Gene Summary

Gene:TNFRSF6B; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 6b, decoy
Aliases: M68, TR6, DCR3, M68E, DJ583P15.1.1
Summary:This gene belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The encoded protein is postulated to play a regulatory role in suppressing FasL- and LIGHT-mediated cell death. It acts as a decoy receptor that competes with death receptors for ligand binding. Over-expression of this gene has been noted in gastrointestinal tract tumors. Read-through transcription into this gene from the neighboring upstream gene, which encodes regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1), generates a non-coding transcript. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

TNFRSF6B gene amplification and overexpression of the TNFRSF6B protein have been demonstrated in a range of different types of cancers (some listed below) and found to be a prognostic factor and linked to chemotherapy resistance in some studies.

FASL and FAS mediate immune-cytotoxic killing of virus-infected, cancer and other potentially harmful cells. Pitti et al (1998) demonstrated that TNFRSF6B (DCR3) binds to FASL and inhibits FASL-induced apoptosis. They found TNFRSF6B gene amplification (multiple copies) in about half of cases from an analysis of 35 primary lung and colon tumours. They hypothesized that, cancer cells may escape FASL-dependent immune-cytotoxic attack by expressing this 'decoy' receptor which blocks FASL.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 16 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Esophageal CancerTNFRSF6B and Esophageal Cancer View Publications5
Colorectal CancerTNFRSF6B Amplification and Overexpression in Colon Cancer
Pitti et al (1998) found TNFRSF6B gene amplification in about half of cases from an analysis of 35 primary lung and colon tumours. Mild et al. (2002) reported amplification of the DcR3 gene in 185/294 (63%) and overexpression of the DcR3 protein in 163/223 (73%) of colorectal tumors.
View Publications3
ChemotherapyTNFRSF6B expression and Drug Resistance
Some studies have linked TNFRSF6B expression to chemotherapy efficacy / resistance. For example: Mild et al. (2002) found 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly more beneficial in colorectal cancer patients with normal DcR3 gene copy number than in patients with amplification. In an in vitro study Chang et al(2008) found that neutralization of DcR3 increased the percentage of doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis in two B-cell lymphoma cell lines, ans suggested that DcR3 mediated chemo-resistance in B-cell lymphomas. Connor et al (2012) reported that DcR3 binds to ovarian cancer via heparan sulfate proteoglycans and modulates tumor cells response to platinum with corresponding alteration in the expression of BRCA1.
View Publications3
Stomach CancerTNFRSF6B Amplification and Overexpression in Gastric CancersPrognostic
Bai et al (2000) found TNFRSF6B protein was overexpressed in 30 of 68 (44%) human adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum. In many cases overexpression occurred in tumors in which gene amplification could not be detected by FISH. Takahama et al (2002) reported overexpression of TNFRSF6B in 26% of 84 gastric cancer surgical specimens and expression level was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, pathological stage, and survival. In a high resolution analysis of DNA copy-number aberrations in gastric cancer Buffart et al (2009) found DNA copy-number gains of TNFRSF6B and ZNF217 (20q13.2) were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and histological type.
View Publications2
Liver CancerTNFRSF6B expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
Shen et al (2005) detected DcR3 mRNA overexpression in 29/48 (60%) of HCC patients, this was not associated with amplification of the gene. Expression of DcR3 was the associatied with apoptotic index, tumor mass, stage and infiltration or metastasis. Similarly Chen et al (2008) and Yang et al (2010) reported that levels of DcR3 expression were associated with stage, metastasis and other clinical factors in HCC.
View Publications3
Pancreatic CancerTNFRSF6B Amplification and Overexpression in Pancreatic Cancer
Zhou et al (2012) reported that DcR3 amplification was associated with tumor size and DcR3 mRNA expression was correlated with clinical staging, size of the tumor, lymph node metastasis and histological staging of pancreatic cancer.
View Publications2
Lung CancerTNFRSF6B Amplification in Lung Cancer
Pitti et al (1998) found TNFRSF6B gene amplification in about half of cases from an analysis of 35 primary lung and colon tumours.
View Publications1

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TNFRSF6B (cancer-related)

