Gene Summary

Gene:PPARD; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family. The encoded protein is thought to function as an integrator of transcriptional repression and nuclear receptor signaling. It may inhibit the ligand-induced transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors alpha and gamma, though evidence for this effect is inconsistent. Expression of this gene in colorectal cancer cells may be variable but is typically relatively low. Knockout studies in mice suggested a role for this protein in myelination of the corpus callosum, lipid metabolism, differentiation, and epidermal cell proliferation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PPARD (cancer-related)

Hao S, Huo S, Du Z, et al.
MicroRNA-related transcription factor regulatory networks in human colorectal cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(15):e15158 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an extremely common gastrointestinal malignancy. The present study aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors (TFs) associated with tumor development.
METHODS: Three miRNA profile datasets were integrated and analyzed to elucidate the potential key candidate miRNAs in CRC. The starBase database was used to identify the potential targets of common differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs). Transcriptional Regulatory Element Database and Transcriptional Regulatory Relationships Unraveled by Sentence-based Text databases were used to identify cancer-related TFs and the TF-regulated target genes. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integration Discovery (DAVID) database, and the miRNA-TF-gene networks were constructed by Cytoscape. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of genes and miRNAs.
RESULTS: In total, 14 DEMs were found in CRC. By bioinformatics analysis, 5 DEMs (miR-145, miR-497, miR-30a, miR-31, and miR-20a) and 8 TFs (ELK4 (ETS-family transcription factor), myeloblastosis proto-oncogene like (MYBL)1, MYBL2, CEBPA, PPARA, PPARD, PPARG, and endothelial PAS domain protein (EPAS1)) appeared to be associated with CRC and were therefore used to construct miRNA-TF-gene networks. From the networks, we found that miR-20a might play the most important role as an miRNA in the networks. By qRT-PCR, we demonstrated that miR-20a was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues. We also performed qRT-PCR to identify the expression of miR-20a-related TFs (PPARA, PPARD, PPARG, EPAS1). Three of them, PPARA, PPARG, and EPAS1, were downregulated in CRC tissues, with statistically significant differences, while the downregulation of PPARD in CRC tissues was not significantly different. Pathway enrichment analyses indicated that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway was the most significantly enriched pathway. Two main elements of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated agonist of cell death, were demonstrated to be downregulated in CRC.
CONCLUSION: The present study identified hub miRNAs and miRNA-related TF regulatory networks in CRC, which might be potential targets for the diagnosis and treatment of CRC.

Zuo X, Deguchi Y, Xu W, et al.
PPARD and Interferon Gamma Promote Transformation of Gastric Progenitor Cells and Tumorigenesis in Mice.
Gastroenterology. 2019; 157(1):163-178 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) regulates cell metabolism, proliferation, and inflammation and has been associated with gastric and other cancers. Villin-positive epithelial cells are a small population of quiescent gastric progenitor cells. We expressed PPARD from a villin promoter to investigate the role of these cells and PPARD in development of gastric cancer.
METHODS: We analyzed gastric tissues from mice that express the Ppard (PPARD1 and PPARD2 mice) from a villin promoter, and mice that did not carry this transgene (controls), by histology and immunohistochemistry. We performed cell lineage-tracing experiments and analyzed the microbiomes, chemokine and cytokine production, and immune cells and transcriptomes of stomachs of these mice. We also performed immunohistochemical analysis of PPARD levels in 2 sets of human gastric tissue microarrays.
RESULTS: Thirty-eight percent of PPARD mice developed spontaneous, invasive gastric adenocarcinomas, with severe chronic inflammation. Levels of PPARD were increased in human gastric cancer tissues, compared with nontumor tissues, and associated with gastric cancer stage and grade. We found an inverse correlation between level of PPARD in tumor tissue and patient survival time. Gastric microbiomes from PPARD and control mice did not differ significantly. Lineage-tracing experiments identified villin-expressing gastric progenitor cells (VGPCs) as the origin of gastric tumors in PPARD mice. In these mice, PPARD up-regulated CCL20 and CXCL1, which increased infiltration of the gastric mucosa by immune cells. Immune cell production of inflammatory cytokines promoted chronic gastric inflammation and expansion and transformation of VGPCs, leading to tumorigenesis. We identified a positive-feedback loop between PPARD and interferon gamma signaling that sustained gastric inflammation to induce VGPC transformation and gastric carcinogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: We found PPARD overexpression in VPGCs to result in inflammation, dysplasia, and tumor formation. PPARD and VGPCs might be therapeutic targets for stomach cancer.

Zhou D, Jin J, Liu Q, et al.
PPARδ agonist enhances colitis-associated colorectal cancer.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2019; 842:248-254 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) plays a critical role in regulating inflammation and cancer, while it is still unclear the mechanism of PPARδ agonist GW501516 on colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Here we found that GW501516 significantly enhanced colitis-associated colorectal cancer in AOM/DSS-induced mice. In addition, PPARδ agonist GW501516 enhanced pro-inflammatory gene expressions (COX-2, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1) in inflamed colon. Further analysis showed that GW501516 increased the expressions of Glut1 and SLC1A5 in colon cancer cells as well as AOM/DSS-induced colorectal tumors. These findings revealed a new mechanism of PPARδ agonist GW501516-mediated colitis-associated colorectal cancer.

