Gene Summary

Gene:TSPO; translocator protein (18kDa)
Summary:Present mainly in the mitochondrial compartment of peripheral tissues, the protein encoded by this gene interacts with some benzodiazepines and has different affinities than its endogenous counterpart. The protein is a key factor in the flow of cholesterol into mitochondria to permit the initiation of steroid hormone synthesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been reported; one of the variants lacks an internal exon and is considered non-coding, and the other variants encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:translocator protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 20 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (37)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 21 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Messenger RNA
  • Signal Transduction
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Chromosome 22
  • Xenograft Models
  • Protein Interaction Maps
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Carcinoma
  • Apoptosis
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Up-Regulation
  • Receptors, GABA
  • Cell Survival
  • Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial
  • siRNA
  • Ligands
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Sp4 Transcription Factor
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Flunitrazepam
  • Indoleacetic Acids
  • Benzodiazepinones
  • Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels
  • Transfection
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Isoquinolines
  • Mitochondria
  • Hypolipidemic Agents
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Plant Extracts
  • Computational Biology
Tag cloud generated 20 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TSPO (cancer-related)

Gao X, Wang H, Cai S, et al.
Phosphorylation of NMDA 2B at S1303 in human glioma peritumoral tissue: implications for glioma epileptogenesis.
Neurosurg Focus. 2014; 37(6):E17 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECT: Peritumoral seizures are an early symptom of a glioma. To gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying tumor-induced epileptogenesis, the authors studied modulation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in peritumoral tissue.
METHODS: To study the possible etiology of peritumoral seizures, NMDA receptor expression, posttranslational modification, and function were analyzed in an orthotopic mouse model of human gliomas and primary patient glioma tissue in which the peritumoral border (tumor-brain interface) was preserved in a tissue block during surgery.
RESULTS: The authors found that the NMDA receptor containing the 2B subunit (NR2B), a predominantly extrasynaptic receptor, is highly phosphorylated at S1013 in the neurons located in the periglioma area of the mouse brain. NR2B is also highly phosphorylated at S1013 in the neurons located in the peritumoral area from human brain tissue containing a glioma. The phosphorylation of the extrasynaptic NMDA receptor increases its permeability for Ca(2+) influx and subsequently mediates neuronal overexcitation and seizure activity.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that overexcitation of the extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in the peritumoral neurons may contribute to the development of peritumoral seizures and that the phosphorylated NR2B may be a therapeutic target for blocking primary brain tumor-induced peritumoral seizures.

Jelínková I, Šafaříková B, Vondálová Blanářová O, et al.
Platinum(IV) complex LA-12 exerts higher ability than cisplatin to enhance TRAIL-induced cancer cell apoptosis via stimulation of mitochondrial pathway.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2014; 92(3):415-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
In search for novel strategies in colon cancer treatment, we investigated the unique ability of platinum(IV) complex LA-12 to efficiently enhance the killing effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), and compared it with the sensitizing action of cisplatin. We provide the first evidence that LA-12 primes human colon cancer cells for TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity by p53-independent activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The cooperative action of LA-12 and TRAIL was associated with stimulation of Bax/Bak activation, drop of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-9 activation, and a shift of the balance among Bcl-2 family proteins in favor of the pro-apoptotic members. In contrast to cisplatin, LA-12 was a potent inducer of ERK-mediated Noxa and BimL protein upregulation, and more effectively enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the absence of Bax. The cooperative action of LA-12 and TRAIL was augmented following the siRNA-mediated silencing of Mcl-1 in both Bax proficient/deficient cells. We newly demonstrated that LA-12 induced ERK-mediated c-Myc upregulation, and proved that c-Myc silencing inhibited the mitochondrial activation and apoptosis in colon cancer cells treated with LA-12 and TRAIL. The LA-12-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis was demonstrated in several colon cancer cell lines, further underscoring the general relevance of our findings. The selective action of LA-12 was documented by preferential priming of cancer but not normal colon cancer cells to TRAIL killing effects. Our work highlights the promising potential of LA-12 over cisplatin to enhance the colon cancer cell sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and provides new mechanistic insights into their cooperative action.

Pan LL, Wang AY, Huang YQ, et al.
Mangiferin induces apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 and Bax expression in the CNE2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(17):7065-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the anti-proliferative mechanism of mangiferin in a human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line, CNE2 cells were incubated with different concentrations of mangiferin (12.5, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μM) or with PBS as a control for 72 hours. Analyses were made of the cell cycle and apoptosis with measurement of mRNA and protein levels of two apoptosis-related genes, Bcl-2 and Bax. Flow cytometry assays showed mangiferin could inhibit CNE2 cell proliferation via G2/M arrest and induction of early apoptosis. Real time PCR and Western blotting showed the mRNA and protein level of Bcl-2 to be down-regulated, while those of Bax were up-regulated, when CNE2 cells were treated with mangiferin. This investigation indicated anti-proliferation effects of mangiferin through induction of cell apoptosis regulated by Bcl-2 and Bax expression.

