Gene Summary

Gene:CDK2AP1; cyclin dependent kinase 2 associated protein 1
Aliases: DOC1, ST19, DORC1, doc-1, p12DOC-1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) -associated protein which is thought to negatively regulate CDK2 activity by sequestering monomeric CDK2, and targeting CDK2 for proteolysis. This protein was found to also interact with DNA polymerase alpha/primase and mediate the phosphorylation of the large p180 subunit, which suggests a regulatory role in DNA replication during the S-phase of the cell cycle. This protein also forms a core subunit of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation (NURD) complex that epigenetically regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation. This gene thus plays a role in both cell-cycle and epigenetic regulation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CDK2AP1 (cancer-related)

Gera R, Mokbel L, Jiang WG, Mokbel K
mRNA Expression of
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2018 Nov-Dec; 15(6):447-452 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 (CDK2AP1) interacts with CDK2AP2, modulates the actions of transforming growth factor-B1, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and retinoblastoma protein, and closely interacts with micro-RNA21 and micro-RNA25. Our objective was to determine if CDK2AP1 mRNA expression levels were consistent with tumour-suppressive functions in breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 134 samples were analysed. CDK2AP1 mRNA levels were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and normalised against glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA. Levels in breast cancer and adjacent non-cancerous breast tissue were analysed against pathological and clinical parameters (TNM staging, survival over a 10-year follow-up period).
RESULTS: Normalised CDK2AP1 expression was 38-fold higher in adjacent non-cancerous breast tissue than in breast cancer. CDK2AP1 expression in disease-free patients at 10 years was more than threefold that of patients who died of breast cancer. However, neither of these differences in expression levels reached statistical significance. CDK2AP1 mRNA levels were higher in TNM1 compared to TNM3 (p=0.016) and with TNM4 (p=0.016). There were no significant associations between CDK2AP1 expression and estrogen receptor status, tumour grade and tumour type. There was no significant difference in overall survival between patients with high and those with low CDK2AP1 mRNA levels after a median follow-up of 10 years (Kaplan-Meier analysis, p=0.872).
CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature to examine the mRNA expression of CDK2AP1 in human breast cancer over a long-term follow-up period. A compelling relationship exists between high CDK2AP1 mRNA expression and lower TNM classification of breast cancer, which is consistent with CDK2AP1 having a tumour-suppressive function.

Mohd-Sarip A, Teeuwssen M, Bot AG, et al.
DOC1-Dependent Recruitment of NURD Reveals Antagonism with SWI/SNF during Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Oral Cancer Cells.
Cell Rep. 2017; 20(1):61-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NURD) complex is a key regulator of cell differentiation that has also been implicated in tumorigenesis. Loss of the NURD subunit Deleted in Oral Cancer 1 (DOC1) is associated with human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). Here, we show that restoration of DOC1 expression in OSCC cells leads to a reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This is caused by the DOC1-dependent targeting of NURD to repress key transcriptional regulators of EMT. NURD recruitment drives extensive epigenetic reprogramming, including eviction of the SWI/SNF remodeler, formation of inaccessible chromatin, H3K27 deacetylation, and binding of PRC2 and KDM1A, followed by H3K27 methylation and H3K4 demethylation. Strikingly, depletion of SWI/SNF mimics the effects of DOC1 re-expression. Our results suggest that SWI/SNF and NURD function antagonistically to control chromatin state and transcription. We propose that disturbance of this dynamic equilibrium may lead to defects in gene expression that promote oncogenesis.

Zhong G, Xiong X
miR-205 promotes proliferation and invasion of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma by suppressing CDK2AP1 expression.
Biol Res. 2015; 48:60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been found in various types of cancer. miR-205 was reported to be upregulated in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) tissues, however, the mechanisms by which miR-205 functions as a regulator of LSCC are largely unknown.
RESULTS: In this study, Real-time qPCR and Western blot assay showed that expression of miR-205 was upregulated and expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 (CDK2AP1) was downregulated in LSCC tissues. The expression levels of miR-205 were negatively related to those of CDK2AP1 in LSCC tissues and cell lines. Moreover, we found that miR-205 was the upstream regulator of CDK2AP1 and could suppress the CDK2AP1 expression in LSCC cells. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazal-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays and transwell invasion assay were performed to test the proliferation and invasion of LSCC cells. Gelatin zymography was used to detect the activity of MMP2 and MMP9. CDK2AP1, c-Myc and CyclinD1 expression in cells was assessed with Western blotting. We found that miR-205 was the upstream regulator of CDK2AP1 and could suppress the expression of CDK2AP1 in LSCC cells. In addition, miR-205 significantly induced cell proliferation and invasion by suppressing CDK2AP1 expression. Consistent with miR-205 inhibitors, overexpressed CDK2AP1 suppressed the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 and c-Myc and CyclinD1 expression in LSCC cells.
CONCLUSION: These findings help us to better elucidate the molecular mechanisms of LSCC progression and provide a new theoretical basis to further investigate miR-205 as a potential biomarker and a promising approach for LSCC treatment.

