostate cancer and is associated with higher levels of core 2 O-sLe(x) in PSA, PAP and MUC1 proteins. Alterations of O-linked glycosylation could be important in prostate cancer biology and could provide a new avenue for development of prostate cancer specific glycoprotein biomarkers.

Ma R, Minsky N, Morshed SA, Davies TF
Stemness in human thyroid cancers and derived cell lines: the role of asymmetrically dividing cancer stem cells resistant to chemotherapy.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(3):E400-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
CONTEXT: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the ability to self-renew through symmetric and asymmetric cell division. CSCs may arise from mutations within an embryonic stem cell/progenitor cell population or via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and recent advances in the study of thyroid stem cells have led to a growing recognition of the likely central importance of CSCs in thyroid tumorigenesis.
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to establish the presence of a stem cell population in human thyroid tumors and to identify, isolate, and characterize CSCs in thyroid cancer cell lines.
RESULTS: 1) Human thyroid cancers (n = 10) and thyroid cancer cell lines (n = 6) contained a stem cell population as evidenced by pluripotent stem cell gene expression. 2) Pulse-chase experiments with thyroid cancer cells identified a label-retaining cell population, a primary characteristic of CSCs, which at mitosis divided their DNA both symmetrically and asymmetrically and included a population of cells expressing the progenitor marker, stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1). 3) Cells positive for SSEA-1 expressed additional stem cell markers including Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog were confirmed as CSCs by their tumor-initiating properties in vivo, their resistance to chemotherapy, and their multipotent capability. 4) SSEA-1-positive cells showed enhanced vimentin expression and decreased E-cadherin expression, indicating their likely derivation via EMT.
CONCLUSIONS: Cellular diversity in thyroid cancer occurs through both symmetric and asymmetric cell division, and SSEA-1-positive cells are one form of CSCs that appear to have arisen via EMT and may be the source of malignant thyroid tumor formation. This would suggest that thyroid cancer CSCs were the result of thyroid cancer transformation rather than the source.

Khaled YS, Ammori BJ, Elkord E
Increased levels of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in peripheral blood and tumour tissue of pancreatic cancer patients.
J Immunol Res. 2014; 2014:879897 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer (PC) often presents late with poor survival. While role of immunosuppressive cells in preclinical studies provided help to develop immunotherapeutic agents, these cells remain under investigation in PC. The aim of this study was to characterise the different subsets of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and evaluate their level and function in the circulation and tissue of PC patients. Significant increases in circulating and tumour-infiltrating granulocytic (Lin-HLA-DR-CD33+CD11b+CD15+), but not monocytic (Lin-HLA-DR-CD14+), MDSCs were detected in PC patients when compared with healthy donors and patients with chronic pancreatitis. The circulating MDSCs from PC patients expressed arginase 1, which represents their functional state. Blood levels of MDSCs showed no association with PC stage or preoperative levels of tumour markers. These findings provide a first characterisation of the phenotype of different subsets of peripheral and local MDSCs in PC patients and suggest that the frequency and contribution of these cells are predominantly granulocytic. This information demonstrates that MDSCs play a role in pancreatic cancer and future large validation studies may help in the development of new immunotherapeutic strategies to inhibit or eliminate MDSC function.

Ahmadi A, Poorfathollah AA, Aghaiipour M, et al.
Diagnostic value of CD117 in differential diagnosis of acute leukemias.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):6763-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
C-kit receptor (CD117) and its ligand, stem cell factor, play a key role in normal hematopoiesis. It has been demonstrated that its expression extremely increases in leukemias with myeloid commitment. We analyzed findings on CD117 expression together with other myeloid related markers in 203 de novo acute leukemias, referred to Iranian immunophenotyping centers: Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO) and Baghiatallah Hospital (BH). All cases were characterized based on the French American British cooperative group (FAB) and European Group for Immunological Classification of Leukemias (EGIL). The cases comprised of 111 acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), 86 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 6 acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL). CD117 was positive in 75 % of AML and 50 % of AUL, whereas none of the ALL cases was positive for this marker. Although CD117 was positive in 100 % of M5a cases, no M5b positive was found (p = 0.036). The calculated specificity for myeloid involvement was 100 % for CD117 and CD33, and 98 % for CD13 and CD15 (p < 0.001). The calculated sensitivity for myeloid involvement was 83, 76, 64, and 41 % for CD13, CD117, CD33, and CD15, respectively (p < 0.001). We concluded that CD117 expression is a specific and rather sensitive marker for differential diagnosis between AML and ALL, and except for M5 subtypes, it fails to determine FAB subtypes; lack of expression in M5 can identify M5b. Therefore, it should be included in the routine primary panel for diagnosis of acute leukemias.