Zhou T, Zhang B, Wei P, et al.
Energy metabolism analysis reveals the mechanism of inhibition of breast cancer cell metastasis by PEG-modified graphene oxide nanosheets.
Biomaterials. 2014; 35(37):9833-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent advances in nanomedicine provide promising alternatives for cancer treatment that may improve the survival of patients with metastatic disease. The goal of the present study was to evaluate graphene oxide (GO) as a potential anti-metastatic agent. For this purpose, GO was modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to form PEG-modified GO (PEG-GO), which improves its aqueous stability and biocompatibility. We show here that PEG-GO exhibited no apparent effects on the viability of breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-436, and SK-BR-3) or non-cancerous cells (MCF-10A), but inhibited cancer cell migration in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of cellular energy metabolism revealed that PEG-GO significantly impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in breast cancer cells; however, PEG-GO showed no effect on OXPHOS in non-cancerous cells. To explore the underlying mechanisms, a SILAC (Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture) labeling strategy was used to quantify protein expression in PEG-GO-exposed breast cancer versus non-cancerous cells. The results indicated that PEG-GO selectively down-regulated PGC-1α in breast cancer cells and thus modified the expression of diverse energy generation-related proteins, which accounts for the inhibition of OXPHOS. The inhibition of OXPHOS by PEG-GO significantly reduced ATP production and impaired assembly of the F-actin cytoskeleton in breast cancer cells, which is required for the migratory and invasive phenotype of cancer cells. Taken together, these effects of PEG-GO on cancer cell metastasis may allow the development of a new approach to treat metastatic breast cancer.

Cheng YJ, Ding H, Du HQ, et al.
Downregulation of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 by shRNA sensitizes U251 xenografts to radiotherapy.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(4):1513-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) has been demonstrated to be involved in radioresistance. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of PGK1 on the radioresistance in vivo. U251 glioma cells were transfected with the short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-PGK1 and pcDNA3.1-PGK1 using Lipofectamine 2000. The radiosensitivity of U251 xenografts was observed by tumor growth curve following radiotherapy. Quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate PGK1 expression in the xenografts from the different tumor models. The expression of PGK1 was maximally inhibited in response to shRNA4 at 24 h after the transfection in vitro. Tumor growth of the U251 xenografts was significantly inhibited following treatment with shRNA-PGK1 and radiotherapy. The expression of PGK1 in vivo at the mRNA and protein levels was downregulated by the treatment of shRNA1 when compared to levels following treatment with shNC and PBS after radiotherapy. The results showed that suppression of PGK1 enhanced the radiosensitivity of U251 xenografts and suggest that PGK1 may serve as a useful target in the treatment of radioresistant glioma.

Li XX, Zheng HT, Huang LY, et al.
Silencing of CXCR7 gene represses growth and invasion and induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer through ERK and β-arrestin pathways.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(4):1649-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
The CXC chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) has been reported to be involved in cell growth, metastasis and apoptosis in certain cancers. However, the function and molecular mechanisms of CXCR7 in human colorectal cancer (CRC) are still undefined. In the present study, sixty-eight cases of CRC tissues and corresponding adjacent non-cancer tissues (ANCT) were collected, and the expression of CXCR7 was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in biopsy samples. Furthermore, CXCR7 gene was silenced by small hairpin RNA-mediated lentiviral vector (Lv-shCXCR7), by transfection into human CRC cells (SW480 and HT-29). The levels of p-ERK, β-arrestin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), matrix metallopeptidase-2 (MMP-2) and caspase-3 (CAS-3) were detected by western blotting. Cell proliferative activities and invasive capability were respectively measured by MTT and Transwell assays. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that CXCR7 expression was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues compared with the ANCT (54.4 vs. 36.8%, P=0.041), and correlated with Dukes staging and depth of invasion (P=0.007; P=0.002). Silencing of CXCR7 gene suppressed cell proliferation and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis in CRC cells with decreased expression of p-ERK, β-arrestin, PCNA and MMP-2 but increased expression of CAS-3. The tumor volumes in the SW480 subcutaneous tumor models treated with Lv-shCXCR7 were significantly smaller than those of the negative control (NC) and PBS groups (P<0.01). In conclusion, our findings indicate that upregulation of CXCR7 expression is associated with tumor invasion, and silencing of the CXCR7 gene represses the development of CRC cells through ERK and β-arrestin pathways, suggesting that CXCR7 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of CRC.

Skender B, Hofmanová J, Slavík J, et al.
DHA-mediated enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells is associated with engagement of mitochondria and specific alterations in sphingolipid metabolism.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1841(9):1308-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in fish oil, may exert cytotoxic and/or cytostatic effects on colon cancer cells when applied individually or in combination with some anticancer drugs. Here we demonstrate a selective ability of subtoxic doses of DHA to enhance antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of clinically useful cytokine TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand) in cancer but not normal human colon cells. DHA-mediated stimulation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis was associated with extensive engagement of mitochondrial pathway (Bax/Bak activation, drop of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release), activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress response (CHOP upregulation, changes in PERK level), decrease of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP, cIAP1) levels and significant changes in sphingolipid metabolism (intracellular levels of ceramides, hexosyl ceramides, sphingomyelines, sphingosines; HPLC/MS/MS). Interestingly, we found significant differences in representation of various classes of ceramides (especially C16:0, C24:1) between the cancer and normal colon cells treated with DHA and TRAIL, and suggested their potential role in the regulation of the cell response to the drug combination. These study outcomes highlight the potential of DHA for a new combination therapy with TRAIL for selective elimination of colon cancer cells via simultaneous targeting of multiple steps in apoptotic pathways.