Ham SA, Kim E, Yoo T, et al.
Ligand-activated interaction of PPARδ with c-Myc governs the tumorigenicity of breast cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(11):2985-2996 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ is a promising therapeutic target in metabolic and inflammatory disorders. However, its role in oncogenesis is controversial, and its therapeutic potential remains to be determined. In our study, we show that ligand-activated PPARδ forms a complex with the proto-oncogene product c-Myc. The interaction of PPARδ with c-Myc affected the transcriptional activity of c-Myc and the expression of its target genes. The PPARδ-dependent regulation of c-Myc activity was associated with decreased tumorigenicity in breast cancer cells. Administration of the PPARδ ligand GW501516 inhibited tumor growth in xenograft model mice bearing MDA-MB-231 cells stably expressing wild-type PPARδ, but not those expressing dominant-negative PPARδ, by interfering with c-Myc function through protein-protein interaction. Our results indicating that PPARδ forms an antitumorigenic complex with c-Myc in the presence of ligand suggest a potential role of PPARδ in breast cancer development.

Katoh M
Multi‑layered prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation, organ fibrosis and cancer associated with canonical WNT/β‑catenin signaling activation (Review).
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 42(2):713-725 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
β‑catenin/CTNNB1 is an intracellular scaffold protein that interacts with adhesion molecules (E‑cadherin/CDH1, N‑cadherin/CDH2, VE‑cadherin/CDH5 and α‑catenins), transmembrane‑type mucins (MUC1/CD227 and MUC16/CA125), signaling regulators (APC, AXIN1, AXIN2 and NHERF1/EBP50) and epigenetic or transcriptional regulators (BCL9, BCL9L, CREBBP/CBP, EP300/p300, FOXM1, MED12, SMARCA4/BRG1 and TCF/LEF). Gain‑of‑function CTTNB1 mutations are detected in bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and uterine cancer, whereas loss‑of‑function CTNNB1 mutations are also detected in human cancer. ABCB1, ALDH1A1, ASCL2, ATF3, AXIN2, BAMBI, CCND1, CD44, CLDN1, CTLA4, DKK1, EDN1, EOMES, FGF18, FGF20, FZD7, IL10, JAG1, LEF1, LGR5, MITF, MSX1, MYC, NEUROD1, NKD1, NODAL, NOTCH2, NOTUM, NRCAM, OPN, PAX3, PPARD, PTGS2, RNF43, SNAI1, SP5, TCF7, TERT, TNFRSF19, VEGFA and ZNRF3 are representative β‑catenin target genes. β‑catenin signaling is involved in myofibroblast activation and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis, in addition to other types of fibrosis. β‑catenin and NF‑κB signaling activation are involved in field cancerization in the stomach associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and in the liver associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and other etiologies. β‑catenin‑targeted therapeutics are functionally classified into β‑catenin inhibitors targeting upstream regulators (AZ1366, ETC‑159, G007‑LK, GNF6231, ipafricept, NVP‑TNKS656, rosmantuzumab, vantictumab, WNT‑C59, WNT974 and XAV939), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting protein‑protein interactions (CGP049090, CWP232228, E7386, ICG‑001, LF3 and PRI‑724), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting epigenetic regulators (PKF118‑310), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting mediator complexes (CCT251545 and cortistatin A) and β‑catenin inhibitors targeting transmembrane‑type transcriptional outputs, including CD44v6, FZD7 and LGR5. Eradicating H. pylori and HCV is the optimal approach for the first‑line prevention of gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), respectively. However, β‑catenin inhibitors may be applicable for the prevention of organ fibrosis, second‑line HCC prevention and treating β‑catenin‑driven cancer. The multi‑layered prevention and treatment strategy of β‑catenin‑related human diseases is necessary for the practice of personalized medicine and implementation of precision medicine.

Borland MG, Kehres EM, Lee C, et al.
Inhibition of tumorigenesis by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-dependent cell cycle blocks in human skin carcinoma cells.
Toxicology. 2018; 404-405:25-32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
To examine the functional role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) and PPARγ in skin cancer, stable cell lines were created in the A431 human squamous cell carcinoma cell line. Expression of PPAR target genes was greatly enhanced in response to ligand activation of PPARβ/δ or PPARγ in A431 cells expressing these receptors. PPARβ/δ expression blocked the cell cycle at the G2/M phase, and this effect was increased by ligand activation. Ligand activation of PPARβ/δ markedly inhibited clonogenicity as compared to vehicle-treated controls. Similarly, ligand activation of PPARγ in A431 cells expressing PPARγ resulted in reduced clonogenicity. Expression of either PPARβ/δ or PPARγ markedly reduced tumor volume in ectopic xenografts, while ligand activation of these receptors had little further influence on tumor volume. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that stable expression and activation of PPARβ/δ or PPARγ in A431 cells led to reduced tumorigenicity. Importantly, PPAR expression or ligand activation had major impacts on clonogenicity and/or tumor volume. Thus, PPARβ/δ or PPARγ could be therapeutically targeted for the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas.

Pérez-Valencia JA, Prosdocimi F, Cesari IM, et al.
Angiogenesis and evading immune destruction are the main related transcriptomic characteristics to the invasive process of oral tongue cancer.
Sci Rep. 2018; 8(1):2007 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
Metastasis of head and neck tumors is responsible for a high mortality rate. Understanding its biochemistry may allow insights into tumorigenesis. To that end we carried out RNA-Seq analyses of 5 SCC9 derived oral cancer cell lines displaying increased invasive potential. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were annotated based on p-values and false discovery rate (q-values). All 292 KEGG pathways related to the human genome were compared in order to pinpoint the absolute and relative contributions to the invasive process considering the 8 hallmarks of cancer plus 2 new defined categories, as well as we made with our transcriptomic data. In terms of absolute contribution, the highest correlations were associated to the categories of evading immune destruction and energy metabolism and for relative contributions, angiogenesis and evading immune destruction. DEGs were distributed into each one of all possible modes of regulation, regarding up, down and continuum expression, along the 3 stages of metastatic progression. For p-values twenty-six genes were consistently present along the tumoral progression and 4 for q-values. Among the DEGs, we found 2 novel potentially informative metastatic markers: PIGG and SLC8B1. Furthermore, interactome analysis showed that MYH14, ANGPTL4, PPARD and ENPP1 are amenable to pharmacological interventions.

