Gene Summary

Gene:CCL2; C-C motif chemokine ligand 2
Aliases: HC11, MCAF, MCP1, MCP-1, SCYA2, GDCF-2, SMC-CF, HSMCR30
Summary:This gene is one of several cytokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. Chemokines are a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is divided into four subfamilies based on the arrangement of N-terminal cysteine residues of the mature peptide. This chemokine is a member of the CC subfamily which is characterized by two adjacent cysteine residues. This cytokine displays chemotactic activity for monocytes and basophils but not for neutrophils or eosinophils. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by monocytic infiltrates, like psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. It binds to chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-C motif chemokine 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CCL2 (cancer-related)

Honda T, Inagawa H
Usefulness of Monocytes/macrophages Activated With Low-dose Lipopolysaccharide in Tumor Tissue and Adipose Tissue of Obesity.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4475-4478 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic inflammation is involved in the development of cancer, lifestyle-related diseases, and autoimmune diseases. It also influences the severity of these diseases. Macrophages that accumulate in tumor tissues and adipose tissues of obesity have been shown to increase expression of inflammatory cytokines, thereby inducing inflammatory changes in these tissues. The macrophage phenotype is believed to be important in mediating inflammatory changes in tissues. Recently, monocytes/macrophages activated with low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were demonstrated to suppress increased expression of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α). By suppressing the increased expression of chemotaxis-related and inflammation-related factors, monocytes/macrophages activated with low-dose LPS are considered to suppress the migration of macrophages into tissues and to regulate inflammatory changes in these tissues, respectively. The effects of macrophages activated with low-dose LPS were different from those of macrophages activated with high-dose LPS. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of monocytes/macrophages activation by low-dose LPS.

Wei C, Yang C, Wang S, et al.
Crosstalk between cancer cells and tumor associated macrophages is required for mesenchymal circulating tumor cell-mediated colorectal cancer metastasis.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are major components of tumor microenvironment that frequently associated with tumor metastasis in human cancers. Circulating tumor cell (CTC), originating from primary tumor sites, is considered to be the precursors of tumor metastasis. However, the regulatory mechanism of TAMs in CTC-mediated tumor metastasis still remains unclear.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the macrophages infiltration (CD68 and CD163), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (E-cadherin and Vimentin) expression in serial sections of human colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens. Then, the correlations between macrophages infiltration and clinicopathologic features, mesenchymal CTC ratio, and patients' prognosis were analyzed. A co-culture assay in vitro was used to evaluate the role of TAMs on CRC EMT, migration and invasion, and ELISA, luciferase reporter assay and CHIP were performed to uncover the underlying mechanism. Furthermore, an in vivo model was carried out to confirm the effect of TAMs on mesenchymal CTC-mediated metastasis.
RESULTS: Clinically, CD163
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicates that TAMs induce EMT program to enhance CRC migration, invasion, and CTC-mediated metastasis by regulating the JAK2/STAT3/miR-506-3p/FoxQ1 axis, which in turn leads to the production of CCL2 that promote macrophage recruitment, revealing a new cross-talk between immune cells and tumor cells in CRC microenvironment.

Xiao L, Luo Y, Tai R, Zhang N
Estrogen receptor β suppresses inflammation and the progression of prostate cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):3555-3563 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous studies demonstrated that estrogen receptor β (ERβ) signaling alleviates systemic inflammation in animal models, and suggested that ERβ‑selective agonists may deactivate microglia and suppress T cell activity via downregulation of nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB). In the present study, the role of ERβ in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced inflammation and association with NF‑κB activity were investigated in PC‑3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Cells were treated with LPS to induce inflammation, and ELISA was performed to determine the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP‑1), interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6. MTT and Transwell assays, and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining were conducted to measure cell viability, apoptosis and migration, respectively. Protein expression was determined via western blot analysis. LPS‑induced inflammation resulted in elevated expression levels of TNF‑α, IL‑1β, MCP‑1 and IL‑6 compared with controls. ERβ overexpression significantly inhibited the LPS‑induced production of TNF‑α, IL‑1β, MCP‑1 and IL‑6. In addition, the results indicated that ERβ suppressed viability and migration, and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which was further demonstrated by altered expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein, caspase‑3, E‑cadherin and matrix metalloproteinase‑2. These effects were reversed by treatment with the ERβ antagonist PHTPP or ERβ‑specific short interfering RNA. ERβ overexpression reduced the expression levels of p65 and phosphorylated NF‑κB inhibitor α (IκBα), but not total IκBα expression in LPS‑treated cells. In conclusion, ERβ suppressed the viability and migration of the PC‑3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, it reduced inflammation and suppressed the activation of the NF‑κB pathway, suggesting that ERβ may serve roles as an anti‑inflammatory and anticancer agent in prostate cancer.

Frank AC, Ebersberger S, Fink AF, et al.
Apoptotic tumor cell-derived microRNA-375 uses CD36 to alter the tumor-associated macrophage phenotype.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1135 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor-immune cell interactions shape the immune cell phenotype, with microRNAs (miRs) being crucial components of this crosstalk. How they are transferred and how they affect their target landscape, especially in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), is largely unknown. Here we report that breast cancer cells have a high constitutive expression of miR-375, which is released as a non-exosome entity during apoptosis. Deep sequencing of the miRome pointed to enhanced accumulation of miR-375 in TAMs, facilitated by the uptake of tumor-derived miR-375 via CD36. In macrophages, miR-375 directly targets TNS3 and PXN to enhance macrophage migration and infiltration into tumor spheroids and in tumors of a xenograft mouse model. In tumor cells, miR-375 regulates CCL2 expression to increase recruitment of macrophages. Our study provides evidence for miR transfer from tumor cells to TAMs and identifies miR-375 as a crucial regulator of phagocyte infiltration and the subsequent development of a tumor-promoting microenvironment.