Wang W, Zhang M, Sun W, et al.
Reduction of decoy receptor 3 enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in pancreatic cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e74272 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most human pancreatic cancer cells are resistant to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. However, the mechanisms by which pancreatic cancer cells utilize their extracellular molecules to counteract the proapoptotic signaling mediated by the TNF family are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that DcR3, a secreted decoy receptor that malignant pancreatic cancer cells express at a high level, acts as an extracellular antiapoptotic molecule by binding to TRAIL and counteracting its death-promoting function. The reduction of DcR3 with siRNA unmasked TRAIL and greatly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Gemcitabine, a first-line drug for pancreatic cancer, also reduced the level of DcR3. The addition of DcR3 siRNA further enhanced gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Notably, our in vivo study demonstrated that the therapeutic effect of gemcitabine could be enhanced via further reduction of DcR3, suggesting that downregulation of DcR3 in tumor cells could tip the balance of pancreatic cells towards apoptosis and potentially serve as a new strategy for pancreatic cancer therapy.

Weissinger D, Tagscherer KE, Macher-Göppinger S, et al.
The soluble Decoy Receptor 3 is regulated by a PI3K-dependent mechanism and promotes migration and invasion in renal cell carcinoma.
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12(1):120 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3), a soluble member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is a common event in several types of cancer. In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), DcR3 overexpression is associated with lymph node and distant metastasis as well as a poor prognosis. However, the functional role and regulation of DcR3 expression in RCC is so far unknown.
METHODS: Modulation of DcR3 expression by siRNA and ectopic gene expression, respectively, was performed in ACHN and 769-P RCC cell lines. Functional effects of a modulated DcR3 expression were analyzed with regard to migration, invasion, adhesion, clonogenicity, and proliferation. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of downstream mediators of DcR3. In further experiments, luciferase assays, quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses were applied to study the regulation of DcR3 expression in RCC. Additionally, an ex vivo tissue slice culture technique combined with immunohistochemistry was used to study the regulation of DcR3 expression in human RCC specimens.
RESULTS: Here, we show that DcR3 promotes adhesion, migration and invasiveness of RCC cells. The DcR3-dependent increase in cellular invasiveness is accompanied with an up-regulation of integrin alpha 4, matrixmetalloproteinase 7 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Further, we identified a signaling pathway regulating DcR3 expression in RCC. Using in vitro experiments as well as an ex vivo RCC tissue slice culture model, we demonstrate that expression of DcR3 is regulated in a PI3K/AKT-dependent manner involving the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT).
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results identify DcR3 as a key driver of tumor cell dissemination and suggest DcR3 as a promising target for rational therapy of RCC.

Yu W, Xu YC, Tao Y, et al.
DcR3 regulates the growth and metastatic potential of SW480 colon cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2741-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is considered to have anti‑apoptotic and pro-metastatic functions, suggesting it might be a therapeutic target. We examined the role and mechanisms of DcR3 on growth and the metastatic ability of SW480 colon cancer cells to provide therapeutic information for targeting DcR3 by RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Growth and the metastatic ability were inhibited, apoptosis was induced and cell cycle profile was changed after decreasing DcR3 expression, with lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression. Our results implied the therapeutic potential of silencing DcR3 expression by RNAi in colon cancer.

Zhou J, Song S, He S, et al.
Silencing of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) expression by siRNA in pancreatic carcinoma cells induces Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.
Int J Mol Med. 2013; 32(3):653-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is abundantly expressed in human tumors and protects cells from a wide range of apoptotic stimuli. In this study, we demonstrate that DcR3 is overexpressed in pancreatic carcinoma cells, and that the pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, Panc-1 and SW1990, are resistant to Fas ligand (FasL)-mediated apoptosis. To further define the function of DcR3 in cell growth and apoptosis, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knockdown the expression of the DcR3 gene in Panc-1 and SW1990 cells. Our results revealed that the silencing of DcR3 expression enhanced the inhibitory effects of FasL and reduced the capabiltiy of the cells for proliferation and colony formation in vitro. In addition, the downregulation of DcR3 modulated the cell apoptotic regulators, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), caspase‑3 and caspase‑8, thus triggering cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the knockdown of DcR3 inhibited the growth of Panc-1 tumor xenografts. Taken together, our findings indicate that DcR3 is important in cancer progression and may be a used as a potential therapeutic target for the gene therapy of pancreatic carcinoma.

