Gene Summary

Gene:CCND3; cyclin D3
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. This cyclin forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activtiy is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. This protein has been shown to interact with and be involved in the phosphorylation of tumor suppressor protein Rb. The CDK4 activity associated with this cyclin was reported to be necessary for cell cycle progression through G2 phase into mitosis after UV radiation. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:G1/S-specific cyclin-D3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CCND3 (cancer-related)

Fang C, Jiang B, Shi X, Fan C
Hes3 Enhances the Malignant Phenotype of Lung Cancer through Upregulating Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3 and MMP7 Expression.
Int J Med Sci. 2019; 16(3):470-476 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Wang B, Chen H, Zhang C, et al.
Effects of hsa_circRBM23 on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Viability and Migration as Produced by Regulating miR-138 Expression.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2018; 33(5):194-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. At present, the molecular mechanism of HCC remains unclear. A recent circular RNA (circRNA) profiling study showed that circRBM23 expression was upregulated in HCC tissues. Therefore, in this study, the impact of circRBM23 during the progression of HCC was evaluated. The expression levels of circRBM23 and miR-138 in HCC tissues and HCC cell lines were determined by RT-PCR and the results indicated that circRBM23 expression was increased in the HCC tissues and HCC cell lines, whereas miR-138 expression was decreased. An upregulation of circRBM23 expression in HCC cells was shown to increase cell viability, and also increased the ability of cells to migrate. Downregulation of circRBM23 was found to decrease cell viability, proliferation, and migration, and promote the expression of miR-138 and its related target genes, vimentin, and CCND3. Moreover, miR-138 was found to regulate HCC cell viability and migration, and the levels of vimentin and CCND3 protein expression were found to be inversely correlated with those of miR-138 expression. The downregulation of circRBM23 in HCC tissues can regulate the miR-138-mediated signal pathway by promoting miR-138 expression. The results in vivo demonstrated that circRBM23 is required for the tumorigenesis with downregulation of tumor suppressor miR-138. These data indicated that upregulated circRBM23 functioned as oncogene in HCC through regulating the tumor suppressor miR-138.

Wang F, Demir S, Gehringer F, et al.
Tight regulation of FOXO1 is essential for maintenance of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood. 2018; 131(26):2929-2942 [PubMed] Related Publications
The FOXO1 transcription factor plays an essential role in the regulation of proliferation and survival programs at early stages of B-cell differentiation. Here, we show that tightly regulated FOXO1 activity is essential for maintenance of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Genetic and pharmacological inactivation of FOXO1 in BCP-ALL cell lines produced a strong antileukemic effect associated with CCND3 downregulation. Moreover, we demonstrated that CCND3 expression is critical for BCP-ALL survival and that overexpression of CCND3 protected BCP-ALL cell lines from growth arrest and apoptosis induced by FOXO1 inactivation. Most importantly, pharmacological inhibition of FOXO1 showed antileukemia activity on several primary, patient-derived, pediatric ALL xenografts with effective leukemia reduction in the hematopoietic, lymphoid, and central nervous system organ compartments, ultimately leading to prolonged survival without leukemia reoccurrence in a preclinical in vivo model of BCP-ALL. These results suggest that repression of FOXO1 might be a feasible approach for the treatment of BCP-ALL.

He S, Yang S, Niu M, et al.
HMG-box transcription factor 1: a positive regulator of the G1/S transition through the Cyclin-CDK-CDKI molecular network in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cell Death Dis. 2018; 9(2):100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HMG-box transcription factor 1 (HBP1) has been reported to be a tumor suppressor in diverse malignant carcinomas. However, our findings provide a conclusion that HBP1 plays a novel role in facilitating nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) growth. The Kaplan-Meier analysis indicates that high expression HBP1 and low miR-29c expression both are negatively correlated with the overall survival rates of NPC patients. HBP1 knockdown inhibits cellular proliferation and growth, and arrested cells in G1 phase rather than affected cell apoptosis via flow cytometry (FCM) analysis. Mechanistically, HBP1 induces the expression of CCND1 and CCND3 levels by binding to their promoters, and binds to CDK4, CDK6 and p16

Koo KH, Kwon H
MicroRNA miR-4779 suppresses tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest through direct targeting of PAK2 and CCND3.
Cell Death Dis. 2018; 9(2):77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Depending on the function of their target genes, microRNAs (miRNAs) act as either tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Therefore, miRNAs represent a novel therapeutic strategy for prevention and management of cancer by targeting of onco-miRNAs or mimicking of tumor suppressor miRNAs. Herein, we identified novel tumor suppressor miRNAs and investigated their molecular mechanisms. To identify novel tumor suppressor miRNAs, we used 532 human miRNA mimic libraries and measured cell viability using MTS assays. The function of miR-4779 was then analyzed using cell cycle analyses and apoptosis, colony forming, and soft agar assays. Target genes of miR-4779 were predicted using TargetScan and miRDB databases and were confirmed using luciferase assays. Levels of miR-4779 and target genes in colon cancer tissue samples from patients were evaluated using qRT-PCR and western blotting analyses. Finally, in vivo tumor suppressive effects of miR-4779 were evaluated in HCT116 xenografts. In this study, miR-4779 inhibited cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and the putative survival factors PAK2 and CCND3 were identified as direct targets of miR-4779. In subsequent experiments, PAK2 knockdown induced cell cycle arrest and CCND3 knockdown induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, miR-4779 suppressed tumor growth and tumorigenesis in an in vivo HCT116 xenograft model. Finally, miR-4779 expression was low in 9 of 10 colon cancer tissues, whereas PAK2 and CCND3 expressions were significantly high in colon cancer tissues. The novel tumor suppressor miR-4779 inhibits cancer cell growth via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by directly targeting PAK2 and CCND3. The present data indicate the potential of miR-4779 as a therapeutic target for miRNA-based cancer therapy.