El-Serafi AT, Sandeep D, Abdallah S, et al.
Paradoxical effects of the epigenetic modifiers 5-aza-deoxycytidine and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on adipogenesis.
Differentiation. 2019 Mar - Apr; 106:1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adipogenesis is an important biological process that is linked to obesity and metabolic disorders. On the other hand, fat regeneration is crucial as a restorative approach following mastectomy or severe burn injury. Furthermore, optimizing an in-vitro model of adipogenesis, which would help in understanding the possible effects and/or side effects of fat-soluble drugs and anti-obesity remedies, in addition to the developmental studies. Epigenetic is an important factor that is involved in cellular differentiation and commitment. This study aimed at investigating the effect of DNA methylation and histone deactylases inhibitors, 5-Aza-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) and Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), on the adipogenic differentiation process. The two modifiers were applied according to our previously published protocol, followed by three cycles of a classical, two-step adipogenesis protocol. The cells pretreated with SAHA showed enhanced expression of the many adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ as well as the accumulation of intracytoplasmic fat as shown by oil red and Nile red staining and the secretion of adipokines, such as MCP-1 and IP-10. On contrary, 5-Aza-dC inhibited all these markers. In conclusion, adding the reported step with SAHA to the differentiation protocols could have an impact on the progress of the in-vitro fat regenerative approach. The possible role of 5-Aza-dC in the inhibition of adipogenesis can be of clinical interest and will need further characterization in the future.

Liu H, Wang SH, Chen SC, et al.
Zoledronic acid blocks the interaction between breast cancer cells and regulatory T-cells.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):176 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Zoledronic acid (ZA), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that ZA has anti-tumor and anti-metastatic properties for breast cancer cells. In a mouse model of ZA-related osteonecrosis of the jaw, ZA administration was found to suppress regulatory T-cells (Tregs) function. Our previous reports also demonstrated ZA acted as an immune modulator to block Tregs. Manipulation of Tregs represents a new strategy for cancer treatment. However, the relationship among ZA, Tregs, and cancer cells remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of ZA on the interaction of breast cancer cells and Tregs.
METHODS: The anti-tumor effect of ZA on triple negative breast cancer cell lines were validated by XTT, wound healing and apoptosis analysis. A flow cytometry-based assay was used to analyze the immunosuppressive effect of Tregs treated with media conditioned by breast cancer cells, and a transwell assay was used to evaluate the chemotactic migration of Tregs. Differential gene expression profile on MDA-MB-231 treated with ZA (25 μM) was analyzed by. microarrays to describe the molecular basis of actions of ZA for possible direct anti-tumor effects. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and quantitative real-time PCR were used to investigate the effect of ZA on the expression of cytokines/factors by breast cancer cells.
RESULTS: ZA was found to inhibit the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Media conditioned by the MDA-MB-231 cells promoted the expansion, chemotactic migration, and immunosuppressive activity of Tregs, and these effects were attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by ZA treatment, and the attenuation was due to reduced expression of selected breast cancer cell factors (CCL2, CCL5, and IDO).
CONCLUSIONS: ZA can significantly affect the interaction between breast cancer cells and Tregs. Our findings indicate that ZA is a potential therapeutic agent that can be used to reduce cancer aggressiveness by abolishing the supportive role of Tregs.

Tang D, Wu Q, Yuan Z, et al.
Identification of key pathways and gene changes in primary pancreatic stellate cells after cross-talk with pancreatic cancer cells (BXPC-3) using bioinformatics analysis.
Neoplasma. 2019; 2019(3):446-458 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is well known that as the king of cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has relatively malignant biological behavior and poor prognosis. The interaction between pancreatic stellate cells and PDAC cells promotes the development of PDAC. The aim of this study was to describe gene characteristics in pancreatic stellate cell (PSCs) after cross-talked with BXPC-3 and unravel their underlying mechanisms. The expression profiling analysis of genes in PSCs was completed after co-cultured with primary BXPC-3 for 48h. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) enrichment analysis and gene ontology (GO) analysis were performed, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by Agilent GeneSpring GX program. In total, 1804 DEGs were filtered out in PSCs, including 958 up-regulated genes and 846 downregulated genes. GO analysis showed that the up-regulated DEGs were significantly enriched in biological processes (BP) such as defense response, immune system process and immune response; the down-regulated DEGs were significantly enriched in biological regulation and cytoskeleton organization. KEGG pathway analysis showed that 28 pathways were upregulated and 5 were downregulated. By constructing PPI network, we selected out 10 key genes (IL6,IL8, IL1B, BCL2, CCL2, CSF2, KIT, ICAM1, PTPRC and IGF1) and significant enriched pathways. In conclusion, the current study suggests that the filtered DEGs contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between PSCs and pancreatic cancer cells, and might be used as molecular targets to further the study the role of tumor microenvironment in the progression of PDAC.