Toda M, Kawamoto T, Ueha T, et al.
'Decoy' and 'non-decoy' functions of DcR3 promote malignant potential in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(3):703-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble secreted protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. DcR3 inhibits the Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas apoptotic pathway by binding to FasL, competitively with Fas receptor. Previous studies have reported that overexpression of DcR3 has been detected in various human malignancies and that DcR3 functions as a 'decoy' for FasL to inhibit FasL-induced apoptosis. In addition, recent studies have revealed that DcR3 has 'non-decoy' functions to promote tumor cell migration and invasion, suggesting that DcR3 may play important roles in tumor progression by decoy and non-decoy functions. We have previously reported that overexpression of DcR3 was observed in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), however, the roles of DcR3 in MFH have not been studied. In the present study, to elucidate the roles of DcR3 in tumor progression of MFH, we examined the effects of DcR3 inhibition on cell apoptosis, migration and invasion in human MFH cells. siRNA knockdown of DcR3 enhanced the FasL-induced apoptotic activity and significantly decreased cell migration and invasion with a decrease in the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. The findings in this study strongly suggest that DcR3 plays important roles in tumor progression of human MFH by decoy as well as non-decoy functions and that DcR3 may serve as a potent therapeutic target for human MFH.

Yang D, Fan X, Yin P, et al.
Significance of decoy receptor 3 (Dcr3) and external-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) in gastric cancer.
BMC Immunol. 2012; 13:28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, is associated with anti-tumor immunity suppression. It is highly expressed in many tumors, and its expression can be regulated by the MAPK/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. The MAPK/MEK/ERK pathway has been reported to be a regulator in tumor occurrence, development and clonal expansion. External-signal regulated kinase (ERK) is a vital member of this pathway.
RESULTS: The expression of DcR3 and ERK1/2 in tumor tissues of gastric cancer patients was significantly higher than the non-cancerous group (P < 0.05). There was no statistical difference among tumor tissues from patients with different ages or gender, and even of different differentiation (P > 0.05). However, in patients with stage I gastric cancer, the DcR3 and ERK1/2 levels were significantly lower than patients with more advanced stages.
CONCLUSIONS: DcR3 and ERK1/2 play a vital role in the development of gastric cancer, and they may be new markers for indicating the efficiency of gastric cancer treatment in the future.

Connor JP, Felder M, Kapur A, Onujiogu N
DcR3 binds to ovarian cancer via heparan sulfate proteoglycans and modulates tumor cells response to platinum with corresponding alteration in the expression of BRCA1.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:176 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Overcoming platinum resistance is a major obstacle in the treatment of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC). In our previous work Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3) was found to be related to platinum resistance. The major objective of this work was to define the cellular interaction of DcR3 with EOC and to explore its effects on platinum responsiveness.
METHODS: We studied cell lines and primary cultures for the expression of and the cells ability to bind DcR3. Cells were cultured with DcR3 and then exposed to platinum. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Finally, the cells molecular response to DcR3 was studied using real time RT-PCR based differential expression arrays, standard RT-PCR, and Western blot.
RESULTS: High DcR3 in the peritoneal cavity of women with EOC is associated with significantly shorter time to first recurrence after platinum based therapy (p = 0.02). None-malignant cells contribute DcR3 in the peritoneal cavity. The cell lines studied do not secrete DcR3; however they all bind exogenous DcR3 to their surface implying that they can be effected by DcR3 from other sources. DcR3s protein binding partners are minimally expressed or negative, however, all cells expressed the DcR3 binding Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans (HSPGs) Syndecans-2, and CD44v3. DcR3 binding was inhibited by heparin and heparinase. After DcR3 exposure both SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 became more resistant to platinum with 15% more cells surviving at high doses. On the contrary CaOV3 became more sensitive to platinum with 20-25% more cell death. PCR array analysis showed increase expression of BRCA1 mRNA in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 and decreased BRCA1 expression in CaOV-3 after exposure to DcR3. This was confirmed by gene specific real time PCR and Western blot analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Non-malignant cells contribute to the high levels of DcR3 in ovarian cancer. DcR3 binds readily to EOC cells via HSPGs and alter their responsiveness to platinum chemotherapy. The paradoxical responses seen were related to the expression pattern of HSPGs available on the cells surface to interact with. Although the mechanism behind this is not completely known alterations in DNA repair pathways including the expression of BRCA1 appear to be involved.

