Gene Summary

Gene:DDB2; damage-specific DNA binding protein 2, 48kDa
Aliases: DDBB, UV-DDB2
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that is necessary for the repair of ultraviolet light-damaged DNA. This protein is the smaller subunit of a heterodimeric protein complex that participates in nucleotide excision repair, and this complex mediates the ubiquitylation of histones H3 and H4, which facilitates the cellular response to DNA damage. This subunit appears to be required for DNA binding. Mutations in this gene cause xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E, a recessive disease that is characterized by an increased sensitivity to UV light and a high predisposition for skin cancer development, in some cases accompanied by neurological abnormalities. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA damage-binding protein 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 18 March, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 18 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 11
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Messenger RNA
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Melanocytes
  • Protein Binding
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Signal Transduction
  • DNA Damage
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Transfection
  • Skin Cancer
  • Kinetics
  • Whole-Body Irradiation
  • Cultured Cells
  • DNA Repair
  • Pyrimidine Dimers
  • Cullin Proteins
  • Smoking
  • Models, Molecular
  • Cell Cycle
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Melanoma
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Mutation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • DNA
  • CDKN1A
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Transcription
  • HeLa Cells
  • Base Sequence
  • Histones
  • Fibroblasts
  • Cancer DNA
  • Lung Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
Tag cloud generated 18 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DDB2 (cancer-related)

Asnaghi L, Alkatan H, Mahale A, et al.
Identification of multiple DNA copy number alterations including frequent 8p11.22 amplification in conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014; 55(12):8604-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Little is known about the molecular alterations that drive formation and growth of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). We therefore sought to identify genetic changes that could be used as diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets.
METHODS: The DNA extracted from 10 snap-frozen cSCC tumor specimens and 2 in situ carcinomas was analyzed using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), and further examined with NanoString and quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: The number of regions of DNA loss ranged from 1 to 23 per tumor, whereas gains and amplifications ranged from 1 to 15 per tumor. Most large regions of chromosomal gain and loss were confirmed by NanoString karyotype analysis. The commonest alteration was amplification of 8p11.22 in 9 tumors (75%), and quantitative PCR analysis revealed 100-fold or greater overexpression of ADAM3A mRNA from 8p11.22 locus. In addition, recurring losses were observed at 14q13.2 and 22q11.23, both lost in 5 (42%) of the 12 tumors, and at 12p13.31, lost in 4 (33%) of the 12 samples. Of the eight loci associated with the DNA damage repair syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum, three showed loss of at least one allele in our aCGH analysis, including XPA (9q22.33, one tumor), XPE/DDB2 (11p11.2, one tumor) and XPG/ERCC5 (13q33.1, three tumors).
CONCLUSIONS: Conjunctival SCC contains a range of chromosomal alterations potentially important in tumor formation and growth. Amplification of 8p11.22 and overexpression of ADAM3A suggests a potential role for this protease. Our findings also suggest that defects in DNA repair loci are important in sporadic cSCC.

Sehgal M, Singh TR
Systems biology approach for mutational and site-specific structural investigation of DNA repair genes for xeroderma pigmentosum.
Gene. 2014; 543(1):108-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare genetic skin disorder caused due to the extreme sensitivity for ultraviolet (UV) radiations. On its exposure, DNA acquires damages leading to skin and often neurological abnormalities. The DNA repair implicated in fixing UV-induced damages is NER and mutations in genes involved in NER and TLS form the basis of XP. The analyses of such mutations are vital for understanding XP and involved cancer genetics to facilitate the identification of crucial biomarkers and anticancer therapeutics. We detected the deleterious nsSNPs and examined them at structure-level by altering the structure, estimating secondary structure, solvent accessibility and performing site specific analysis. Crucial phosphorylation sites were also identified for their role in the disorder. These mutational and structural analyses offer valuable insight to the fundamental association of genetic mutations with phenotypic variations in XP and will assist experimental biologists to evaluate the mutations and their impact on genome.

Han C, Zhao R, Liu X, et al.
DDB2 suppresses tumorigenicity by limiting the cancer stem cell population in ovarian cancer.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(5):784-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Ovarian cancer is an extremely aggressive disease associated with a high percentage of tumor recurrence and chemotherapy resistance. Understanding the underlying mechanism of tumor relapse is crucial for effective therapy of ovarian cancer. DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2) is a DNA repair factor mainly involved in nucleotide excision repair. Here, a novel role was identified for DDB2 in the tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer cells and the prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer. Overexpressing DDB2 in human ovarian cancer cells suppressed its capability to recapitulate tumors in athymic nude mice. Mechanistic investigation demonstrated that DDB2 is able to reduce the cancer stem cell (CSC) population characterized with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in ovarian cancer cells, probably through disrupting the self-renewal capacity of CSCs. Low DDB2 expression correlates with poor outcomes among patients with ovarian cancer, as revealed from the analysis of publicly available gene expression array datasets. Given the finding that DDB2 protein expression is low in ovarian tumor cells, enhancement of DDB2 expression is a promising strategy to eradicate CSCs and would help to halt ovarian cancer relapse.
IMPLICATIONS: DDB2 status has prognostic potential, and elevating its expression eradicates CSCs and could reduce ovarian cancer relapse.