Bartneck M, Schrammen PL, Möckel D, et al.
The CCR2
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019; 7(2):371-390 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) typically arises in fibrotic or cirrhotic livers, which are characterized by pathogenic angiogenesis. Myeloid immune cells, specifically tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), may represent potential novel therapeutic targets in HCC, complementing current ablative or immune therapies. However, the detailed functions of TAM subsets in hepatocarcinogenesis have remained obscure.
METHODS: TAM subsets were analyzed in-depth in human HCC samples and a combined fibrosis-HCC mouse model, established by i.p. injection with diethylnitrosamine after birth and repetitive carbon tetrachloride (CCl
RESULTS: We show that human CCR2
CONCLUSIONS: The HCC microenvironment in human patients and mice is characterized by functionally distinct macrophage populations, of which the CCR2

Chen R, Keoni C, Waker CA, et al.
KIAA1549-BRAF Expression Establishes a Permissive Tumor Microenvironment Through NFκB-Mediated CCL2 Production.
Neoplasia. 2019; 21(1):52-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
KIAA1549-BRAF is the most frequently identified genetic mutation in sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), creating a fusion BRAF (f-BRAF) protein with increased BRAF activity. Fusion-BRAF-expressing neural stem cells (NSCs) exhibit increased cell growth and can generate glioma-like lesions following injection into the cerebella of naïve mice. Increased Iba1

Juric V, O'Sullivan C, Stefanutti E, et al.
MMP-9 inhibition promotes anti-tumor immunity through disruption of biochemical and physical barriers to T-cell trafficking to tumors.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0207255 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), whose expression is frequently dysregulated in cancer, promotes tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis by multiple mechanisms, including extracellular matrix remodeling and growth-factor and cytokine activation. We developed a monoclonal antibody against murine MMP-9, which we found decreased growth of established primary tumors in an orthotopic model of HER2-driven breast cancer (HC11-NeuT) in immunocompetent mice. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) profiling of NeuT tumors and additional mouse model tumors revealed that anti-MMP-9 treatment resulted in upregulation of immune signature pathways associated with cytotoxic T-cell response. As there is a need to boost the low response rates observed with anti-PDL1 antibody treatment in the clinical setting, we assessed the potential of anti-MMP-9 to improve T-cell response to immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-PDL1 in NeuT tumors. Anti-MMP-9 and anti-PDL1 cotreatment reduced T-cell receptor (TCR) clonality and increased TCR diversity, as detected by TCR sequencing of NeuT tumors. Flow cytometry analyses of tumors showed that the combination treatment increased the frequency of CD3+ T cells, including memory/effector CD4 and CD8 T cells, but not regulatory T cells, among tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. Moreover, in vitro enzymatic assays corroborated that MMP-9 cleaves key T-cell chemoattractant CXC receptor 3 ligands (CXC ligand [CXCL] 9, CXCL10, and CXCL11) and renders them inactive in T-cell migration assays. Consistent with our in vitro experiments, analysis of NeuT tumor protein lysates showed that anti-MMP-9 treatment increases expression of CXCL10 and other T cell-stimulating factors, such as interleukin (IL)-12p70 and IL-18. We show that inhibition of MMP-9, a key component of the tumor-promoting and immune-suppressive myeloid inflammatory milieu, increases T-helper cell 1 type cytokines, trafficking of effector/memory T cells into tumors, and intratumoral T-cell diversity.

Natsagdorj A, Izumi K, Hiratsuka K, et al.
CCL2 induces resistance to the antiproliferative effect of cabazitaxel in prostate cancer cells.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(1):279-288 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Understanding the mechanism of chemoresistance and disease progression in patients with prostate cancer is important for developing novel treatment strategies. In particular, developing resistance to cabazitaxel is a major challenge in patients with docetaxel-resistant and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) because cabazitaxel is often administered as a last resort. However, the mechanism by which cabazitaxel resistance develops is still unclear. C-C motif chemokine ligands (CCL) were shown to contribute to the castration resistance of prostate cancer cells via an autocrine mechanism. Therefore, we focused on CCL as key factors of chemoresistance in prostate cancer cells. We previously established a cabazitaxel-resistant cell line, DU145-TxR/CxR, from a previously established paclitaxel-resistant cell line, DU145-TxR. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression of CCL2 was upregulated in both DU145-TxR and DU145-TxR/CxR cells compared with DU145 cells. The secreted CCL2 protein level in DU145-TxR and DU145-TxR/CxR cells was also higher than in parental DU145 cells. The stimulation of DU145 cells with CCL2 increased the proliferation rate under treatments with cabazitaxel, and a CCR2 (a specific receptor of CCL2) antagonist suppressed the proliferation of DU145-TxR and DU145-TxR/CxR cells under treatments of cabazitaxel. The CCL2-CCR2 axis decreased apoptosis through the inhibition of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). CCL2 is apparently a key contributor to cabazitaxel resistance in prostate cancer cells. Inhibition of the CCL2-CCR2 axis may be a potential therapeutic strategy against chemoresistant CRPC in combination with cabazitaxel.

Zhou D, Jin J, Liu Q, et al.
PPARδ agonist enhances colitis-associated colorectal cancer.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2019; 842:248-254 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) plays a critical role in regulating inflammation and cancer, while it is still unclear the mechanism of PPARδ agonist GW501516 on colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Here we found that GW501516 significantly enhanced colitis-associated colorectal cancer in AOM/DSS-induced mice. In addition, PPARδ agonist GW501516 enhanced pro-inflammatory gene expressions (COX-2, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1) in inflamed colon. Further analysis showed that GW501516 increased the expressions of Glut1 and SLC1A5 in colon cancer cells as well as AOM/DSS-induced colorectal tumors. These findings revealed a new mechanism of PPARδ agonist GW501516-mediated colitis-associated colorectal cancer.