Zhou J, Song SD, Li DC, et al.
Clinical significance of expression and amplification of the DcR3 gene in pancreatic carcinomas.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(2):719-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of expression and amplification of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) in pancreatic carcinomas (PC). mRNA expression was detected by PQ-PCR, and amplification was determined. DcR3 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Correlations between DcR3 expression and clinical pathological factors were analyzed. The relative amount of DcR3 in PC tissues and non-cancerous tissues showed a statistically significant difference, 21 cases displaying more than two fold DcR3 amplification, while no such amplification was found in normal pancreatic tissues. DcR3 positive cell staining was located in the cytoplasm. The positive rate of DcR3 in PC and non-cancerous tissues showed a significant difference. DcR3 mRNA expression was correlated with clinical staging, size of the tumor, lymph node metastasis and histological staging, while protein expression was correlated with clinical data like tumor size. DcR3 gene amplification only correlated with tumor size. The level of DcR3 in serum of the PC resectable group before operation was 72.2±10.2 pg/ml, showing a significant difference compared to gallbladder carcinoma group (GC) or pancreatic benign tumor (PBT) group (P <0.01). In conclusion, DcR3 amplification is correlated with DcR3 expression in PC tissues, especially those clinical pathological factors which reflect tumor progression. Assessment of DcR3 level in sera of PC patients may be helpful for the early diagnosis and prognostic judgement.

Ge Z, Sanders AJ, Ye L, et al.
Expression of death decoy receptor-3 (DcR3) in human breast cancer and its functional effects on breast cancer cells in vitro.
J Exp Ther Oncol. 2011; 9(2):109-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Death Decoy Receptor-3 (DcR3), otherwise known as tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6b, is suggested to be involved in the progression and immune evasion of malignant tumours. Its ligands include FASL and LIGHT (Tumour necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 14). DcR3 has been found to be amplified in certain solid tumours. However, its role in breast tumours remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the role played by DcR3 in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of DcR3 was examined in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines using immunocytochemical staining and RT-PCR. Anti-DcR3 hammerhead ribozyme transgenes were constructed and transfected into cells to create DcR3 knock-down cell sublines. The biological impact of modifying DcR3 expression in breast cancer cells was evaluated using a variety of in vitro assays, including growth, adhesion, migration and invasion models.
RESULTS: MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, usually expressing DcR3, were transfected with the anti-DcR3 ribozyme transgene. Stable transfectants containing the DcR3 ribozyme transgene (MCF7DcR3KO, MDA-MB-231DcR3KO) displayed a reduction of DcR3 expression at mRNA and protein levels. DcR3 knockdown in MCF7 cells was found to significantly reduce invasive capacity compared to pEF6 control cell lines (30.78 +/- 6.40 vs.151.67 +/- 17.67 P < 0.001). The rate of migration in MCF7DcR3KO was significantly lower than MCF7pEF6 (P < 0.001). In contrast, no such significant differences was seen between MDA-MB-231DcR3KO and MDA-MB-231pEF6.
CONCLUSION: Suppressing DcR3 expression was found to have an inhibitory effect on cellular invasion and migration in MCF7 breast cancer cells. This suggests that the invasion and migration capacity of this breast cancer cell line may, at least partly, depend on DcR3. DcR3 may be regarded as a negative regulator for aggressiveness during the development and progression of certain types of breast cancer.