Palma CA, Al Sheikha D, Lim TK, et al.
MicroRNA-155 as an inducer of apoptosis and cell differentiation in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:79 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is characterised by the halt in maturation of myeloid progenitor cells, combined with uncontrolled proliferation and abnormal survival, leading to the accumulation of immature blasts. In many subtypes of AML the underlying causative genetic insults are not fully described. MicroRNAs are known to be dysregulated during oncogenesis. Overexpression of miR-155 is associated with some cancers, including haematological malignancies, and it has been postulated that miR-155 has an oncogenic role. This study investigated the effects of modulating miR-155 expression in human AML cells, and its mechanism of action.
RESULTS: Analysis of miR-155 expression patterns in AML patients found that Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-wildtype AML has the same expression level as normal bone marrow, with increased expression restricted to AML with the FLT3-ITD mutation. Induction of apoptosis by cytarabine arabinoside or myelomonocytic differentiation by 1,23-dihydroxyvitaminD3 in FLT3-wildtype AML cells led to upregulated miR-155 expression. Knockdown of miR-155 by locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides in the FLT3-wildtype AML cells conferred resistance to cytarabine arabinoside induced apoptosis and suppressed the ability of cells to differentiate.Ectopic expression of miR-155 in FLT3-wildtype AML cells led to a significant gain of myelomonocytic markers (CD11b, CD14 and CD15), increase in apoptosis (AnnexinV binding), decrease in cell growth and clonogenic capacity.In silico target prediction identified a number of putative miR-155 target genes, and the expression changes of key transcription regulators of myeloid differentiation and apoptosis (MEIS1, GF1, cMYC, JARID2, cJUN, FOS, CTNNB1 and TRIB2) were confirmed by PCR. Assessment of expression of apoptosis-related proteins demonstrated a marked increase in cleaved caspase-3 expression confirming activation of the apoptosis cascade.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for an anti-leukaemic role for miR-155 in human FLT3-wildtype AML, by inducing cell apoptosis and myelomonocytic differentiation, which is in contrast to its previously hypothesized role as an oncogene. This highlights the complexity of gene regulation by microRNAs that may have tumour repressor or oncogenic effects depending on disease context or tissue type.

Wang N, Feng Y, Wang Q, et al.
Neutrophils infiltration in the tongue squamous cell carcinoma and its correlation with CEACAM1 expression on tumor cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e89991 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore the clinical significance of neutrophils infiltration and carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) expression in the tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC), and to probe the possible relationship between them.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry were used to detect neutrophils density and CEACAM1 expression in 74 cases of primary TSCC specimens and 17 cases of corresponding peritumoral tissues. The relationship of CEACAM1 expression and neutrophils density with clinicopathologic parameters and cancer-related survival of TSCC patients were evaluated. The correlation between CEACAM1 expression and neutrophils density was also evaluated. Real-time quantitative transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to explore the possible molecular mechanisms between CEACAM1 expression and neutrophils infiltration.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry evaluation revealed that there was more neutrophils infiltration in TSCC tissues than in peritumoral tissues. High neutrophil density was associated with LN metastasis (P=0.01), higher clinical stage (P=0.037) and tumor recurrence (P=0.024). CEACAM1 overexpression was also associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.000) and higher clinical stage (P=0.001). Survival analysis revealed that both neutrophils infiltration and CEACAM1 overexpression were associated with poorer cancer-related survival of TSCC patients (P<0.05), and neutrophils infiltration was an independent prognostic factor for TSCC (P<0.05). Furthermore, overexpression of CEACAM1 was correlated with more neutrophils infiltration in TSCC tissues (P<0.01). qRT-PCR results showed that CEACAM1-4L can upregulate the mRNA expression of IL-8 and CXCL-6, which were strong chemotactic factors of neutrophils.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that more neutrophils infiltration and overexpression of CEACAM1 were associated with poor clinical outcomes in TSCC tissues. Overexpression of CEACAM1 on tumor cells correlated with more neutrophils infiltration to some extent through upregulating mRNA expression of IL-8 and CXCL-6.

Zwenger A, Rabassa M, Demichelis S, et al.
High expression of sLex associated with poor survival in Argentinian colorectal cancer patients.
Int J Biol Markers. 2014 Jan-Mar; 29(1):e30-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent malignancies in Argentina with 11,043 new cases and 6,596 deaths estimated to have occurred in 2008. The present study was developed to clarify the differential expression of MUC1, MUC2, sLex, and sLea in colorectal cancer patients and their relationship with survival and clinical and histological features.
METHODS: Ninety primary tumor samples and 43 metastatic lymph nodes from CRC patients were studied; follow-up was documented. Twenty-six adenoma and 68 histological normal mucosa specimens were analyzed. An immunohistochemical approach was applied and statistical analysis was performed.
RESULTS: In tumor samples, MUC1, sLea, and sLex were highly expressed (94%, 67%, and 91%, respectively); also, we found a significantly increased expression of the 3 antigens in primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes compared with normal mucosa and adenomas. MUC2 was expressed in 52% of both normal mucosa and CRC samples; this reactivity significantly decreased in metastatic lymph nodes (p<0.05). A multiple comparison analysis showed that MUC1 and sLex discriminated among 3 groups: normal, adenoma, and CRC tissues. The increase of sLex expression showed an association with recurrence, and survival analysis showed that a high sLex staining was significantly associated with a poor survival. By multivariate analysis MUC1 inmunoreactivity correlated positively and significantly with tumor size, while MUC2 expression showed the opposite correlation.
CONCLUSIONS: The correlation of sLex overexpression in primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes, the discrimination among the normal, adenoma, and CRC groups based on sLex expression, as well as its association with recurrence and survival, all suggest a prognostic role of sLex in Argentinian CRC patients.

Chen MJ, Lu Y, Hamazaki T, et al.
Reprogramming adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells into pluripotent stem cells by a mutant adeno-associated viral vector.
Hum Gene Ther Methods. 2014; 25(1):72-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have great potential for personalized regenerative medicine. Although several different methods for generating iPS cells have been reported, improvement of safety and efficiency is imperative. In this study, we tested the feasibility of using a triple tyrosine mutant AAV2 (Y444+500+730F) vector, designated AAV2.3m, to generate iPS cells. We developed a polycistronic rAAV2.3m vector expressing three reprogramming factors, Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2, and then used this vector to infect mouse adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) to induce the generation of iPS cells. We demonstrated that (1) the triple tyrosine mutant AAV2 vector is able to reprogram mouse adult adipose tissue-derived stem cells into the pluripotent state. Those rAAV2.3m-derived iPS (rAAV2.3m-iPS) cells express endogenous pluripotency-associated genes including Oct4, Sox2, and SSEA-1, and form teratomas containing multiple tissues in vivo; (2) c-myc, an oncogene, is dispensable in rAAV2.3m-mediated cellular reprogramming; and (3) transgene expression is undetectable after reprogramming, whereas vector DNA is detectable, indicating that transgenes are silenced. These results indicated the rAAV vector may have some advantages in generating iPS cells.