Lee WJ, Kim SC, Lee SJ, et al.
Investigating the different mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens by a gene set analysis.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e86700 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Based on the process of carcinogenesis, carcinogens are classified as either genotoxic or non-genotoxic. In contrast to non-genotoxic carcinogens, many genotoxic carcinogens have been reported to cause tumor in carcinogenic bioassays in animals. Thus evaluating the genotoxicity potential of chemicals is important to discriminate genotoxic from non-genotoxic carcinogens for health care and pharmaceutical industry safety. Additionally, investigating the difference between the mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens could provide the foundation for a mechanism-based classification for unknown compounds. In this study, we investigated the gene expression of HepG2 cells treated with genotoxic or non-genotoxic carcinogens and compared their mechanisms of action. To enhance our understanding of the differences in the mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens, we implemented a gene set analysis using 12 compounds for the training set (12, 24, 48 h) and validated significant gene sets using 22 compounds for the test set (24, 48 h). For a direct biological translation, we conducted a gene set analysis using Globaltest and selected significant gene sets. To validate the results, training and test compounds were predicted by the significant gene sets using a prediction analysis for microarrays (PAM). Finally, we obtained 6 gene sets, including sets enriched for genes involved in the adherens junction, bladder cancer, p53 signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, peroxisome and RNA degradation. Among the 6 gene sets, the bladder cancer and p53 signaling pathway sets were significant at 12, 24 and 48 h. We also found that the DDB2, RRM2B and GADD45A, genes related to the repair and damage prevention of DNA, were consistently up-regulated for genotoxic carcinogens. Our results suggest that a gene set analysis could provide a robust tool in the investigation of the different mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens and construct a more detailed understanding of the perturbation of significant pathways.

Zhao R, Han C, Eisenhauer E, et al.
DNA damage-binding complex recruits HDAC1 to repress Bcl-2 transcription in human ovarian cancer cells.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(3):370-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Elevated expression of the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 is believed to be one of the contributing factors to an increased relapse rate associated with multiple cisplatin-resistant cancers. DNA damage-binding protein complex subunit 2 (DDB2) has recently been revealed to play an important role in sensitizing human ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis through the downregulation of Bcl-2, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains poorly defined. Here, it is report that DDB2 functions as a transcriptional repressor for Bcl-2 in combination with DDB1. Quantitative ChIP and EMSA analysis revealed that DDB2 binds to a specific cis-acting element at the 5'-end of Bcl-2 P1 promoter. Overexpression of DDB2 resulted in marked losses of histone H3K9,14 acetylation along the Bcl-2 promoter and enhancer regions, concomitant with a local enrichment of HDAC1 to the Bcl-2 P1 core promoter in ovarian cancer cells. Coimmunoprecipitation and in vitro binding analyses identified a physical interaction between DDB1 and HDAC1, whereas downregulation of HDAC1 significantly enhanced Bcl-2 promoter activity. Finally, in comparison with wild-type DDB2, mutated DDB2, which is unable to repress Bcl-2 transcription, mediates a compromised apoptosis upon cisplatin treatment. Taken together, these data support a model wherein DDB1 and DDB2 cooperate to repress Bcl-2 transcription. DDB2 recognizes and binds to the Bcl-2 P1 promoter, and HDAC1 is recruited through the DDB1 subunit associated with DDB2 to deacetylate histone H3K9,14 across Bcl-2 regulatory regions, resulting in suppressed Bcl-2 transcription.
IMPLICATIONS: Increasing the expression of DDB complex may provide a molecular strategy for cancer therapy.

Nasir M, Ahmad N, Sieber CM, et al.
In silico characterization of a novel pathogenic deletion mutation identified in XPA gene in a Pakistani family with severe xeroderma pigmentosum.
J Biomed Sci. 2013; 20:70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) is a rare skin disorder characterized by skin hypersensitivity to sunlight and abnormal pigmentation. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic cause of a severe XP phenotype in a consanguineous Pakistani family and in silico characterization of any identified disease-associated mutation.
RESULTS: The XP complementation group was assigned by genotyping of family for known XP loci. Genotyping data mapped the family to complementation group A locus, involving XPA gene. Mutation analysis of the candidate XP gene by DNA sequencing revealed a novel deletion mutation (c.654del A) in exon 5 of XPA gene. The c.654del A, causes frameshift, which pre-maturely terminates protein and result into a truncated product of 222 amino acid (aa) residues instead of 273 (p.Lys218AsnfsX5). In silico tools were applied to study the likelihood of changes in structural motifs and thus interaction of mutated protein with binding partners. In silico analysis of mutant protein sequence, predicted to affect the aa residue which attains coiled coil structure. The coiled coil structure has an important role in key cellular interactions, especially with DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2), which has important role in DDB-mediated nucleotide excision repair (NER) system.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the fact of genetic and clinical heterogeneity in XP. The study also predicts the critical role of DDB2 binding region of XPA protein in NER pathway and opens an avenue for further research to study the functional role of the mutated protein domain.

Hannah J, Zhou PB
The CUL4A ubiquitin ligase is a potential therapeutic target in skin cancer and other malignancies.
Chin J Cancer. 2013; 32(9):478-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cullin 4A (CUL4A) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that directly affects DNA repair and cell cycle progression by targeting substrates including damage-specific DNA-binding protein 2 (DDB2), xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC), chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1 (Cdt1), and p21. Recent work from our laboratory has shown that Cul4a-deficient mice have greatly reduced rates of ultraviolet-induced skin carcinomas. On a cellular level, Cul4a-deficient cells have great capacity for DNA repair and demonstrate a slow rate of proliferation due primarily to increased expression of DDB2 and p21, respectively. This suggests that CUL4A promotes tumorigenesis (as well as accumulation of skin damage and subsequent premature aging) by limiting DNA repair activity and expediting S phase entry. In addition, CUL4A has been found to be up-regulated via gene amplification or overexpression in breast cancers, hepatocellular carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, childhood medulloblastomas, and malignant pleural mesotheliomas. Because of its oncogenic activity in skin cancer and up-regulation in other malignancies, CUL4A has arisen as a potential candidate for targeted therapeutic approaches. In this review, we outline the established functions of CUL4A and discuss the E3 ligase's emergence as a potential driver of tumorigenesis.