Wever CM, Geoffrion D, Grande BM, et al.
The genomic landscape of two Burkitt lymphoma cases and derived cell lines: comparison between primary and relapse samples.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2018; 59(9):2159-2174 [PubMed] Related Publications
Relapse occurs in 10-40% of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) patients that have completed intensive chemotherapy regimens and is typically fatal. While treatment-naive BL has been characterized, the genomic landscape of BL at the time of relapse (rBL) has never been reported. Here, we present a genomic characterization of two rBL patients. The diagnostic samples had mutations common in BL, including MYC and CCND3. Additional mutations were detected at relapse, affecting important pathways such as NFκB (IKBKB) and MEK/ERK (NRAS) signaling, glutamine metabolism (SIRT4), and RNA processing (ZFP36L2). Genes implicated in drug resistance were also mutated at relapse (TP53, BAX, ALDH3A1, APAF1, FANCI). This concurrent genomic profiling of samples obtained at diagnosis and relapse has revealed mutations not previously reported in this disease. The patient-derived cell lines will be made available and, along with their detailed genetics, will be a valuable resource to examine the role of specific mutations in therapeutic resistance.

Liu Y, Qin Z, Cai L, et al.
Selection of internal references for qRT-PCR assays of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.
Biosci Rep. 2017; 37(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Selecting internal references is important for normalizing the loading quantity of samples in quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). In the present study, a systematic evaluation of reference genes among nine hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines was conducted. After screening the microarray assay data of ten HCC cell lines, 19 candidate reference genes were preselected and then evaluated by qRT-PCR, together with

Kuriyama K, Enomoto Y, Suzuki R, et al.
Enforced expression of MIR142, a target of chromosome translocation in human B-cell tumors, results in B-cell depletion.
Int J Hematol. 2018; 107(3):345-354 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA142 (MIR142) is a target of chromosome translocations and mutations in human B-cell lymphomas. We analyzed an aggressive B-cell lymphoma carrying t(8;17)(q24;q22) and t(6;14)(p21;q32), and sought to explore the role(s) of MIR142 in lymphomagenesis. t(8;17)(q24;q22) involved MYC on 8q24 and pri-MIR142 on 17q22. MYC was activated by a promoter substitution by t(8;17)(q24;q22). t(8;17)(q24;q22) was an additional event after t(6;14) (p21;q32), which caused the over-expression of CCND3. Southern blot analyses revealed that the MIR142 locus was deleted from the affected allele, whereas Northern analyses showed over-expression of MIR142 in tumor cells. Although previous studies reported an over-expression of mutations in MIR142 in B-cell lymphomas, limited information is available on the functions of MIR142 in lymphomagenesis. Therefore, we generated bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and transgenic (Eμ/mir142) mice, which showed enforced expression in hematopoietic progenitor cells and B cells, respectively. BMT mice showed decreased numbers of all lineage-positive cells, particularly B cells, in peripheral blood. Eμ/mir142 mice showed decreased numbers of IgM-positive splenocytes, and exhibited altered B-cell phenotypic changes induced by lipopolysaccharide. Our results suggest that over-expression of MIR142 alters B-cell differentiation, implying multi-step lymphomagenesis together with MYC activation and CCND3 over-expression.

Pedraza-Arévalo S, Hormaechea-Agulla D, Gómez-Gómez E, et al.
Somatostatin receptor subtype 1 as a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2017; 77(15):1499-1511 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a highly prevalent neoplasia that is strongly influenced by the endocrine system. Somatostatin (SST) and its five receptors (sst1-5 encoded by SSTR1-5 genes) comprise a pleiotropic system present in most endocrine-related cancers, some of which are successfully treated with SST analogs. Interestingly, it has been reported that SSTR1 is overexpressed in PCa, but its regulation, functional role, and clinical implications are still poorly known.
METHODS: PCa specimens (n = 52) from biopsies and control prostates from cystoprostatectomies (n = 12), as well as in silico databases were used to evaluate SSTR1 and miRNAs expression. In vitro studies in 22Rv1 PCa cells were implemented to explore the regulation of SSTR1/sst1 by different miRNAs, and to evaluate the consequences of SSTR1/sst1 overexpression, silencing and/or activation [with the specific BIM-23926 sst1 agonist (IPSEN)] on cell-proliferation, migration, signaling-pathways, and androgen-signaling.
RESULTS: We found that SSTR1 is overexpressed in multiple cohorts of PCa samples, as compared with normal prostate tissues, wherein it correlates with androgen receptor (AR) expression, and appears to be associated with aggressiveness (metastasis). Furthermore, our data revealed that SSTR1/sst1 expression might be regulated by specific miRNAs in PCa, including miR-24, which is downregulated in PCa samples and correlates inversely with SSTR1 expression. In vitro studies indicated that treatment with the BIM-23926 sst1 agonist, as well as SSTR1 overexpression, decreased, whereas SSTR1 silencing increased, cell-proliferation in 22Rv1 cells, likely through the regulation of PI3K/AKT-CCND3 signaling-pathway. Importantly, sst1 action was also able to modulate androgen/AR activity, and reduced PSA secretion from PCa cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results indicate that SSTR1 is overexpressed in PCa, where it can exert a relevant pathophysiological role by decreasing cell-proliferation and PSA secretion. Therefore, sst1, possibly in combination with miR-24, could be used as a novel tool to explore therapeutic targets in PCa.