Yadav DS, Chattopadhyay I, Verma A, et al.
A pilot study evaluating genetic alterations that drive tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer in Northeast India.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):9317-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The susceptibility of an individual to oral cancer is mediated by genetic factors and carcinogen-exposure behaviors such as betel quid chewing, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption. This pilot study was aimed to identify the genetic alteration in 100 bp upstream and downstream flanking regions in addition to the exonic regions of 169 cancer-associated genes by using Next Generation sequencing with aim to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer of Northeast India. To understand the role of chemical compounds present in tobacco and betel quid associated with the progression of oral cancer, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion and deletion (Indels) found in this study were analyzed for their association with chemical compounds found in tobacco and betel quid using Comparative Toxogenomic Database. Genes (AR, BRCA1, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with arecoline which is the major component of areca nut. Genes (BARD1, BRCA2, CCND2, IGF1R, MSH6, and RASSF1) with novel deletion and genes (APC, BRMS1, CDK2AP1, CDKN2B, GAS1, IGF1R, and RB1) with novel insertion were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1 which is produced by fermented areca nut. Genes (ADH6, APC, AR, BARD1, BRMS1, CDKN1A, E2F1, FGFR4, FLNC, HRAS, IGF1R, IL12B, IL8, NBL1, STAT5B, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1. Genes (ATM, BRCA1, CDKN1A, EGFR, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with tobacco specific nitrosamines.

Li CF, Huang HY, Wu WR, et al.
Clinical aggressiveness of myxofibrosarcomas associates with down-regulation of p12CDK2AP1: prognostic implication of a putative tumor suppressor that induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2014; 21 Suppl 4:S711-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Attenuated endogenous protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 1 (p12(CDK2AP1)) and its active homodimer p25(CDK2AP1) were found in myxofibrosarcoma-derived cell lines. Clinical and biological significances of this putative tumor suppressor in myxofibrosarcoma were studied.
METHODS: Plasmids carrying the CDK2AP1 gene and small hairpin RNA interference (shRNAi) targeting CDK2AP1 were transfected into NMFH-1 and/or OH931 cells to evaluate the effects on the CDK2, active caspase 3 (CASP3), cleaved-CASP8 and -CASP9 levels, cell cycle regulation, and/or apoptotic responses. Immunostaining of p12(CDK2AP1) was interpretable in 102 primary myxofibrosarcomas and correlated with clinicopathological variables, CDK2, Ki-67 and active CASP3 protein levels, and disease-specific survival.
RESULTS: Exogenous expression of p12(CDK2AP1) in NMFH-1 and OH931 cells significantly induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and down-regulated CDK2 protein level. In NMFH-1 cells, these aspects were reversed by shRNAi targeting CDK2AP1 gene. Increased active CASP3 and cleaved-CASP9, but not -CASP8, were detected after CDK2AP1 overexpression, suggesting the cellular apoptosis were induced through the mitochondrial pathway. Immunostains of p12(CDK2AP1) were aberrantly decreased in 56.9 % of cases; positively and negatively correlated with protein levels of CDK2 (p = 0.023), Ki-67 (p = 0.001) and active CASP3 (p < 0.001), respectively. Following by high histological grades, p12(CDK2AP1) down-regulation was predictive of worse disease-specific survival in univariate (p = 0.003) and multivariate (p = 0.004) analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: Through down-regulation of CDK2, high p12(CDK2AP1) level induced cell cycle arrest and the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway. Low p12(CDK2AP1) level represents a poor prognostic factor in patients with myxofibrosarcoma.

Xu Y, Wang J, Fu S, Wang Z
Knockdown of CDK2AP1 by RNA interference inhibits cell growth and tumorigenesis of human glioma.
Neurol Res. 2014; 36(7):659-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous reports support the role of cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 (CDK2AP1) as a tumor suppressor that functions as a key player in cell cycle regulation. Although the misadjustment of CDK2AP1 has been revealed in several types of human malignancies, the functional role of CDK2AP1 in human glioma remains unknown. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of CDK2AP1 knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) on glioma cell growth and tumorigenesis. We employed lentivirus-mediated RNAi to down-regulate CDK2AP1 expression in U251 and U373 cells. Knockdown of CDK2AP1 resulted in a significant reduction in U251 and U373 cell proliferation, as determined by MTT and colony formation assays. Cell cycle analysis showed CDK2AP1 silencing caused U251 cells arrest in G0/G1 phase, especially in the sub-G1 phase representing apoptotic cells. In vivo tumorigenesis was assessed using xenograft formation and CDK2AP1 depletion remarkably inhibited glioma growth and tumorigenesis. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK2AP1 siRNA may have an anti-tumorigenic effect on human glioma.

Sun M, Jiang R, Wang G, et al.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 suppresses growth and tumorigenesis of lung cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 42(4):1376-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 (CDK2AP1), a growth suppressor that negatively regulates CDK2 activity, has been implicated in various types of cancer; yet its role in lung cancer remains unclear. In the present study, a lentivirus-based system was used to specifically downregulate or upregulate CDK2AP1 expression. A549 lung cancer cells were treated with RNAi (RNA interference) or lentiviral vectors for overexpression. Ectopic overexpression of CDK2AP1 in A549 cells in vitro greatly impaired their proliferation and colony-forming ability and enhanced their chemosensitivity to cisplatin and paclitaxel and caused cell cycle arrest at G1/S transition accompanied by the reduction of expression of CDK4 and CDK7. Injection of the ectopically CDK2AP1-overexpressing A549 cells into nude mice resulted in growth arrest of solid lung cancer tumors in vivo. Knockdown of CDK2AP1 in A549 cells, however, gave rise to the opposite effects including promoting cell proliferation/growth, cell cycling in vitro and enhancing tumorigenesis in vivo. These results suggest that CDK2AP1 plays an important role in modulating the growth and tumorigenesis of lung cancer cells and also has significant effects on the chemosensitivity of pulmonary malignancies to chemotherapeutics. Hence, this study extends our knowledge on the relationship between CDK2AP1 and oncogenesis of lung cancer, indicating that CDK2AP1 may serve as a new molecular target for future lung cancer therapy.