Ennen M, Klotz R, Touche N, et al.
DDB2: a novel regulator of NF-κB and breast tumor invasion.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(16):5040-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
The DNA repair protein damaged DNA-binding 2 (DDB2) has been implicated in promoting cell-cycle progression by regulating gene expression. DDB2 is selectively overexpressed in breast tumor cells that are noninvasive, but not in those that are invasive. We found that its overexpression in invasive human breast tumor cells limited their motility and invasiveness in vitro and blocked their ability to colonize lungs in vivo, defining a new function for DDB2 in malignant progression. DDB2 overexpression attenuated the activity of NF-κB and the expression of its target matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9). Mechanistic investigations indicated that DDB2 decreased NF-κB activity by upregulating expression of IκBα by binding the proximal promoter of this gene. This effect was causally linked to invasive capacity. Indeed, knockdown of DDB2-induced IκBα gene expression restored NF-κB activity and MMP9 expression, along with the invasive properties of breast tumor cells overexpressing DDB2. Taken together, our findings enlighten understanding of how breast cancer cells progress to an invasive phenotype and underscore potential clinical interest in DDB2 as a prognostic marker or therapeutic target in this setting.

Wyss AB, Herring AH, Avery CL, et al.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes, cigarette smoking, and the risk of head and neck cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013; 22(8):1428-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is associated with increased head and neck cancer (HNC) risk. Tobacco-related carcinogens are known to cause bulky DNA adducts. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes encode enzymes that remove adducts and may be independently associated with HNC, as well as modifiers of the association between smoking and HNC.
METHODS: Using population-based case-control data from the Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (CHANCE) Study (1,227 cases and 1,325 controls), race-stratified (White, African American), conventional, and hierarchical logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs with 95% intervals (I) for the independent and joint effects of cigarette smoking and 84 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 15 NER genes on HNC risk.
RESULTS: The odds of HNC were elevated among ever cigarette smokers and increased with smoking duration and frequency. Among Whites, rs4150403 on ERCC3 was associated with increased HNC odds (AA+AG vs. GG; OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01-1.61). Among African Americans, rs4253132 on ERCC6 was associated with decreased HNC odds (CC+CT vs. TT; OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45-0.86). Interactions between ever cigarette smoking and three SNPs (rs4253132 on ERCC6, rs2291120 on DDB2, and rs744154 on ERCC4) suggested possible departures from additivity among Whites.
CONCLUSIONS: We did not find associations between some previously studied NER variants and HNC. We did identify new associations between two SNPs and HNC and three suggestive cigarette-SNP interactions to consider in future studies.
IMPACT: We conducted one of the most comprehensive evaluations of NER variants, identifying a few SNPs from biologically plausible candidate genes associated with HNC and possibly interacting with cigarette smoking.

De Luca P, Moiola CP, Zalazar F, et al.
BRCA1 and p53 regulate critical prostate cancer pathways.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013; 16(3):233-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Loss or mutations of the BRCA1 gene are associated with increased risk of breast and ovarian cancers and with prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. Previously, we identified GADD153 as a target of BRCA1 protein, which increases doxorubicin sensitivity in human p53 -/- PCa cells (PC3). Considering that p53 is a crucial target in cancer therapy, in this work we investigated p53 role in the regulation of transcription of GADD153.
METHODS: We performed reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), western blot and luciferase assays to analyze GADD153 and/or BRCA1 expression in response to ultraviolet or doxorubicin exposure in PC3 p53 stable-transfected cells and LNCaP (p53+/+) cells. BRCA1 protein recruitment to GADD153 promoter was studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR. To assess expression of BRCA1 and/or p53 target genes, we used a panel of stable-transfected PCa cell lines. We finally analyzed these genes in vivo using BRCA1-depleted PCa xenograft models.
RESULTS: We found that GADD153 was highly induced by doxorubicin in PC3 cells; however, this response was totally abolished in LNCaP (p53wt) and in p53-restituted PC3 cells. Furthermore, BRCA1 protein associates to GADD153 promoter after DNA damage in the presence of p53. Additionally, we demonstrated that BRCA1 and/or p53 modulate genes involved in DNA damage and cell cycle regulation (cyclin D1, BLM, BRCA2, DDB2, p21(WAF1/CIP1), H3F3B, GADD153, GADD45A, FEN1, CCNB2), EMT (E-cadherin, β-catenin, vimentin, fibronectin, slug, snail) and Hedgehog pathways (SHH, IHH, DHH, Gli1, PATCH1). Furthermore, xenograft studies demonstrated that BRCA1 knockdown in PC3 cells increased tumor growth and modulated these genes in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Although BRCA1 induces GADD153 in a p53 independent manner, p53 abolished GADD153 induction in response to DNA damage. In addition, several important PCa targets are modulated by BRCA1 and p53. Altogether, these data might be important to understand the therapy response of PCa patients.

Roy N, Bommi PV, Bhat UG, et al.
DDB2 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(12):3771-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colon cancer is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide because of its metastasis to other essential organs. Metastasis of colon cancer involves a complex set of events, including epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that increases invasiveness of the tumor cells. Here, we show that the xeroderma pigmentosum group E (XPE) gene product, damaged DNA-binding protein (DDB)-2, is downregulated in high-grade colon cancers, and it plays a dominant role in the suppression of EMT of the colon cancer cells. Depletion of DDB2 promotes mesenchymal phenotype, whereas expression of DDB2 promotes epithelial phenotype. DDB2 constitutively represses genes that are the key activators of EMT, indicating that DDB2 is a master regulator of EMT of the colon cancer cells. Moreover, we observed evidence that DDB2 functions as a barrier for EMT induced by hypoxia and TGF-β. Also, we provide evidence that DDB2 inhibits metastasis of colon cancer. The results presented here identify a transcriptional regulatory pathway of DDB2 that is directly linked to the mechanisms that suppress metastasis of colon cancer.

