FAT1

Gene Summary

Gene:FAT1; FAT atypical cadherin 1
Aliases: FAT, ME5, CDHF7, CDHR8, hFat1
Location:4q35
Summary:This gene is an ortholog of the Drosophila fat gene, which encodes a tumor suppressor essential for controlling cell proliferation during Drosophila development. The gene product is a member of the cadherin superfamily, a group of integral membrane proteins characterized by the presence of cadherin-type repeats. In addition to containing 34 tandem cadherin-type repeats, the gene product has five epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and one laminin A-G domain. This gene is expressed at high levels in a number of fetal epithelia. Its product probably functions as an adhesion molecule and/or signaling receptor, and is likely to be important in developmental processes and cell communication. Transcript variants derived from alternative splicing and/or alternative promoter usage exist, but they have not been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protocadherin Fat 1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 28 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (19)

Cancer Overview

Morris et al, 2013 found that the FAT1 gene is deleted and mutated at a high prevalence across multiple types of cancers, and FAT1 suppresses cancer cell growth and proliferation, contributing to aberrant Wnt activation. They suggest that FAT1 is a tumour suppressor gene driving loss of chromosome 4q35, a prevalent region of deletion in cancer - though other tumour suppressors in 4q35 can't be ruled out.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 28 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Head and Neck CancersFAT1 and Head and Neck Cancers
Morris, et al(2013) identified FAT1 mutations in 4 of 60 (7%) head and neck cancers, after filtering out known SNPs.
View Publications6
Oral Cavity CancerFAT1 and Oral Cavity Cancer View Publications4
Brain and CNS TumoursFAT1 and Glioblastoma
As part of a study of FAT1 Morris, et al(2013) assayed copy number in 42 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor samples using quantitative PCR, and found a 24 (57%) had homozygous deletion of FAT1.
View Publications4
Esophageal CancerFAT1 mutation in Esophogeal Cancer
Lin DC, et al (2014) reported mutation of FAT1 as part of sequenced whole exomes (WES) study of genomic and molecular characterization of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. 20 tumours were analysed in an initial 'discovery' cohort, and then a further 119 samples to validate. The They found that FAT1 protein expression was downregulated in ESCC and that homozygous deletions of FAT1 occurred in 3.4% of ESCCs.
View Publications2
Colorectal CancerFAT1 and Colorectal Cancer
Morris, et al(2013) identified FAT1 mutations in 3 of 39 (8%) colon cancers, after filtering out known SNPs.
View Publications2

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FAT1 (cancer-related)

Gao YB, Chen ZL, Li JG, et al.
Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(10):1097-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications.

Lin DC, Hao JJ, Nagata Y, et al.
Genomic and molecular characterization of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(5):467-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent worldwide and particularly common in certain regions of Asia. Here we report the whole-exome or targeted deep sequencing of 139 paired ESCC cases, and analysis of somatic copy number variations (SCNV) of over 180 ESCCs. We identified previously uncharacterized mutated genes such as FAT1, FAT2, ZNF750 and KMT2D, in addition to those already known (TP53, PIK3CA and NOTCH1). Further SCNV evaluation, immunohistochemistry and biological analysis suggested their functional relevance in ESCC. Notably, RTK-MAPK-PI3K pathways, cell cycle and epigenetic regulation are frequently dysregulated by multiple molecular mechanisms in this cancer. Our approaches also uncovered many druggable candidates, and XPO1 was further explored as a therapeutic target because it showed both gene mutation and protein overexpression. Our integrated study unmasks a number of novel genetic lesions in ESCC and provides an important molecular foundation for understanding esophageal tumors and developing therapeutic targets.

Onken MD, Winkler AE, Kanchi KL, et al.
A surprising cross-species conservation in the genomic landscape of mouse and human oral cancer identifies a transcriptional signature predicting metastatic disease.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(11):2873-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Improved understanding of the molecular basis underlying oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) aggressive growth has significant clinical implications. Herein, cross-species genomic comparison of carcinogen-induced murine and human OSCCs with indolent or metastatic growth yielded results with surprising translational relevance.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Murine OSCC cell lines were subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) to define their mutational landscape, to define novel candidate cancer genes, and to assess for parallels with known drivers in human OSCC. Expression arrays identified a mouse metastasis signature, and we assessed its representation in four independent human datasets comprising 324 patients using weighted voting and gene set enrichment analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to stratify outcomes. A quantitative real-time PCR assay based on the mouse signature coupled to a machine-learning algorithm was developed and used to stratify an independent set of 31 patients with respect to metastatic lymphadenopathy.
RESULTS: NGS revealed conservation of human driver pathway mutations in mouse OSCC, including in Trp53, mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, NOTCH, JAK/STAT, and Fat1-4. Moreover, comparative analysis between The Cancer Genome Atlas and mouse samples defined AKAP9, MED12L, and MYH6 as novel putative cancer genes. Expression analysis identified a transcriptional signature predicting aggressiveness and clinical outcomes, which were validated in four independent human OSCC datasets. Finally, we harnessed the translational potential of this signature by creating a clinically feasible assay that stratified patients with OSCC with a 93.5% accuracy.
CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate surprising cross-species genomic conservation that has translational relevance for human oral squamous cell cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 20(11); 2873-84. ©2014 AACR.