Martín-Martín N, Zabala-Letona A, Fernández-Ruiz S, et al.
PPARδ Elicits Ligand-Independent Repression of Trefoil Factor Family to Limit Prostate Cancer Growth.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(2):399-409 [PubMed] Related Publications
The nuclear receptor PPAR-β/δ (PPARD) has essential roles in fatty acid catabolism and energy homeostasis as well as cell differentiation, inflammation, and metabolism. However, its contributions to tumorigenesis are uncertain and have been disputed. Here, we provide evidence of tumor suppressive activity of PPARD in prostate cancer through a noncanonical and ligand-independent pathway. PPARD was downregulated in prostate cancer specimens. In murine prostate epithelium, PPARD gene deletion resulted in increased cellularity. Genetic modulation of PPARD in human prostate cancer cell lines validated the tumor suppressive activity of this gene

Wang JY, Chen H, Wang YY, et al.
Network pharmacological mechanisms of Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) in the treatment of vitiligo: Isorhamnetin induction of melanogenesis via up-regulation of melanin-biosynthetic genes.
BMC Syst Biol. 2017; 11(1):103 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is a long-term skin disease characterized by the loss of pigment in the skin. The current therapeutic approaches are limited. Although the anti-vitiligo mechanisms of Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) remain ambiguous, the herb has been broadly used in Uyghur hospitals to treat vitiligo. The overall objective of the present study aims to identify the potential lead compounds from Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) in the treatment of vitiligo via an oral route as well as the melanogenic mechanisms in the systematic approaches in silico of admetSAR and substructure-drug-target network-based inference (SDTNBI).
RESULTS: The results showed that the top 5 active compounds with a relatively higher bioavailability that interacted with 23 therapeutic targets were identified in Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) using admetSAR and SDTNBI methods. Among these compounds, Isorhamnetin and Kaempferide, which are methyl-flavonoids, performed 1st and 2nd. Isorhamnetin and Kaempferide significantly increased the expression of melanin-biosynthetic genes (MC1R, MITF, TYR, TYRP1 and DCT) and the tyrosinase activity in B16F10 cells. Isorhamnetin and Kaempferide significantly increased the mRNA-expression of melanin-biosynthetic genes (MC1R, MITF, TYR, TYRP1 and DCT), the protein level of MITF and the tyrosinase activity. Based on the SDTNBI method and experimental verification, Isorhamnetin and Kaempferide effectively increased melanogenesis by targeting the MC1R-MITF signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway (PPARA, PPARD, PPARG), arachidonic acid metabolism pathway (ALOX12, ALOX15, CBR1) and serotonergic synapses (ALOX12, ALOX15) in the treatment of vitiligo from a network perspective.
CONCLUSION: We identified the melanogenic activity of the methyl-flavonoids Isorhamnetin and Kaempferide, which were successfully predicted in a network pharmacological analysis of Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) by admetSAR and SDTNBI methods.

Halstead AM, Kapadia CD, Bolzenius J, et al.
Bladder-cancer-associated mutations in
Elife. 2017; 6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
RXRA regulates transcription as part of a heterodimer with 14 other nuclear receptors, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Analysis from TCGA raised the possibility that hyperactive PPAR signaling, either due to PPAR gamma gene amplification or RXRA hot-spot mutation (S427F/Y) drives 20-25% of human bladder cancers. Here, we characterize mutant RXRA, demonstrating it induces enhancer/promoter activity in the context of RXRA/PPAR heterodimers in human bladder cancer cells. Structure-function studies indicate that the RXRA substitution allosterically regulates the PPAR AF2 domain via an aromatic interaction with the terminal tyrosine found in PPARs. In mouse urothelial organoids, PPAR agonism is sufficient to drive growth-factor-independent growth in the context of concurrent tumor suppressor loss. Similarly, mutant RXRA stimulates growth-factor-independent growth of

Rosales-Reynoso MA, Wence-Chavez LI, Arredondo-Valdez AR, et al.
Protective role of +294 T/C (rs2016520) polymorphism of PPARD in Mexican patients with colorectal cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2017; 16(1) [PubMed] Related Publications
PPARD encodes for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, which plays a significant role in controlling lipid metabolism, atherosclerosis, inflammation, cancer growth, progression, and apoptosis. Accumulated evidence suggests that the polymorphism rs2016520 in PPARD is associated with lipid metabolism, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to determine whether the single nucleotide polymorphism +294T/C (rs2016520) in PPARD is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Mexican population. Genomic DNA from 178 CRC patients and 97 healthy blood donors was analyzed. The polymorphism was identified by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results demonstrated that patients with the T/C genotype for the +294T/C (rs2016520) polymorphism present a protective role against CRC [odds ratio (OR) = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.22-0.69; P = 0.0008]. This association was also evident for the T/C genotype in the stratified analysis by tumor-node-metastasis stages I+II (OR = 0.26, P = 0.0332) and III+IV (OR = 0.44, P = 0.0067). However, in the stratified analysis by tumor location, we observed an increased risk of rectal cancer (OR = 7.57, P = 0.0403) vs colon cancer (OR = 4.87, P = 0.234) in patients carrying the C/C genotype and under the dominant and recessive models of inheritance. In conclusion, for the first time, the association between the +294T/C (rs2016520) polymorphism and colorectal cancer has been studied in Mexican patients. Our results reveal that variations in PPARD may play a significant role in genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer.