Barckhausen C, Roos WP, Naumann SC, Kaina B
Malignant melanoma cells acquire resistance to DNA interstrand cross-linking chemotherapeutics by p53-triggered upregulation of DDB2/XPC-mediated DNA repair.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(15):1964-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant melanoma is a cancer characterized by high chemoresistance although p53 is rarely mutated. Here, we show that p53 wild-type melanoma cells acquire resistance to cell death induced by fotemustine (FM), which is a representative of alkylating DNA interstrand cross-linking agents used in melanoma therapy. We show that drug-induced resistance is a result of p53-dependent upregulation of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) and damaged DNA-binding protein 2 (DDB2), which stimulate the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) arising from O(6)-chloroethylguanine. Consequently, TP53 mutated cells are unable to repair ICLs, leading to prolonged ATM, ATR and checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) activation, and finally apoptosis. The roles of p53 and NER in ICL-triggered cell death were confirmed by knockdown of p53 and XPC. Upregulation of XPC and DDB2 in p53wt cells following a single drug treatment is a robust and sustained response that lasts for up to 1 week. Pretreatment with an inducing dose followed by a high and toxic dose of FM provoked an adaptive response as the killing outcome of the challenge dose was reduced. Upregulation of XPC and DDB2 was also observed in a melanoma mouse xenograft model following systemic administration of FM. Additionally, XPC and DDB2 induction occurred upon treatment with other cross-linking anticancer drugs, such as cisplatin and mafosfamide, indicating it is a general response of cancer cells to this group of chemotherapeutics. Collectively, the data indicate that p53-dependent upregulation of XPC and DDB2 is a key mechanism upon genotoxic stress, whereby melanoma cells acquire resistance towards DNA cross-linking agents. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of upregulation of NER following a single dose of a DNA interstrand cross-linker, which is a robust and long-lasting effect that impacts the killing response of cancer cells to subsequent treatments.

Yang HJ, Kim N, Seong KM, et al.
Investigation of radiation-induced transcriptome profile of radioresistant non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells using RNA-seq.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e59319 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Radioresistance is a main impediment to effective radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite several experimental and clinical studies of resistance to radiation, the precise mechanism of radioresistance in NSCLC cells and tissues still remains unclear. This result could be explained by limitation of previous researches such as a partial understanding of the cellular radioresistance mechanism at a single molecule level. In this study, we aimed to investigate extensive radiation responses in radioresistant NSCLC cells and to identify radioresistance-associating factors. For the first time, using RNA-seq, a massive sequencing-based approach, we examined whole-transcriptome alteration in radioresistant NSCLC A549 cells under irradiation, and verified significant radiation-altered genes and their chromosome distribution patterns. Also, bioinformatic approaches (GO analysis and IPA) were performed to characterize the radiation responses in radioresistant A549 cells. We found that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and inflammatory processes could be meaningfully related to regulation of radiation responses in radioresistant A549 cells. Based on the results of bioinformatic analysis for the radiation-induced transcriptome alteration, we selected seven significant radiation-altered genes (SESN2, FN1, TRAF4, CDKN1A, COX-2, DDB2 and FDXR) and then compared radiation effects in two types of NSCLC cells with different radiosensitivity (radioresistant A549 cells and radiosensitive NCI-H460 cells). Interestingly, under irradiation, COX-2 showed the most significant difference in mRNA and protein expression between A549 and NCI-H460 cells. IR-induced increase of COX-2 expression was appeared only in radioresistant A549 cells. Collectively, we suggest that COX-2 (also known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2)) could have possibility as a putative biomarker for radioresistance in NSCLC cells.

Roy N, Elangovan I, Kopanja D, et al.
Tumor regression by phenethyl isothiocyanate involves DDB2.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2013; 14(2):108-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is a promising cancer chemopreventive agent commonly found in edible cruciferous vegetables. It has been implicated also for therapy, and is in clinical trial for lung cancer. Here, we provide evidence that the tumor suppressive effect of PEITC is related to its ability to induce expression of damaged DNA binding protein 2 (DDB2), a DNA repair protein involved also in apoptosis and premature senescence. DDB2 expression is attenuated in a wide variety of cancers including the aggressive colon cancers. We show that, in colon cancer cells, reactive oxygen species, which are induced by PEITC, augment expression of DDB2 through the p38MAPK/JNK pathway, independently of p53. PEITC-induced expression of DDB2 is critical for inhibition of tumor progression by PEITC. Tumors derived from DDB2-deficient colon cancer cells are refractory to PEITC-treatments, resulting from deficiencies in apoptosis and senescence. The DDB2-proficient tumors, on the other hand, respond effectively to PEITC. The results show that PEITC can be used to induce expression of DDB2, and that expression of DDB2 is critical for effective response of tumors to PEITC.

Chang SW, Su CH, Chen HH, et al.
DDB2 is a novel AR interacting protein and mediates AR ubiquitination/degradation.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012; 44(11):1952-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Damaged DNA-binding protein 2 (DDB2), a protein that binds damaged DNA, is a DDB1 and CUL4-associated factor. This study is the first to demonstrate that DDB2 is a novel androgen receptor (AR)-interacting protein; and mediating contact with AR and CUL4A-DDB1 complex for AR ubiquitination/degradation. DNA damage induces both p53 and DDB2 gene expression those two can inhibit AR expression. The former reduces AR via transcription regulation but the latter via proteosome degradation. Thereby DDB2 can inhibit cell growth rate in AR-expressing cells (LNCaP) but not in AR-null cells (PC3). Hence DDB2 may be a potential regimen for prostate cancer treatment, especially in androgen-refractory patients harboring high amount of AR who cannot be cured by androgen ablation.