Yoo S, Jang J, Kim S, et al.
Expression of DcR3 and its effects in kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-infected human endothelial cells.
Intervirology. 2012; 55(1):45-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is classified as a gamma-herpesvirus and it causes Kaposi's sarcoma in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is known as a decoy receptor for Fas ligand, LIGHT and TL1A and it can neutralize the biological effect of TL1A by inhibiting the TL1A-DR3 interaction in human endothelial cells. The present study examined the expression of DcR3 in human endothelial cells and its effect during the early stages of KSHV infection.
METHODS: The expression of DcR3 was assessed using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA in human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with KSHV. Cell proliferation and apoptosis of KSHV-infected HUVECs were assessed after treatment of infected cells with an anti-DcR3 antibody or recombinant human TL1A.
RESULTS: DcR3 expression was induced during the early phase of KSHV infection. Inhibition of DcR3 with anti-DcR3 antibodies or recombinant human TL1A-induced apoptosis in KSHV-infected HUVECs.
CONCLUSION: The expression of DcR3 plays an important role in the prevention of apoptosis in HUVECs during the early phases of KSHV infection, thus ensuring the successful establishment and maintenance of the viral infection.

Yang M, Chen G, Dang Y, Luo D
Significance of decoy receptor 3 in sera of hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
Ups J Med Sci. 2010; 115(4):232-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is amplified and over-expressed in various cancers. The objective of the present study was to investigate the concentration of DcR3 in sera of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and its clinical significance.
METHODS: Serum concentrations of DcR3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 67 patients with HCC, 8 with liver cirrhosis, 17 with cholecystitis, and in 28 healthy individuals. Immunohistochemistry was employed to access protein expression of DcR3 in the corresponding HCC tissues.
RESULTS: Serum concentrations of DcR3 in patients with HCC or cirrhosis were significantly higher than in healthy individuals (P < 0.01). Moreover, serum concentrations of DcR3 in HCC patients were associated with TNM stage, para-cirrhosis, capsular infiltration, and metastasis or recurrence of disease (P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between the serum concentration of DcR3 and protein expression in HCC tissues (r = 0.472, P < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: The high serum concentration of DcR3 might play a certain role in pathogenesis, progress, and metastasis of HCC. Moreover, DcR3 might serve as a valuable molecular indicator in early diagnosis and contribute to predicting the clinical outcome in HCC patients.

Sung HY, Wu HG, Ahn JH, Park WY
Dcr3 inhibit p53-dependent apoptosis in gamma-irradiated lung cancer cells.
Int J Radiat Biol. 2010; 86(9):780-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify genes responsible for the radiosensitivity, we investigated the role of the differential gene expression profiles by comparing radioresistant H1299 with radiosensitive H460 lung cancer cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: mRNA profiles of lung cancer cell lines were assessed using microarray, and subsequent validation was performed with qRT-PCR (Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction). The expression levels of differentially expressed genes were determined by Western blot and the radioresistance of lung cancer cell lines was measured by clonogenic assay.
RESULTS: From the differentially expressed apoptosis-related genes between H1299 and H460, we found Dcr3 (Decoy receptor 3, also known as TNFRSF6B; Tumour necrosis factor receptor super family member 6B) expression was significantly (P = 4.38 x 10(-7)) higher in H1299 cells than H460 cells. Moreover, the Dcr3 mRNA expression level in the radioresistant cell lines (H1299, A549, DLD1, MB231, MB157) was increased in comparison to the radiosensitive cell lines (ME180, Caski, U87MG, MCF7, H460). Overexpression of Dcr3 increased the survival rate of radiosensitive H460, MCF7, and U87MG cells, and knockdown of Dcr3 abolished the radioresistance of A549 cells. The survival rate of p53 (Tumour protein 53)-deficient H1299 after gamma-irradiation was not affected by the suppression of Dcr3 expression. However, when we introduced p53 into H1299 cells, siDcr3 (siRNA of Dcr3) suppressed the radioresistance of H1299 cells by inducing p53-dependent Fas (Fas receptor, also known as TNFRSF6; Tumour necrosis factor receptor super family member 6)-mediated apoptosis pathway.
CONCLUSION: Characterisation of gene expression profiles in two lung cancer cell lines revealed that Dcr3 expression and p53-dependent apoptosis signalling pathway regulate cellular response to ionising radiation.