Rajgor D, Mellad JA, Soong D, et al.
Mammalian microtubule P-body dynamics are mediated by nesprin-1.
J Cell Biol. 2014; 205(4):457-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nesprins are a multi-isomeric family of spectrin-repeat (SR) proteins, predominantly known as nuclear envelope scaffolds. However, isoforms that function beyond the nuclear envelope remain poorly examined. Here, we characterize p50(Nesp1), a 50-kD isoform that localizes to processing bodies (PBs), where it acts as a microtubule-associated protein capable of linking mRNP complexes to microtubules. Overexpression of dominant-negative p50(Nesp1) caused Rck/p54, but not GW182, displacement from microtubules, resulting in reduced PB movement and cross talk with stress granules (SGs). These cells disassembled canonical SGs induced by sodium arsenite, but not those induced by hydrogen peroxide, leading to cell death and revealing PB-microtubule attachment is required for hydrogen peroxide-induced SG anti-apoptotic functions. Furthermore, p50(Nesp1) was required for miRNA-mediated silencing and interacted with core miRISC silencers Ago2 and Rck/p54 in an RNA-dependent manner and with GW182 in a microtubule-dependent manner. These data identify p50(Nesp1) as a multi-functional PB component and microtubule scaffold necessary for RNA granule dynamics and provides evidence for PB and SG micro-heterogeneity.

Zhou Y, Zhang C, Liang W
Development of RNAi technology for targeted therapy--a track of siRNA based agents to RNAi therapeutics.
J Control Release. 2014; 193:270-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
RNA interference (RNAi) was intensively studied in the past decades due to its potential in therapy of diseases. The target specificity and universal treatment spectrum endowed siRNA advantages over traditional small molecules and protein drugs. However, barriers exist in the blood circulation system and the diseased tissues blocked the actualization of RNAi effect, which raised function versatility requirements to siRNA therapeutic agents. Appropriate functionalization of siRNAs is necessary to break through these barriers and target diseased tissues in local or systemic targeted application. In this review, we summarized that barriers exist in the delivery process and popular functionalized technologies for siRNA such as chemical modification and physical encapsulation. Preclinical targeted siRNA delivery and the current status of siRNA based RNAi therapeutic agents in clinical trial were reviewed and finally the future of siRNA delivery was proposed. The valuable experience from the siRNA agent delivery study and the RNAi therapeutic agents in clinical trial paved ways for practical RNAi therapeutics to emerge early.

Lee HW, Singh TD, Lee SW, et al.
Evaluation of therapeutic effects of natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy in mice using in vivo apoptosis bioimaging with a caspase-3 sensor.
FASEB J. 2014; 28(7):2932-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy is a promising strategy for cancer treatment, and caspase-3 is an important effector molecule in NK cell-mediated apoptosis in cancers. Here, we evaluated the antitumor effects of NK cell-based immunotherapy by serial noninvasive imaging of apoptosis using a caspase-3 sensor in mice with human glioma xenografts. Human glioma cells expressing both a caspase-3 sensor as a surrogate marker for caspase-3 activation and Renilla luciferase (Rluc) as a surrogate marker for cell viability were established and referred to as D54-CR cells. Human NK92 cells were used as effector cells. Treatment with NK92 cells resulted in a time- and effector number-dependent increase in bioluminescence imaging (BLI) activity of the caspase-3 sensor in D54-CR cells in vitro. Caspase-3 activation by NK92 treatment was blocked by Z-VAD treatment in D54-CR cells. Transfusion of NK92 cells induced an increase of the BLI signal by caspase-3 activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner in D54-CR tumor-bearing mice but not in PBS-treated mice. Accordingly, sequential BLI with the Rluc reporter gene revealed marked retardation of tumor growth in the NK92-treatment group but not in the PBS-treatment group. These data suggest that noninvasive imaging of apoptosis with a caspase-3 sensor can be used as an effective tool for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy as well as for optimization of NK cell-based immunotherapy.-Lee, H. W., Singh, T. D., Lee, S.-W., Ha, J.-H., Rehemtulla, A., Ahn, B.-C., Jeon, Y.-H., Lee, J. Evaluation of therapeutic effects of natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy in mice using in vivo apoptosis bioimaging with a caspase-3 sensor.

Jiang Q, Yu YC, Ding XJ, et al.
Bioinformatics analysis reveals significant genes and pathways to target for oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(5):2273-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to explore the molecular mechanisms in the process of oral squamous cells carcinoma (OSCC) development.
METHOD: We downloaded the affymetrix microarray data GSE31853 and identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between OSCC and normal tissues. Then Gene Ontology (GO) and Protein-Protein interaction (PPI) networks analysis was conducted to investigate the DEGs at the function level.
RESULTS: A total 372 DEGs with logFC| >1 and P value < 0.05 were obtained , including NNMT, BAX, MMP9 and VEGF. The enriched GO terms mainly were associated with the nucleoplasm, response to DNA damage stimuli and DNA repair. PPI network analysis indicated that GMNN and TSPO were significant hub proteins and steroid biosynthesis and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies were significantly dysregulated pathways.
CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the genes and pathways identified in our work may play critical roles in OSCC development. Our data provides a comprehensive perspective to understand mechanisms underlying OSCC and the significant genes (proteins) and pathways may be targets for therapy in the future.

Jiang M, Xu X, Bi Y, et al.
Systemic inflammation promotes lung metastasis via E-selectin upregulation in mouse breast cancer model.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2014; 15(6):789-96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Systemic inflammation might modulate the microenvironment in the lungs and promotes metastasis. E-selectin, an inflammation inducible endothelial cell adhesion molecule, has been reported to play an important role in homing metastatic cancer cells. To study the effects of E-selectin expression induced by systemic inflammation on breast cancer metastasis, we first treated BALB/c mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce systemic inflammation. Pulmonary tissues were analyzed by wet/dry ratio, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemistry. Then 4T1 cells were injected via tail vein. Lung surface metastasis was counted and detected by histological analysis. LPS-induced E-selectin expression and tumor cells adhesion were assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescence. The circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines in sera were evaluated by ELISA. Our results showed that a significant increase in breast cancer metastasis to lungs was observed in LPS-treated mice vs. the PBS-treated mice, accompanying with an increased E-selectin expression in pulmonary tissue of LPS-treated mice. In vitro studies showed a significant elevation of E-selectin production in MPVECs which enhanced the adhesion activity of 4T1 cells. Treatment with anti-E-selectin antibody significantly reduced the development of metastasis in vivo, and significantly reduced the adhesion of 4T1 cells to MPVECs in vitro. Our results suggest that systemic inflammation may increase the expression of E-selectin which mediated the lung metastasis of breast cancer in mouse model.