Carson C, Omolo B, Chu H, et al.
A prognostic signature of defective p53-dependent G1 checkpoint function in melanoma cell lines.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2012; 25(4):514-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanoma cell lines and normal human melanocytes (NHM) were assayed for p53-dependent G1 checkpoint response to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage. Sixty-six percent of melanoma cell lines displayed a defective G1 checkpoint. Checkpoint function was correlated with sensitivity to IR with checkpoint-defective lines being radio-resistant. Microarray analysis identified 316 probes whose expression was correlated with G1 checkpoint function in melanoma lines (P≤0.007) including p53 transactivation targets CDKN1A, DDB2, and RRM2B. The 316 probe list predicted G1 checkpoint function of the melanoma lines with 86% accuracy using a binary analysis and 91% accuracy using a continuous analysis. When applied to microarray data from primary melanomas, the 316 probe list was prognostic of 4-yr distant metastasis-free survival. Thus, p53 function, radio-sensitivity, and metastatic spread may be estimated in melanomas from a signature of gene expression.

Lindgren T, Stigbrand T, Riklund K, et al.
Gene expression profiling in MOLT-4 cells during gamma-radiation-induced apoptosis.
Tumour Biol. 2012; 33(3):689-700 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims to identify the temporal changes in gene expression in MOLT-4, a leukemia cell line, in response to radiation and to present a comprehensive description of the pathways and processes that most significantly relate to the cellular biological responses. A global gene expression profile of 24,500 genes was performed on MOLT-4 tumor cells following exposure to 5 Gy of ionizing radiation ((60)Co) using a bead chip array (Illumina). Signaling pathways and processes significantly altered following irradiation were explored using MetaCore. Cellular viability [3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide], activation of cell cycle checkpoints [fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)], and induction of apoptosis (FACS, caspase assays) were evaluated to correlate these biological responses to the gene expression changes. Totally, 698 different genes displayed a significantly altered expression following radiation, and out of these transcripts, all but one showed increased expression. One hour following irradiation, the expression was changed only for a few genes. Striking changes appeared at later time-points. From 3 to 24 h post-irradiation, a significant fraction of the genes with altered expression were found to be involved in cell cycle checkpoints and their regulation (CDKN1A), DNA repair (GADD45A, DDB2, XPC), apoptosis induction (DR5, FasR, Apo-2L, Bax), and T-cell activation/proliferation (CD70, OX40L). Irradiated MOLT-4 cells were arrested at the G2-checkpoint, followed by a decrease in cell viability, most pronounced 48 h after exposure. The cell death was executed by induced apoptosis and was visualized by an increase in subG1 cells and an increased activation of initiator (caspase-8 and caspase-9) and execution (caspase-3) caspases. Activation of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis correlated well in time with the changes in gene expression of those genes important for these biological processes. Activation of the apoptotic signaling pathways in MOLT-4 cells following irradiation includes components from the intrinsic as well as the extrinsic apoptotic pathways. This study indicates that the altered gene expression pattern induced by irradiation is important for the sequential steps observed in MOLT-4 cells during apoptosis induction.

De Luca P, Vazquez ES, Moiola CP, et al.
BRCA1 loss induces GADD153-mediated doxorubicin resistance in prostate cancer.
Mol Cancer Res. 2011; 9(8):1078-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
BRCA1 plays numerous roles in the regulation of genome integrity and chemoresistance. Although BRCA1 interaction with key proteins involved in DNA repair is well known, its role as a coregulator in the transcriptional response to DNA damage remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that BRCA1 plays a central role in the transcriptional response to genotoxic stress in prostate cancer. BRCA1 expression mediates apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and decreased viability in response to doxorubicin treatment. Xenograft studies using human prostate carcinoma PC3 cells show that BRCA1 depletion results in increased tumor growth. A focused survey of BRCA1-regulated genes in prostate carcinoma reveals that multiple regulators of genome stability and cell-cycle control, including BLM, FEN1, DDB2, H3F3B, BRCA2, CCNB2, MAD2L1, and GADD153, are direct transcriptional targets of BRCA1. Furthermore, we show that BRCA1 targets GADD153 promoter to increase its transcription in response to DNA damage. Finally, GADD153 depletion significantly abrogates BRCA1 influence on cell-cycle progression and cell death in response to doxorubicin treatment. These findings define a novel transcriptional pathway through which BRCA1 orchestrates cell fate decisions in response to genotoxic insults, and suggest that BRCA1 status should be considered for new chemotherapeutic treatment strategies in prostate cancer.

Fuss JO, Tainer JA
XPB and XPD helicases in TFIIH orchestrate DNA duplex opening and damage verification to coordinate repair with transcription and cell cycle via CAK kinase.
DNA Repair (Amst). 2011; 10(7):697-713 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Helicases must unwind DNA at the right place and time to maintain genomic integrity or gene expression. Biologically critical XPB and XPD helicases are key members of the human TFIIH complex; they anchor CAK kinase (cyclinH, MAT1, CDK7) to TFIIH and open DNA for transcription and for repair of duplex distorting damage by nucleotide excision repair (NER). NER is initiated by arrested RNA polymerase or damage recognition by XPC-RAD23B with or without DDB1/DDB2. XP helicases, named for their role in the extreme sun-mediated skin cancer predisposition xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), are then recruited to asymmetrically unwind dsDNA flanking the damage. XPB and XPD genetic defects can also cause premature aging with profound neurological defects without increased cancers: Cockayne syndrome (CS) and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). XP helicase patient phenotypes cannot be predicted from the mutation position along the linear gene sequence and adjacent mutations can cause different diseases. Here we consider the structural biology of DNA damage recognition by XPC-RAD23B, DDB1/DDB2, RNAPII, and ATL, and of helix unwinding by the XPB and XPD helicases plus the bacterial repair helicases UvrB and UvrD in complex with DNA. We then propose unified models for TFIIH assembly and roles in NER. Collective crystal structures with NMR and electron microscopy results reveal functional motifs, domains, and architectural elements that contribute to biological activities: damaged DNA binding, translocation, unwinding, and ATP driven changes plus TFIIH assembly and signaling. Coupled with mapping of patient mutations, these combined structural analyses provide a framework for integrating and unifying the rich biochemical and cellular information that has accumulated over forty years of study. This integration resolves puzzles regarding XP helicase functions and suggests that XP helicase positions and activities within TFIIH detect and verify damage, select the damaged strand for incision, and coordinate repair with transcription and cell cycle through CAK signaling.