Li YL, Shi ZH, Wang X, et al.
Prognostic significance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and CC chemokine receptor 2 in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(2):413-422 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression in malignant tissues have been reported; however, their role in hematological malignancies prognosis remains little known. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of MCP-1 and CCR2 expression in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The study included 221 patients with DLBCL. MCP-1 and CCR2 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and its correlations with clinicopathologic features and prognosis were evaluated. High expression of MCP-1 or CCR2 was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics, and an adverse prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of DLBCL patients. Also, significant positive correlation between MCP-1 and CCR2 expression was revealed (r = 0.545, P < 0.001). Patients with high MCP-1 or high CCR2 expression had significantly poorer OS and PFS than those with low MCP-1 or low CCR2 expression (OS: P < 0.001, P < 0.001; PFS: P < 0.001, P < 0.001), respectively, even in the rituximab era, and MCP-1 or CCR2 expression could further identify high-risk patients otherwise classified as low/intermediate risk by the International Prognostic Index (IPI) alone. Furthermore, incorporation of MCP-1 or CCR2 expression into the IPI score could improve prognostic value for OS. This is the first report describing the clinicopathological features and survival outcome according to expression of MCP-1 and CCR2 in DLBCL.

Ishii N, Araki K, Yokobori T, et al.
Conophylline suppresses pancreatic cancer desmoplasia and cancer-promoting cytokines produced by cancer-associated fibroblasts.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(1):334-344 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite recent advances in cancer treatment, pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant tumor type with a dismal prognosis and it is characterized by dense desmoplasia in the cancer tissue. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are responsible for this fibrotic stroma and promote cancer progression. We previously reported that a novel natural compound conophylline (CnP) extracted from the leaves of a tropical plant reduced liver and pancreatic fibrosis by suppression of stellate cells. However, there have been no studies to investigate the effects of CnP on CAF, which is the aim of this work. Here, we showed that CAF stimulated indicators of pancreatic cancer malignancy, such as proliferation, invasiveness, and chemoresistance. We also showed that CnP suppressed CAF activity and proliferation, and inhibited the stimulating effects of CAF on pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, CnP strongly decreased the various cytokines involved in cancer progression, such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), secreted by CAF. In vivo, CAF promoted tumor proliferation and desmoplastic formation in a mouse xenograft model, CnP reduced desmoplasia of tumors composed of pancreatic cancer cells + CAF, and combination therapy of CnP with gemcitabine remarkably inhibited tumor proliferation. Our findings suggest that CnP is a promising therapeutic strategy of combination therapy with anticancer drugs to overcome refractory pancreatic cancers.

Dalmasso B, Hatse S, Brouwers B, et al.
Age-related microRNAs in older breast cancer patients: biomarker potential and evolution during adjuvant chemotherapy.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1014 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of cellular function and have been associated with both aging and cancer, but the impact of chemotherapy on age-related miRNAs has barely been studied. Our aim was to examine whether chemotherapy accelerates the aging process in elderly breast cancer patients using miRNA expression profiling.
METHODS: We monitored age-related miRNAs in blood of women, aged 70 or older, receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (docetaxel and cyclophosphamide, TC) for invasive breast cancer (chemo group, CTG, n = 46). A control group of older breast cancer patients without chemotherapy was included for comparison (control group, CG, n = 43). All patients underwent geriatric assessment at inclusion (T0), after 3 months (T1) and 1 year (T2). Moreover, we analysed the serum expression of nine age-related miRNAs (miR-20a, miR-30b, miR-34a, miR-106b, miR-191, miR-301a, miR-320b, miR-374a, miR-378a) at each timepoint.
RESULTS: Except for miR-106b, which behaved slightly different in CTG compared to CG, all miRNAs showed moderate fluctuations during the study course with no significant differences between groups. Several age-related miRNAs correlated with clinical frailty (miR-106b, miR-191, miR-301a, miR-320b, miR-374a), as well as with other biomarkers of aging, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) (miR-106b, miR-301a, miR-374a-5p, miR-378a-3p). Moreover, based on their 'aging miRNA' profiles, patients clustered into two distinct groups exhibiting significantly different results for several biological/clinical aging parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: These results further corroborate our earlier report, stating that adjuvant TC chemotherapy does not significantly boost aging progression in elderly breast cancer patients. Our findings also endorsed specific age-related miRNAs as promising aging/frailty biomarkers in oncogeriatric populations.
TRIAL REGISTRATION:, NCT00849758 . Registered on 20 February 2009. This clinical trial was registered prospectively.