Valletta D, Czech B, Spruss T, et al.
Regulation and function of the atypical cadherin FAT1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(6):1407-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
In human cancers, giant cadherin FAT1 may function both, as an oncogene and a tumor suppressor. Here, we investigated the expression and function of FAT1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). FAT1 expression was increased in human HCC cell lines and tissues compared with primary human hepatocytes and non-tumorous liver tissue as assessed by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. Combined immunohistochemical and tissue microarray analysis showed a significant correlation of FAT1 expression with tumor stage and proliferation. Suppression of FAT1 expression by short hairpin RNA impaired proliferation and migration as well as apoptosis resistance of HCC cells in vitro. In nude mice, tumors formed by FAT1-suppressed HCC cells showed a delayed onset and more apoptosis compared with tumors of control cells. Both hepatocyte growth factor and hypoxia-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha activation were identified as strong inducers of FAT1 in HCC. Moreover, demethylating agents induced FAT1 expression in HCC cells. Hypoxia lead to reduced levels of the methyl group donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and hypoxia-induced FAT1 expression was inhibited by SAM supplementation in HCC cells. Together, these findings indicate that FAT1 expression in HCC is regulated via promotor methylation. FAT1 appears as relevant mediator of hypoxia and growth receptor signaling to critical tumorigenic pathways in HCC. This knowledge may facilitate the rational design of novel therapeutics against this highly aggressive malignancy.

Messina M, Del Giudice I, Khiabanian H, et al.
Genetic lesions associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia chemo-refractoriness.
Blood. 2014; 123(15):2378-88 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2015 Related Publications
Fludarabine refractoriness (FR) represents an unsolved clinical problem of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) management. Although next-generation sequencing studies have led to the identification of a number of genes frequently mutated in FR-CLL, a comprehensive evaluation of the FR-CLL genome has not been reported. Toward this end, we studied 10 FR-CLLs by combining whole-exome sequencing and copy number aberration (CNA) analysis, which showed an average of 16.3 somatic mutations and 4 CNAs per sample. Screening of recurrently mutated genes in 48 additional FR-CLLs revealed that ~70% of FR-CLLs carry ≥1 mutation in genes previously associated with CLL clinical course, including TP53 (27.5%), NOTCH1 (24.1%), SF3B1 (18.9%), and BIRC3 (15.5%). In addition, this analysis showed that 10.3% of FR-CLL cases display mutations of the FAT1 gene, which encodes for a cadherin-like protein that negatively regulates Wnt signaling, consistent with a tumor suppressor role. The frequency of FAT1-mutated cases was significantly higher in FR-CLL than in unselected CLLs at diagnosis (10.3% vs 1.1%, P = .004), suggesting a role in the development of a high-risk phenotype. These findings have general implications for the mechanisms leading to FR and point to Wnt signaling as a potential therapeutic target in FR-CLL.

Bowles DW, Diamond JR, Lam ET, et al.
Phase I study of oral rigosertib (ON 01910.Na), a dual inhibitor of the PI3K and Plk1 pathways, in adult patients with advanced solid malignancies.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(6):1656-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine the pharmacokinetics (PK), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and antitumor activity of an oral formulation of rigosertib, a dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) pathway inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid malignancies.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with advanced solid malignancies received rigosertib twice daily continuously in 21-day cycles. Doses were escalated until intolerable grade ≥2 toxicities, at which point the previous dose level was expanded to define the MTD. All patients were assessed for safety, PK, and response. Urinary PK were performed at the MTD. Archival tumors were assessed for potential molecular biomarkers with multiplex mutation testing. A subset of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) underwent exome sequencing.
RESULTS: Forty-eight patients received a median of 2 cycles of therapy at 5 dose levels. Rigosertib exposure increased with escalating doses. Dose-limiting toxicities were hematuria and dysuria. The most common grade ≥2 drug-related toxicities involved urothelial irritation. The MTD is 560 mg twice daily. Activity was seen in head and neck SCCs (1 complete response, 1 partial response) and stable disease for ≥12 weeks was observed in 8 additional patients. Tumors experiencing ≥partial response had PI3K pathway activation, inactivated p53, and unique variants in ROBO3 and FAT1, two genes interacting with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: The recommended phase II dose of oral rigosertib is 560 mg twice daily given continuously. Urinary toxicity is the dose-limiting and most common toxicity. Alterations in PI3K, p53, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway signaling should be investigated as potential biomarkers of response in future trials.