Ulvé R, Rault M, Bahin M, et al.
Discovery of Human-Similar Gene Fusions in Canine Cancers.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(21):5721-5727 [PubMed] Related Publications
Canine cancers represent a tremendous natural resource due to their incidence and striking similarities to human cancers, sharing similar clinical and pathologic features as well as oncogenic events, including identical somatic mutations. Considering the importance of gene fusions as driver alterations, we explored their relevance in canine cancers. We focused on three distinct human-comparable canine cancers representing different tissues and embryonic origins. Through RNA-Seq, we discovered similar gene fusions as those found in their human counterparts:

Liu Y, Easton J, Shao Y, et al.
The genomic landscape of pediatric and young adult T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Nat Genet. 2017; 49(8):1211-1218 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic alterations that activate NOTCH1 signaling and T cell transcription factors, coupled with inactivation of the INK4/ARF tumor suppressors, are hallmarks of T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), but detailed genome-wide sequencing of large T-ALL cohorts has not been carried out. Using integrated genomic analysis of 264 T-ALL cases, we identified 106 putative driver genes, half of which had not previously been described in childhood T-ALL (for example, CCND3, CTCF, MYB, SMARCA4, ZFP36L2 and MYCN). We describe new mechanisms of coding and noncoding alteration and identify ten recurrently altered pathways, with associations between mutated genes and pathways, and stage or subtype of T-ALL. For example, NRAS/FLT3 mutations were associated with immature T-ALL, JAK3/STAT5B mutations in HOXA1 deregulated ALL, PTPN2 mutations in TLX1 deregulated T-ALL, and PIK3R1/PTEN mutations in TAL1 deregulated ALL, which suggests that different signaling pathways have distinct roles according to maturational stage. This genomic landscape provides a logical framework for the development of faithful genetic models and new therapeutic approaches.

Zhang K, Wang J, Tong TR, et al.
Loss of H2B monoubiquitination is associated with poor-differentiation and enhanced malignancy of lung adenocarcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 141(4):766-777 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deregulated monoubiquitination of histone H2B (H2Bub1), mainly catalyzed by E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF20/RNF40 complex, may play an important role in cancer. Here we investigate potential roles of H2Bub1 and the underlying mechanisms through which it contributes to cancer development and progression in lung adenocarcinoma. We show that downregulation of H2Bub1 through RNF20 knockdown dramatically decreases H3K79 and H3K4 trimethylation in both normal and malignant lung epithelial cell lines. Concurrently, global transcriptional profiling analysis reveals that multiple tumor-associated genes such as CCND3, E2F1/2, HOXA1, Bcl2 modifying factor (BMF), Met, and Myc; and signaling pathways of cellular dedifferentiation, proliferation, adhesion, survival including p53, cadherin, Myc, and anti-apoptotic pathways are differentially expressed or significantly altered in these lung epithelial cells upon downregulation of H2Bub1. Moreover, RNF20 knockdown dramatically suppresses terminal squamous differentiation of cultured bronchial epithelial cells, and significantly enhances proliferation, migration, invasion, and cisplatin resistance of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry analysis shows that H2Bub1 is extremely low or undetectable in >70% of 170 lung adenocarcinoma samples. Notably, statistical analysis demonstrates that loss of H2Bub1 is significantly correlated with poor differentiation in lung adenocarcinoma (p = 0.0134). In addition, patients with H2Bub1-negative cancers had a trend towards shorter survival compared with patients with H2Bub1-positive cancers. Taken together, our findings suggest that loss of H2Bub1 may enhance malignancy and promote disease progression in lung adenocarcinoma probably through modulating multiple cancer signaling pathways.

Cheng L, Yang Q, Li C, et al.
DDA1, a novel oncogene, promotes lung cancer progression through regulation of cell cycle.
J Cell Mol Med. 2017; 21(8):1532-1544 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is globally widespread and associated with high morbidity and mortality. DDA1 (DET1 and DDB1 associated 1) was first discovered and registered in the GenBank database by our colleagues. DDA1, an evolutionarily conserved gene, might have significant functions. Recent reports have demonstrated that DDA1 is linked to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and facilitates the degradation of target proteins. However, the function of DDA1 in lung cancer was previously unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether DDA1 contributes to tumorigenesis and progression of lung cancer. We found that the expression of DDA1 in normal lung cells and tissue was significantly lower than that in lung cancer and was associated with poor prognosis. DDA1 overexpression promoted proliferation of lung tumour cells and facilitated cell cycle progression in vitro and subcutaneous xenograft tumour progression in vivo. Mechanistically, this was associated with the regulation of S phase and cyclins including cyclin D1/D3/E1. These results indicate that DDA1 promotes lung cancer progression, potentially through promoting cyclins and cell cycle progression. Therefore, DDA1 may be a potential novel target for lung cancer treatment, and a biomarker for tumour prognosis.