Polato F, Rusconi P, Zangrossi S, et al.
DRAGO (KIAA0247), a new DNA damage-responsive, p53-inducible gene that cooperates with p53 as oncosuppressor. [Corrected].
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(4):dju053 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: p53 influences genomic stability, apoptosis, autophagy, response to stress, and DNA damage. New p53-target genes could elucidate mechanisms through which p53 controls cell integrity and response to damage.
METHODS: DRAGO (drug-activated gene overexpressed, KIAA0247) was characterized by bioinformatics methods as well as by real-time polymerase chain reaction, chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays, time-lapse microscopy, and cell viability assays. Transgenic mice (94 p53(-/-) and 107 p53(+/-) mice on a C57BL/6J background) were used to assess DRAGO activity in vivo. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and the Mantel-Haenszel test. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: We identified DRAGO as a new p53-responsive gene induced upon treatment with DNA-damaging agents. DRAGO is highly conserved, and its ectopic overexpression resulted in growth suppression and cell death. DRAGO(-/-) mice are viable without macroscopic alterations. However, in p53(-/-) or p53(+/-) mice, the deletion of both DRAGO alleles statistically significantly accelerated tumor development and shortened lifespan compared with p53(-/-) or p53(+/-) mice bearing wild-type DRAGO alleles (p53(-/-), DRAGO(-/-) mice: hazard ratio [HR] = 3.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7 to 6.1, P < .001; p53(+/-), DRAGO(-/-) mice: HR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.3 to 4.0, P < .001; both groups compared with DRAGO(+/+) counterparts). DRAGO mRNA levels were statistically significantly reduced in advanced-stage, compared with early-stage, ovarian tumors, but no mutations were found in several human tumors. We show that DRAGO expression is regulated both at transcriptional-through p53 (and p73) and methylation-dependent control-and post-transcriptional levels by miRNAs.
CONCLUSIONS: DRAGO represents a new p53-dependent gene highly regulated in human cells and whose expression cooperates with p53 in tumor suppressor functions.

Ueno T, Toyooka S, Fukazawa T, et al.
Preclinical evaluation of microRNA-34b/c delivery for malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Acta Med Okayama. 2014; 68(1):23-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The microRNA-34s (miR-34s) have p53 response elements in their 5'-flanking regions and demonstrate tumor-suppressive functions. In malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), we previously reported that expression of miR-34b and miR-34c (miR-34b/c) was frequently downregulated by methylation in MPM cell lines and primary tumors. The forced overexpression of miR-34b/c showed significant antitumor effects with the induction of apoptosis in MPM cells. In this study, we examined the in vivo antitumor effects of miR-34b/c using adenovirus vector on MPM. We subcutaneously transplanted NCI-H290, a human MPM cell line, into BALB/C mice and injected adenovirus vector expressing miR-34b/c, luciferase driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter (Ad-miR-34b/c or Ad-Luc), or PBS control into tumors over 5mm in diameter. A statistically significant growth inhibition of the tumor volume was observed in the Ad-miR-34b/c group from day 6 onward compared to the Ad-Luc group. The inhibition rate of Ad-miR-34b/c, compared to the tumor volume treated with Ad-Luc, was 58.6% on day 10 and 54.7% on day13. Our results indicate that adenovirus-mediated miR-34b/c gene therapy could be useful for the clinical treatment of MPM.

Yuan Y, Xue L, Fan H
Screening of differentially expressed genes related to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and functional analysis with DNA microarrays.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(4):1163-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to find disease-associated genes and gene functions in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) with DNA microarrays. We downloaded the gene expression profile GSE20347 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database including 17 ESCC and 17 matched normal adjacent tissue samples. Compared with normal samples, the probe level data were pre-processed and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified (FDR <0.05, and |logFC|>2) with packages in R language. The selected DEGs were further analyzed with bioinformatic methods. After an interaction network of DEGs was constructed by STRING, we selected the most important hub gene through network topological analysis (including node degree, clustering coefficient and path length) and analyzed functions and pathways of the hub gene network. A total of 538 genes were filtered as DEGs between normal and disease samples, and we selected the gene TSPO as the most important hub gene. Among its interactors, the CTSK gene and the IL8 gene participated in the toll-like receptor signaling pathway which is closely related to tumor occurrence. The TSPO gene and its interactors may affect the cancer-specific gene expression by participating in the toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Our discovery may be useful in investigating the complex interacting mechanisms underlying the disease. However, further experiments are still needed to confirm our result.