Yu CW, Cheng KC, Chen LC, et al.
Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and CCL2 suppress expression of circadian gene Period2 in mammary epithelial cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2018; 1861(11):1007-1017 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic inflammation is known to contribute to tumor initiation and cancer progression. In breast tissue, the core circadian gene Period (PER)2 plays a critical role in mammary gland development and possesses tumor suppressor function. Interleukin (IL)-6 and C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL) 2 are among the most abundant cytokines in the inflammatory microenvironment. We found that acute stimulation by IL-6/CCL2 reduced PER2 expression in non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. Longer term exposure to IL-6/CCL2 suppressed PER2 to an even lower level. IL-6 activated STAT3/NFκB p50 signaling to recruit HDAC1 to the PER2 promoter. CCL2 activated the PI3K/AKT pathway to promote ELK-1 cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation, recruit HDAC1 to the proximal PER2 promoter and facilitate DNMT3-EZH2-PER2 promoter association. Ectopic expression of PER2 inhibited IL-6 or CCL2 induced mammosphere forming ability and reduced sphere size indicating that PER2 repression in breast epithelial cells can be crucial to activate tumorigenesis in an inflammatory microenvironment. The diminished expression of PER2 can be observed over a time scale of hours to weeks following IL-6/CCL2 stimulation suggesting that PER2 suppression occurs in the early stage of the interaction between an inflammatory microenvironment and normal breast epithelial cells. These data show new mechanisms by which mammary cells interact with a cancerous microenvironment and provide additional evidence that PER2 expression contributes to breast tumorigenesis.

Jiang ZY, Jiang JJ, Ma YS, et al.
Downregulation of miR-223 and miR-19a induces differentiation and promotes recruitment of osteoclast cells in giant-cell tumor of the bone via the Runx2/TWIST-RANK/RANKL pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 505(4):1003-1009 [PubMed] Related Publications
Giant-cell tumor (GCT) of the bone is an invasiveness and high recurrent bone tumor that is considered borderline or potentially malignant. To explore the molecular mechanism leading to bone destruction and identify novel targets for treatment, we conducted silencing of miR-223 and miR-19a in stromal giant cells and identified TWIST and Runx2 as their target genes. We investigated the impact of these microRNAs and their target genes on stromal giant cells that promote the differentiation of monocyte/macrophages into osteoclast cells and recruitment to the bone microenvironment, which in turn enhances the bone destruction capacity of GCT. MiR-223 and miR-19a were found to regulate the expression of TWIST and Runx2, influence the RANKL-RANK pathway and the expression of MCP-1, and finally regulate the pathophysiological process of osteolytic bone destruction. Our results indicate that re-expression of miR-223 and miR-19a induces an inhibitory effect on the bone destruction capacity of GCT, suggesting that re-expression of miR-223 and miR-19a can be a novel strategy for the treatment of GCT.

Braun SA, Baran J, Schrumpf H, et al.
Ingenol mebutate induces a tumor cell-directed inflammatory response and antimicrobial peptides thereby promoting rapid tumor destruction and wound healing.
Eur J Med Res. 2018; 23(1):45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ingenol mebutat (IM)-gel is effective for the topical treatment of epithelial tumors, including actinic keratoses (AKs) or anogenital warts (AGW). AK patients treated with IM develop intensified inflammatory reactions on sights of prior clinical visible or palpable AKs as compared to the surrounding actinically damaged skin, suggesting the induction of a tumor cell-directed inflammation. AGW patients treated with IM develop even stronger inflammatory reactions with large erosions, suggesting a directed inflammatory response against HPV-infected keratinocytes. Of note, even widespread erosions heal very fast without any superinfections. Here, we set out to elucidate underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of these clinical observations.
METHODS: The effects of IM (10
RESULTS: Ingenol mebutat significantly and dose-dependently induced the expression of proinflammatory chemokines (CXCL8, CCL2) and AMP (RNase7, HBD3) in HEK and epithelial cancer cell lines. A significantly stronger induction of CXCL8 and CCL2 was observed in our tested tumor cells as compared to HEK. We did not observe any significant effect of IM on HEK migration, respectively wound healing responses in vitro for any tested concentration (10
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that tumor cells are more susceptible to IM as compared to differentiated HEK. This is evident by a stronger IM-mediated induction of proinflammatory chemokines in tumor cells, which may result in a tumor cell-directed inflammatory response and rapid tumor destruction. In addition, IM induces AMP in keratinocytes and seems not to severely interfere with keratinocyte migration, which contributes to a fast and uncomplicated wound healing. Surprising is a selective inhibition of keratinocyte migration by IM at the concentration of 10

Zhou D, Li Z, Bai X
BRAF V600E and RET/PTC Promote the Activity of Nuclear Factor-κB, Inflammatory Mediators, and Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Study of 50 Patients in Inner Mongolia.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:6795-6808 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the BRAF V600E gene mutation and the RET/PTC gene rearrangement in the progression of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in 50 patients from Inner Mongolia. MATERIAL AND METHODS Clinical data, blood, and tissue samples were obtained from 50 patients with PTC and ten patients with benign thyroid adenoma. Expression of BRAF V600E, RET/PTC, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)1, CXCL2, C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL)2, and CCL3 were measured using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS Of the 50 patients with PTC, 37 patients expressed the BRAF V600E gene mutation, eight patients expressed RET/PTC, and five patients showed concomitant BRAF V600E and RET/PTC. Time to recurrence for patients with PTC with BRAF V600E was significantly increased compared with patients with concomitant BRAF V600E mutation and RET/PTC rearrangement (P<0.05). Expression of BRAF V600E, RET/PTC, and concomitant expression of BRAF V600E and RET/PTC were significantly associated with patient age and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). Serum levels of NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β and CCL3, and tumor tissue levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β, CXCL2 and CCL2 in patients with PTC were significantly increased compared with patients with benign thyroid adenoma, before and after surgery (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Expression of the BRAF V600E mutation and RET/PTC translocation promoted the activity of NF-κB, expression of inflammatory mediators, and lymph node metastases in patients with PTC.