Rohde M, Bonn BR, Zimmermann M, et al.
Relevance of ID3-TCF3-CCND3 pathway mutations in pediatric aggressive B-cell lymphoma treated according to the non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster protocols.
Haematologica. 2017; 102(6):1091-1098 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood and adolescence. B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas are further classified into histological subtypes, with Burkitt lymphoma and Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma being the most common subgroups in pediatric patients. Translocations involving the

Zhang X, Liu D, Li M, et al.
Prognostic and therapeutic value of disruptor of telomeric silencing-1-like (DOT1L) expression in patients with ovarian cancer.
J Hematol Oncol. 2017; 10(1):29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epigenetics has been known to play a critical role in regulating the malignant phenotype. This study was designed to examine the expression of DOT1L (histone 3 lysine 79 methyltransferase) and H3K79 methylation in normal ovarian tissues and ovarian tumors and to explore the function of DOT1L and its underline mechanisms in ovarian cancer.
METHODS: The expression of DOT1L and H3K79 methylation in 250 ovarian tumor samples and 24 normal ovarian samples was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effects of DOT1L on cell proliferation in vitro were evaluated using CCK8, colony formation and flow cytometry. The DOT1L-targeted genes were determined using chromatin immune-precipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) and ChIP-PCR. Gene expression levels were measured by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. The effects of DOT1L on tumor growth in vivo were evaluated using an orthotopic ovarian tumor model.
RESULTS: DOT1L expression and H3K79 methylation was significantly increased in malignant ovarian tumors. High DOT1L expression was associated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, histologic grade, and lymphatic metastasis. DOT1L was an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of ovarian cancer, and higher DOT1L expression was associated with poorer OS and PFS. Furthermore, DOT1L regulates the transcription of G1 phase genes CDK6 and CCND3 through H3K79 dimethylation; therefore, blocking DOT1L could result in G1 arrest and thereby impede the cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings first demonstrate that DOT1L over-expression has important clinical significance in ovarian cancer and also clarify that it drives cell cycle progression through transcriptional regulation of CDK6 and CCND3 through H3K79 methylation, suggesting that DOT1L might be potential target for prognostic assessment and therapeutic intervention in ovarian cancer.

Tanaka S, Suzuki K, Sakaguchi M
The prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor SUAM-14746 attenuates the proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines in vitro.
Breast Cancer. 2017; 24(5):658-666 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP, EC is a serine peptidase that hydrolyzes post-proline peptide bonds in peptides that are <30 amino acids in length. We previously reported that POP inhibition suppressed the growth of NB-1 human neuroblastomas cells and KATO III human gastric cancer cells. POP activity is commonly elevated in many cancers, which includes breast cancer. However, the effect of POP inhibition as a candidate breast cancer therapy is unknown.
METHODS: The effects of POP inhibition and knockdown on the proliferation of cultured human estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) MCF7 and T47D, and ER-negative (ER-) MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines and the MCF12A non-tumorigenic epithelial cell line were tested by analyzing their influence on cell proliferation (WST-1 assay), cell viability (trypan blue exclusion assay), and cell cycle arrest (cell cycle analysis, cell cycle regulator proteins expression).
RESULTS: POP-specific inhibitors 3-({4-[2-(E)-styrylphenoxy]butanoyl}-L-4-hydroxyprolyl)-thiazolidine (SUAM-14746) and benzyloxycarbonyl-thiopropyl-thioprolinal and RNAi-mediated POP knockdown inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells without inducing cell death. SUAM-14746-induced growth inhibition was also observed in T47D and MDA-MB-231 cells, but not in MCF12A cells. This growth inhibition was associated with G
CONCLUSIONS: SUAM-14746 inhibited breast cancer cell growth in a cytostatic manner without inducing lethality, and POP-specific inhibitors may be an effective treatment against ER+ and ER- breast cancer.

Busiello T, Ciano M, Romano S, et al.
Role of ZNF224 in cell growth and chemoresistance of chronic lymphocitic leukemia.
Hum Mol Genet. 2017; 26(2):344-353 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is associated with apoptosis resistance and defective control of cell growth. Our study describes for the first time a critical role in CLL for the KRAB-zinc finger protein ZNF224. High ZNF224 transcript levels were detected in CLL patients with respect to control cells. Moreover, ZNF224 expression was significantly lowered after conventional chemotherapy treatment in a subset of CLL patients. By in vitro experiments we confirmed that ZNF224 expression is suppressed by fludarabine and demonstrated that ZNF224 is involved in apoptosis resistance in CLL cells. Moreover, we showed that ZNF224 positively modulates cyclin D3 gene expression. Consistently, we observed that alteration of ZNF224 expression leads to defects in cell cycle control. All together, our results strongly suggest that in CLL cells high expression level of ZNF224 can lead to inappropriate cell growth and apoptosis resistance, thus contributing to CLL progression. Targeting ZNF224 could thus improve CLL response to therapy.