Zuo X, Xu W, Xu M, et al.
Metastasis regulation by PPARD expression in cancer cells.
JCI Insight. 2017; 2(1):e91419 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARD) is upregulated in many major human cancers, but the role that its expression in cancer cells has in metastasis remains poorly understood. Here, we show that specific PPARD downregulation or genetic deletion of PPARD in cancer cells significantly repressed metastasis in various cancer models in vivo. Mechanistically, PPARD promoted angiogenesis via interleukin 8 in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of transcriptome profiling of HCT116 colon cancer cells with or without genetic deletion of PPARD and gene expression patterns in The Cancer Genome Atlas colorectal adenocarcinoma database identified novel pro-metastatic genes (GJA1, VIM, SPARC, STC1, SNCG) as PPARD targets. PPARD expression in cancer cells drastically affected epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion, further underscoring its necessity for metastasis. Clinically, high PPARD expression in various major human cancers (e.g., colorectal, lung, breast) was associated with significantly reduced metastasis-free survival. Our results demonstrate that PPARD, a druggable protein, is an important molecular target in metastatic cancer.

Müller R
PPARβ/δ in human cancer.
Biochimie. 2017; 136:90-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
The nuclear receptor factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARβ/δ) can regulate its target genes by transcriptional activation or repression through both ligand-dependent and independent mechanism as well as by interactions with other transcription factors. PPARβ/δ exerts essential regulatory functions in intermediary metabolism that have been elucidated in detail, but clearly also plays a role in inflammation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cancer-associated processes, which is, however, mechanistically only partly understood. Consistent with these functions clinical associations link the expression of PPARβ/δ and its target genes to an unfavorable outcome of several human cancers. However, the available data do not yield a clear picture of PPARβ/δ's role in cancer-associated processes and are in fact partly controversial. This article provides an overview of this research area and discusses the role of PPARβ/δ in cancer in light of the complex mechanisms of its transcriptional regulation and its potential as a druggable anti-cancer target.

Beyaz S, Yilmaz ÖH
Molecular Pathways: Dietary Regulation of Stemness and Tumor Initiation by the PPAR-δ Pathway.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(23):5636-5641 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-δ) is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that regulates gene expression during development and disease states, such as cancer. However, the precise role of PPAR-δ during tumorigenesis is not well understood. Recent data suggest that PPAR-δ may have context-specific oncogenic and tumor-suppressive roles depending on the tissue, cell-type, or diet-induced physiology in question. For example, in the intestine, pro-obesity diets, such as a high-fat diet (HFD), are associated with increased colorectal cancer incidence. Interestingly, many of the effects of an HFD in the stem and progenitor cell compartment are driven by a robust PPAR-δ program and contribute to the early steps of intestinal tumorigenesis. Importantly, the PPAR-δ pathway or its downstream mediators may serve as therapeutic intervention points or biomarkers in colon cancer that arise in patients who are obese. Although potent PPAR-δ agonists and antagonists exist, their clinical utility may be enhanced by uncovering how PPAR-δ mediates tumorigenesis in diverse tissues and cell types as well as in response to diet. Clin Cancer Res; 22(23); 5636-41. ©2016 AACR.

Dubaisi S, Fang H, Kocarek TA, Runge-Morris M
Transcriptional Regulation of Human Cytosolic Sulfotransferase 1C3 by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ in LS180 Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cells.
Mol Pharmacol. 2016; 90(5):562-569 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
Cytosolic sulfotransferase 1C3 (SULT1C3) is the least characterized of the three human SULT1C subfamily members. Originally identified as an orphan SULT by computational analysis of the human genome, we recently reported that SULT1C3 is expressed in human intestine and LS180 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and is upregulated by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and γ To determine the mechanism responsible for PPAR-mediated upregulation, we prepared reporter plasmids containing fragments of the SULT1C3 5'-flanking region. During initial attempts to amplify a 2.8-kb fragment from different sources of human genomic DNA, a 1.9-kb fragment was sometimes coamplified with the expected 2.8-kb fragment. Comparison of the 1.9-kb fragment sequence to the published SULT1C3 5'-flanking sequence revealed an 863-nt deletion (nt -146 to -1008 relative to the transcription start site). Transfection analysis in LS180 cells demonstrated that PPARα, δ, and γ agonist treatments induced luciferase expression from a reporter plasmid containing the 2.8-kb but not the 1.9-kb fragment. The PPAR agonists also activated a 1-kb reporter containing the 863-nt deletion region. Computational analysis identified three peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPREs) within the 863-nt region and serial deletions and site-directed mutations indicated that the most distal PPRE (at nt -769) was essential for obtaining PPAR-mediated transcriptional activation. Although agonists of all three PPARs could activate SULT1C3 transcription, RNA interference analysis indicated the predominance of PPARγ These data demonstrate that the PPARγ regulatory network includes SULT1C3 and imply that this enzyme contributes to the control of such PPARγ-regulated intestinal processes as growth, differentiation, and metabolism.