Parimal S, Pai R, Manipadam MT, Nair S
Lennert's lymphoma: clinicopathological profile of five cases.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2013 Jul-Sep; 56(3):248-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lennert's lymphoma is a rare variant of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) not otherwise specified (NOS) rich in epithelioid histiocytes. This study aims to analyze the clinical, morphologic, and immunophenotypic profile of cases of Lennert's lymphoma from our country and determines the utility of T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement in the diagnosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases diagnosed as Lennert's lymphoma during the period of January 2001 to August 2011 were included in this study. Hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained slides and immunohistochemistry results were analyzed and TCR gene rearrangement was performed.
RESULTS: There were five cases of Lennert's lymphoma diagnosed in our institution during this period, which included two males and three females. All cases showed effacement of lymph node architecture by diffuse infiltration of small lymphoid T cells [CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1+), Granzyme B-] and clusters of epithelioid histiocytes throughout the lymph node and scattered large transformed cells (CD20-, CD30+, CD15-/+). TCR rearrangement was done in three cases by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and showed the presence of a clonal T-cell population.
CONCLUSIONS: Lennert's lymphoma constituted 0.11% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) in our institution. Differentiation from classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is sometimes difficult by morphology and immunohistochemistry alone and TCR gene rearrangement was extremely useful in diagnosis.

Markant SL, Esparza LA, Sun J, et al.
Targeting sonic hedgehog-associated medulloblastoma through inhibition of Aurora and Polo-like kinases.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(20):6310-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Although aggressive surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy have improved outcomes, survivors suffer severe long-term side effects, and many patients still succumb to their disease. For patients whose tumors are driven by mutations in the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway, SHH antagonists offer some hope. However, many SHH-associated medulloblastomas do not respond to these drugs, and those that do may develop resistance. Therefore, more effective treatment strategies are needed for both SHH and non-SHH-associated medulloblastoma. One such strategy involves targeting the cells that are critical for maintaining tumor growth, known as tumor-propagating cells (TPC). We previously identified a population of TPCs in tumors from patched mutant mice, a model for SHH-dependent medulloblastoma. These cells express the surface antigen CD15/SSEA-1 and have elevated levels of genes associated with the G2-M phases of the cell cycle. Here, we show that CD15(+) cells progress more rapidly through the cell cycle than CD15(-) cells and contain an increased proportion of cells in G2-M, suggesting that they might be vulnerable to inhibitors of this phase. Indeed, exposure of tumor cells to inhibitors of Aurora kinase (Aurk) and Polo-like kinases (Plk), key regulators of G2-M, induces cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and enhanced sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy. Moreover, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with these agents significantly inhibits tumor progression. Importantly, cells from human patient-derived medulloblastoma xenografts are also sensitive to Aurk and Plk inhibitors. Our findings suggest that targeting G2-M regulators may represent a novel approach for treatment of human medulloblastoma.

Gharbaran R, Goy A, Tanaka T, et al.
Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and syndecan-1 (SDC1) are potential biomarkers for putative circulating CD15+/CD30+ cells in poor outcome Hodgkin lymphoma patients.
J Hematol Oncol. 2013; 6:62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High risk, unfavorable classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) includes those patients with primary refractory or early relapse, and progressive disease. To improve the availability of biomarkers for this group of patients, we investigated both tumor biopsies and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of untreated (chemo-naïve, CN) Nodular Sclerosis Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma (NS-cHL) patients for consistent biomarkers that can predict the outcome prior to frontline treatment.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Bioinformatics data mining was used to generate 151 candidate biomarkers, which were screened against a library of 10 HL cell lines. Expression of FGF2 and SDC1 by CD30+ cells from HL patient samples representing good and poor outcomes were analyzed by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemical (IHC), and immunofluorescence analyses.
RESULTS: To identify predictive HL-specific biomarkers, potential marker genes selected using bioinformatics approaches were screened against HL cell lines and HL patient samples. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF2) and Syndecan-1 (SDC1) were overexpressed in all HL cell lines, and the overexpression was HL-specific when compared to 116 non-Hodgkin lymphoma tissues. In the analysis of stratified NS-cHL patient samples, expression of FGF2 and SDC1 were 245 fold and 91 fold higher, respectively, in the poor outcome (PO) group than in the good outcome (GO) group. The PO group exhibited higher expression of the HL marker CD30, the macrophage marker CD68, and metastatic markers TGFβ1 and MMP9 compared to the GO group. This expression signature was confirmed by qualitative immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent data. A Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that samples in which the CD30+ cells carried an FGF2+/SDC1+ immunophenotype showed shortened survival. Analysis of chemo-naive HL blood samples suggested that in the PO group a subset of CD30+ HL cells had entered the circulation. These cells significantly overexpressed FGF2 and SDC1 compared to the GO group. The PO group showed significant down-regulation of markers for monocytes, T-cells, and B-cells. These expression signatures were eliminated in heavily pretreated patients.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that small subsets of circulating CD30+/CD15+ cells expressing FGF2 and SDC1 represent biomarkers that identify NS-cHL patients who will experience a poor outcome (primary refractory and early relapsing).