Mutational landscape of gingivo-buccal oral squamous cell carcinoma reveals new recurrently-mutated genes and molecular subgroups.
Nat Commun. 2013; 4:2873 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2015 Related Publications
Gingivo-buccal oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC-GB), an anatomical and clinical subtype of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), is prevalent in regions where tobacco-chewing is common. Exome sequencing (n=50) and recurrence testing (n=60) reveals that some significantly and frequently altered genes are specific to OSCC-GB (USP9X, MLL4, ARID2, UNC13C and TRPM3), while some others are shared with HNSCC (for example, TP53, FAT1, CASP8, HRAS and NOTCH1). We also find new genes with recurrent amplifications (for example, DROSHA, YAP1) or homozygous deletions (for example, DDX3X) in OSCC-GB. We find a high proportion of C>G transversions among tobacco users with high numbers of mutations. Many pathways that are enriched for genomic alterations are specific to OSCC-GB. Our work reveals molecular subtypes with distinctive mutational profiles such as patients predominantly harbouring mutations in CASP8 with or without mutations in FAT1. Mean duration of disease-free survival is significantly elevated in some molecular subgroups. These findings open new avenues for biological characterization and exploration of therapies.

Pickering CR, Zhang J, Yoo SY, et al.
Integrative genomic characterization of oral squamous cell carcinoma identifies frequent somatic drivers.
Cancer Discov. 2013; 3(7):770-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2015 Related Publications
The survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not changed significantly in several decades, leading clinicians and investigators to search for promising molecular targets. To this end, we conducted comprehensive genomic analysis of gene expression, copy number, methylation, and point mutations in OSCC. Integrated analysis revealed more somatic events than previously reported, identifying four major driver pathways (mitogenic signaling, Notch, cell cycle, and TP53) and two additional key genes (FAT1, CASP8). The Notch pathway was defective in 66% of patients, and in follow-up studies of mechanism, functional NOTCH1 signaling inhibited proliferation of OSCC cell lines. Frequent mutation of caspase-8 (CASP8) defines a new molecular subtype of OSCC with few copy number changes. Although genomic alterations are dominated by loss of tumor suppressor genes, 80% of patients harbored at least one genomic alteration in a targetable gene, suggesting that novel approaches to treatment may be possible for this debilitating subset of head and neck cancers.

Neumann M, Heesch S, Schlee C, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing in adult ETP-ALL reveals a high rate of DNMT3A mutations.
Blood. 2013; 121(23):4749-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Early T-cell precursor (ETP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a high-risk subgroup of T-lineage ALL characterized by specific stem cell and myeloid features. In adult ETP-ALL, no comprehensive studies on the genetic background have been performed to elucidate molecular lesions of this distinct subgroup. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 5 paired ETP-ALL samples. In addition to mutations in genes known to be involved in leukemogenesis (ETV6, NOTCH1, JAK1, and NF1), we identified novel recurrent mutations in FAT1 (25%), FAT3 (20%), DNM2 (35%), and genes associated with epigenetic regulation (MLL2, BMI1, and DNMT3A). Importantly, we verified the high rate of DNMT3A mutations (16%) in a larger cohort of adult patients with ETP-ALL (10/68). Mutations in epigenetic regulators support clinical trials, including epigenetic-orientated therapies, for this high-risk subgroup. Interestingly, more than 60% of adult patients with ETP-ALL harbor at least a single genetic lesion in DNMT3A, FLT3, or NOTCH1 that may allow use of targeted therapies.

Morris LG, Ramaswami D, Chan TA
The FAT epidemic: a gene family frequently mutated across multiple human cancer types.
Cell Cycle. 2013; 12(7):1011-2 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2015 Related Publications