Hua Y, Ma X, Liu X, et al.
Identification of the potential biomarkers for the metastasis of rectal adenocarcinoma.
APMIS. 2017; 125(2):93-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rectal cancer is a common malignant tumor of the digestive tract, with a high incidence and high mortality. This study aimed to identify the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for rectal adenocarcinoma (RAC) metastasis. The expression profiling of RAC patients with metastasis and RAC patients without metastasis was downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The datasets were used to identify the genes associated with RAC metastasis. Fifty up-regulated genes and seventeen down-regulated genes were identified in the primary tumor loci of RAC metastasis compared with non-metastasis. Sixty-seven dysregulated gens were conducted to construct the protein-protein network, and CCND3 was the hub protein. The dysregulated genes were significantly enriched in pancreatic secretion, cell adhesion molecules pathways, response to vitamin D of biological process, and retinoid binding of molecular function. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that CCND3, AQP3, PEG10, and RAB27B had the up-regulated tendency in RAC metastasis; ADCY1 had the down-regulated tendency in RAC metastasis. CCND3, AQP3, PEG10, RAB27B, and ADCY1 might play essential roles in the metastasis process of RAC through pancreatic secretion and cell adhesion molecules pathways. The five genes could be potential diagnosis biomarkers or therapeutic targets for RAC metastasis.

Kridel R, Chan FC, Mottok A, et al.
Histological Transformation and Progression in Follicular Lymphoma: A Clonal Evolution Study.
PLoS Med. 2016; 13(12):e1002197 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent, yet incurable B cell malignancy. A subset of patients experience an increased mortality rate driven by two distinct clinical end points: histological transformation and early progression after immunochemotherapy. The nature of tumor clonal dynamics leading to these clinical end points is poorly understood, and previously determined genetic alterations do not explain the majority of transformed cases or accurately predict early progressive disease. We contend that detailed knowledge of the expansion patterns of specific cell populations plus their associated mutations would provide insight into therapeutic strategies and disease biology over the time course of FL clinical histories.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a combination of whole genome sequencing, targeted deep sequencing, and digital droplet PCR on matched diagnostic and relapse specimens, we deciphered the constituent clonal populations in 15 transformation cases and 6 progression cases, and measured the change in clonal population abundance over time. We observed widely divergent patterns of clonal dynamics in transformed cases relative to progressed cases. Transformation specimens were generally composed of clones that were rare or absent in diagnostic specimens, consistent with dramatic clonal expansions that came to dominate the transformation specimens. This pattern was independent of time to transformation and treatment modality. By contrast, early progression specimens were composed of clones that were already present in the diagnostic specimens and exhibited only moderate clonal dynamics, even in the presence of immunochemotherapy. Analysis of somatic mutations impacting 94 genes was undertaken in an extension cohort consisting of 395 samples from 277 patients in order to decipher disrupted biology in the two clinical end points. We found 12 genes that were more commonly mutated in transformed samples than in the preceding FL tumors, including TP53, B2M, CCND3, GNA13, S1PR2, and P2RY8. Moreover, ten genes were more commonly mutated in diagnostic specimens of patients with early progression, including TP53, BTG1, MKI67, and XBP1.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results illuminate contrasting modes of evolution shaping the clinical histories of transformation and progression. They have implications for interpretation of evolutionary dynamics in the context of treatment-induced selective pressures, and indicate that transformation and progression will require different clinical management strategies.

Slot LM, Hoogeboom R, Smit LA, et al.
B-Lymphoblastic Lymphomas Evolving from Follicular Lymphomas Co-Express Surrogate Light Chains and Mutated Gamma Heavy Chains.
Am J Pathol. 2016; 186(12):3273-3284 [PubMed] Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma able to transform into germinal center-type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We describe four extraordinary cases of FL, which progressed to TdT

Feist M, Kemper J, Taruttis F, et al.
Synergy of interleukin 10 and toll-like receptor 9 signalling in B cell proliferation: Implications for lymphoma pathogenesis.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 140(5):1147-1158 [PubMed] Related Publications
A network of autocrine and paracrine signals defines B cell homeostasis and is thought to be involved in transformation processes. Investigating interactions of these microenvironmental factors and their relation to proto-oncogenes as c-Myc (MYC) is fundamental to understand the biology of B cell lymphoma. Therefore, B cells with conditional MYC expression were stimulated with CD40L, insulin-like growth factor 1, α-IgM, Interleukin-10 (IL10) and CpG alone or in combination. The impact of forty different interventions on cell proliferation was investigated in MYC deprived cells and calculated by linear regression. Combination of CpG and IL10 led to a strong synergistic activation of cell proliferation (S-phase/doubling of total cell number) comparable to cells with high MYC expression. A synergistic up-regulation of CDK4, CDK6 and CCND3 expression by IL10 and CpG treatment was causal for this proliferative effect as shown by qRT-PCR analysis and inhibition of the CDK4/6 complex by PD0332991. Furthermore, treatment of stimulated MYC deprived cells with MLN120b, ACHP, Pyridone 6 or Ruxolitinib showed that IL10/CpG induced proliferation and CDK4 expression were JAK/STAT3 and IKK/NF-κB dependent. This was further supported by STAT3 and p65/RELA knockdown experiments, showing strongest effects on cell proliferation and CDK4 expression after double knockdown. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed a dual binding of STAT3 and p65 to the proximal promotor of CDK4 after IL10/CpG treatment. Therefore, the observed synergism of IL10R and TLR9 signalling was able to induce proliferation in a comparable way as aberrant MYC and might play a role in B cell homeostasis or transformation.