Ennen M, Minig V, Grandemange S, et al.
Regulation of the high basal expression of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene in aggressive breast cancer cells.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2011; 50(12):1771-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
A high basal expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) has been reported in aggressive breast cancer cells, according to an unknown mechanism, and contributes to their invasive abilities. Here, we report the involvement of Sp1 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factors in this high basal expression of MnSOD in aggressive breast cancer cells. Suppression or inactivation of Sp1 showed that it plays an essential role in the high MnSOD expression in aggressive breast cancer cells through a unique binding site identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and functional analysis of the MnSOD proximal promoter. Treatment of cells with a specific NF-κB inhibitor peptide decreased significantly high basal MnSOD expression. A ChIP assay showed binding of a constitutive p50/p65 NF-κB complex to the MnSOD intronic enhancer element, associated with hyperacetylation of the H3 histone. Finally, high basal expression of MnSOD resulted in the lack of expression of Damaged DNA binding 2 (DDB2) protein in aggressive breast cancer cells. DDB2 overexpression prevented the binding of Sp1 as well as of NF-κB to their respective elements on the MnSOD gene. These results contribute to a better understanding of MnSOD up-regulation, which may be clinically important in the prediction of breast tumor progression.

Ahmed FE, Wiley JE, Weidner DA, et al.
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrometry as a tool to analyze nucleic acid-protein interactions in crude cellular extracts.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2010 Nov-Dec; 7(6):303-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study presents proof-of-principle application showing that label-free affinity enrichment surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor binding is able to semiquantitatively detect molecular DNA-protein interactions in crude cellular extracts in a real-time ligand fishing analysis study. Crude cell extracts obtained from a confluent HT-28 human adenocarcinoma cell line, synchronized to the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle, were extracted in a chaotropic medium and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Various immunoprecipitation antibodies were used against defective human excision and mismatch repair genes, hDDB2 and hMSH2, respectively, which theoretically allow for protein binding to DNA ligands in their native conformation. A set of biotinylated DNA target sequence heteroduplexes were also utilized for binding hDDB2 and hMSH2, prepared by heating a biotinylated oligonucleotide strand with an equimolar amount of the complementary strand to form a DNA duplex for hMSH2; a UV-irradiated duplex was employed for hDDB2 instead of an irradiated single-strand DNA to enhance binding. SDS was used to regenerate heteroduplex-modified chips that were used in a BIAcore 2000 SPR instrument at 25°C. Results showed that hMSH2 does not bind preferentially to the heteroduplex-complementary pair. In contrast, hDDB2 was found to bind preferentially to the UV-irradiated version of the heteroduplex-complementary pair. It is concluded that the choice of antibodies with appropriate epitopes is crucial to the success of these SPR binding studies because of enhanced specificity.

Vaid M, Sharma SD, Katiyar SK
Proanthocyanidins inhibit photocarcinogenesis through enhancement of DNA repair and xeroderma pigmentosum group A-dependent mechanism.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010; 3(12):1621-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) inhibit photocarcinogenesis in mice; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. As ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) has been implicated in skin cancer risk, we studied whether dietary GSPs enhance repair of UVB-induced DNA damage and, if so, what is the potential mechanism? Supplementation of GSPs (0.5%, w/w) with AIN76A control diet significantly reduced the levels of CPD(+) cells in UVB-exposed mouse skin; however, GSPs did not significantly reduce UVB-induced CPD(+) cells in the skin of interleukin-12p40 (IL-12) knockout (KO) mice, suggesting that IL-12 is required for the repair of CPDs by GSPs. Using IL-12 KO mice and their wild-type counterparts and standard photocarcinogenesis protocol, we found that supplementation of control diet with GSPs (0.5%, w/w) significantly reduced UVB-induced skin tumor development in wild-type mice, which was associated with the elevated mRNA levels of nucleotide excision repair genes, such as XPA, XPC, DDB2, and RPA1; however, this effect of GSPs was less pronounced in IL-12 KO mice. Cytostaining analysis revealed that GSPs repaired UV-induced CPD(+) cells in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA)-proficient fibroblasts from a healthy individual but did not repair in XPA-deficient fibroblasts from XPA patients. Furthermore, GSPs enhance nuclear translocation of XPA and enhanced its interactions with other DNA repair protein ERCC1. Together, our findings reveal that prevention of photocarcinogenesis by GSPs is mediated through enhanced DNA repair in epidermal cells by IL-12- and XPA-dependent mechanisms.

Gaddameedhi S, Kemp MG, Reardon JT, et al.
Similar nucleotide excision repair capacity in melanocytes and melanoma cells.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(12):4922-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sunlight UV exposure produces DNA photoproducts in skin that are repaired solely by nucleotide excision repair in humans. A significant fraction of melanomas are thought to result from UV-induced DNA damage that escapes repair; however, little evidence is available about the functional capacity of normal human melanocytes, malignant melanoma cells, and metastatic melanoma cells to repair UV-induced photoproducts in DNA. In this study, we measured nucleotide excision repair in both normal melanocytes and a panel of melanoma cell lines. Our results show that in 11 of 12 melanoma cell lines tested, UV photoproduct repair occurred as efficiently as in primary melanocytes. Importantly, repair capacity was not affected by mutation in the N-RAS or B-RAF oncogenes, nor was a difference observed between a highly metastatic melanoma cell line (A375SM) or its parental line (A375P). Lastly, we found that although p53 status contributed to photoproduct removal efficiency, its role did not seem to be mediated by enhanced expression or activity of DNA binding protein DDB2. We concluded that melanoma cells retain capacity for nucleotide excision repair, the loss of which probably does not commonly contribute to melanoma progression.