Corominas-Faja B, Cufí S, Oliveras-Ferraros C, et al.
Nuclear reprogramming of luminal-like breast cancer cells generates Sox2-overexpressing cancer stem-like cellular states harboring transcriptional activation of the mTOR pathway.
Cell Cycle. 2013; 12(18):3109-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Energy metabolism plasticity enables stemness programs during the reprogramming of somatic cells to an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) state. This relationship may introduce a new era in the understanding of Warburg's theory on the metabolic origin of cancer at the level of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here, we used Yamanaka's stem cell technology in an attempt to create stable CSC research lines in which to dissect the transcriptional control of mTOR--the master switch of cellular catabolism and anabolism--in CSC-like states. The rare colonies with iPSC-like morphology, obtained following the viral transduction of the Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM) stemness factors into MCF-7 luminal-like breast cancer cells (MCF-7/Rep), demonstrated an intermediate state between cancer cells and bona fide iPSCs. MCF-7/Rep cells notably overexpressed SOX2 and stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4 proteins; however, other stemness-related markers (OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-1, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81) were found at low to moderate levels. The transcriptional analyses of OSKM factors confirmed the strong but unique reactivation of the endogenous Sox2 stemness gene accompanied by the silencing of the exogenous Sox2 transgene in MCF-7/Rep cells. Some but not all MCF-7/Rep cells acquired strong alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity compared with MCF-7 parental cells. SOX2-overexpressing MCF-7/Rep cells contained drastically higher percentages of CD44(+) and ALDEFLUOR-stained ALDH(bright) cells than MCF-7 parental cells. The overlap between differentially expressed mTOR signaling-related genes in 3 different SOX2-overexpressing CSC-like cell lines revealed a notable downregulation of 3 genes, PRKAA1 (which codes for the catalytic α 1 subunit of AMPK), DDIT4/REDD1 (a stress response gene that operates as a negative regulator of mTOR), and DEPTOR (a naturally occurring endogenous inhibitor of mTOR activity). The insulin-receptor gene (INSR) was differentially upregulated in MCF-7/Rep cells. Consistent with the downregulation of AMPK expression, immunoblotting procedures confirmed upregulation of p70S6K and increased phosphorylation of mTOR in Sox2-overexpressing CSC-like cell populations. Using an in vitro model of the de novo generation of CSC-like states through the nuclear reprogramming of an established breast cancer cell line, we reveal that the transcriptional suppression of mTOR repressors is an intrinsic process occurring during the acquisition of CSC-like properties by differentiated populations of luminal-like breast cancer cells. This approach may provide a new path for obtaining information about preventing the appearance of CSCs through the modulation of the AMPK/mTOR pathway.

Yang X, Wang J, Liu S, Yan Q
HSF1 and Sp1 regulate FUT4 gene expression and cell proliferation in breast cancer cells.
J Cell Biochem. 2014; 115(1):168-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lewis Y (LeY) is a carbohydrate tumor-associated antigen. The majority of cancer cells derived from epithelial tissues express LeY type difucosylated oligosaccharides. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of LeY oligosaccharides. In a previous study we reported that FUT4 is associated with cell proliferation; however, despite the important role of FUT4 in cancer proliferation and apoptosis, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the regulation of FUT4 transcription. In the current study we investigated the regulation of FUT4 transcription in human breast cancer. We compared the regulation of human FUT4 gene transcription in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using promoter/luciferase analyses. Using a series of promoter deletion constructs, we identified a potential regulatory site located between 0.8 and 1.6 kb of the FUT4 promoter. As shown by EMSA and ChIP analyses, heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) and Sp1are required for FUT4 promoter activity. In addition, we explored the role of HSF1 and Sp1 on cell proliferation, and found that the ERK1/2 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways regulate the expression of FUT4, which play a role in cell proliferation via HSF1 and Sp1. These results suggest that FUT4 is a target gene for HSF1 and Sp1 that is required for cell cycle progression in breast cancer epithelial cells.

Kim MK, Cho CH, Sung WJ, et al.
Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma in the dura of the brain: case report and prediction of a favorable prognosis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013; 6(8):1643-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare T-cell lymphoma composed of CD30-positive lymphoid cells. ALCL arising in the dura matter of the brain is even more infrequent, in which only one case has been reported worldwide so far. We report a case of a 30-year-old immunocompetent male with a dura-based mass, radiographically consistent with meningioma. However, the excised mass via a left parieto-occipital craniotomy was composed of large, pleomorphic lymphoid cells to be immunopositive for CD3, CD30, anaplastic lymphoma kinase protein-1 (ALK-1) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and immunonegative for CD20, CD15 and CD68. Multiple ALK gene fusion signals in the ALK locus were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. The patient was treated with CHOP chemotherapy and intrathecal methotrexate along with brain radiation therapy, which resulted in a complete remission. In an analysis of 25 previously reported primary CNS ALCLs, ALK-1 positivity was shown to be prevalent in younger age, as ALCL occurs outside the brain. Patient less than 23 years, ALK-1 positivity and unifocal tumor may be associated with a better prognosis. However, sex, dural or leptomeningeal involvement, immune status, and tumor necrosis do not appear to have any influence on survival.

Hervey-Jumper SL, Altshuler DB, Wang AC, et al.
The role of CD133+ cells in a recurrent embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes (ETANTR).
Brain Pathol. 2014; 24(1):45-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes (ETANTR) is a recently described embryonal neoplasm of the central nervous system, consisting of a well-circumscribed embryonal tumor of infancy with mixed features of ependymoblastoma (multilayer ependymoblastic rosettes and pseudorosettes) and neuroblastoma (neuroblastic rosettes) in the presence of neuropil-like islands. We present the case of a young child with a very aggressive tumor that rapidly recurred after gross total resection, chemotherapy and radiation. Prominent vascular sclerosis and circumscribed tumor led to the diagnosis of malignant astroblastoma; however, rapid recurrence and progression of this large tumor after gross total resection prompted review of the original pathology. ETANTR is histologically distinct with focal glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and synaptophysin expression in the presence of neuronal and ependymoblastic rosettes with focal neuropil islands. These architectural features, combined with unique chromosome 19q13.42 amplification, confirmed the diagnosis. In this report, we describe tumor stem cell (TSC) marker CD133, CD15 and nestin alterations in ETANTR before and after chemotherapy. We found that TSC marker CD133 was richly expressed after chemotherapy in recurrent ETANTR, while CD15 is depleted compared with that expressed in the original tumor, suggesting that CD133+ cells likely survived initial treatment, further contributing to formation of the recurrent tumor.