Zhong N, Shi S, Wang H, et al.
Silencing Aurora-A with siRNA inhibits cell proliferation in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 49(3):1028-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aurora kinase A (AURKA) is an oncogenic serine/threonine kinase, it plays important roles in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. In this study, we investigated the expression of AURKA in lung adenocarcinoma tissues, the role of small interference RNA targeting AURKA on growth, cell cycle, and apoptosis of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines in vitro. The AURKA is highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to knock down AURKA expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines H1299 and A549. The results indicated that depletion of AURKA could inhibit cell growth, cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The potential mechanisms of AURKA inhibition induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis are associated with downregulated RAF-1, CCND2, CCND3, CDK4, PAK4, EGFR and upregulated WEE1 expression. Furthermore, AURKA knockdown cooperated with vincristine (VCR) to repress A549 cell proliferation. Therefore, AURKA plays important roles in the proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma cells, which suggests that AURKA could be a promising tool for lung adenocarcinoma therapy.

Erdmann K, Kaulke K, Rieger C, et al.
MiR-26a and miR-138 block the G1/S transition by targeting the cell cycle regulating network in prostate cancer cells.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(11):2249-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The tumor-suppressive microRNAs miR-26a and miR-138 are significantly down-regulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and have been identified as direct regulators of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), which is a known oncogene in PCa. In the present study, the influence of miR-26a and miR-138 on EZH2 and cellular function including the impact on the cell cycle regulating network was evaluated in PCa cells.
METHODS: PC-3 and DU-145 PCa cells were transfected with 100 nM of miRNA mimics, siRNA against EZH2 (siR-EZH2) or control constructs for 4 h. Analyses of gene expression and cellular function were conducted 48 h after transfection.
RESULTS: Both miRNAs influenced the EZH2 expression and activity only marginally, whereas siR-EZH2 led to a notable decrease of the EZH2 expression and activity. Both miRNAs inhibited short- and/or long-term proliferation of PCa cells but showed no effect on viability and apoptosis. In PC-3 cells, miR-26a and miR-138 caused a significant surplus of cells in the G0/G1 phase of 6 and 12 %, respectively, thus blocking the G1/S-phase transition. Treatment with siR-EZH2 was without substantial influence on cellular function and cell cycle. Therefore, alternative target genes involved in cell cycle regulation were identified in silico. MiR-26a significantly diminished the expression of its targets CCNE1, CCNE2 and CDK6, whereas CCND1, CCND3 and CDK6 were suppressed by their regulator miR-138.
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest an anti-proliferative role for miR-26a and miR-138 in PCa by blocking the G1/S-phase transition independent of EZH2 but via a concerted inhibition of crucial cell cycle regulators.

Wang H, Guo Q, Yang P, Long G
Restoration of microRNA-212 causes a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells by repressing CCND3 expression.
J Investig Med. 2017; 65(1):82-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a highly aggressive T-cell malignancy. This study was designed to explore the expression and functional significance of microRNA (miR)-212 in ATL. The expression of miR-212 in human ATL tissues and cell lines were investigated. Gain-of-function experiments were carried out to determine the roles of miR-212 in cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. We also identified and functionally characterized the target genes of miR-212 in ATL cells. Compared with normal lymph node biopsies, lymphoma samples from ATL patients displayed underexpression of miR-212 (p=0.0032). Consistently, miR-212 was downregulated in human ATL cell lines, compared with normal T lymphocytes. Restoration of miR-212 significantly (p<0.05) inhibited ATL cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in mice. Overexpression of miR-212 led to an accumulation of G0/G1-phase cells and a concomitant reduction of S-phase cells. Moreover, enforced expression of miR-212-induced significant apoptosis in ATL cells. CCND3, which encodes a cell cycle regulator cyclin D3, was identified as a direct target of miR-212 in ATL cells. Rescue experiments with a miR-212-resistant variant of CCND3 demonstrated that overexpression of CCND3 restored cell-cycle progression and attenuated apoptotic response in miR-212-overexpressing ATL cells. Taken together, miR-212 exerts growth-suppressive effects in ATL cells largely by targeting CCND3 and may have therapeutic potential in ATL.