Pun IH, Chan D, Chan SH, et al.
Anti-cancer Effects of a Novel Quinoline Derivative 83b1 on Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Down-Regulation of COX-2 mRNA and PGE
Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 49(1):219-229 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: 83b1 is a novel quinoline derivative that has been shown to inhibit cancer growth in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study was conducted to comprehensively evaluate the cytotoxic effects of 83b1 on a series of ESCC cell lines and investigate the mechanisms by which 83b1 suppresses cancer growth based on molecular docking analysis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A series of ESCC and nontumor immortalized cell lines were exposed to 83b1 and cisplatin (CDDP) in a dose-dependent manner, and the cytotoxicity was examined by a MTS assay kit. Prediction of the molecular targets of 83b1 was conducted by molecular docking analysis. Expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA and COX-2-derived prostaglandin E
RESULTS: 83b1 showed the significant anti-cancer effects on all ESCC cell lines compared to CDDP; however, 83b1 revealed much lower toxic effects on non-tumor cell lines than CDDP. The predicted molecular target of 83b1 is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ), which is a widely known oncoprotein. Additionally the expression of COX-2 mRNA and COX-2-derived PGE
CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the potential anti-cancer effects of 83b1 on human esophageal cancers occur through the possible oncotarget, PPARδ, and down-regulation of the cancer related genes and molecules.

Beyaz S, Mana MD, Roper J, et al.
High-fat diet enhances stemness and tumorigenicity of intestinal progenitors.
Nature. 2016; 531(7592):53-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
Little is known about how pro-obesity diets regulate tissue stem and progenitor cell function. Here we show that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity augments the numbers and function of Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells of the mammalian intestine. Mechanistically, a HFD induces a robust peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-δ) signature in intestinal stem cells and progenitor cells (non-intestinal stem cells), and pharmacological activation of PPAR-δ recapitulates the effects of a HFD on these cells. Like a HFD, ex vivo treatment of intestinal organoid cultures with fatty acid constituents of the HFD enhances the self-renewal potential of these organoid bodies in a PPAR-δ-dependent manner. Notably, HFD- and agonist-activated PPAR-δ signalling endow organoid-initiating capacity to progenitors, and enforced PPAR-δ signalling permits these progenitors to form in vivo tumours after loss of the tumour suppressor Apc. These findings highlight how diet-modulated PPAR-δ activation alters not only the function of intestinal stem and progenitor cells, but also their capacity to initiate tumours.

Nath A, Chan C
Genetic alterations in fatty acid transport and metabolism genes are associated with metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:18669 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is a hallmark feature of cancer cells. While a distinct set of processes drive metastasis when compared to tumorigenesis, it is yet unclear if genetic alterations in metabolic pathways are associated with metastatic progression of human cancers. Here, we analyzed the mutation, copy number variation and gene expression patterns of a literature-derived model of metabolic genes associated with glycolysis (Warburg effect), fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, oxidation, lipolysis, esterification) and fatty acid uptake in >9000 primary or metastatic tumor samples from the multi-cancer TCGA datasets. Our association analysis revealed a uniform pattern of Warburg effect mutations influencing prognosis across all tumor types, while copy number alterations in the electron transport chain gene SCO2, fatty acid uptake (CAV1, CD36) and lipogenesis (PPARA, PPARD, MLXIPL) genes were enriched in metastatic tumors. Using gene expression profiles, we established a gene-signature (CAV1, CD36, MLXIPL, CPT1C, CYP2E1) that strongly associated with epithelial-mesenchymal program across multiple cancers. Moreover, stratification of samples based on the copy number or expression profiles of the genes identified in our analysis revealed a significant effect on patient survival rates, thus confirming prominent roles of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers.

Kalitin NN, Chernykh YB, Buravtsova IV
[Gene expression of key enzymes for all-trans- retinoic acid biosynthesis - ALDHJAI and RDH10: relationship with co-expression of nuclear receptors RARα and PPARβ/δ genes and some clinical characteristics in multiple myeloma.
Vopr Onkol. 2016; 62(5):626-631 [PubMed] Related Publications
The significance of quantitative changes of ALDH1A1 and RDH10 gene expression in 22 non-treated multiple myeloma patients were studied. We found a direct correlation between the expression of ALDH1A1 and RDH10 genes. We showed that ALDHA1 and RDH10 expression were inversely related with expression of a key gene for all-trans-retinoic acid catabolism, CYP26A1, and correlated with expression of RARα and PPARβ/ genes. In addition for the first time it was re- vealed that increased expression of ALDH1A1-RDH10-RARα- PPARβ/δ pattern could be considered as adverse prognostic factor associated with a higher concentration of paraprotein and worst overall survival of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

Levi L, Wang Z, Doud MK, et al.
Saturated fatty acids regulate retinoic acid signalling and suppress tumorigenesis by targeting fatty acid-binding protein 5.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:8794 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
Long chain fatty acids (LCFA) serve as energy sources, components of cell membranes and precursors for signalling molecules. Here we show that these biological compounds also regulate gene expression and that they do so by controlling the transcriptional activities of the retinoic acid (RA)-activated nuclear receptors RAR and PPARβ/δ. The data indicate that these activities of LCFA are mediated by FABP5, which delivers ligands from the cytosol to nuclear PPARβ/δ. Both saturated and unsaturated LCFA (SLCFA, ULCFA) bind to FABP5, thereby displacing RA and diverting it to RAR. However, while SLCFA inhibit, ULCFA activate the FABP5/PPARβ/δ pathway. We show further that, by concomitantly promoting the activation of RAR and inhibiting the activation of PPARβ/δ, SLCFA suppress the oncogenic properties of FABP5-expressing carcinoma cells in cultured cells and in vivo. The observations suggest that compounds that inhibit FABP5 may constitute a new class of drugs for therapy of certain types of cancer.