Gomes C, Osório H, Pinto MT, et al.
Expression of ST3GAL4 leads to SLe(x) expression and induces c-Met activation and an invasive phenotype in gastric carcinoma cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e66737 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Sialyl-Lewis X (SLe(x)) is a sialylated glycan antigen expressed on the cell surface during malignant cell transformation and is associated with cancer progression and poor prognosis. The increased expression of sialylated glycans is associated with alterations in the expression of sialyltransferases (STs). In this study we determined the capacity of ST3GAL3 and ST3GAL4 sialyltransferases to synthesize the SLe(x) antigen in MKN45 gastric carcinoma cells and evaluated the effect of SLe(x) overexpression in cancer cell behavior both in vitro and in vivo using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. The activation of tyrosine kinase receptors and their downstream molecular targets was also addressed. Our results showed that the expression of ST3GAL4 in MKN45 gastric cancer cells leads to the synthesis of SLe(x) antigens and to an increased invasive phenotype both in vitro and in the in vivo CAM model. Analysis of phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase receptors showed a specific increase in c-Met activation. The characterization of downstream molecular targets of c-Met activation, involved in the invasive phenotype, revealed increased phosphorylation of FAK and Src proteins and activation of Cdc42, Rac1 and RhoA GTPases. Inhibition of c-Met and Src activation abolished the observed increased cell invasive phenotype. In conclusion, the expression of ST3GAL4 leads to SLe(x) antigen expression in gastric cancer cells which in turn induces an increased invasive phenotype through the activation of c-Met, in association with Src, FAK and Cdc42, Rac1 and RhoA GTPases activation.

Rassouli FB, Matin MM, Bahrami AR, et al.
Evaluating stem and cancerous biomarkers in CD15+CD44+ KYSE30 cells.
Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(5):2909-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Digestive system cancers are listed among the ten top causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are malignant cells that share some of their characteristics with normal stem cells, including self-renewal and multipotency, and also cancer cells, such as drug resistance and metastasis. Despite many reports on CSCs with digestive system origin, identification and characterization of esophageal CSCs have remained elusive. To examine the validity of routine SC, cancer cell and CSC markers in KYSE30 cells, derived from esophageal carcinoma, cells were first characterized by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR techniques, and then the significance of candidate biomarkers was evaluated in retinoic acid-treated cells by flow cytometry and/or real-time RT-PCR. Meanwhile, to study CD15 (a newly introduced CSC marker) expression in digestive tract cancers, human normal and tumoral tissues of esophagus, stomach, and colon were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Using several experimental approaches, we show that CD44, but not CD15, could serve as a reliable marker for undifferentiated malignant squamous cells of esophagus. In conclusion, our study confirms the role of CD44 as a CSC marker in KYSE30 cells, an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line, and for the first time indicates the expression of CD15 in non-neural stem-like cancer cells. Although the importance of CD15 was not indicated in diagnosis of digestive cancers, further studies are needed to better understand the biological identity and function of this molecule in non-neural malignancies.

Lin Z, Chen B, Xu X, et al.
Analysis of clinical characteristics of 516 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Shanghai area.
Hematology. 2014; 19(2):99-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim was to determine the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in Shanghai. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 516 patients with NHL. Patient clinical data, including age, sex, diagnosis, immunophenotypes, and karyotypes, were collected. The median age was 58 years. There was a male predominance in all NHL, except extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Patients with B cell NHL (1.5%) expressed CD3. T cell NHL patients (11.5%) expressed CD20. Epstein-Barr virus latent integral membrane protein 1, BCL6, CD10, Bcl-2, CD68, myeloperoxidase, CD99, CD30, CD15, and CD43 were present in various types of NHL. Complex karyotypes accounted for 92.3% of the 73.7% patients with abnormal karyotypes. Immunoglobin heavy chain gene translocation was present in 60.3% of B cell and 23.7% of T/NK cell neoplasms. Understanding the complex clinicopathological and molecular features of NHL may help with prognosis and serve as targets for treatments.

Prosniak M, Harshyne LA, Andrews DW, et al.
Glioma grade is associated with the accumulation and activity of cells bearing M2 monocyte markers.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(14):3776-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study is directed at identifying the cell source(s) of immunomodulatory cytokines in high-grade gliomas and establishing whether the analysis of associated markers has implications for tumor grading.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Glioma specimens classified as WHO grade II-IV by histopathology were assessed by gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry to identify the cells producing interleukin (IL)-10, which was confirmed by flow cytometry and factor secretion in culture. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) and mixture discriminant analysis (MDA) were used to investigate associations between expressed genes and glioma grade.
RESULTS: The principle source of glioma-associated IL-10 is a cell type that bears phenotype markers consistent with M2 monocytes but does not express all M2-associated genes. Measures of expression of the M2 cell markers CD14, CD68, CD163, and CD204, which are elevated in high-grade gliomas, and the neutrophil/myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) subset marker CD15, which is reduced, provide the best index of glioma grade.
CONCLUSIONS: Grade II and IV astrocytomas can be clearly differentiated on the basis of the expression of certain M2 markers in tumor tissues, whereas grade III astrocytomas exhibit a range of expression between the lower and higher grade specimens. The content of CD163(+) cells distinguishes grade III astrocytoma subsets with different prognosis.