Ishibashi M, Tamura H, Sunakawa M, et al.
Myeloma Drug Resistance Induced by Binding of Myeloma B7-H1 (PD-L1) to PD-1.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2016; 4(9):779-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1)-expressing myeloma cells not only inhibit myeloma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), but also confer a proliferative advantage: resistance to antimyeloma chemotherapy. However, it remains unknown whether B7-H1 expressed on myeloma cells induces cellular responses associated with aggressive myeloma behaviors. To address this question, we analyzed the proliferation and drug sensitivity of B7-H1-expressing myeloma cells transfected with B7-H1-specific short-hairpin RNA or treated with programmed cell death (PD)-1-Fc-coupled beads. Knockdown of B7-H1 expression in myeloma cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and increased apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic alkylating agent melphalan, with downregulation of the expression of cell cycle-related genes (CCND3 and CDK6) and antiapoptotic genes (BCL2 and MCL1). B7-H1 molecules thus contributed to myeloma cell-cycle progression and suppression of drug-induced apoptosis. B7-H1-expressing myeloma cells had a higher affinity for PD-1 than for CD80. PD-1-Fc bead-treated myeloma cells also became resistant to apoptosis that was induced by melphalan and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Apoptosis resistance was associated with the PI3K/AKT pathway. Both myeloma cell drug resistance and antiapoptotic responses occurred through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, initiated from "reverse" stimulation of B7-H1 by PD-1. Therefore, B7-H1 itself may function as an oncogenic protein in myeloma cells. The interaction between B7-H1 on myeloma cells and PD-1 molecules not only inhibits tumor-specific CTLs but also induces drug resistance in myeloma cells through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. These observations provide mechanistic insights into potential immunotherapeutic benefits of blocking the B7-H1-PD-1 pathway. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(9); 779-88. ©2016 AACR.

Curigliano G, Gómez Pardo P, Meric-Bernstam F, et al.
Ribociclib plus letrozole in early breast cancer: A presurgical, window-of-opportunity study.
Breast. 2016; 28:191-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6-inhibitor of CDK4/6-retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway hyperactivation is associated with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC). This study assessed the biological activity of ribociclib (LEE011; CDK4/6 inhibitor) plus letrozole compared with single-agent letrozole in the presurgical setting.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Postmenopausal women (N = 14) with resectable, HR+, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) early BC were randomized 1:1:1 to receive 2.5 mg/day letrozole alone (Arm 1), or with 400 or 600 mg/day ribociclib (Arm 2 or 3). Circulating tumor DNA and tumor biopsies were collected at baseline and, following 14 days of treatment, prior to or during surgery. The primary objective was to assess antiproliferative response per Ki67 levels in Arms 2 and 3 compared with Arm 1. Additional assessments included safety, pharmacokinetics, and genetic profiling.
RESULTS: Mean decreases in the Ki67-positive cell fraction from baseline were: Arm 1 69% (range 38-100%; n = 2), Arm 2 96% (range 78-100%; n = 6), Arm 3 92% (range 75-100%; n = 3). Decreased phosphorylated Rb levels and CDK4, CDK6, CCND2, CCND3, and CCNE1 gene expression were observed following ribociclib treatment. Ribociclib and letrozole pharmacokinetic parameters were consistent with single-agent data. The ribociclib plus letrozole combination was well tolerated, with no Grade 3/4 adverse events over the treatment.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest absence of a drug-drug interaction between ribociclib and letrozole and indicate ribociclib plus letrozole may reduce Ki67 expression in HR+, HER2- BC (NCT01919229).

Helsten T, Kato S, Schwaederle M, et al.
Cell-Cycle Gene Alterations in 4,864 Tumors Analyzed by Next-Generation Sequencing: Implications for Targeted Therapeutics.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(7):1682-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alterations in the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-retinoblastoma (RB) machinery disrupt cell-cycle regulation and are being targeted in drug development. To understand the cancer types impacted by this pathway, we analyzed frequency of abnormalities in key cell-cycle genes across 4,864 tumors using next-generation sequencing (182 or 236 genes; Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments laboratory). Aberrations in the cell-cycle pathway were identified in 39% of cancers, making this pathway one of the most commonly altered in cancer. The frequency of aberrations was as follows: CDKN2A/B (20.1% of all patients), RB1 (7.6%), CCND1 (6.1%), CCNE1 (3.6%), CDK4 (3.2%), CCND3 (1.8%), CCND2 (1.7%), and CDK6 (1.7%). Rates and types of aberrant cell-cycle pathway genes differed between cancer types and within histologies. Analysis of coexisting and mutually exclusive genetic aberrations showed that CCND1, CCND2, and CCND3 aberrations were all positively associated with CDK6 aberrations [OR and P values, multivariate analysis: CCND1 and CDK6 (OR = 3.5; P < 0.0001), CCND2 and CDK6 (OR = 4.3; P = 0.003), CCND3 and CDK6 (OR = 3.6; P = 0.007)]. In contrast, RB1 alterations were negatively associated with multiple gene anomalies in the cell-cycle pathway, including CCND1 (OR = 0.25; P = 0.003), CKD4 (OR = 0.10; P = 0.001), and CDKN2A/B (OR = 0.21; P < 0.0001). In conclusion, aberrations in the cell-cycle pathway were very common in diverse cancers (39% of 4,864 neoplasms). The frequencies and types of alterations differed between and within tumor types and will be informative for drug development strategies. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1682-90. ©2016 AACR.