Chen C, He W, Huang J, et al.
LNMAT1 promotes lymphatic metastasis of bladder cancer via CCL2 dependent macrophage recruitment.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3826 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most abundant inflammatory infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment and contribute to lymph node (LN) metastasis. However, the precise mechanisms of TAMs-induced LN metastasis remain largely unknown. Herein, we identify a long noncoding RNA, termed Lymph Node Metastasis Associated Transcript 1 (LNMAT1), which is upregulated in LN-positive bladder cancer and associated with LN metastasis and prognosis. Through gain and loss of function approaches, we find that LNMAT1 promotes bladder cancer-associated lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. Mechanistically, LNMAT1 epigenetically activates CCL2 expression by recruiting hnRNPL to CCL2 promoter, which leads to increased H3K4 tri-methylation that ensures hnRNPL binding and enhances transcription. Furthermore, LNMAT1-induced upregulation of CCL2 recruits macrophages into the tumor, which promotes lymphatic metastasis via VEGF-C excretion. These findings provide a plausible mechanism for LNMAT1-modulated tumor microenvironment in lymphatic metastasis and suggest that LNMAT1 may represent a potential therapeutic target for clinical intervention in LN-metastatic bladder cancer.

Chen Y, Chen Q, Xie F, et al.
Traditional Chinese Medicine Extract from Huaier Increases the Expression of Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines and Reduces the Expression of Its Ligands.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst). 2018; 2018:6756092 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the aqueous extract from Huaier, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), can affect the expression of Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) and its ligands. Moreover, we compare the status of DARC in primary and metastatic breast cancer tissues from the same patient.
Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of DARC in primary and metastatic focuses in 30 patients with breast cancer. The effect of Huaier aqueous extract on the expression of DARC and its ligands was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: The expression score of DARC in primary focuses was significantly higher than that in metastatic focuses, while changes of ER, PR, and HER2 receptors were not significantly different between primary and metastatic focuses. Huaier aqueous extract promoted the expression of DARC and reduced the secretion of CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL-2), CXC chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL-8, IL-8), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and CXC chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL-1).
Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that difference in expression level of DARC between primary and metastatic focuses of breast cancer was significant, while differences in expression of ER, PR, and HER2 between primary and metastatic focuses were not significant. DARC may play a negative role in the metastasis of breast cancer. Traditional Chinese medicine extract from Huaier can increase DARC expression and reduce the expression of its ligands such as CCL-2, IL-8, MMP-2, and CXCL-1.

Messeha SS, Zarmouh NO, Mendonca P, et al.
The inhibitory effects of plumbagin on the NF-қB pathway and CCL2 release in racially different triple-negative breast cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0201116 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of death among women in the US, and its subtype triple-negative BC (TNBC) is the most aggressive BC with poor prognosis. In the current study, we investigated the anticancer effects of the natural product plumbagin (PL) on racially different TNBC cells. The PL effects were examined in two TNBC cell lines: MDA-MB-231 (MM-231) and MDA-MB-468 (MM-468), representing Caucasian Americans and African Americans, respectively. The results obtained indicate that PL inhibited cell viability and cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in both cell lines. Notably, MM-468 cells were 5-fold more sensitive to PL than MM-231 cells were. Testing PL and Taxol® showed the superiority of PL over Taxol® as an antiproliferative agent in MM-468 cells. PL treatment resulted in an approximately 20-fold increase in caspase-3 activity with 3 μM PL in MM-468 cells compared with an approximately 3-fold activity increase in MM-231 cells with 8 μM PL. Moreover, the results indicate a higher sensitivity to PL in MM-468 cells than in MM-231 cells. The results also show that PL downregulated CCL2 cytokine expression in MM-468 cells by 30% compared to a 90% downregulation in MM-231 cells. The ELISA results confirmed the array data (35% vs. 75% downregulation in MM-468 and MM-231 cells, respectively). Moreover, PL significantly downregulated IL-6 and GM-CSF in the MM-231 cells. Indeed, PL repressed many NF-қB-regulated genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The compound significantly downregulated the same genes (BIRC3, CCL2, TLR2, and TNF) in both types of cells. However, PL impacted five more genes in MM-231 cells, including BCL2A1, ICAM1, IKBKE, IL1β, and LTA. In conclusion, the data obtained in this study indicate that the quinone compound PL could be a novel cancer treatment for TNBC in African American women.

Jung Y, Ahn SH, Park H, et al.
MCP-1 and MIP-3α Secreted from Necrotic Cell-Treated Glioblastoma Cells Promote Migration/Infiltration of Microglia.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(3):1332-1346 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The defining characteristics of GBM are diffuse infiltration of tumor cells into normal brain parenchyma, rapid growth, a high degree of infiltration of microglia and macrophages, and the presence of necrosis. Microglia/macrophages are frequently found in gliomas and they extensively infiltrate GBM tissue, up to 30% of total tumor mass. However, little is known about the effect of necrotic cells (NCs) on microglia infiltration in GBM and the tumor-infiltrating microglia-induced factors in GBMs.
METHODS: In this study, to address whether necrosis or necrosis-exposed GBM cells affect the degree of microglia/macrophage infiltration, migration and invasion/infiltration assays were performed. Culture supernatants and nuclear extracts of CRT-MG cells treated or untreated with necrotic cells were analyzed using a chemokine array and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively.
RESULTS: The presence of NCs promoted the migration/infiltration of microglia, and GBM cell line CRT-MG cells exposed to NCs further enhanced the migration and infiltration of HMO6 microglial cells. Treatment with NCs induced mRNA and protein expression of chemokines such as Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (CCL2/MCP-1) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3α (CCL20/MIP-3α) in CRT-MG cells. In particular, CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α were significantly increased in NC-treated CRT-MG cells. NCs induced DNA binding of the transcription factors Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB and Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) to the CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α promoters, leading to increased CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α mRNA and protein expression in CRT-MG cells.
CONCLUSION: These results provide evidence that NCs induce the expression of CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α in glioblastoma cells through activation of NF-κB and AP-1 and facilitate the infiltration of microglia into tumor tissues.