Park J, Lee JE, Kim M, et al.
Discordant lymphocyte-depleted classical Hodgkin's and peripheral T-cell lymphoma arising in a patient 11 years after diagnosis of multicentric Castleman's disease.
Int J Hematol. 2013; 98(1):114-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Castleman's disease (CD) is thought to be related with an initially benign viral disease with cytokine-driven propagation and malignant transformation. This paper reports the first case of a simultaneous discordant lymphoma consisting of lymphocyte-depleted classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (LDCHL) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) arising in a patient with multicentric CD (MCD). PTCL occurred 4 years after the diagnosis of MCD, and LDCHL was developed 6 years after the treatment of PTCL, sequentially. The following year, the patient presented with a relapse of a simultaneous discordant lymphoma. On excisional cervical LN biopsy, immunohistochemical stain pattern was identical with previously diagnosed LDCHL, which expressed CD30, CD15, PAX5, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA. PTCL was positive for CD3, CD4, CD5, CD10, and CD56, and showed identical TCRB and TCRG gene rearrangements to those detected initially. MCD was thought to be the major contributing factor leading to initial PTCL, while EBV-positive LDCHL is thought to have promoted the development of PTCL, as a persistently abnormal immune microenvironment may induce the recurrence of PTCL. MCD runs a more aggressive course and can progress to Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), or combined HL/NHL. Due to its malignant potential, prompt recognition and therapy is critical for these situations, which may be life threatening.

Terada T
Pathologic diagnosis of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung in an axillary lymph node: a case report with immunohistochemical and molecular genetic studies.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013; 6(6):1177-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
The author herein reports a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung diagnosed in an axillary lymph node without clinical data, with an emphasis of KIT and PDGFRA. A 64-year-old woman presented with axillary and cervical lymph nodes swelling. An excisional biopsy of an axillary lymph node was performed under the clinical diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. The HE section showed a presence of large malignant cells arranged in a medullary pattern. The tumor cells had nucleoli. The HE diagnosis was large cell lymphoma or metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma, in particular large cell carcinoma of the lung. The tumor cells were positive for cytokeratins, p53 protein, thyroid transcriptional factor-1, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, CD56, KIT, and PDGFRA. In contrast, they were negative for CD3, CD15, CD30, CD45, CD20, CD45RO, CEA, CA19-9, and chromogranin (Dako). Ki-67 labeling (Dako) was 100%. Therefore, a diagnosis of LCNEC of the lung was made. A molecular genetic analysis for KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) identified no mutations. Later, a lung tumor and pleural effusion were detected, and the cytology of the effusion and sputum revealed carcinoma cells compatible with LCNEC. The patient was diagnosed as lung LCNEC, and treated by chemotherapy (cisplatin) and radiation (45 Gray). The present report is the first one with an examination of protein expression and gene mutations of KIT and PDGFRA in a metastatic focus of LCNEC of the lung.

Zakrzewska M, Grešner SM, Zakrzewski K, et al.
Novel gene expression model for outcome prediction in paediatric medulloblastoma.
J Mol Neurosci. 2013; 51(2):371-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Medulloblastoma is the most frequent type of embryonal tumour in the paediatric population. The disease progression in patients with this tumour may be connected with the presence of stem/tumour-initiating cells, but the precise source and characteristics of such cells is still a subject of debate. Thus, we tried to analyse biomarkers for which a connection with the presence of stem/tumour-initiating cells was suggested. We evaluated the transcriptional level of the ATOH1, FUT4, NGFR, OTX1, OTX2, PROM1 and SOX1 genes in 48 samples of medulloblastoma and analysed their usefulness in the prediction of disease outcome. The analyses showed a strong correlation of PROM1, ATOH1 and OTX1 gene expression levels with the outcome (p ≤ 0.2). On the basis of the multivariate Cox regression analysis, we propose a three-gene model predicting risk of the disease, calculated as follows: RS(risk score) =( 0:81 x PROM1) + (0:18 x OTX1) + (0:02 x ATOH1). Survival analysis revealed a better outcome among standard-risk patients, with a 5-year survival rate of 65 %, compared to the 40 % rate observed among high-risk patients. The most promising advantage of such molecular analysis consists in the identification of molecular markers influencing clinical behaviour, which may in turn be useful in therapy optimization.

Nicolae A, Pittaluga S, Venkataraman G, et al.
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas of follicular T-helper cell derivation with Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells of B-cell lineage: both EBV-positive and EBV-negative variants exist.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(6):816-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are functionally and morphologically complex. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive B cells have been reported in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and other PTCLs and may mimic Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells, but EBV-negative HRS-like B cells have not been described. We wished to assess the nature of the PTCL associated with HRS-like cells and to determine whether EBV-negative HRS-like cells may be seen. We identified 57 PTCL cases reported as containing HRS-like cells. These included 32 AITL, 19 PTCL, not otherwise specified (NOS), 3 PTCL-NOS, follicular variant, 1 PTCL-NOS, T-zone variant, and 2 adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cases. All patients were adults with a median age of 63 and presented with lymphadenopathy. The male:female ratio was 31:26 (1.2:1). Clonal TRG rearrangement was detected in 46/53 cases. Six of 38 cases had a concomitant clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangement. In 52/57 cases the HRS cells were positive for EBV. Five cases, 3 classified as AITL and 2 as PTCL-NOS, follicular variant, contained HRS-like cells negative for EBV. All PTCLs with EBV-negative HRS cells had a T follicular helper cell immunophenotype. The neoplastic T cells expressed CD3, CD4, and PD-1 and formed rosettes around the HRS-like cells. The HRS-like cells were positive for CD20 (variable intensity), PAX5, CD30, and CD15 (4/5). We conclude that both EBV-positive and EBV-negative HRS-like B cells may occur in the background of PTCL; caution is needed to avoid misdiagnosis as classical Hodgkin lymphoma. The close interaction between the HRS-like cells and the rosetting PD-1-positive T cells suggests a possible pathogenetic role in this phenomenon and provides new insights into the abnormal B-cell proliferations that occur in the context of TFH malignancies.