Stubbert LJ, Smith JM, Hamill JD, et al.
The anti-apoptotic role for p53 following exposure to ultraviolet light does not involve DDB2.
Mutat Res. 2009; 663(1-2):69-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
The p53 tumour suppressor is a transcription factor that can either activate or repress the expression of specific genes in response to cellular stresses such as exposure to ultraviolet light. The p53 protein can exert both pro- and anti-apoptotic effects depending on cellular context. In primary human fibroblasts, p53 protects cells from UV-induced apoptosis at moderate doses but this is greatly affected by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity of the cells. The damage-specific DNA binding protein 2 (DDB2) is involved in NER and is associated with xeroderma pigmentosum subgroup E (XP-E). Importantly, DDB2 is also positively regulated by the p53 protein. To study the potential interplay between DDB2 and p53 in determining the apoptotic response of primary fibroblasts exposed to UV light, the expression of these proteins was manipulated in primary normal and XP-E fibroblast strains using human papillomavirus E6 protein (HPV-E6), RNA interference and recombinant adenoviruses expressing either p53 or DDB2. Normal and XP-E fibroblast strains were equally sensitive to UV-induced apoptosis over a broad range of doses and disruption of p53 in these strains using HPV-E6 or RNA interference led to a similar increase in apoptosis following exposure to UV light. In contrast, forced expression of p53 or DDB2 did not affect UV-induced apoptosis greatly in these normal or XP-E fibroblast strains. Collectively, these results indicate that p53 is primarily protective against UV-induced apoptosis in primary human fibroblasts and this activity of p53 does not require DDB2.

Minig V, Kattan Z, van Beeumen J, et al.
Identification of DDB2 protein as a transcriptional regulator of constitutive SOD2 gene expression in human breast cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2009; 284(21):14165-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Manganese superoxide dismutase plays a role in breast tumor cell growth, which depends on its constitutive expression. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of constitutive SOD2 gene expression at different malignant phenotype in breast cancers remain to be determined. The present study reports the identification and characterization of a DNA sequence located in the proximal promoter of the SOD2 gene, which forms a complex with a nuclear protein from breast tumor MCF-7 cells. Purification of this complex showed that it contained DDB2 (damaged DNA binding 2), a well known protein involved in nucleotide excision DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. Functional analysis of the proximal promoter of the SOD2 gene or modulation of DDB2 expression allowed us to demonstrate that DDB2 regulates negatively the constitutive expression of the SOD2 gene in breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that the binding of DDB2 was associated with the loss of acetylated H3 histones and the decrease in the binding of Sp1 but not AP-2alpha transcription factors to the SOD2 proximal promoter. In addition, we show that DDB2 exerts, at least in part, a control of breast cancer cell growth through its negative regulation of constitutive expression of the SOD2 gene. For the first time, these data give supporting evidence that DDB2 is a new transcriptional regulator, and they provide insight into the molecular function of breast cancer cell growth, which will have an important clinical interest.

Xu QY, Gao Y, Liu Y, et al.
Identification of differential gene expression profiles of radioresistant lung cancer cell line established by fractionated ionizing radiation in vitro.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2008; 121(18):1830-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy plays a critical role in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study was conducted to identify gene expression profiles of acquired radioresistant NSCLC cell line established by fractionated ionizing radiation (FIR) by cDNA microarray.
METHODS: The human lung adenocarcinoma cell line Anip973 was treated with high energy X-ray to receive 60 Gy in 4 Gy fractions. The radiosensitivity of Anip973R and its parental line were measured by clonogenic assay. Gene expression profiles of Anip973R and its parental line were analyzed using cDNA microarray consisting of 21 522 human genes. Identified partly different expressive genes were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR).
RESULTS: Fifty-nine upregulated and 43 downregulated genes were identified to radio-resistant Anip973R. Up-regulated genes were associated with DNA damage repair (DDB2), extracellular matrix (LOX), cell adhesion (CDH2), and apoptosis (CRYAB). Down-regulated genes were associated with angiogenesis (GBP-1), immune response (CD83), and calcium signaling pathway (TNNC1). Subsequent validation of selected eleven genes (CD24, DDB2, IGFBP3, LOX, CDH2, CRYAB, PROCR, ANXA1 DCN, GBP-1 and CD83) by Q-RT-PCR was consistent with microarray analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Fractionated ionizing radiation can lead to the development of radiation resistance. Altered gene profiles of radioresistant cell line may provide new insights into mechanisms underlying clinical radioresistance for NSCLC.

López-Guerra M, Trigueros-Motos L, Molina-Arcas M, et al.
Identification of TIGAR in the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2-mediated response to fludarabine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.
Haematologica. 2008; 93(12):1843-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The nucleoside analogue fludarabine is used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It triggers p53-mediated apoptosis, although the mutational status of p53 does not fully account for heterogeneity in responsiveness to treatment. The aim of this study was to identify new genes implicated in fludarabine action as well as to determine the role of equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENT) in the transcriptomic response triggered by this drug in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells bearing wild type p53.
DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed gene expression profiling in cells from two fludarabine-sensitive and two fludarabine-resistant cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with fludarabine either in the presence or the absence of nitrobenzylthioinosine, a hENT1-specific blocker. Twenty selected fludarabine-inducible genes were validated using Taqman low-density arrays in cells from 20 chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with the same experimental design.
RESULTS: Sixteen of the twenty genes (DDB2, GADD45A, TYMS, BAX, TIGAR, FAS, TNFSF7, TNFSF9, CCNG1, CDKN1A, MDM2, SESN1, MAP4K4, PPM1D, OSBPL3 and WIG1) correlated with the ex vivo sensitivity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to fludarabine, TIGAR (TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator) being the gene that showed the strongest correlation (p<0.0001; r2= 0.6022).We observed that the transcriptomic response was weakly sensitive to the hENT1 blocker nitrobenzylthioinosine. Interestingly, we also found a correlation between hENT2 expression and induction of TIGAR after fludarabine treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a correlation between the recently described p53-inducible apoptosis gene TIGAR and both sensitivity to fludarabine and hENT2 expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. These results, as well as the variability in fludarabine response among chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with wild type p53, support the major role of hENT2 in the uptake of fludarabine into chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