Ardjmand A, de Bock CE, Shahrokhi S, et al.
Fat1 cadherin provides a novel minimal residual disease marker in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Hematology. 2013; 18(6):315-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Measurement of minimal residual disease (MRD) maintains an important role in the clinical management of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Recently, we identified Fat1 cadherin as a unique and independent prognostic factor for relapse-free and overall survival in pediatric pre-B-ALL. Here, we analyzed Fat1 mRNA for its potential as a novel marker of MRD in cases of pre-B- and T-ALL. Analyses of microarray data from 125 matched diagnosis/relapse samples across three independent datasets indicate that Fat1 mRNA is detectable in an average of 31.3% of diagnosed pre-B-ALL, of which 67.5% of cases remained positive at relapse. Furthermore, some 20% of cases with undetectable levels of Fat1 mRNA at diagnosis became positive upon relapse. T-ALL cases were 83.3% positive for Fat1 expression at diagnosis with 77.7% remaining positive at relapse. Towards proof of concept, we developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay and demonstrate detection of Fat1 mRNA in leukemic cells mixed with normal peripheral blood cells at a sensitivity of 1 in 10 000 to 100 000 cells. Fat1 may therefore provide a new marker of MRD for patients with ALL lacking known genomic aberrations or within a multiplex approach to MRD detection.

Morris LG, Kaufman AM, Gong Y, et al.
Recurrent somatic mutation of FAT1 in multiple human cancers leads to aberrant Wnt activation.
Nat Genet. 2013; 45(3):253-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2015 Related Publications
Aberrant Wnt signaling can drive cancer development. In many cancer types, the genetic basis of Wnt pathway activation remains incompletely understood. Here, we report recurrent somatic mutations of the Drosophila melanogaster tumor suppressor-related gene FAT1 in glioblastoma (20.5%), colorectal cancer (7.7%), and head and neck cancer (6.7%). FAT1 encodes a cadherin-like protein, which we found is able to potently suppress cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by binding β-catenin and antagonizing its nuclear localization. Inactivation of FAT1 via mutation therefore promotes Wnt signaling and tumorigenesis and affects patient survival. Taken together, these data strongly point to FAT1 as a tumor suppressor gene driving loss of chromosome 4q35, a prevalent region of deletion in cancer. Loss of FAT1 function is a frequent event during oncogenesis. These findings address two outstanding issues in cancer biology: the basis of Wnt activation in non-colorectal tumors and the identity of a 4q35 tumor suppressor.

Katoh M
Function and cancer genomics of FAT family genes (review).
Int J Oncol. 2012; 41(6):1913-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2015 Related Publications
FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are human homologs of Drosophila Fat, which is involved in tumor suppression and planar cell polarity (PCP). FAT1 and FAT4 undergo the first proteolytic cleavage by Furin and are predicted to undergo the second cleavage by γ‑secretase to release intracellular domain (ICD). Ena/VAPS‑binding to FAT1 induces actin polymerization at lamellipodia and filopodia to promote cell migration, while Scribble‑binding to FAT1 induces phosphorylation and functional inhibition of YAP1 to suppress cell growth. FAT1 is repressed in oral cancer owing to homozygous deletion or epigenetic silencing and is preferentially downregulated in invasive breast cancer. On the other hand, FAT1 is upregulated in leukemia and prognosis of preB‑ALL patients with FAT1 upregulation is poor. FAT4 directly interacts with MPDZ/MUPP1 to recruit membrane‑associated guanylate kinase MPP5/PALS1. FAT4 is involved in the maintenance of PCP and inhibition of cell proliferation. FAT4 mRNA is repressed in breast cancer and lung cancer due to promoter hypermethylation. FAT4 gene is recurrently mutated in several types of human cancers, such as melanoma, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. FAT1 and FAT4 suppress tumor growth via activation of Hippo signaling, whereas FAT1 promotes tumor migration via induction of actin polymerization. FAT1 is tumor suppressive or oncogenic in a context‑dependent manner, while FAT4 is tumor suppressive. Copy number aberration, translocation and point mutation of FAT1, FAT2, FAT3, FAT4, FRMD1, FRMD6, NF2, WWC1, WWC2, SAV1, STK3, STK4, MOB1A, MOB1B, LATS1, LATS2, YAP1 and WWTR1/TAZ genes should be comprehensively investigated in various types of human cancers to elucidate the mutation landscape of the FAT‑Hippo signaling cascades. Because YAP1 and WWTR1 are located at the crossroads of adhesion, GPCR, RTK and stem‑cell signaling network, cancer genomics of the FAT signaling cascades could be applied for diagnostics, prognostics and therapeutics in the era of personalized medicine.