Jun KH, Gholami S, Song TJ, et al.
A novel oncolytic viral therapy and imaging technique for gastric cancer using a genetically engineered vaccinia virus carrying the human sodium iodide symporter.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancers have poor overall survival despite recent advancements in early detection methods, endoscopic resection techniques, and chemotherapy treatments. Vaccinia viral therapy has had promising therapeutic potential for various cancers and has a great safety profile. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a novel genetically-engineered vaccinia virus carrying the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene, GLV-1 h153, on gastric cancers and its potential utility for imaging with (99m)Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy and ¹²⁴I positron emission tomography (PET).
METHODS: GLV-1 h153 was tested against five human gastric cancer cell lines using cytotoxicity and standard viral plaque assays. In vivo, subcutaneous flank tumors were generated in nude mice with human gastric cancer cells, MKN-74. Tumors were subsequently injected with either GLV-1 h153 or PBS and followed for tumor growth. (99m)Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy and ¹²⁴I microPET imaging were performed.
RESULTS: GFP expression, a surrogate for viral infectivity, confirmed viral infection by 24 hours. At a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1, GLV-1 h153 achieved > 90% cytotoxicity in MNK-74, OCUM-2MD3, and AGS over 9 days, and >70% cytotoxicity in MNK- 45 and TMK-1. In vivo, GLV-1 h153 was effective in treating xenografts (p < 0.001) after 2 weeks of treatment. GLV-1 h153-infected tumors were readily imaged by (99m)Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy and ¹²⁴I microPET imaging 2 days after treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: GLV-1 h153 is an effective oncolytic virus expressing the hNIS protein that can efficiently regress gastric tumors and allow deep-tissue imaging. These data encourages its continued investigation in clinical settings.

Xu M, Wang Y, Chen L, et al.
Down-regulation of ribosomal protein S15A mRNA with a short hairpin RNA inhibits human hepatic cancer cell growth in vitro.
Gene. 2014; 536(1):84-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ribosomal protein s15a (RPS15A) is a highly conserved protein that promotes mRNA/ribosome interactions early in translation. Recent evidence showed that RPS15A could stimulate growth in yeast, plant and human lung carcinoma. Here we report that RPS15A knockdown could inhibit hepatic cancer cell growth in vitro. When transduced with shRPS15A-containing lentivirus, we observed inhibited cell proliferation and impaired colony formation in both HepG2 and Bel7404 cells. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis showed that HepG2 cells were arrested at the G0/G1 phase when transduced with Lv-shRPS15A. In conclusion, our findings provide for the first time the biological effects of RPS15A in hepatic cancer cell growth. RPS15A may play a prominent role in heptocarcinogenesis and serve as a potential therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Kim J, Park RY, Chen JK, et al.
Splicing factor SRSF3 represses the translation of programmed cell death 4 mRNA by associating with the 5'-UTR region.
Cell Death Differ. 2014; 21(3):481-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3), a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of proteins, regulates both alternative splicing of pre-mRNA and export of mature mRNA from the nucleus. Although its role in nuclear mRNA processing is well understood, the mechanism by which it alters the fate of cytoplasmic mRNA molecules remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that SRSF3 not only regulates the alternative splicing pattern of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) mRNA, but also modulates its translational efficiency in the cytoplasm by lowering translation levels. We observed a marked increase in PDCD4 mRNA in translating polysome fractions upon silencing of SRSF3, and, conversely, ectopic overexpression of SRSF3 shifted PDCD4 mRNA into non-translating ribosomal fractions. In live cells, SRSF3 colocalized with PDCD4 mRNA in P-bodies (PBs), where translationally silenced mRNAs are deposited, and this localization was abrogated upon SRSF3 silencing. Furthermore, using two different reporter systems, we showed that SRSF3 interacts directly with PDCD4 mRNA and mediates translational repression by binding to the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR). In summary, our data suggest that the oncogenic potential of SRSF3 might be realized, in part, through the translational repression of PDCD4 mRNA.

Qiu Y, Zhang ZY, Du WD, et al.
Association analysis of ERBB2 amplicon genetic polymorphisms and STARD3 expression with risk of gastric cancer in the Chinese population.
Gene. 2014; 535(2):225-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether risk of gastric cancer (GC) was associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a gene cluster on the chromosome 17q12-q21 (ERBB2 amplicon) in the Chinese Han population. We detected twenty-six SNPs in this gene cluster containing steroidogenic acute regulatory-related lipid transfer domain containing 3 (STARD3), protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 1B (PPP1R1B/DARPP32), titin-cap (TCAP), per1-like domain containing 1(PERLD1/CAB2), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (ERBB2/HER2), zinc-finger protein subfamily 1A 3 (ZNFN1A3/IKZF3) and DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A) genes in 311 patients with GC and in 425 controls by Sequenom. We found no associations between genetic variations and GC risk. However, haplotype analysis implied that the haplotype CCCT of STARD3 (rs9972882, rs881844, rs11869286 and rs1877031) conferred a protective effect on the susceptibility to GC (P=0.043, odds ratio [OR]=0.805, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI]=0.643-0.992). The STARD3 rs1877031 TC genotype endued histogenesis of gastric mucinous adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma (P=0.021, OR=2.882, 95% CI=1.173-7.084). We examined the expression of STARD3 in 243 tumor tissues out of the 311 GC patients and 20 adjacent normal gastric tissues using immumohistochemical (IHC) analysis and tissue microarrays (TMA). The expression of STARD3 was observed in the gastric parietal cells and in gastric tumor tissues and significantly correlated with gender (P=0.004), alcohol drinking (P<0.001), tumor location (P=0.007), histological type (P=0.005) and differentiation (P=0.023) in GC. We concluded that the combined effect of haplotype CCCT of STARD3 might affect GC susceptibility. STARD3 expression might be related to the tumorigenesis of GC in the Chinese population.