Silveira VS, Scrideli CA, Moreno DA, et al.
Gene expression pattern contributing to prognostic factors in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2013; 54(2):310-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study evaluated the expression profile of 19 genes previously reported in microarray studies and associated with resistance or sensitivity to vincristine (RPLP2, CD44, TCFL5, KCNN1, TRIM24), prednisolone (F8A, CDK2AP1, BLVRB, CD69), daunorubicin (MAP3K12, SHOC2, PCDH9, EGR1, KCNN4) and l-asparaginase (GPR56, MAN1A1, CLEC11A, IGFBP7, GATA3). We studied 140 bone marrow samples at diagnosis from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated according to the Brazilian Childhood Leukemia Treatment Group (GBTLI) ALL-99 protocol. The expression profiles of the genes listed above were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then related to the clinical and biological prognostic factors. The results showed significant associations (p ≤ 0.05) between the expression levels of genes GPR56, BLVRB, IGFBP7 and white blood cell (WBC) count at diagnosis; GATA3, MAN1A1, CD44, MAP3K12, CLEC11A, SHOC2 and CD10 B-lineage ALL; TCFL5 and bone marrow status at day 14; MAP3K12 and TRIM24 and bone marrow status at day 28; and CD69, TCFL5 and TRIM24 genes and ETV6/RUNX1 positive ALL. The up-regulation of SHOC2 was also associated with better 5-year event-free survival (EFS) in univariate and multivariate analysis (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). These findings highlight genes that could be associated with clinical and biological prognostic factors in childhood ALL, suggesting that these genes may characterize and play a role in the treatment outcome of some ALL subsets.

Zhou W, Guan X, Wang L, et al.
p12(CDK2-AP1) inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012; 138(12):2085-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: p12(CDK2-AP1) is a growth suppressor that negatively regulates cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activities and shows to interfere in DNA replication. Here, we aim to elucidate the role of p12(CDK2-AP1) in breast cancer progression.
METHODS: Expression of p12(CDK2-AP1) protein was examined in 60 pairs of breast cancer specimens and adjacent non-tumor tissues using immunohistochemistry assay. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function analysis was performed on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Routine assays including MTT, colony formation, flow cytometry, and tumorigenesis in nude mice were performed and cell cycle regulators were analyzed.
RESULTS: p12(CDK2-AP1) was found to be significantly downregulated in 60 breast cancer tissues compared to corresponding non-tumorous tissues. The proliferation and colony formation ability was inhibited in cells that transduced with p12(CDK2-AP1) over-expression lentivirus, but enhanced in cells that transduced with p12(CDK2-AP1) RNAi lentivirus. p12(CDK2-AP1) over-expression led to G0/G1 phase arrest in the cell cycle and caused expression changes of cell cycle-related genes (CDK2, CDK4, p16(Ink4A), p21(Cip1/Waf1)). Furthermore, p12(CDK2-AP1) over-expression inhibited in vivo tumor growth in immunodeficiency mice, supporting an inhibitory role for p12(CDK2-AP1) in breast cancer development.
CONCLUSIONS: As a cell cycle regulator, p12(CDK2-AP1) is involved in the development of breast cancer and maybe a potential therapeutic candidate to suppress tumorigenicity in breast cancer.

Winter J, Pantelis A, Reich R, et al.
Risk estimation for a malignant transformation of oral lesions by S100A7 and Doc-1 gene expression.
Cancer Invest. 2011; 29(7):478-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study was the correlation of Doc-1- and S100A7-gene expression in common oral lesions with their cancerous-transformation risk. Biopsies (n = 15 each) of healthy gingiva, irritation fibromas, leukoplakias and Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCs) were obtained, and after RNA-extraction, transcripts of Doc-1 and S100A7 were quantified by RT-PCR. In comparison with the healthy gingiva, the expression of Doc-1 was decreased, whereas the expression of S100A7 was upregulated in all lesions. As the extent of Doc-1-inactivation and S100A7-overexpression is correlated with their biological behavior, the combined investigation of both genes could be a promising marker in intraoral lesions to estimate the risk for their malignant transformation.

Zheng J, Xue H, Wang T, et al.
miR-21 downregulates the tumor suppressor P12 CDK2AP1 and stimulates cell proliferation and invasion.
J Cell Biochem. 2011; 112(3):872-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study was undertaken to investigate the regulation of P12(CDK2AP1) by miRNAs. A conserved target site for miR-21 within the CDK2AP1-3'-UTR at nt 349-370 was predicted by bioinformatics software and an inverse correlation of miR-21 and CDK2AP1 protein was observed. Highly specific amplification and quantification of miR-21 was achieved using real-time RT-PCR. Transfection of HaCaT cells with pre-miR-21 significantly suppressed a luciferase reporter including the CDK2AP1-3'-UTR, whereas transfection of Tca8113 with anti-miR-21 increased activity of this reporter. This was abolished when a construct mutated at the miR-21/nt 349-370 target site was used instead. Anti-miR-21-transfected Tca8113 cells showed an increase of CDK2AP1 protein and reduced proliferation and invasion. Resected primary tumors and tumor-free surgical margins of 18 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas demonstrated an inverse correlation between miR-21 and P12(CDK2AP1). This study shows that P12(CDK2AP1) is downregulated by miR-21 and that miR-21 promotes proliferation and invasion in cultured cells.