Dikshit B, Irshad K, Madan E, et al.
FAT1 acts as an upstream regulator of oncogenic and inflammatory pathways, via PDCD4, in glioma cells.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(33):3798-808 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and the commonest primary brain tumor with a tendency for local invasiveness. The pathways of neoplasia, invasion and inflammation are inextricably linked in cancer and aberrations in several regulatory pathways for these processes have been identified. Here we have studied the FAT1 (Homo sapiens FAT tumor-suppressor homolog 1 (Drosophila)) gene to identify its role in the tumorigenecity of the gliomas. The expression of FAT1 was found to be high in grade IV glioma cell lines (U87MG, A172, U373MG and T98G) but low in grade III glioma cell lines (GOS3 and SW1088). Two cell lines (U87MG and A172) with high FAT1 expression were chosen for in vitro FAT1-knockdown studies. FAT1 knockdown by small interfering RNA resulted in decreased migration and invasion of both the cell lines along with increased expression of the tumor-suppressor gene programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). Increased PDCD4 expression led to the attenuation of activator protein-1 (AP- 1) transcription by inhibiting c-Jun phosphorylation and resulted in concomitant decrease in the expression of AP-1-target genes like MMP3, VEGF-C and PLAU, the pro-inflammatory regulator COX-2 and cytokines IL1b and IL-6. Conversely, simultaneous silencing of PDCD4 and FAT1 in these cells significantly enhanced AP-1 activity and expression of its target genes, resulting in increase in mediators of inflammation and in enhanced migratory and invasive properties of the cells. We also observed a negative correlation between the expression of FAT1 and PDCD4 (P = 0.0145), a positive correlation between the expression of FAT1 and COX-2 (P = 0.048) and a similar positive trend between FAT1 and IL-6 expression in 35 primary human GBM samples studied. Taken together, this study identifies a novel signaling mechanism mediated by FAT1 in regulating the activity of PDCD4 and thereby the key transcription factor AP-1, which then affects known mediators of neoplasia and inflammation.

Lee S, Stewart S, Nagtegaal I, et al.
Differentially expressed genes regulating the progression of ductal carcinoma in situ to invasive breast cancer.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(17):4574-86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2015 Related Publications
Molecular mechanisms mediating the progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive breast cancer remain largely unknown. We used gene expression profiling of human DCIS (n = 53) and invasive breast cancer (n = 51) to discover uniquely expressed genes that may also regulate progression. There were 470 total differentially expressed genes (≥2-fold; P < 0.05). Elevated expression of genes involved in synthesis and organization of extracellular matrix was particularly prominent in the epithelium of invasive breast cancer. The degree of overlap of the genes with nine similar studies in the literature was determined to help prioritize their potential importance, resulting in 74 showing overlap in ≥2 studies (average 3.6 studies/gene; range 2-8 studies). Using hierarchical clustering, the 74-gene profile correctly categorized 96% of samples in this study and 94% of samples from 3 similar independent studies. To study the progression of DCIS to invasive breast cancer in vivo, we introduced human DCIS cell lines engineered to express specific genes into a "mammary intraductal DCIS" xenograft model. Progression of xenografts to invasive breast cancer was dramatically increased by suppressing four genes that were usually elevated in clinical samples of DCIS, including a protease inhibitor (CSTA) and genes involved in cell adhesion and signaling (FAT1, DST, and TMEM45A), strongly suggesting that they normally function to suppress progression. In summary, we have identified unique gene expression profiles of human DCIS and invasive breast cancer, which include novel genes regulating tumor progression. Targeting some of these genes may improve the detection, diagnosis, and therapy of DCIS.

de Bock CE, Ardjmand A, Molloy TJ, et al.
The Fat1 cadherin is overexpressed and an independent prognostic factor for survival in paired diagnosis-relapse samples of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leukemia. 2012; 26(5):918-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Improved survival of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has emerged from identifying new prognostic markers; however, 20% of children still suffer recurrence. Previously, the altered expression of Fat1 cadherin has been implicated in a number of solid tumors. In this report, in vitro analysis shows that Fat1 protein is expressed by a range of leukemia cell lines, but not by normal peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) cells from healthy donors. In silico analysis of expression of array data from clinical leukemias found significant levels of Fat1 transcript in 11% of acute myeloid leukemia, 29% and 63% of ALL of B and T lineages, respectively, and little or no transcript present in normal PB or BM. Furthermore, in two independent studies of matched diagnosis-relapse of precursor B-cell (preB) ALL pediatric samples (n=32 and n=27), the level of Fat1 mRNA expression was prognostic at the time of diagnosis. High Fat1 mRNA expression was predictive of shorter relapse-free and overall survival, independent of other traditional prognostic markers, including white blood cell count, sex and age. The data presented demonstrate that Fat1 expression in preB-ALL has a role in the emergence of relapse and could provide a suitable therapeutic target in high-risk preB-ALL.