Li P, Hu Y, Yi J, et al.
Identification of potential biomarkers to differentially diagnose solid pseudopapillary tumors and pancreatic malignancies via a gene regulatory network.
J Transl Med. 2015; 13:361 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPN) are pancreatic tumors with low malignant potential and good prognosis. However, differential diagnosis between SPN and pancreatic malignancies including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET) and ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is difficult. This study tried to identify candidate biomarkers for the distinction between SPN and the two malignant pancreatic tumors by examining the gene regulatory network of SPN.
METHODS: The gene regulatory network for SPN was constructed by a co-expression model. Genes that have been reported to be correlated with SPN were used as the clues to hunt more SPN-related genes in the network according to a shortest path approach. By means of the K-nearest neighbor algorithm (KNN) classifier evaluated by the jackknife test, sets of genes to distinguish SPN and malignant pancreatic tumors were determined.
RESULTS: We took a new strategy to identify candidate biomarkers for differentiating SPN from the two malignant pancreatic tumors PanNET and PDAC by analyzing shortest paths among SPN-related genes in the gene regulatory network. 43 new SPN-relevant genes were discovered, among which, we found hsa-miR-194 and hsa-miR-7 along with 7 transcription factors (TFs) such as SOX11, SMAD3 and SOX4 etc. could correctly differentiate SPN from PanNET, while hsa-miR-204 and 4 TFs such as SOX9, TCF7 and PPARD etc. were demonstrated as the potential markers for SPN versus PDAC. 14 genes were demonstrated to serve as the candidate biomarkers for distinguishing SPN from PanNET and PDAC when considering them as malignant pancreatic tumors together.
CONCLUSION: This study provides new candidate genes related to SPN and the potential biomarkers to differentiate SPN from PanNET and PDAC, which may help to diagnose patients with SPN in clinical setting. Furthermore, candidate biomarkers such as SOX11 and hsa-miR-204 which could cause cell proliferation but inhibit invasion or metastasis may be of importance in understanding the molecular mechanism of pancreatic oncogenesis and could be possible therapeutic targets for malignant pancreatic tumors.

Bruzzoni-Giovanelli H, González JR, Sigaux F, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms associated with increased risk of developing chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(34):36269-77 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
Little is known about inherited factors associated with the risk of developing chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We used a dedicated DNA chip containing 16 561 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering 1 916 candidate genes to analyze 437 CML patients and 1 144 healthy control individuals. Single SNP association analysis identified 139 SNPs that passed multiple comparisons (1% false discovery rate). The HDAC9, AVEN, SEMA3C, IKBKB, GSTA3, RIPK1 and FGF2 genes were each represented by three SNPs, the PSM family by four SNPs and the SLC15A1 gene by six. Haplotype analysis showed that certain combinations of rare alleles of these genes increased the risk of developing CML by more than two or three-fold. A classification tree model identified five SNPs belonging to the genes PSMB10, TNFRSF10D, PSMB2, PPARD and CYP26B1, which were associated with CML predisposition. A CML-risk-allele score was created using these five SNPs. This score was accurate for discriminating CML status (AUC: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.58-0.64). Interestingly, the score was associated with age at diagnosis and the average number of risk alleles was significantly higher in younger patients. The risk-allele score showed the same distribution in the general population (HapMap CEU samples) as in our control individuals and was associated with differential gene expression patterns of two genes (VAPA and TDRKH). In conclusion, we describe haplotypes and a genetic score that are significantly associated with a predisposition to develop CML. The SNPs identified will also serve to drive fundamental research on the putative role of these genes in CML development.

Schumann T, Adhikary T, Wortmann A, et al.
Deregulation of PPARβ/δ target genes in tumor-associated macrophages by fatty acid ligands in the ovarian cancer microenvironment.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(15):13416-33 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) is a lipid ligand-inducible transcription factor associated with macrophage polarization. However, its function in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) has not been investigated to date. Here, we report the PPARβ/δ-regulated transcriptome and cistrome for TAMs from ovarian carcinoma patients. Comparison with monocyte-derived macrophages shows that the vast majority of direct PPARβ/δ target genes are upregulated in TAMs and largely refractory to synthetic agonists, but repressible by inverse agonists. Besides genes with metabolic functions, these include cell type-selective genes associated with immune regulation and tumor progression, e.g., LRP5, CD300A, MAP3K8 and ANGPTL4. This deregulation is not due to increased expression of PPARβ/δ or its enhanced recruitment to target genes. Instead, lipidomic analysis of malignancy-associated ascites revealed high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular linoleic acid, acting as potent PPARβ/δ agonists in macrophages. These fatty acid ligands accumulate in lipid droplets in TAMs, thereby providing a reservoir of PPARβ/δ ligands. These observations suggest that the deregulation of PPARβ/δ target genes by ligands of the tumor microenvironment contributes to the pro-tumorigenic polarization of ovarian carcinoma TAMs. This conclusion is supported by the association of high ANGPTL4 expression with a shorter relapse-free survival in serous ovarian carcinoma.