Wenghoefer M, Pantelis A, Najafi T, et al.
Gene expression of oncogenes, antimicrobial peptides, and cytokines in the development of oral leukoplakia.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010; 110(3):351-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression pattern of oncogenes, antimicrobial peptides, and genes involved in inflammation in leukoplakia of the oral cavity compared with healthy gingiva.
STUDY DESIGN: Biopsies of healthy gingiva (n=20) and leukoplakia (n=20), were obtained during routine surgical procedures. RNA was extracted according to standard protocols. Transcript levels of alpha-defensin (DEFA) 1/3, DEFA-4, S100-A7, deleted-in-oral-cancer (Doc) 1, interleukin (IL) 1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, cyclooxygenase (Cox) 2, epidermal growth factor (EGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1, TGF-alpha, collagen-IA1 (Col-1), and tenascin-c were analyzed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The proteins encoded by the different genes were visualized by immunostaining.
RESULTS: Compared with healthy gingiva (set as 1), there was an increased gene expression of DEFA-4 (179.2-fold), S100-A7 (25.4-fold), EGF (24.8-fold), TGF-beta1 (25.2-fold), and tenascin-c (34.3-fold) in oral leukoplakia. The expression of IL-1beta and Doc-1 was decreased (0.01-fold and 0.2-fold, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of an increased expression of the antimicrobial peptide DEFA-4, the oncogene S100-A7, EGF, and tenascin-c, and a decreased Doc-1 expression in oral leukoplakia might characterize its potency of malignant transformation. Chronic inflammation seems not to be involved in the development of this lesion.

Zolochevska O, Figueiredo ML
Novel tumor growth inhibition mechanism by cell cycle regulator cdk2ap1 involves antiangiogenesis modulation.
Microvasc Res. 2010; 80(3):324-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We evaluated the effect of expressing the cell cycle regulator protein cdk2-associating protein1 (cdk2ap1) in inhibiting growth of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Expression of cdk2ap1 correlated with reduction in several SCC malignant cell phenotypes, including reduced angiogenesis. We observed several alterations in gene expression consistent with classical functions of cdk2ap1, including upregulation of cell cycle inhibitory genes, and an upregulation in expression of genes belonging to both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic cascades. Interestingly, we also uncovered a profile of gene expression and activation of signaling pathways that may suggest new tumor-suppressive functions for cdk2ap1 through downregulation of invasion/metastasis and modulation of antiangiogenesis by upregulation of the TGFβ signaling pathway. Blocking of the TGFβ1 pathway resulted in inhibition of the cdk2ap1 antiangiogenesis phenotype. In combination, these data support the role of cdk2ap1 as a tumor suppressor gene that can regulate SCC tumor growth in a cell autonomous manner through decreases in invasiveness and a non-cell autonomous manner through decreases in angiogenesis phenotypes, and these are novel phenotypes induced by cdk2ap1.

Davidsson J, Lilljebjörn H, Andersson A, et al.
The DNA methylome of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Hum Mol Genet. 2009; 18(21):4054-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy, with high hyperdiploidy [51-67 chromosomes] and the t(12;21)(p13;q22) [ETV6/RUNX1 fusion] representing the most frequent abnormalities. Although these arise in utero, there is long latency before overt ALL, showing that additional changes are needed. Gene dysregulation through hypermethylation may be such an event; however, this has not previously been investigated in a detailed fashion. We performed genome-wide methylation profiling using bacterial artificial chromosome arrays and promoter-specific analyses of high hyperdiploid and ETV6/RUNX1-positive ALLs. In addition, global gene expression analyses were performed to identify associated expression patterns. Unsupervised cluster and principal component analyses of the chromosome-wide methylome profiles could successfully subgroup the two genetic ALL types. Analysis of all currently known promoter-specific CpG islands demonstrated that several B-cell- and neoplasia-associated genes were hypermethylated and underexpressed, indicating that aberrant methylation plays a significant leukemogenic role. Interestingly, methylation hotspots were associated with chromosome bands predicted to harbor imprinted genes and the tri-/tetrasomic chromosomes in the high hyperdiploid ALLs were less methylated than their disomic counterparts. Decreased methylation of gained chromosomes is a previously unknown phenomenon that may have ramifications not only for the pathogenesis of high hyperdiploid ALL but also for other disorders with acquired or constitutional numerical chromosome anomalies.

Zolochevska O, Figueiredo ML
Cell cycle regulator cdk2ap1 inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and modifies androgen-responsive pathway function.
Prostate. 2009; 69(14):1586-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of expressing the cell cycle regulator cdk2ap1, downregulated in prostate cancer cell lines, in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth.
METHODS: Expression of cdk2ap1 using a tet-inducible lentiviral system modified growth rate, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and reduced the invasive ability of prostate cancer cell lines, as assayed by cell viability, cell cycle profiling, Caspase 3/7 detection, and matrigel invasion assays. We examined the effect of expressing cdk2ap1 on gene expression profiles of cytokine, invasion, apoptotic, and androgen response pathways using quantitative real-time PCR, and used androgen-responsive reporter gene assays, and methylation-sensitive PCR to examine the mechanism of cdk2ap1 interaction with androgen-responsive pathways.
RESULTS: The expression of cdk2ap1 correlated with a reduction in cellular growth, irrespective of inhibition or stimulation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathways. Cell cycle arrest, increased apoptosis, and a reduction in invasiveness phenotypes were observed upon cdk2ap1 expression. Enhanced demethylation at the AR promoter, AR expression increases, and enhanced AR transcriptional activity correlated with cdk2ap1 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support a novel concept by which cell cycle inhibitor genes can impact prostate cancer phenotypes by restoring a tumor suppressive function to androgen-responsive pathways and this function may involve modulation of a subset of functions of the AR.