Tanabe A, Konno J, Tanikawa K, Sahara H
Transcriptional machinery of TNF-α-inducible YTH domain containing 2 (YTHDC2) gene.
Gene. 2014; 535(1):24-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously demonstrated that a cellular factor, cyclosporin A (CsA) associated helicase-like protein (CAHL) that is identical to YTH domain containing 2 (YTHDC2), forms trimer complex with cyclophilin B and NS5B of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and facilitates HCV genome replication. Gene expression of YTHDC2 was shown in tumor cell lines and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-treated hepatocytes, but not in untreated. However, the function of YTHDC2 in the tumor cells and the mechanism by which the YTHDC2 gene is transcribed in these cells is largely unknown. We first evaluated that the role of YTHDC2 in the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line Huh7 using RNA interference and found that YTHDC2-downregulated Huh7 were significantly decreased cell growth as compared to control. We next demonstrated that the cAMP response element (CRE) site in the promoter region of the YTHDC2 gene is critical for YTHDC2 transcription. To further investigate the transcription factors bound to the CRE site, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our findings demonstrate that c-Jun and ATF-2 bind to the CRE site in Huh7, and that TNF-α induces the biological activity of these transcription factors in hepatocytes as well as Huh7. Moreover, treatment with the HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), reduces YTHDC2 expression in Huh7 and in TNF-α-stimulated hepatocytes. Collectively, these data show that YTHDC2 plays an important role in tumor cells growth and activation/recruitment of c-Jun and ATF-2 to the YTHDC2 promoter is necessary for the transcription of YTHDC2, and that HDAC activity is required for the efficient expression of YTHDC2 in both of hepatocyte and HCC cells.

Rajagopalan K, Qiu R, Mooney SM, et al.
The Stress-response protein prostate-associated gene 4, interacts with c-Jun and potentiates its transactivation.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1842(2):154-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Cancer/Testis Antigen (CTA), Prostate-associated Gene 4 (PAGE4), is a stress-response protein that is upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) especially in precursor lesions that result from inflammatory stress. In cells under stress, translocation of PAGE4 to mitochondria increases while production of reactive oxygen species decreases. Furthermore, PAGE4 is also upregulated in human fetal prostate, underscoring its potential role in development. However, the proteins that interact with PAGE4 and the mechanisms underlying its pleiotropic functions in prostatic development and disease remain unknown. Here, we identified c-Jun as a PAGE4 interacting partner. We show that both PAGE4 and c-Jun are overexpressed in the human fetal prostate; and in cell-based assays, PAGE4 robustly potentiates c-Jun transactivation. Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer experiments indicate that upon binding to c-Jun, PAGE4 undergoes conformational changes. However, no interaction is observed in presence of BSA or unilamellar vesicles containing the mitochondrial inner membrane diphosphatidylglycerol lipid marker cardiolipin. Together, our data indicate that PAGE4 specifically interacts with c-Jun and that, conformational dynamics may account for its observed pleiotropic functions. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating crosstalk between a CTA and a proto-oncogene. Disrupting PAGE4/c-Jun interactions using small molecules may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for PCa.

Chu HC, Lee HY, Huang YS, et al.
Erythroid differentiation is augmented in Reelin-deficient K562 cells and homozygous reeler mice.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(1):58-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein that is highly conserved in mammals. In addition to its expression in the nervous system, Reelin is present in erythroid cells but its function there is unknown. We report in this study that Reelin is up-regulated during erythroid differentiation of human erythroleukemic K562 cells and is expressed in the erythroid progenitors of murine bone marrow. Reelin deficiency promotes erythroid differentiation of K562 cells and augments erythroid production in murine bone marrow. In accordance with these findings, Reelin deficiency attenuates AKT phosphorylation of the Ter119(+)CD71(+) erythroid progenitors and alters the cell number and frequency of the progenitors at different erythroid differentiation stages. A regulatory role of Reelin in erythroid differentiation is thus defined.

Ou JM, Ye B, Qiu MK, et al.
Knockdown of Livin inhibits growth and invasion of gastric cancer cells through blockade of the MAPK pathway in vitro and in vivo.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(1):276-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Livin, a novel member of the human inhibitors of apoptosis protein family, has been shown to be critical for tumor progression and poor prognosis for several types of malignancies. However, limited reports exist regarding the biological functions of Livin in human gastric cancer (GC). The present study investigated the clinical significance of Livin and caspase-3 (CAS-3) in human GC using immunohistochemistry assay, and explore the potential using RNA interference to knockdown Livin expression, including the subsequent effects on tumor growth and invasion in GC cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that the rate of positive expression of Livin was significantly higher in GC tissues compared to that in adjacent non-cancer tissues (ANCT) (64.1 vs. 30.8%, P<0.001), while CAS-3 was lower in GC tissues than in ANCT (33.3 vs. 66.7%, P=0.001). Livin expression was positively correlated with tumor differentiation and lymph node metastases (P=0.009; P=0.007), while CAS-3 was negatively correlated with them (P=0.036; P=0.002) in patients with GC. Furthermore, knockdown of Livin inhibited cell proliferative activities and invasive potential, and induced cell in situ apoptosis in GC cells, accompanied with decreased expression of p38 MAPK, VEGF and MMP-2 and increased expression of CAS-3. In addition, the tumor volumes in the SGC7901 subcutaneous nude mouse model treated with Lv-shLivin was significantly smaller compared to those of the PBS group (P<0.01). Taken together, our findings indicate that the expression of Livin is increased in human GC and correlates with tumor differentiation and lymph node metastases, while knockdown of Livin inhibits cell growth and invasion through blockade of the MAPK pathway in GC cells, suggesting that Livin may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of GC.