Huang Y, Nie S, Zhou S, et al.
PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism and circulating lipid levels connect with brain diseases in Han Chinese and suggest sex-dependent effects.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2015; 70:7-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
The PPARD polymorphisms were shown to be associated with circulating lipoprotein metabolism in various diseases. We aimed to check the contribution of PPARD rs2016520 and lipid concentration to the risk of intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) and brain tumors (BT) in Han Chinese. A total of 864 participants were included in the case-control study. The melting temperature shift (Tm-shift) method was used for rs2016520 genotyping. Under the recessive model, PPARD rs2016520 was shown to be associated with the risk of ICH (P=0.029, odds ratio (OR)=2.72), specifically in males (P=0.045, OR=3.98). Additionally, we also found that the levels of TC and LDL-C were significantly higher in participants with brain diseases than in the controls (TC: P<0.0001; LDL-C: P<0.0001). Significantly higher HDL-C and lower ApoA-I levels were observed in the male patients with brain diseases (HDL-C: P<0.0001; ApoA-I: P=0.008), in contrast of a higher TG level in female ICH (P=0.023). Subsequent interaction analysis between PPARD rs2016520 and lipoprotein metabolism showed that the LDL-C level was positively correlated with ICH in the rs2016520-AA carriers (P<0.0001), but not in the other genotype carriers (AG or GG, P=0.300). Our results showed that PPARD rs2016520 displayed a strong relationship with ICH risk in the male Han Chinese. The TC and LDL-C levels were positively higher in the patients with brain diseases than in the controls. The levels of TG, HDL-C and ApoA-I were shown to affect brain disease in a gender-dependent model. The genotype rs2016520-AA showed significant interaction with the circulating LDL-C levels in ICH.

Taskesen E, Staal FJ, Reinders MJ
An integrated approach of gene expression and DNA-methylation profiles of WNT signaling genes uncovers novel prognostic markers in acute myeloid leukemia.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2015; 16 Suppl 4:S4 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The wingless-Int (WNT) pathway has an essential role in cell regulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). For Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), the malignant counterpart of HSC, currently only a selective number of genes of the WNT pathway are analyzed by using either gene expression or DNA-methylation profiles for the identification of prognostic markers and potential candidate targets for drug therapy. It is known that mRNA expression is controlled by DNA-methylation and that specific patterns can infer the ability to differentiate biological differences, thus a combined analysis using all WNT annotated genes could provide more insight in the WNT signaling.
APPROACH: We created a computational approach that integrates gene expression and DNA promoter methylation profiles. The approach represents the continuous gene expression and promoter methylation profiles with nine discrete mutually exclusive scenarios. The scenario representation allows for a refinement of patient groups by a more powerful statistical analysis, and the construction of a co-expression network. We focused on 268 WNT annotated signaling genes that are derived from the molecular signature database.
RESULTS: Using the scenarios we identified seven prognostic markers for overall survival and event-free survival. Three genes are novel prognostic markers; two with favorable outcome (PSMD2, PPARD) and one with unfavorable outcome (XPNPEP). The remaining four genes (LEF1, SFRP2, RUNX1, and AXIN2) were previously identified but we could refine the patient groups. Three AML risk groups were further analyzed and the co-expression network showed that only the good risk group harbors frequent promoter hypermethylation and significantly correlated interactions with proteasome family members.
CONCLUSION: Our results provide novel insights in WNT signaling in AML, we discovered new and previously identified prognostic markers and a refinement of the patient groups.

Mao F, Xu M, Zuo X, et al.
15-Lipoxygenase-1 suppression of colitis-associated colon cancer through inhibition of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.
FASEB J. 2015; 29(6):2359-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
The IL-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway is a critical signaling pathway for colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-δ, a lipid nuclear receptor, up-regulates IL-6. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1), which is crucial to production of lipid signaling mediators to terminate inflammation, down-regulates PPAR-δ. 15-LOX-1 effects on IL-6/STAT3 signaling and CAC tumorigenesis have not been determined. We report that intestinally targeted transgenic 15-LOX-1 expression in mice inhibited azoxymethane- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced CAC, IL-6 expression, STAT3 phosphorylation, and IL-6/STAT3 downstream target (Notch3 and MUC1) expression. 15-LOX-1 down-regulation was associated with IL-6 up-regulation in human colon cancer mucosa. Reexpression of 15-LOX-1 in human colon cancer cells suppressed IL-6 mRNA expression, STAT3 phosphorylation, IL-6 promoter activity, and PPAR-δ mRNA and protein expression. PPAR-δ overexpression in colonic epithelial cells promoted CAC tumorigenesis in mice and increased IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas concomitant 15-LOX-1 expression in colonic epithelial cells (15-LOX-1-PPAR-δ-Gut mice) suppressed these effects: the number of tumors per mouse (mean ± sem) was 4.22 ± 0.68 in wild-type littermates, 6.67 ± 0.83 in PPAR-δ-Gut mice (P = 0.026), and 2.25 ± 0.25 in 15-LOX-1-PPAR-δ-Gut mice (P = 0.0006). Identification of 15-LOX-1 suppression of PPAR-δ to inhibit IL-6/STAT3 signaling-driven CAC tumorigenesis provides mechanistic insights that can be used to molecularly target CAC.