Zolochevska O, Figueiredo ML
Expression of cell cycle regulator cdk2ap1 suppresses tumor cell phenotype by non-cell-autonomous mechanisms.
Oral Oncol. 2009; 45(9):e106-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We evaluated the effect of expressing the cell cycle regulator cdk2ap1 in epithelial or stromal cell compartments to reduce SCC growth in vitro and in vivo. Cell-autonomous and/or non-cell-autonomous expression of cdk2ap1 reduced tumor growth and invasion and altered cell cycle, adhesion, invasion, angiogenesis, and apoptotic gene expression, as assessed by several in vitro phenotype assays, quantitative real-time PCR, and in vivo molecular imaging using a novel three-way xenograft animal model. Our findings suggest that the interactions between cancer cells and fibroblasts that promote abnormal growth can be minimized by expressing cdk2ap1, supporting a novel concept by which tumor/growth suppressor genes can impact tumorigenesis phenotypes from non-cell-autonomous interactions within the tumor microenvironment.

Kim Y, McBride J, Kimlin L, et al.
Targeted inactivation of p12, CDK2 associating protein 1, leads to early embryonic lethality.
PLoS One. 2009; 4(2):e4518 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Targeted disruption of murine Cdk2ap1, an inhibitor of CDK2 function and hence G1/S transition, results in the embryonic lethality with a high penetration rate. Detailed timed pregnancy analysis of embryos showed that the lethality occurred between embryonic day 3.5 pc and 5.5 pc, a period of implantation and early development of implanted embryos. Two homozygous knockout mice that survived to term showed identical craniofacial defect, including a short snout and a round forehead. Examination of craniofacial morphology by measuring Snout Length (SL) vs. Face Width (FW) showed that the Cdk2ap1(+/-) mice were born with a reduced SL/FW ratio compared to the Cdk2ap1(+/+) and the reduction was more pronounced in Cdk2ap1(-/-) mice. A transgenic rescue of the lethality was attempted by crossing Cdk2ap1(+/-) animals with K14-Cdk2ap1 transgenic mice. Resulting Cdk2ap1(+/-:K14-Cdk2ap1) transgenic mice showed an improved incidence of full term animals (16.7% from 0.5%) on a Cdk2ap1(-/-) background. Transgenic expression of Cdk2ap1 in Cdk2ap1(-/-:K14-Cdk2ap1) animals restored SL/FW ratio to the level of Cdk2ap1(+/-:K14-Cdk2ap1) mice, but not to that of the Cdk2ap1(+/+:K14-Cdk2ap1) mice. Teratoma formation analysis using mESCs showed an abrogated in vivo pluripotency of Cdk2ap1(-/-) mESCs towards a restricted mesoderm lineage specification. This study demonstrates that Cdk2ap1 plays an essential role in the early stage of embryogenesis and has a potential role during craniofacial morphogenesis.

Shin J, Yuan Z, Fordyce K, et al.
A del T poly T (8) mutation in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the CDK2-AP1 gene is functionally significant causing decreased mRNA stability resulting in decreased CDK2-AP1 expression in human microsatellite unstable (MSI) colorectal cancer (CRC).
Surgery. 2007; 142(2):222-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have previously published results indicating that decreased expression of CDK2-AP1 in MSI human colorectal cancer is associated with deletion mutations in the poly (T) 8 repeat sequence within the 3'-UTR of the CDK2-AP1 gene. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the del T mutation results in decreased CDK2-AP1 expression by causing reduced mRNA stability.
METHODS: We introduced wild-type and mutant 3'-UTR sequences fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene separately into human CRC cell lines and quantified the expression of the GFP gene. Native CDK2-AP1 mRNA stability was measured in human CRC cell lines, using an actinomycin D assay and the mRNA structure folding software mfold 3.2.
RESULTS: Mutant GFP-3'-UTR samples demonstrated significantly reduced GFP expression compared with wild-type GFP-3'-UTR as measured by both FACS and real-time PCR. Both the actinomycin D assay and mfold software demonstrated significantly reduced mRNA stability for the del T poly (T) 8 transcript compared with the wild type.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, these novel results support our hypotheses that the del T poly (T) 8 observed in the 3'-UTR of the CDK2-AP1 gene in human MSI CRC is functionally significant and results in decreased CDK2-AP1 expression. The results also indicate the mechanism of this decreased expression is caused at least in part by decreased mRNA stability.