Ding Q, Shen L, Nie X, et al.
MiR-223-3p overexpression inhibits cell proliferation and migration by regulating inflammation-associated cytokines in glioblastomas.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(9):1330-1339 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma(GBM) is most common brain tumor in adults. Currently standard treatments have limited effect to increase the survival, because there are still largely unclear mechanisms in glioblastoma development. miR-223 was involved in various types of cancer, however, the function of miR-223-3p in GBM was still unclear. In our study, real-time PCR was performed to exam the expression level of miR-223-3p and NLRP3 (Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain(NOD)-like receptor family PYRIN domain containing-3) in GBM tissues. Following that, mimic or inhibitor of miR-223-3p were used to modulate miR-223-3p expression in GBM cell lines respectively. Then, we analyzed cell proliferation and migration by cell counting kit and transwell assay. Further, western blot was performed to detect several inflammation-associated cytokines level in GBM cell lines. We found that miR-223-3p was decreased but NLRP3 was increased in GBM tissues. Treatment with miR-223-3p mimic inhibits cell proliferation and migration via decreasing several inflammation-associated cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-8 and IL-18. Importantly, these effects induced by miR-223-3p could be attenuated by NLRP3 overexpression, which was considered as one of target genes of miR-223-3p. In conclusion, these results indicated that miR-223-3p might act as a suppressor and a potential therapy target of GBM.

Gril B, Paranjape AN, Woditschka S, et al.
Reactive astrocytic S1P3 signaling modulates the blood-tumor barrier in brain metastases.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):2705 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Brain metastases are devastating complications of cancer. The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which protects the normal brain, morphs into an inadequately characterized blood-tumor barrier (BTB) when brain metastases form, and is surrounded by a neuroinflammatory response. These structures contribute to poor therapeutic efficacy by limiting drug uptake. Here, we report that experimental breast cancer brain metastases of low- and high permeability to a dextran dye exhibit distinct microenvironmental gene expression patterns. Astrocytic sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor 3 (S1P3) is upregulated in the neuroinflammatory response of the highly permeable lesions, and is expressed in patients' brain metastases. S1P3 inhibition functionally tightens the BTB in vitro and in vivo. S1P3 mediates its effects on BTB permeability through astrocytic secretion of IL-6 and CCL2, which relaxes endothelial cell adhesion. Tumor cell overexpression of S1P3 mimics this pathway, enhancing IL-6 and CCL-2 production and elevating BTB permeability. In conclusion, neuroinflammatory astrocytic S1P3 modulates BTB permeability.

Islam T, Rahman R, Gov E, et al.
Drug Targeting and Biomarkers in Head and Neck Cancers: Insights from Systems Biology Analyses.
OMICS. 2018; 22(6):422-436 [PubMed] Related Publications
The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world, but robust biomarkers and diagnostics are still not available. This study provides in-depth insights from systems biology analyses to identify molecular biomarker signatures to inform systematic drug targeting in HNSCC. Gene expression profiles from tumors and normal tissues of 22 patients with histological confirmation of nonmetastatic HNSCC were subjected to integrative analyses with genome-scale biomolecular networks (i.e., protein-protein interaction and transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory networks). We aimed to discover molecular signatures at RNA and protein levels, which could serve as potential drug targets for therapeutic innovation in the future. Eleven proteins, 5 transcription factors, and 20 microRNAs (miRNAs) came into prominence as potential drug targets. The differential expression profiles of these reporter biomolecules were cross-validated by independent RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq datasets, and risk discrimination performance of the reporter biomolecules, BLNK, CCL2, E4F1, FOSL1, ISG15, MMP9, MYCN, MYH11, miR-1252, miR-29b, miR-29c, miR-3610, miR-431, and miR-523, was also evaluated. Using the transcriptome guided drug repositioning tool, geneXpharma, several candidate drugs were repurposed, including antineoplastic agents (e.g., gemcitabine and irinotecan), antidiabetics (e.g., rosiglitazone), dermatological agents (e.g., clocortolone and acitretin), and antipsychotics (e.g., risperidone), and binding affinities of the drugs to their potential targets were assessed using molecular docking analyses. The molecular signatures and repurposed drugs presented in this study warrant further attention for experimental studies since they offer significant potential as biomarkers and candidate therapeutics for precision medicine approaches to clinical management of HNSCC.