Xu YY, Chen L, Wang GL, et al.
A synthetic dsRNA, as a TLR3 pathwaysynergist, combined with sorafenib suppresses HCC in vitro and in vivo.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:527 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that synthetic dsRNAs may produce therapeutic effects in a target-independent manner through stimulation of the toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3)/interferon pathway; as a result, angiogenesis and proliferation of tumor cells are inhibited. Thus, this pathway may become a potential target of dsRNA in tumor suppression. In this study, we evaluated the role of synthetic dsRNA as a TLR3 synergist and by combining with sorafenib in anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: Four dsRNAs were designed and synthesized. One of them that was capable of activating TLR3 most effectively in human HCC cell line (HepG2.2.15) was selected as a TLR3 synergist (called BM-06). Subsequently, the expression of proteins relating to TLR3 signaling pathway, such as NF-κB, caspase 8 survivin, bcl-2 and PCNA affected by BM-06, sorafenib alone or in combination, was compared. The migration, proliferation and apoptosis of HepG2.2.15 cells were evaluated in presence of BM-06, sorafenib alone or in combination of both. The similar treatments were also applied in an SD rat primary HCC model.
RESULTS: qRT-PCR data showed that the expression of TLR3 and NF-κB in HepG2.2.15 cells was enhanced. BM-06 was selected as a TLR3 synergist capable of activating the TLR3/interferon pathway most effective among 4 synthetic dsRNAs. The migration and proliferation were significantly inhibited in treated HepG2.2.15 cells with BM-06 or Sorafenib alone as compared with PBS-sham control (P<0.01). However, the role of combination BM-06 with Sorafenib was the most prominent. Tumor cell apoptotic rate was increased by BM-06 or combination when compared to PBS or poly(I:C) (P<0.05). Similarly, in orthotopic HCC SD rats, the effect of the combination was superior to either agent alone on the inhibition of tumor growth and induction of HCC cell apoptosis (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: dsRNA alone was capable of inhibiting the proliferation of HepG2.2.15 cells and tumor growth of orthotopic HCC SD rats, but the effect of combination of dsRNA with sorafenib was more prominent. These findings implicate the potential role of combined use of a dsRNA, a TLR3 synergist, and sorafenib in inhibition of HCC.

Roomi MW, Kalinovsky T, Rath M, Niedzwiecki A
In vitro modulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in pediatric human sarcoma cell lines by cytokines, inducers and inhibitors.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(1):27-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The highly aggressive pediatric sarcomas are characterized by high levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which play crucial roles in tumor invasion and metastasis by degradation of the extracellular membrane leading to cancer cell spread to distal organs. We examined the effects of cytokines, mitogens, inducers and inhibitors on MMP-2 and -9 expression in osteosarcoma (U2OS) and rhabdomyosarcoma (RD). The selected compounds included natural cytokines and growth factors, as well as chemical compounds applied in therapy of sarcoma and natural compounds that have demonstrated anticancer therapeutic potential. These cell lines were cultured in their respective media to near confluence and the cells were washed with PBS and incubated in serum-free medium with various concentrations of several cytokines, mitogens and inhibitors. After 24 h the media were removed and analyzed for MMP-2 and -9 by gelatinase zymography and quantitated by densitometry. Osteosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma showed bands corresponding to MMP-2 and -9 with dose-dependent enhancement of MMP-9 with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and LPS enhanced osteosarcoma U2OS MMP-9 secretion but had no effect on MMP-2 secretion. Tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated rhabdomyosarcoma MMP-2 expression, but had no effect on MMP-9 secretion. Doxycycline, epigallocatechin gallate, nutrient mixture (NM), actinomycin-D, cyclohexamide, retinoic acid and dexamethasone inhibited MMP-2 and -9 in U2OS osteosarcoma cells. PMA-treated RD cells showed dose-response inhibition of MMP-9 by doxycycline and epigallocatechin gallate and both MMPs by NM. Dexamethasone and actinomycin-D showed inhibition of MMP-2 secretion of RD cells. Our results show that cytokines, mitogens and inducers show variable upregulation of U2OS osteosarcoma and RD rhabdomyosarcoma MMP-2 and -9 secretion, and inhibitors demonstrate downregulation under stimulatory conditions, suggesting the application of these agents for the development of effective therapies in pediatric sarcomas.

Gholami S, Chen CH, Lou E, et al.
Vaccinia virus GLV-1h153 in combination with 131I shows increased efficiency in treating triple-negative breast cancer.
FASEB J. 2014; 28(2):676-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a replication-competent oncolytic vaccinia virus, GLV-1h153, carrying human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS), in combination with radioiodine in an orthotopic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) murine model. In vitro viral infection was confirmed by immunoblotting and radioiodine uptake assays. Orthotopic xenografts (MDA-MB-231 cells) received intratumoral injection of GLV-1h153 or PBS. One week after viral injection, xenografts were randomized into 4 treatment groups: GLV-1h153 alone, GLV-1h153 and (131)I (∼ 5 mCi), (131)I alone, or PBS, and followed for tumor growth. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were performed for statistical analysis. Radiouptake assay showed a 178-fold increase of radioiodine uptake in hNIS-expressing infected cells compared with PBS control. Systemic (131)I-iodide in combination with GLV-1h153 resulted in a 6-fold increase in tumor regression (24 compared to 146 mm(3) for the virus-only treatment group; P<0.05; d 40). We demonstrated that a novel vaccinia virus, GLV-1h153, expresses hNIS, increases the expression of the symporter in TNBC cells, and serves both as a gene marker for noninvasive imaging of virus and as a vehicle for targeted radionuclide therapy with (131)I.