Peng H, Shintani S, Kim Y, Wong DT
Loss of p12CDK2-AP1 expression in human oral squamous cell carcinoma with disrupted transforming growth factor-beta-Smad signaling pathway.
Neoplasia. 2006; 8(12):1028-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We examined correlations between TGF-beta1, TbetaR-I and TbetaR-II, p12(CDK2-AP1), p21(WAF1), p27(KIP1), Smad2, and p-Smad2 in 125 cases of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to test the hypothesis that resistance to TGF-beta1-induced growth suppression is due to the disruption of its signaling pathway as a consequence of reduced or lost p12(CDK2-AP1). Immunoreactivity for TbetaR-II decreased in OSCC with increasing disease aggressiveness; however, no differences were observed for TbetaR-I and TGF-beta1. The expression of TbetaR-II significantly correlated with p12(CDK2-AP1) and p27(KIP1) (P < .001 and P < .01, respectively). Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between TbetaR-II expression and p-Smad2 (P < .001). The in vivo correlation of the levels of TbetaR-II, p12(CDK2-AP1), and p27(KIP1) was confirmed in normal and OSCC cell lines. Additionally, in vitro analysis of TGF-beta1-treated cells showed that TGF-beta1 treatment of normal keratinocytes suppressed cell growth with upregulation of p-Smad2, p12(CDK2-AP1), and p21(WAF1) expression, whereas there was no effect on OSCC cell lines. These results provide evidence of a link between a disrupted TGF-beta-Smad signaling pathway and loss of induction of cell cycle-inhibitory proteins, especially p12(CDK2-AP1) in OSCC, which may lead to the resistance of TGF-beta1 growth-inhibitory effect on OSCC.

Figueiredo ML, Kim Y, St John MA, Wong DT
p12CDK2-AP1 gene therapy strategy inhibits tumor growth in an in vivo mouse model of head and neck cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11(10):3939-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To test the potential of p12(CDK2-AP1) (p12), a cell cycle regulator and cyclin-dependent kinase-2-associating protein commonly down-regulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma ( approximately 70%), as a gene therapy in inhibiting head and neck squamous cell carcinoma growth in vivo.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We addressed the effect of p12 expression on tumor growth by using a well-established squamous cell carcinoma VII/SF floor of mouth xenograft mouse model. The effect of therapy on tumor growth was determined for: (a) no treatment, (b) PBS, (c) vehicle (1,2-dioleoyloxy-3-trimethylammonium propane:cholesterol liposomes / 5% dextrose), (d) empty vector controls, and (e) p12-encoding vector experimental groups.
RESULTS: p12 gene therapy significantly induced antitumor effects as compared with controls, including (a) size and weight of p12-treated tumors decreased by 51% to 72% compared with all controls (P < 0.02), (b) tumor growth rate post-therapy was inhibited by 55% to 64% compared with empty vector controls (P < 0.0001), and (c) p12 expression was higher in p12-treated than controls (P < 0.002) by two-tailed t test analyses. Mechanistically, p12 treatment affected cell turnover kinetics as assessed by apoptotic and cell proliferation indices. p12 therapy significantly increased terminal nucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (P < 0.05) and morphology-based apoptotic indices (P < 0.05) as well as significantly decreased Ki-67 cell proliferation indices (P < 0.001) compared with controls, resulting in a net cell turnover reduction in p12-treated tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: We show that this novel therapeutic modality can significantly induce antitumor responses in vivo. These results support a role for p12 as a novel tumor growth suppressor gene therapy and suggest that optimization and/or combination with current therapies may hold considerable promise in preparation for clinical trials.

Yuan Z, Gaba AG, Kent TS, et al.
Modulation of CDK2-AP1 (p12(DOC-1)) expression in human colorectal cancer.
Oncogene. 2005; 24(22):3657-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have previously demonstrated an association between microsatellite instability and decreased CDK2-AP1 (p12(DOC-1)) expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. In those same studies, induction of CDK2-AP1 expression promoted both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The goals of our present study were to better understand the mechanisms leading to reduced CDK2-AP1 expression in microsatellite unstable (MSI) CRC and to study further the effect of CDK2-AP1 modulation on cell proliferation and apoptosis utilizing RNA interference (RNAi) techniques. We used direct sequencing to screen for mutations of the poly (T)8 microsatellite-like region in the 3' end of the CDK2-AP1 gene in 24 CRC cell lines. We then utilized an in vitro human mismatch repair (MMR) recombinant system to assess for correction of the mutation and changes in CDK2-AP1 expression secondary to hMLH1 transfection. We also investigated the effect of CDK2-AP1 modulation in four settings: (1) native CDK2-AP1 absence, (2) endogenous CDK2-AP1 expression, (3) RNAi-induced CDK2-AP1 inhibition and (4) induced CDK2-AP1 over expression. The mutation - del T poly (T)8 - at the 3' end of the CDK2-AP1 gene was found in 3/12 (25%) of MSI CRC cell lines, but in none of the microsatellite stable samples (0/12). Interestingly, when wild-type MMR protein - MLH1 - was induced in an in vitro human recombinant system, the del T poly (T)8 mutation was reversed and CDK2-AP1 expression increased. RNAi-mediated CDK2-AP1 inhibition was associated with decreased apoptosis and increased cell proliferation in CDK2-AP1-non deficient CRC cell lines. We conclude that mutations in the microsatellite-like sequence of the CDK2-AP1 gene in MSI CRC are associated with decreased CDK2-AP1 expression. In addition, modulation of CDK2-AP1 expression in human CRC alters cell proliferation and apoptosis.