Davis M, Tripathi S, Hughley R, et al.
AR negative triple negative or "quadruple negative" breast cancers in African American women have an enriched basal and immune signature.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0196909 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is increasing evidence that Androgen Receptor (AR) expression has prognostic usefulness in Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), where tumors that lack AR expression are considered "Quadruple negative" Breast Cancers ("QNBC"). However, a comprehensive analysis of AR expression within all breast cancer subtypes or stratified by race has not been reported. We assessed AR mRNA expression in 925 tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and 136 tumors in 2 confirmation sets. AR protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in 197 tumors from a multi-institutional cohort, for a total of 1258 patients analyzed. Cox hazard ratios were used to determine correlations to PAM50 breast cancer subtypes, and TNBC subtypes. Overall, AR-negative patients are diagnosed at a younger age compared to AR-positive patients, with the average age of AA AR-negative patients being, 49. AA breast tumors express AR at lower rates compared to Whites, independent of ER and PR expression (p<0.0001). AR-negative patients have a (66.60; 95% CI, 32-146) odds ratio of being basal-like compared to other PAM50 subtypes, and this is associated with an increased time to progression and decreased overall survival. AA "QNBC" patients predominately demonstrated BL1, BL2 and IM subtypes, with differential expression of E2F1, NFKBIL2, CCL2, TGFB3, CEBPB, PDK1, IL12RB2, IL2RA, and SOS1 genes compared to white patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 were significantly upregulated in both overall "QNBC" and AA "QNBC" patients as well. Thus, AR could be used as a prognostic marker for breast cancer, particularly in AA "QNBC" patients.

Guan X, Liu Z, Zhang J, Jin X
Myeloid-derived suppressor cell accumulation in renal cell carcinoma is correlated with CCL2, IL-17 and IL-18 expression in blood and tumors.
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2018; 27(7):947-953 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) play an important role in tumor-mediated immune evasion. Levels of MDSC in peripheral blood are increased in patients with cancer, correlating with cancer stage and outcome. Studies have confirmed the associations between MDSC and various cytokines in the peripheral blood of murine and human cancer hosts. However, little is known about the association between parenchymal MDSC subsets and cytokines, or the mechanism drawing MDSC into tumor parenchyma.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between MDSC subsets and tumor grade as well as stage in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. The expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interleukin 18 (IL-18) in the peripheral blood and parenchyma of RCC patients was also detected to explore its correlation with MDSC accumulation.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total MDSC, granulocytic MDSC (G-MDSC), monocytic MDSC (M-MDSC), and immature MDSC (I-MDSC) from the blood and parenchyma were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines were detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot in blood and tumors.
RESULTS: Parenchymal levels of MDSC had a positive correlation with levels of CCL2, IL-17, and IL-18, suggesting these cytokines may attract MDSC into the parenchyma. Moreover, peripheral total MDSC, G-MDSC and I-MDSC were shown to correlate with tumor grade and stage. Gene and protein expression of CCL2, IL-17, and IL-18 was significantly increased in blood and tumors of RCC patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study has provided potential new targets for the risk stratification of patients with limited stages of renal carcinoma, in addition to elucidating a possible association between MDSC subsets and cytokine-induced migration into the tumor tissue.

Hariharan N, Ashcraft KA, Svatek RS, et al.
Adipose Tissue-Secreted Factors Alter Bladder Cancer Cell Migration.
J Obes. 2018; 2018:9247864 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer recurrence. This study investigated the role of adipose tissue in bladder cancer progression.
Methods: Gene expression profiling was performed on adipose tissues collected from normal weight (
Results: Expression profiling demonstrated depot-specific or body mass index-specific differences. Increased T24 cell migration was observed using CM harvested from all ASCs. ASC CM from an obese patient significantly increased T24 cell migration and invasion compared to ASC CM collected from normal weight and overweight patients. We identified abundant expression of CXCL1, PAI1, IL6, CX3CL1, and CCL2 in all CM. Exogenous treatment of T24 cells with PAI1, IL6, and CXCL1 enhanced migration. Depletion of CXCL1, PAI1, and IL6 in an obese patient ASC CM abrogated T24 migration.
Conclusion: Factors secreted by adipose tissue influence the migration of bladder tumor cells and could play an active role in tumor progression.

Jarzabek MA, Proctor WR, Vogt J, et al.
Interrogation of transcriptomic changes associated with drug-induced hepatic sinusoidal dilatation in colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198099 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Drug-related sinusoidal dilatation (SD) is a common form of hepatotoxicity associated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy used prior to resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Recently, hepatic SD has also been associated with anti-delta like 4 (DLL4) cancer therapies targeting the NOTCH pathway. To investigate the hypothesis that NOTCH signaling plays an important role in drug-induced SD, gene expression changes were examined in livers from anti-DLL4 and oxaliplatin-induced SD in non-human primate (NHP) and patients, respectively. Putative mechanistic biomarkers of bevacizumab (bev)-mediated protection against oxaliplatin-induced SD were also investigated. RNA was extracted from whole liver sections or centrilobular regions by laser-capture microdissection (LCM) obtained from NHP administered anti-DLL4 fragment antigen-binding (F(ab')2 or patients with CRLM receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with or without bev. mRNA expression was quantified using high-throughput real-time quantitative PCR. Significance analysis was used to identify genes with differential expression patterns (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). Eleven (CCL2, CCND1, EFNB2, ERG, ICAM1, IL16, LFNG, NOTCH1, NOTCH4, PRDX1, and TGFB1) and six (CDH5, EFNB2, HES1, IL16, MIK67, HES1 and VWF) candidate genes were differentially expressed in the liver of anti-DLL4- and oxaliplatin-induced SD, respectively. Addition of bev to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy resulted in differential changes in hepatic CDH5, HEY1, IL16, JAG1, MMP9, NOTCH4 and TIMP1 expression. This work implicates NOTCH and IL16 pathways in the pathogenesis of drug-induced SD and further explains the hepato-protective effect of bev in oxaliplatin-induced SD observed in CRLM patients.

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