Konkimalla VS, Wang G, Kaina B, Efferth T
Microarray-based expression of DNA repair genes does not correlate with growth inhibition of cancer cells by natural products derived from traditional Chinese medicine.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2008 Mar-Apr; 5(2):79-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Drug resistance represents a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. As chemically characterized compounds derived from plants used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may have molecular targets different from those of standard antitumor drugs, they might be attractive candidates for novel therapeutics with improved pharmacological features. DNA repair is frequently involved in the development of resistance to established anticancer drugs, e.g. alkylating agents. Using a database of 531 chemically characterized TCM compounds from medicinal plants recently established by us, the IC50 values of 60 N.C.I. tumor cell lines for these 531 natural products were tested for correlation with the microarray-based mRNA expression of six genes involved in nucleotide excision repair (ERCC1, XPA, XPC, DDB2, ERCC4, ERCC5). No compound correlated with the expression of these genes, indicating that mRNA expression of these genes is not associated with resistance of the cell lines to these TCM compounds. The same is true for another six genes of the base excision repair pathway (MPG, APEX1, OGG1, XRCC1, LIG3, POLB). Microarray-based COMPARE analyses were performed to identify other candidate genes that are able to predict responsiveness of tumor cells to TCM-derived natural products. As an example, diallyl disulfide from garlic (Allium sativum L., Chinese name: dashuan) was chosen. Eighteen genes were identified whose mRNA expression predicted sensitivity or resistance to diallyl disulfide in hierarchical cluster analyses. Apart from some genes with still unknown function, genes were identified from different functional groups, e.g. signal transducers, regulators of GTPase activity, those associated with cytoskeleton formation and regulation, constituents of the ribosome. Remarkably, none of these genes have been described to be involved in DNA repair. In conclusion, our data indicate that TCM-derived natural products are worth being further investigated as novel compounds to eradicate tumors which reveal resistance to established anti-cancer drugs.

Kattan Z, Marchal S, Brunner E, et al.
Damaged DNA binding protein 2 plays a role in breast cancer cell growth.
PLoS One. 2008; 3(4):e2002 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Damaged DNA binding protein 2 (DDB2), is involved in nucleotide excision repair as well as in other biological processes in normal cells, including transcription and cell cycle regulation. Loss of DDB2 function may be related to tumor susceptibility. However, hypothesis of this study was that DDB2 could play a role in breast cancer cell growth, resulting in its well known interaction with the proliferative marker E2F1 in breast neoplasia. DDB2 gene was overexpressed in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (MCF-7 and T47D), but not in ER-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB231 and SKBR3) or normal mammary epithelial cell lines. In addition, DDB2 expression was significantly (3.0-fold) higher in ER-positive than in ER-negative tumor samples (P = 0.0208) from 16 patients with breast carcinoma. Knockdown of DDB2 by small interfering RNA in MCF-7 cells caused a decrease in cancer cell growth and colony formation. Inversely, introduction of the DDB2 gene into MDA-MB231 cells stimulated growth and colony formation. Cell cycle distribution and 5 Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation by flow cytometry analysis showed that the growth-inhibiting effect of DDB2 knockdown was the consequence of a delayed G1/S transition and a slowed progression through the S phase of MCF-7 cells. These results were supported by a strong decrease in the expression of S phase markers (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, cyclin E and dihydrofolate reductase). These findings demonstrate for the first time that DDB2 can play a role as oncogene and may become a promising candidate as a predictive marker in breast cancer.

Klopp AH, Jhingran A, Ramdas L, et al.
Gene expression changes in cervical squamous cell carcinoma after initiation of chemoradiation and correlation with clinical outcome.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008; 71(1):226-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate early gene expression changes after chemoradiation in a human solid tumor, allowing identification of chemoradiation-induced gene expression changes in the tumor as well as the tumor microenvironment. In addition we aimed to identify a gene expression profile that was associated with clinical outcome.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Microarray experiments were performed on cervical cancer specimens obtained before and 48 h after chemoradiation from 12 patients with Stage IB2 to IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix treated between April 2001 and August 2002.
RESULTS: A total of 262 genes were identified that were significantly changed after chemoradiation. Genes involved in DNA repair were identified including DDB2, ERCC4, GADD45A, and XPC. In addition, significantly regulated cell-to-cell signaling pathways included insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), interferon, and vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. At a median follow-up of 41 months, 5 of 12 patients had experienced either local or distant failure. Supervised clustering analysis identified a 58-gene set from the pretreatment samples that were differentially expressed between patients with and without recurrence. Genes involved in integrin signaling and apoptosis pathways were identified in this gene set. Immortalization-upregulated protein (IMUP), IGF-2, and ARHD had particularly marked differences in expression between patients with and without recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic profiling identified genes regulated by chemoradiation including DNA damage and cell-to-cell signaling pathways. Genes associated with recurrence were identified that will require validation in an independent patient data set to determine whether the 58-gene set associated with clinical outcome could be useful as a prognostic assay.

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