Sadeqzadeh E, de Bock CE, Zhang XD, et al.
Dual processing of FAT1 cadherin protein by human melanoma cells generates distinct protein products.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(32):28181-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2015 Related Publications
The giant cadherin FAT1 is one of four vertebrate orthologues of the Drosophila tumor suppressor fat. It engages in several functions, including cell polarity and migration, and in Hippo signaling during development. Homozygous deletions in oral cancer suggest that FAT1 may play a tumor suppressor role, although overexpression of FAT1 has been reported in some other cancers. Here we show using Northern blotting that human melanoma cell lines variably but universally express FAT1 and less commonly FAT2, FAT3, and FAT4. Both normal melanocytes and keratinocytes also express comparable FAT1 mRNA relative to melanoma cells. Analysis of the protein processing of FAT1 in keratinocytes revealed that, like Drosophila FAT, human FAT1 is cleaved into a non-covalent heterodimer before achieving cell surface expression. The use of inhibitors also established that such cleavage requires the proprotein convertase furin. However, in melanoma cells, the non-cleaved proform of FAT1 is also expressed at the cell surface together with the furin-cleaved heterodimer. Moreover, furin-independent processing generates a potentially functional proteolytic product in melanoma cells, a persistent 65-kDa membrane-bound cytoplasmic fragment no longer in association with the extracellular fragment. In vitro localization studies of FAT1 showed that melanoma cells display high levels of cytosolic FAT1 protein, whereas keratinocytes, despite comparable FAT1 expression levels, exhibited mainly cell-cell junctional staining. Such differences in protein distribution appear to reconcile with the different protein products generated by dual FAT1 processing. We suggest that the uncleaved FAT1 could promote altered signaling, and the novel products of alternate processing provide a dominant negative function in melanoma.

Nishikawa Y, Miyazaki T, Nakashiro K, et al.
Human FAT1 cadherin controls cell migration and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma through the localization of β-catenin.
Oncol Rep. 2011; 26(3):587-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
FAT1 [Homo sapiens FAT tumor suppressor homolog 1 (Drosophila)] is an intrinsic membrane protein classified as a member of the cadherin superfamily. The FAT1 gene is a tumor suppressor in humans as well as being the pivotal gene for cell morphogenesis and migration. Deletion of this gene could play a role in the characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), involving cell adhesion, migration and/or invasion. This study investigated the mechanisms by which FAT1 is involved in the biological behavior of OSCCs. First, a rat monoclonal antibody was developed against a FAT1 intra-cellular domain epitope, and used for an immunohistochemical study of FAT1 in clinically obtained OSCC samples. FAT1 was localized at lamellipodial edges or cell-cell boundaries in normal cells and well differentiated OSCCs, but showed a diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear distribution in moderately-poorly differentiated OSCCs. FAT1-siRNA was transfected into OSCCs resulting in a drastic inhibition of cell migration and invasion based on the suppression of FAT1 expression and disorganized localization of β-catenin which is associated with cell polarity and migration. These results suggested that FAT1 may be involved in the migration and invasion mechanisms of OSCCs and, therefore, it could be an important target for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

Chosdol K, Misra A, Puri S, et al.
Frequent loss of heterozygosity and altered expression of the candidate tumor suppressor gene 'FAT' in human astrocytic tumors.
BMC Cancer. 2009; 9:5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We had earlier used the comparison of RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) DNA fingerprinting profiles of tumor and corresponding normal DNA to identify genetic alterations in primary human glial tumors. This has the advantage that DNA fingerprinting identifies the genetic alterations in a manner not biased for locus.
METHODS: In this study we used RAPD-PCR to identify novel genomic alterations in the astrocytic tumors of WHO grade II (Low Grade Diffuse Astrocytoma) and WHO Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme). Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the altered region was studied by microsatellite and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Expression study of the gene identified at the altered locus was done by semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR).
RESULTS: Bands consistently altered in the RAPD profile of tumor DNA in a significant proportion of tumors were identified. One such 500 bp band, that was absent in the RAPD profile of 33% (4/12) of the grade II astrocytic tumors, was selected for further study. Its sequence corresponded with a region of FAT, a putative tumor suppressor gene initially identified in Drosophila. Fifty percent of a set of 40 tumors, both grade II and IV, were shown to have Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) at this locus by microsatellite (intragenic) and by SNP markers. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed low FAT mRNA levels in a major subset of tumors.
CONCLUSION: These results point to a role of the FAT in astrocytic tumorigenesis and demonstrate the use of RAPD analysis in identifying specific alterations in astrocytic tumors.