Diederichs S, Bäumer N, Schultz N, et al.
Expression patterns of mitotic and meiotic cell cycle regulators in testicular cancer and development.
Int J Cancer. 2005; 116(2):207-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mitotic and meiotic cell cycle regulation is essential for normal development and tumor prevention. The underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely characterized. The aim of our analysis was to derive a global expression map of cell cycle regulators in mitosis and meiosis. First, the expression of cyclins, CDKs and CDK inhibitors was determined during postnatal testis maturation in mice using microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR. The abundance of cyclins A1, B2, K, M4, CDK2, all CDKLs, CDKN2c, CDKN2d and INCA1 increased during testis maturation. In contrast, cyclins A2, B1, D2, G1, G2, CDK1, CDK4 and CDK2AP1 showed a maturation-associated decrease. Gene expression profiles of isolated germ cells and testicular somatic cells confirmed these results. Second, we determined cyclin expression patterns in human normal and malignant testis samples (n = 36) modeling the reciprocal difference between meiosis and mitosis. Testicular tumors strictly expressed cell cycle regulators identified in mitotically dividing germ cells. Expression of several transcripts was histology-specific in testicular tumors, providing novel molecular markers and potential therapeutic targets. Taken together, our data provide a comprehensive expression map of cell cycle regulators at the switch between mitosis and meiosis in testis development and in cancerogenesis.

Kim Y, McBride J, Zhang R, et al.
p12(CDK2-AP1) mediates DNA damage responses induced by cisplatin.
Oncogene. 2005; 24(3):407-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
We examined the biological role of p12(CDK2-AP1) in cisplatin-mediated responses by using murine ES p12(CDK2-AP1) knockout clones generated by a targeted disruption of murine p12(CDK2-AP1). Homozygous knockout clones showed an increased cellular proliferation along with an increase in S and a decrease in G2/M phase populations. Interestingly, ES p12(CDK2-AP1) knockout clones showed a resistance to cisplatin treatment along with an increased DNA repair activity assessed by host cell reactivation assay using a cisplatin-damaged reporter DNA and a significant reduction of apoptosis upon cisplatin treatment. By using stable p12(CDK2-AP1) short interfering RNA (siRNA) clones from human normal oral keratinocytes, we confirmed that downregulation of p12(CDK2-AP1) resulted in a resistance to cisplatin. More interestingly, cisplatin treatment resulted in a reduction of CDK2 kinase activity in control clones, but p12(CDK2-AP1) knockout clones showed a sustained CDK2 kinase activity. These data suggest that p12(CDK2-AP1) plays a role in cisplatin-mediated cellular responses by modulating CDK2 activity. These data further suggest p12(CDK2-AP1) is a potential gene therapeutic agent for oral/head and neck cancer in conjunction with DNA-damaging agents such as cisplatin.

Sotsky Kent T, Yuan Z, Miller A, Weber TK
Deleted in oral cancer-1 expression upregulates proapoptosis elements in microsatellite-unstable human colorectal cancer.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2004; 11(2):192-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We previously reported differential expression of the growth suppressor, deleted in oral cancer-1 (DOC-1), in microsatellite-unstable (MSI+) versus microsatellite-stable colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. MSI+ CRC cell lines demonstrated decreased DOC-1 expression and decreased apoptosis. Transfection of wild-type DOC-1 into an MSI+ cell line (SW48) resulted in increased apoptosis. We undertook our current experiment to identify specific elements modulated by DOC-1 expression that result in increased apoptosis.
METHODS: SW48 is an MSI+ CRC cell line that does not constitutively express DOC-1. SW48 was suspended in culture medium and incubated to 60% confluence. Half the plates were transfected with cytomegalovirus (CMV)-DOC-1. At 30 hours, RNA and protein were isolated with Trizol. Complementary DNA microarray was performed to compare SW48(CMV-DOC-1) with SW48, which lacks DOC-1. Signal intensity was analyzed by GenePix Pro 3.0 software. Expression ratios / 1.5 were considered significant. Poor-quality spots were flagged and excluded from analysis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine DOC-1 levels in both cell lines.
RESULTS: Successful transfection of DOC-1 was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and by Western blot. Microarray revealed significant differential expression of DOC-1, as expected. Increased DOC-1 expression in SW48(CMV-DOC-1) was associated with significantly increased expression of proapoptosis components of the caspase cascade (CASP7, CASP9) and bcl2/bax pathway (BNIP3, BNIP3L, BID).
CONCLUSIONS: DOC-1 expression promotes apoptosis by upregulation of specific elements of the caspase cascade and bcl2/bax pathways. DOC-1 therefore deserves further study as a candidate for the therapeutic modulation of apoptosis in MSI+ CRC.

Yuan Z, Sotsky Kent T, Weber TK
Differential expression of DOC-1 in microsatellite-unstable human colorectal cancer.
Oncogene. 2003; 22(40):6304-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
The precise genetic mechanism of malignant transformation in DNA mismatch repair deficient, microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer (CRC) has yet to be elucidated. We employed cDNA microarray to identify patterns of gene expression among CRC cell lines and to compare directly lines with and without microsatellite instability. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that microsatellite-unstable CRC cell lines demonstrate specific patterns of gene expression that differ significantly from those observed among microsatellite-stable CRC. Multiple differential expression patterns were identified. Genes demonstrating differential expression included deleted-in-oral-cancer-1 (DOC-1), a highly conserved growth suppressor. DOC-1 expression correlated with microsatellite status, with significantly decreased expression in microsatellite-unstable cell lines and constitutive expression in microsatellite-stable cell lines. We also observed alterations in the biologic behavior of p12(DOC-1)-deficient cell lines, with increased S phase and decreased apoptosis compared to microsatellite-stable (DOC-1+) cell lines. Transfection of p12(DOC-1) into SW48, which lacks p12(DOC-1) expression, resulted in cell cycle and apoptosis profiles similar to other p12(DOC-1)+ cell lines. These results support the hypothesis that microsatellite-unstable CRC is characterized by novel patterns of gene expression different from those associated with microsatellite-stable CRC, and demonstrate that p12(DOC-1) has tumor suppressor potential in colon epithelial cells.