Tamura RE, Paccez JD, Duncan KC, et al.
GADD45α and γ interaction with CDK11p58 regulates SPDEF protein stability and SPDEF-mediated effects on cancer cell migration.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(12):13865-79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The epithelium-specific Ets transcription factor, SPDEF, plays a critical role in metastasis of prostate and breast cancer cells. While enhanced SPDEF expression blocks migration and invasion, knockdown of SPDEF expression enhances migration, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells. SPDEF expression and activation is tightly regulated in cancer cells; however, the precise mechanism of SPDEF regulation has not been explored in detail. In this study we provide evidence that the cell cycle kinase CDK11p58, a protein involved in G2/M transition and degradation of several transcription factors, directly interacts with and phosphorylates SPDEF on serine residues, leading to subsequent ubiquitination and degradation of SPDEF through the proteasome pathway. As a consequence of CDK11p58 mediated degradation of SPDEF, this loss of SPDEF protein results in increased prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. In contrast, knockdown of CDK11p58 protein expression by interfering RNA or SPDEF overexpression inhibit migration and invasion of cancer cells. We demonstrate that CDK11p58 mediated degradation of SPDEF is attenuated by Growth Arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45 (GADD45) α and , two proteins inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest. We show that GADD45 α and γ, directly interact with CDK11p58 and thereby inhibit CDK11p58 activity, and consequentially SPDEF phosphorylation and degradation, ultimately reducing prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. Our findings provide new mechanistic insights into the complex regulation of SPDEF activity linked to cancer metastasis and characterize a previously unidentified SPDEF/CDK11p58/GADD45α/γ pathway that controls SPDEF protein stability and SPDEF-mediated effects on cancer cell migration and invasion.

Saker Z, Tsintsadze O, Jiqia I, et al.
Georgian Med News. 2015; (249):7-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM OF THE STUDY: MDM2, Bcl-2 and Bax are well recognized markers of apoptosis. The goal of the current study was evaluation of the activity of these markers in different cells of BPH, PCa and hormonally treated prostate cancer (CRPCa) tissues. Activity of the markers has been evaluated in: 39 BPH, 28 prostate cancer (PCa) and 10 castration resistant PCa (CRPCa) tissues. Possible association of intensity of the expression with the disease clinical parameters has been assessed. Activity of MDM2 was higher in PCa and CRPCa as compared with BPH. This difference has been detected in epithelial and vascular prostatic cells. Epithelial activity of Bcl-2 was significantly lower in BPH as compared with PCa and CRPCa. Conversely, intensity of pro-apoptotic protein Bax was significantly higher in PBH than in PCa and CRPCa. The Bax activity in acinar and ductal cells of BPH was positively correlated with age. Intensity of Bcl-2 was significantly increasing, while activity of Bax was decreasing with increasing prostate volume. Significant correlation has been detected with the markers' activity and residual urine. In particular, MDM2 activity was increasing while epithelial activity of Bax was decreasing with increasing residual urine. Serum PSA level was positively correlated with MDM2 and negatively correlated with Bax activity. p27(Kip1) cell cycle inhibitor was positively correlated with Bax but negatively correlated with Bcl-2 activities. Proliferation marker Ki67 was positively correlated with MDM2 and Bcl-2. With increasing Ki67, Bax activity was significantly decreasing. Cyclin D3 was positively correlated with Bax. This pilot study has shown importance of apoptosis markers in BPH and PCa. It is the first study showing complex interrelation between apoptosis and cell cycle regulating proteins in BPH and PCa.

Kibel AS, Ahn J, Isikbay M, et al.
Genetic variants in cell cycle control pathway confer susceptibility to aggressive prostate carcinoma.
Prostate. 2016; 76(5):479-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Because a significant number of patients with prostate cancer (PCa) are diagnosed with disease unlikely to cause harm, genetic markers associated with clinically aggressive PCa have potential clinical utility. Since cell cycle checkpoint dysregulation is crucial for the development and progression of cancer, we tested the hypothesis that common germ-line variants within cell cycle genes were associated with aggressive PCa.
METHODS: Via a two-stage design, 364 common sequence variants in 88 genes were tested. The initial stage consisted of 258 aggressive PCa patients and 442 controls, and the second stage added 384 aggressive PCa Patients and 463 controls. European-American and African-American samples were analyzed separately. In the first stage, SNPs were typed by Illumina Goldengate assay while in the second stage SNPs were typed by Pyrosequencing assays. Genotype frequencies between cases and controls were compared using logistical regression analysis with additive, dominant and recessive models.
RESULTS: Eleven variants within 10 genes (CCNC, CCND3, CCNG1, CCNT2, CDK6, MDM2, SKP2, WEE1, YWHAB, YWHAH) in the European-American population and nine variants in 7 genes (CCNG1, CDK2, CDK5, MDM2, RB1, SMAD3, TERF2) in the African-American population were found to be associated with aggressive PCa using at least one model. Of particular interest, CCNC (rs3380812) was associated with risk in European-American cohorts from both institutions. CDK2 (rs1045435) and CDK5 (rs2069459) were associated with risk in the African-American cohorts from both institutions. Lastly, variants within MDM2 and CCNG1 were protective for aggressive PCa in both ethnic groups.
CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that polymorphisms within cell cycle genes are associated with clinically aggressive PCa. Validation of these markers in additional populations is necessary, but these markers may help identify patients at risk for potentially lethal carcinoma.

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