Nakaya K, Yamagata HD, Arita N, et al.
Identification of homozygous deletions of tumor suppressor gene FAT in oral cancer using CGH-array.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(36):5300-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homozygous deletions (HD) provide an important resource for identifying the location of candidate tumor suppressor genes. To identify the tumor suppressor gene in oral cancer, we employed high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-array analysis. We identified a homozygous loss of FAT (4q35), a new member of the human cadherin superfamily, from genome-wide screening of copy number alterations in one primary oral cancer. This result was evaluated by genomic polymerase chain reaction in 13 oral cancer cell lines and 20 primary oral cancers and Southern blot in the cell lines. We found frequent exonic HD of FAT in the cell lines (3/13, 23%) and in primary oral cancers (16/20, 80%). FAT expression was absent in these cell lines. Homozygous deletion hot spots were observed in exon 1 (9/20, 45%) and exon 4 (7/20, 35%). Moreover, loss of gene expression was identified in other types of squamous cell carcinoma. The methylation status of the FAT CpG island in squamous cell carcinomas correlated negatively with its expression. Our results identify mutations in FAT as an important factor in the development of oral cancer and indicate the importance of FATs function in some squamous cell carcinomas.

Bendavid C, Pasquier L, Watrin T, et al.
Phenotypic variability of a 4q34-->qter inherited deletion: MRKH syndrome in the daughter, cardiac defect and Fallopian tube cancer in the mother.
Eur J Med Genet. 2007 Jan-Feb; 50(1):66-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Terminal deletions of the long arm of chromosome 4 are associated with a recognizable phenotype consisting of dysmorphic facial features, cleft palate, upper and lower limb malformations, cardiac defects and growth and mental retardation. Here we report on two female patients, a mother and her daughter, carrying the same 4q34-->qter deletion but presenting with a different phenotype. The mother's presentation is consistent with previous findings in patients with terminal deletions of the long arm of chromosome 4. However, she presented at the age of 54years with bilateral serous carcinoma of the Fallopian tubes, a rare gynaecologic cancer that might be attributed to the haploinsufficiency of the tumor suppressor gene FAT. The daughter presented isolated congenital aplasia of the uterus and vagina, the prime feature of the MRKH syndrome. This has not been described before in association with a 46,XX,del(4)(q34qter).

Kwaepila N, Burns G, Leong AS
Immunohistological localisation of human FAT1 (hFAT) protein in 326 breast cancers. Does this adhesion molecule have a role in pathogenesis?
Pathology. 2006; 38(2):125-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To examine the immunohistological expression in human breast cancers of human FAT1 (hFAT) protein, a recently described member of the cadherin superfamily, and its correlation with histological type and grade.
METHODS: A total of 326 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer representing a broad spectrum of histological subtypes were immunostained with affinity-purified rabbit antibodies produced to the cytoplasmic region of hFAT using a standard avidin-biotin system. Staining intensity was arbitrarily graded on a scale of 0 to 3.
RESULTS: All tumours showed diffuse staining for hFAT. Immunoexpression of the protein was generally strong in both lobular (LCIS, n = 2) and ductal in situ carcinoma (DCIS, n = 55). hFAT was also strongly immunoexpressed in all types of invasive carcinoma. Grade 3 DCIS displayed the highest hFAT intensity compared with lower grade tumours, with significant differences between grade 1 and 3 (p = 0.015) and grade 2 and 3 (p = 0.047). With invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 128) the difference was not as clear-cut, as most tumours showed moderate (n = 63) or strong staining (n = 49), although grade 3 IDC revealed significantly decreased immunoexpression compared with grade 1 IDC (p = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: The results illustrate that hFAT1 does not display the pattern of expression seen with the E-cadherin-ss-catenin adhesion complex; however, its over-expression and diffuse expression in both in situ and invasive carcinoma strongly suggests a role in carcinogenesis. From the known functions of FAT1 it is suggested that the concurrent loss of classical cadherins from cell-cell junctions accompanied by increased FAT1 expression contributes to loss of duct formation, and increased cell migration and invasion.

Shen SS, Krishna B, Chirala R, et al.
Kidney-specific cadherin, a specific marker for the distal portion of the nephron and related renal neoplasms.
Mod Pathol. 2005; 18(7):933-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell neoplasms are presumably derived from different cell types of the nephron. Clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are thought to be of proximal tubular origin, whereas oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC are derived from intercalated cells of distal nephron. A few molecules, such as RCC marker and CD10, have been shown to be markers for clear cell RCC and papillary RCC. Such markers are not yet available for renal tumors presumably of the distal nephron. The expression of kidney-specific (Ksp) cadherin, a recently cloned gene thought to be transcribed exclusively in the kidney, was studied in normal human kidney, as well as in 105 primary renal neoplasms, including 42 clear cell RCC, 30 papillary RCC, 13 chromophobe RCC, and 20 oncocytomas. The expression patterns were compared with those of RCC marker. The Ksp-cadherin expression was noted preferentially in distal convoluted tubules with a basolateral membrane stain in normal kidney. All 13 chromophobe RCC and 19 of 20 oncocytomas showed diffuse and strong immunoreactivity for Ksp-cadherin, while only 14% clear cell RCC and 13% papillary RCC showed focal positivity. The RCC marker expression was detected in 85%, 98%, 15% and 0% of clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, and oncocytoma, respectively. A few clear cell RCC and papillary RCC showed dual expression of both RCC marker and Ksp-cadherin, which appear to have distinct histologic features. These results demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of Ksp-cadherin for distal convoluted tubules, which can be used as adjunct for diagnosis of chromophobe RCC.