Cwikla SJ, Tsuji T, McBride J, et al.
doc-1--mediated apoptosis in malignant hamster oral keratinocytes.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2000; 58(4):406-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Cell cycle mediators involved in inducing apoptosis are frequently deregulated during carcinogenesis. Deleted in oral cancer-1 (doc-1) is an S-phase regulator that is inactivated during oral carcinogenesis. Transfection of doc-1 into malignant oral keratinocytes leads to increased cell loss. It is hypothesized that ectopic expression of doc-1 in hamster oral cancer cells induces apoptosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Malignant hamster oral keratinocytes (wt-HCPC-1), which lack measurable doc-1 mRNA and protein, were previously transfected with either a CMV-doc-1 expression vector construct (doc-HCPC-1) or the parental control vector pcDNA3 (cv-HCPC-1). A trypan blue exclusion assay was performed to examine cell death in the parental or wild-type HCPC-1 keratinocytes, HCPC-1 transfected with the parental pcDNA3 vector, and the doc-1 transfected HCPC-1 cells. To examine whether ectopic expression of doc-1 mediates gross cellular changes consistent with apoptosis, toluidine blue-safranin differential staining and the quantitative fluorescent microscopy assays were performed. To identify early apoptotic cytochemical changes observed in the cell membrane and nucleus, annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis and the terminal deoxytransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay were performed.
RESULTS: Doc-HCPC-1 showed elevated numbers of dead cells over wt-HCPC-1 and cv-HCPC-1 in the trypan blue exclusion assay. Toluidine blue-safranin staining and quantitative fluorescent microscopy showed significant morphologic changes in the doc-1 transfectants consistent with apoptosis (P < .05). TUNEL assays (P < .05) and annexin V/PI FACS analysis (P < .05) also showed early cytochemical changes in the doc-HCPC-1 transfectants, confirming that ectopic expression of doc-1 induces apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that doc-1 induces apoptosis in malignant hamster oral keratinocytes. It is hypothesized that doc-1 is a mediator of apoptosis that is inactivated during hamster oral carcinogenesis.

Daigo Y, Suzuki K, Maruyama O, et al.
Isolation, mapping and mutation analysis of a human cDNA homologous to the doc-1 gene of the Chinese hamster, a candidate tumor suppressor for oral cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1997; 20(2):204-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have isolated a human cDNA encoding a 115-amino-acid polypeptide that revealed 97% identity to a candidate tumor suppressor gene for oral cancer in Mesocricetus auratus (deleted in oral cancer-1; doc-1). It also showed a high degree of homology to a gene induced by TNF-alpha in Mus musculus. To investigate its possible role in esophageal carcinogenesis, we examined genetic alterations and expression levels of the gene in 13 esophageal carcinoma cell lines and 10 primary esophageal carcinomas. No mutation nor reduction of expression was observed in any of the 23 cancer materials examined. These results imply that the human doc-1 homologue is unlikely to play a significant role in esophageal carcinogenesis, although its role in the TNF-alpha signaling pathway remains unclear. We mapped DOC1 to chromosome band 12q24.31 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

Todd R, Donoff RB, Wong DT
The molecular biology of oral carcinogenesis: toward a tumor progression model.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997; 55(6):613-23; discussion 623-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: An understanding of the molecular basis of oral carcinogenesis will alter our clinical approach to oral cancer. The nomenclature and major themes of molecular oral tumor biology are reviewed, beginning with the regulation events governing normal cellular physiology. In carcinogenesis, chromosomal or cytogenetic alterations lead to deregulation of tightly controlled stimulatory and inhibitory pathways, growth-promoting proto-oncogenes are mutated into overactive oncogenes, and growth-suppressing or tumor suppressor genes are inactivated. Recent advances in defining these fundamental mechanisms of tumor biology may allow prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer to be approached at the molecular level.

Wong DT, Todd R, Tsuji T, Donoff RB
Molecular biology of human oral cancer.
Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1996; 7(4):319-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
The application of molecular biological tools to the study of cancer has significantly advanced the field of human cancer research. Such study has demonstrated the involvement of two classes of highly conserved cellular genes in the malignant transformation process: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Despite these advances in the molecular biology of human cancers, our understanding of human oral cancer lags behind that of cancer of other body sites. This review attempts to assess the current status of the molecular biology of human oral cancer.

Todd R, McBride J, Tsuji T, et al.
Deleted in oral cancer-1 (doc-1), a novel oral tumor suppressor gene.
FASEB J. 1995; 9(13):1362-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have identified, isolated, and partially characterized doc-1, a novel cDNA sequence whose activity is consistent with a suppressor of hamster oral carcinogenesis. Doc-1 is an evolutionarily conserved gene exhibiting loss of heterozygosity and marked reduction in expression in malignant hamster oral keratinocytes. The full-length doc-1 cDNA encodes an 87 amino acid product that shows a significant homology to one of the seven novel genes induced in mouse fibroblasts by TNF-alpha. Transfection of the full-length doc-1 cDNA into malignant hamster oral keratinocytes alters the behavior of the recipients in terms of morphology, growth rate, and anchorage-independent growth, suggesting reversion of transformation phenotypes. We propose that doc-1 is a novel tumor suppressor gene in oral cancer development.

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