Ju SY, Chiou SH, Su Y
Maintenance of the stemness in CD44(+) HCT-15 and HCT-116 human colon cancer cells requires miR-203 suppression.
Stem Cell Res. 2014; 12(1):86-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to isolate cancer stem cells (CSCs, also called tumor-initiating cells, TICs) from established human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cell lines, characterize them extensively and dissect the mechanism for their stemness. Freshly isolated CD44(+) and CD44(-) cells from the HCT-15 human colon cancer cell line were subjected to various analyses. Interestingly, CD44(+) cells exhibited higher soft agar colony-forming ability and in vivo tumorigenicity than CD44(-) cells. In addition, the significant upregulation of the protein Snail and the downregulation of miR-203, a stemness inhibitor, in CD44(+) cells suggested that this population possessed higher invasion/metastasis and differentiation potential than CD44(-) cells. By manipulating the expression of CD44 in HCT-15 and HCT-116 cells, we found that the levels of several EMT activators and miR-203 were positively and negatively correlated with those of CD44, respectively. Further analyses revealed that miR-203 levels were repressed by Snail, which was shown to bind to specific E-box(es) present in the miR-203 promoter. In agreement, silencing miR-203 expression in wild-type HCT-116 human colon cancer cells also resulted in an increase of their stemness. Finally, we discovered that c-Src kinase activity was required for the downregulation of miR-203 in HCT-15 cells, which was stimulated by the interaction between hyaluronan (HA) and CD44. Taken together, CD44 is a critical molecule for modulating stemness in CSCs. More importantly, we show for the first time that the downregulation of miR-203 by HA/CD44 signaling is the main reason for stemness-maintenance in colon cancer cells.

Lange I, Geerts D, Feith DJ, et al.
Novel interaction of ornithine decarboxylase with sepiapterin reductase regulates neuroblastoma cell proliferation.
J Mol Biol. 2014; 426(2):332-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the sentinel enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. Both ODC and polyamines regulate cell division, proliferation, and apoptosis. Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthase, and has been implicated in neurological diseases but not yet in cancer. In this study, we present compelling evidence that native ODC and SPR physically interact, and we defined the individual amino acid residues involved in both enzymes using in silico protein-protein docking simulations. The resulting heterocomplex is a surprisingly compact structure, featuring two energetically and structurally equivalent binding modes both in monomer and in dimer conformations. The novel interaction between ODC and SPR proteins was confirmed under physiological conditions by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization in neuroblastoma (NB) cells. Importantly, we showed that siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated knockdown of SPR expression significantly reduced endogenous ODC enzyme activity in NB cells, thus demonstrating the biological relevance of the ODC-SPR interaction. Finally, in a cohort of 88 human NB tumors, we found that high SPR mRNA expression correlated significantly with poor survival prognosis using a Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank test, P=5 × 10(-4)), suggesting an oncogenic role for SPR in NB tumorigenesis. In conclusion, we showed that ODC binds SPR and thus propose a new concept in which two well-characterized biochemical pathways converge via the interaction of two enzymes. We identified SPR as a novel regulator of ODC enzyme activity and, based on clinical evidence, present a model in which SPR drives ODC-mediated malignant progression in NB.

Jo S, Lee H, Kim S, et al.
Korean red ginseng extract induces proliferation to differentiation transition of human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells via MYC-SKP2-CDKN1B axis.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 150(2):700-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Korean red ginseng has been used as traditional medicine in East Asia. Recent scientific research revealed multiple effects of Korean red ginseng, including anticancer activity. To evaluate the effect of Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and elucidate its molecular mechanism.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: NB4 cells were treated with 1mg/ml KRGE for 48 h and examined for cell proliferation and differentiation. Cell cycle distribution of KRGE-treated cells was analyzed and the expression level of G1 phase regulators was determined. MYC was overexpressed by retroviral transduction and its effect on SKP2 and CDKN1B gene expression, cell proliferation, cell cycle and differentiation was evaluated in KRGE-treated cells.
RESULTS: KRGE alone was sufficient to induce granulocytic differentiation accompanied with growth inhibition. KRGE treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase with augmented Cdkn1b proteins without changes in transcript levels. Cycloheximide treatment revealed reduced degradation of Cdkn1b protein by KRGE. In addition, KRGE treatment reduced expression of MYC and SKP2 genes, both at mRNA and protein levels. Upon ectopic expression of MYC, the effect of KRGE was reversed with lesser reduction and induction of SKP2 gene and Cdkn1b protein, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest a sequential molecular mechanism from MYC reduction, SKP2 reduction, Cdkn1b protein stabilization, G1 phase arrest to granulocytic differentiation by KRGE in human APL.
CONCLUSIONS: KRGE induces leukemic proliferation to differentiation transition in APL through modulation of the MYC-SKP2-CDKN1B axis.

Landa I, Boullosa C, Inglada-Pérez L, et al.
An epistatic interaction between the PAX8 and STK17B genes in papillary thyroid cancer susceptibility.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74765 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PTC) is a heterogeneous and complex disease; susceptibility to PTC is influenced by the joint effects of multiple common, low-penetrance genes, although relatively few have been identified to date. Here we applied a rigorous combined approach to assess both the individual and epistatic contributions of genetic factors to PTC susceptibility, based on one of the largest series of thyroid cancer cases described to date. In addition to identifying the involvement of TSHR variation in classic PTC, our pioneer study of epistasis revealed a significant interaction between variants in STK17B and PAX8. The interaction was detected by MD-MBR (p = 0.00010) and confirmed by other methods, and then replicated in a second independent series of patients (MD-MBR p = 0.017). Furthermore, we demonstrated an inverse correlation between expression of PAX8 and STK17B in a set of cell lines derived from human thyroid carcinomas. Overall, our work sheds additional light on the genetic basis of thyroid cancer susceptibility, and suggests a new direction for the exploration of the inherited genetic contribution to disease using association studies.

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