Oliveira AM, Perez-Atayde AR, Inwards CY, et al.
USP6 and CDH11 oncogenes identify the neoplastic cell in primary aneurysmal bone cysts and are absent in so-called secondary aneurysmal bone cysts.
Am J Pathol. 2004; 165(5):1773-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2015 Related Publications
Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a locally recurrent bone lesion that has been regarded as a reactive process. Recently, a neoplastic basis in primary ABC was evidenced by demonstration of clonal chromosome band 17p13 translocations that place the USP6 (TRE2 or TRE17) oncogene under the regulatory influence of the highly active CDH11 promoter. Herein, we report CDH11 and/or USP6 rearrangements in 36 of 52 primary ABCs (69%), of which 10 had CDH11-USP6 fusion, 23 had variant USP6 rearrangements without CDH11 rearrangement, and three had variant CDH11 rearrangements without USP6 rearrangement. USP6 and CDH11 rearrangements were restricted to spindle cells in the ABC and were not found in multinucleated giant cells, inflammatory cells, endothelial cells, or osteoblasts. CDH11 and USP6 rearrangements did not correlate with recurrence-free survival, or with other clinicopathological features. CDH11 and USP6 rearrangements were not found in any of 17 secondary ABC associated with giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma, osteoblastoma, and fibrous dysplasia. These findings demonstrate that primary ABC are mesenchymal neoplasms exhibiting USP6 and/or CDH11 oncogenic rearrangements. By contrast, secondary ABC lack CDH11 and USP6 rearrangements, and although morphological mimics of primary ABC, appear to represent a non-specific morphological pattern of a diverse group of non-ABC neoplasms.

Paz MF, Wei S, Cigudosa JC, et al.
Genetic unmasking of epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes in colon cancer cells deficient in DNA methyltransferases.
Hum Mol Genet. 2003; 12(17):2209-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypermethylation associated silencing of the CpG islands of tumor suppressor genes is a common hallmark of human cancer. Here we report a functional search for hypermethylated CpG islands using the colorectal cancer cell line HCT-116, in which two major DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3b, have been genetically disrupted (DKO cells). Using two molecular screenings for differentially methylated loci [differential methylation hybridization (DMH) and amplification of inter-methylated sites (AIMS)], we found that DKO cells, but not the single DNMT1 or DNMT3b knockouts, have a massive loss of hypermethylated CpG islands that induces the re-activation of the contiguous genes. We have characterized a substantial number of these CpG island associated genes with potentially important roles in tumorigenesis, such as the cadherin member FAT, or the homeobox genes LMX-1 and DUX-4. For other genes whose role in transformation has not been characterized, such as the calcium channel alpha1I or the thromboxane A2 receptor, their re-introduction in DKO cells inhibited colony formation. Thus, our results demonstrate the role of DNMT1 and DNMT3b in CpG island methylation associated silencing and the usefulness of genetic disruption strategies in searching for new hypermethylated loci.

Zhang Z, DuBois RN
Detection of differentially expressed genes in human colon carcinoma cells treated with a selective COX-2 inhibitor.
Oncogene. 2001; 20(33):4450-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Numerous reports suggest that use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decrease mortality from colorectal cancer. To better understand all of the mechanisms underlying this effect, the global pattern of gene expression in colon carcinoma cells following treatment with NS-398, a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor was evaluated. We utilized suppression subtractive hybridization combined with differential screening to identify genes whose expression was affected following treatment. Among the subtracted cDNA fragments confirmed as differentially expressed, there were two which are known to be involved in the regulation of cell adhesion (human FAT and proto-cadherin-7). We identified two other genes whose levels were decreased and these are known to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation (cyclin K and p-100). We identified additional genes which are involved in different signaling pathways which regulate programmed cell death (Dynamin 2, Pdcd4 and LIP.1). These results provide evidence that some of the effects of NS-398 on carcinoma cells may be due to modulation of genes which regulate programmed cell death, cell proliferation and cell-cell communication. Additional studies are underway to determine the biological function of the novel genes that were identified.

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