Thulasiraman P, McAndrews DJ, Mohiudddin IQ
Curcumin restores sensitivity to retinoic acid in triple negative breast cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:724 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A major obstacle in the use of retinoid therapy in cancer is the resistance to this agent in tumors. Retinoic acid facilitates the growth of mammary carcinoma cells which express high levels of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5). This protein delivers retinoic acid to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) that targets genes involved in cell proliferation and survival. One approach to overcome resistance of mammary carcinoma cells to retinoic acid is to target and suppress the FABP5/ PPARβ/δ pathway. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of curcumin, a polyphenol extract from the plant Curcuma longa, on the FABP5/ PPARβ/δ pathway in retinoic acid resistant triple negative breast cancer cells.
METHODS: Cell viability and proliferation of triple negative breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MD-MB-468) treated with curcumin and/or retinoic was analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Expression level of FABP5 and PPARβ/δ in these cells treated with curcumin was examined by Western Blotting analysis and Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Effect of curcumin and retinoic acid on PPARβ/δ target genes, PDK1and VEGF-A were also examined using qRT-PCR. Western Blotting was utilized to examine the protein expression level of the p65 subunit of NF-κB.
RESULTS: Treatment of retinoic acid resistant triple negative breast cancer cells with curcumin sensitized these cells to retinoic acid mediated growth suppression, as well as suppressed incorporation of BrdU. Further studies demonstrated that curcumin showed a marked reduction in the expression level of FABP5 and PPARβ/δ. We provide evidence that curcumin suppresses p65, a transcription factor known to regulate FABP5. The combination of curcumin with retinoic acid suppressed PPARβ/δ target genes, VEGF-A and PDK1.
CONCLUSIONS: Curcumin suppresses the expression level of FABP5 and PPARβ/δ in triple negative mammary carcinoma cells. By targeting the FABP5/PPARβ/δ pathway, curcumin prevents the delivery of retinoic acid to PPARβ/δ and suppresses retinoic acid-induced PPARβ/δ target gene, VEGF-A. Our data demonstrates that suppression of the FABP5/ PPARβ/δ pathway by curcumin sensitizes retinoic acid resistant triple negative breast cancer cells to retinoic acid mediated growth suppression.

Yang Y, Burke RV, Jeon CY, et al.
Polymorphisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and survival of lung cancer and upper aero-digestive tract cancers.
Lung Cancer. 2014; 85(3):449-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional factors involved in several biological processes such as inflammation, cancer growth, progression and apoptosis that are important in lung and upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer outcomes. Nonetheless, there are no published studies of the relationship between PPARs gene polymorphisms and survival of patients with lung cancer or UADT cancers.
METHODS: 1212 cancer patients (611 lung, 303 oral, 100 pharyngeal, 90 laryngeal, and 108 esophageal) were followed for a median duration of 11 years. We genotyped three potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Taqman - rs3734254 of the gene PPARD and rs10865710 and rs1801282 of the gene PPARG - and investigated their associations with lung and UADT cancer survival using Cox regression. A semi-Bayesian shrinkage approach was used to reduce the potential for false positive findings when examining multiple associations.
RESULTS: The variant homozygote CC (vs. TT) of PPARD rs3734254 was inversely associated with mortality of both lung cancer (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.42, 0.96) and UADT cancers (aHR=0.51, 95% CI=0.27, 0.99). Use of the semi-Bayesian shrinkage approach yielded a posterior aHR for lung cancer of 0.66 (95% posterior limits=0.44, 0.98) and a posterior aHR for UADT cancers of 0.58 (95% posterior limits=0.33, 1.03).
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that lung-cancer patients with the CC variant of PPARD rs3734254 may have a survival advantage over lung-cancer patients with other gene variants.

Zhu B, Ferry CH, Markell LK, et al.
The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) promotes oncogene-induced cellular senescence through repression of endoplasmic reticulum stress.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(29):20102-19 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and ER stress-associated unfolded protein response (UPR) can promote cancer cell survival, but it remains unclear whether they can influence oncogene-induced senescence. The present study examined the role of ER stress in senescence using oncogene-dependent models. Increased ER stress attenuated senescence in part by up-regulating phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) and decreasing phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK). A positive feed forward loop between p-AKT, ER stress, and UPR was discovered whereby a transient increase of ER stress caused reduced senescence and promotion of tumorigenesis. Decreased ER stress was further correlated with increased senescence in both mouse and human tumors. Interestingly, H-RAS-expressing Pparβ/δ null cells and tumors having increased cell proliferation exhibited enhanced ER stress, decreased cellular senescence, and/or enhanced tumorigenicity. Collectively, these results demonstrate a new role for ER stress and UPR that attenuates H-RAS-induced senescence and suggest that PPARβ/δ can repress this oncogene-induced ER stress to promote senescence in accordance with its role as a tumor modifier that suppresses carcinogenesis.

Keller E, Chazenbalk GD, Aguilera P, et al.
Impaired preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes in subcutaneous abdominal adipose of PCOS-like female rhesus monkeys.
Endocrinology. 2014; 155(7):2696-703 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2020 Related Publications
Metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome women and polycystic ovary syndrome-like, prenatally androgenized (PA) female monkeys worsen with age, with altered adipogenesis of sc abdominal adipose potentially contributing to age-related adverse effects on metabolism. This study examines whether adipocyte morphology and gene expression in sc abdominal adipose differ between late reproductive-aged PA female rhesus monkeys compared with age-matched controls (C). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose of both groups was obtained for histological imaging and mRNA determination of zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) as a marker of adipose stem cell commitment to preadipocytes, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)δ as well as C/EBPα/PPARγ as respective markers of early- and late-stage differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes. In all females combined, serum testosterone (T) levels positively correlated with fasting serum levels of total free fatty acid (r(2) = 0.73, P < .002). PA females had a greater population of small adipocytes vs C (P < .001) in the presence of increased Zfp423 (P < .025 vs C females) and decreased C/EBPα (P < .003, vs C females) mRNA expression. Moreover, Zfp423 mRNA expression positively correlated with circulating total free fatty acid levels during iv glucose tolerance testing (P < .004, r(2) = 0.66), whereas C/EBPα mRNA expression negatively correlated with serum T levels (P < .02, r(2) = 0.43). Gene expression of PPARδ and PPARγ were comparable between groups (P = .723 and P = .18, respectively). Early-to-mid gestational T excess in female rhesus monkeys impairs adult preadipocyte differentiation to adipocytes in sc abdominal adipose and may constrain the ability of this adipose depot to safely store fat with age.

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