Manoranjan B, Wang X, Hallett RM, et al.
FoxG1 interacts with Bmi1 to regulate self-renewal and tumorigenicity of medulloblastoma stem cells.
Stem Cells. 2013; 31(7):1266-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Brain tumors represent the leading cause of childhood cancer mortality, of which medulloblastoma (MB) is the most frequent malignant tumor. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of several MB molecular subgroups, each distinct in terms of prognosis and predicted therapeutic response. Groups 1 and 2 are characterized by relatively good clinical outcomes and activation of the Wnt and Shh pathways, respectively. In contrast, groups 3 and 4 ("non-Shh/Wnt MBs") are distinguished by metastatic disease, poor patient outcome, and lack a molecular pathway phenotype. Current gene expression platforms have not detected brain tumor-initiating cell (BTIC) self-renewal genes in groups 3 and 4 MBs as BTICs typically comprise a minority of tumor cells and may therefore go undetected on bulk tumor analyses. Since increasing BTIC frequency has been associated with increasing tumor aggressiveness and poor patient outcome, we investigated the subgroup-specific gene expression profile of candidate stem cell genes within 251 primary human MBs from four nonoverlapping MB transcriptional databases (Amsterdam, Memphis, Toronto, Boston) and 74 NanoString-subgrouped MBs (Vancouver). We assessed the functional relevance of two genes, FoxG1 and Bmi1, which were significantly enriched in non-Shh/Wnt MBs and showed these genes to mediate MB stem cell self-renewal and tumor initiation in mice. We also identified their transcriptional regulation through reciprocal promoter occupancy in CD15+ MB stem cells. Our work demonstrates the application of stem cell data gathered from genomic platforms to guide functional BTIC assays, which may then be used to develop novel BTIC self-renewal mechanisms amenable to therapeutic targeting.

Jin X, Jin X, Jung JE, et al.
Cell surface Nestin is a biomarker for glioma stem cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 433(4):496-501 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the most aggressive cell type in many malignancies. Cell surface proteins are generally used to isolate and characterize CSCs. Therefore, the identification of CSC-specific cell surface markers is very important for the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies. We found that Nestin (a type VI intermediate filament protein), like the glioma stem cell (GSC) markers CD133 and CD15, exhibited different levels of expression in primary human glioblastoma specimens. Similar to our previous finding that cytoplasmic Nestin is expressed as a cell surface form in mouse GSCs, the cell surface form of Nestin was also expressed at different levels in human GSCs. We isolated cell surface Nestin-positive cell populations from human GSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting FACS analysis, and observed that these populations exhibited robust CSC properties, such as increased tumorsphere-forming ability and tumorsphere size. Mechanistically, we found that DAPT, a γ-secretase (a multi-subunit protease complex) inhibitor, reduced the proportion of cell surface Nestin-positive cells in human GSCs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, without significant changes in total Nestin expression, implying that a post-translational modification was involved in the generation of cell surface Nestin. Taken together, our data provides the first evidence that cell surface Nestin may serve as a promising GSC marker for the isolation and characterization of heterogeneous GSCs in glioblastomas.

Nolte SM, Venugopal C, McFarlane N, et al.
A cancer stem cell model for studying brain metastases from primary lung cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013; 105(8):551-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases are most common in adults with lung cancer, predicting uniformly poor patient outcome, with a median survival of only months. Despite their frequency and severity, very little is known about tumorigenesis in brain metastases.
METHODS: We applied previously developed primary solid tumor-initiating cell models to the study of brain metastases from the lung to evaluate the presence of a cancer stem cell population. Patient-derived brain metastases (n = 20) and the NCI-H1915 cell line were cultured as stem-enriching tumorspheres. We used in vitro limiting-dilution and sphere-forming assays, as well as intracranial human-mouse xenograft models. To determine genes overexpressed in brain metastasis tumorspheres, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis. All statistical analyses were two-sided.
RESULTS: Patient-derived brain metastasis tumorspheres had a mean sphere-forming capacity of 33 spheres/2000 cells (SD = 33.40) and median stem-cell frequency of 1/60 (range = 0-1/141), comparable to that of primary brain tumorspheres (P = .53 and P = .20, respectively). Brain metastases also expressed CD15 and CD133, markers suggestive of a stemlike population. Through intracranial xenotransplantation, brain metastasis tumorspheres were found to recapitulate the original patient tumor heterogeneity. We also identified several genes overexpressed in brain metastasis tumorspheres as statistically significant predictors of poor survival in primary lung cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrate the presence of a stemlike population in brain metastases from the lung. We also show that NCI-H1915 tumorspheres could be useful in studying self-renewal and tumor initiation in brain metastases. Our candidate genes may be essential to metastatic stem cell populations, where pathway interference may be able to transform a uniformly fatal disease into a more localized and treatable one.

Verschoor CP, Johnstone J, Millar J, et al.
Blood CD33(+)HLA-DR(-) myeloid-derived suppressor cells are increased with age and a history of cancer.
J Leukoc Biol. 2013; 93(4):633-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
As we age, the composition of our peripheral leukocytes changes dramatically. Many of these alterations contribute to the general immune dysfunction that burdens the elderly, which in turn, contributes to increased susceptibility to disease. MDSCs represent a heterogeneous population of immunosuppressive leukocytes that are elevated in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. Given the relation between cancer incidence and age, this study examined the frequency of peripheral blood CD33(+)HLA-DR(-) MDSCs across three cohorts: healthy adults (19-59 years old), community-dwelling seniors (61-76 years old), and frail elderly (67-99 years old). This analysis is the first to demonstrate that MDSCs and specifically the CD11b(+)CD15(+) MDSC subset are increased with age. Proinflammatory cytokines that are required for the differentiation of MDSCs (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) were similarly found to be increased in the serum of the frail elderly. Furthermore, the proportion of MDSCs and the CD11b(+)CD15(+) subset were found to be elevated significantly in elderly donors with a history of cancer. This age-related elevation in the frequency of MDSCs may contribute to the increased cancer incidence that occurs with age. Further investigation into the functional consequences of elevated MDSCs will provide valuable insight into the progression of age-related pathologies.

Liu F, Zhang G, Liu F, et al.
Effect of shRNA targeting mouse CD99L2 gene in a murine B cell lymphoma in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(4):1405-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mouse CD99 antigen-like 2 (mCD99L2) has previously been confirmed to be expressed in murine B lymphoma (A20) cells by our group. The present study aimed to establish a mCD99L2‑downregulated A20 cell line and to investigate the effect of shRNA targeting mCD99L2 in A20 cells in vitro and in vivo. Four pLenti6/mCD99L2 expression vectors containing the mCD99L2 shRNA-expressing cassette were constructed, transfected into A20 cells and stable mCD99L2-downregulated A20 subclones, termed A20-mCD99L2- cells, were established and identified by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. Light and transmission electron microscopy, MTT assay, flow cytometry and immunofluorenscence labeling were used to observe the morphological, biological and phenotypic characteristics in vitro. Some of the A20-mCD99L2- cells exhibited H/RS‑cell like morphology, a decreased proliferative ability, a prolonged G2 phase and increased CD30 and CD15 expression. Upon injecting cells into nude or immunocompetent BALB/c mice, tumorigenesis, tumor growth, morphology and phenotypes in vivo were observed. A20-mCD99L2- cells induced tumors in nude and BALB/c mice, but with less potency in the latter compared with the controls. Similar morphological, biological and phenotypic characteristics were observed in the A20-mCD99L2- cell-induced tumors as those in vitro. Several cytokines including CD30T, IL-12p40/p70, IL-3, IFN-γ, CXCL16, MIP-1α and CD40 were upregulated following mCD99L2 downregulation when detected using antibody arrays. The results from western blot analysis indicated that the regulation of mCD99L2 expression may involve the activated nuclear factor-κB pathway in the murine B lymphoma cells. The present study provides data for further investigation into the mCD99L2 gene in tumor cells.

Kahlert UD, Bender NO, Maciaczyk D, et al.
CD133/CD15 defines distinct cell subpopulations with differential in vitro clonogenic activity and stem cell-related gene expression profile in in vitro propagated glioblastoma multiforme-derived cell line with a PNET-like component.
Folia Neuropathol. 2012; 50(4):357-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), as many other solid tumours, contains a subpopulation of cells termed cancer stem-like cells responsible for the initiation and propagation of tumour growth. However, a unique immunophenotype/surface antigen composition for the clear identification of brain tumour stem cells (BTSC) has not yet been found. Here we report a novel code of cell surface markers for the identification of different cell subpopulations in neurospheres derived from a GBM with a primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET)-like component (GBM-PNET). These subgroups differ in their CD133/CD15 expression pattern and resemble cells with different stem-like genotype and developmental pathway activation levels. Strikingly, clonogenic analysis of cultures differentially expressing the investigated markers enabled the identification of distinct subpopulations of cells endowed with stem cell characteristics. High clonogenicity could be found in CD133(-)/CD15(-) and CD133(+)/CD15(+) but not in CD133(-)/CD15(+) cells. Moreover, cell subpopulations with pronounced clonogenic growth were characterized by high expression of stem cell-related genes. Interestingly, these observations were unique for GBM-PNET and differed from ordinary GBM cultures derived from tumours lacking a PNET component. This work elucidates the complex molecular heterogeneity of in vitro propagated glioblastoma-derived cells and potentially contributes to the development of novel diagnostic modalities aiming at the identification of the brain tumour stem-like cell population in a subgroup of GBMs.

Mitsui T, Mawatari M, Koiso H, et al.
Age-related Epstein-Barr Virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders of the orbit and maxillary sinus : a case report.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2012; 52(3):205-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a rare case of age-related Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (aEBVBLPD) primarily involving the orbit and maxillary sinus. Lesions in the left orbit and maxillary sinus were observed in a 59-year-old man presenting with pain in the left orbit and maxilla. Owing to the presence of Reed-Sternberg-like cells, the initial diagnosis was nodular sclerosis-type Hodgkin's lymphoma. Clinical stage was IIAE, and response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy was favorable. Further immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses of the Reed-Sternberg-like giant cells revealed CD30, CD15, CD20, Bob-1, Oct-2, EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) and latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) expression. The characteristics of the present case, which included immunohistochemical findings, sites of primary lesions, absence of other lymph node lesions and relatively old age, suggested aEBVBLPD. Owing to the similarity in morphology, higher frequency at extranodal sites and poor prognosis, aEBVBLPD represents a differential diagnostic issue from classical Hodgkin's lymphoma when Reed-Sternberg cells are positive for EBV.

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