Xiong G, Guo H, Wang K, et al.
Polymorphisms of decoy receptor 3 are associated with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese Han.
Tumour Biol. 2010; 31(5):443-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble receptor without transmembrane and intracellular sequences in its peptide. It can bind to and inactivate the apoptosis-inducing ligand FasL, LIGHT, and TL1A. The aims of this study are to genotype the two polymorphisms in the promotor of DcR3 in esophageal squamous cell cancer patients and controls and analyze the association between individual genetic variation and susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A total of 444 Chinese ESCC patients and 468 matched cancer-free controls were evaluated for the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DCR3. Polymorphisms were genotyped using the SNPShot technique. The expression of DCR3 in cancer tissues was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. There were significant differences in the allele's distribution of the two SNPs among ESCC cases and controls (P < 0.01). Compared with the 147TT genotype, the 147CC genotype was associated with significant elevated risk of ESCC (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.96). The risk of 147CC genotype was more notable (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-3.64) in the smokers than in the nonsmokers (odds ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-2.69). In the stratification analyses, we also found there was a strong correlation between 147 CC and the clinical TNM stage (P < 0.01). Furthermore, significant difference in DCR3 expression in ESCC tissues was found between subgroups with different 147C/T variant. Our finding suggested that DcR3 promoter polymorphism 147C/T might influence the susceptibility to ESCC in the Chinese Han population, maybe by influencing DcR3 expression.

Buffart TE, van Grieken NC, Tijssen M, et al.
High resolution analysis of DNA copy-number aberrations of chromosomes 8, 13, and 20 in gastric cancers.
Virchows Arch. 2009; 455(3):213-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA copy-number gains of chromosomes 8q, 13q, and 20q are frequently observed in gastric cancers. Moreover gain of chromosome 20q has been associated with lymph node metastasis. The aim of this study was to correlate DNA copy-number changes of individual genes on chromosomes 8q, 13q, and 20q in gastric adenocarcinomas to clinicopathological data. DNA isolated from 63 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded gastric adenocarcinoma tissue samples was analyzed by whole-genome microarray comparative genomic hybridization and by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), targeting 58 individual genes on chromosomes 8, 13, and 20. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, gains on 8q, 13q, and 20q were observed in 49 (77.8%), 25 (39.7%), and 49 (77.8%) gastric adenocarcinomas, respectively. Gain of chromosome 20q was significantly correlated with lymph node metastases (p = 0.05) and histological type (p = 0.02). MLPA revealed several genes to be frequently gained in DNA copy number. The oncogene c-myc on 8q was gained in 73% of the cancers, while FOXO1A and ATP7B on 13q were both gained in 28.6% of the cases. Multiple genes on chromosome 20q showed gains in more than 60% of the cancers. DNA copy-number gains of TNFRSF6B (20q13.3) and ZNF217 (20q13.2) were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.02) and histological type (p = 0.02), respectively. In summary, gains of chromosomes 8q, 13q, and 20q in gastric adenocarcinomas harbor DNA copy-number gains of known and putative oncogenes. ZNF217 and TNFRSF6B are associated with important clinicopathological variables, including lymph node status.

Chen G, Luo D
Expression of decoy receptor 3 in liver tissue microarrays.
Natl Med J India. 2008 Nov-Dec; 21(6):275-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a new member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, is amplified and overexpressed in various cancers. We investigated the expression of DcR3 protein in liver tissue microarrays and assessed its importance in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: In this retrospective study, tissue from 120 patients with HCC, 48 with tissue at least 2 cm away from the tumour (juxta-tumour tissue), 62 with cirrhosis and 23 with normal livers were studied as tissue microarrays. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of DcR3. Statistical analyses were done to assess the association between DcR3 expression and the clinicopathological features of HCC.
RESULTS: The positivity rate of DcR3 in HCC tissue was significantly higher than that in juxta-tumour tissue, cirrhosis and normal liver (p = 0.017, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively). The positive rate of DcR3 in juxta-tumour and cirrhotic tissue both increased significantly when compared with normal liver tissue (p < 0.0001, p = 0.005, respectively). The positivity rate of DcR3 in HCC in clinical TNM stages I and II was significantly lower than that in stages III and IV (p < 0.0001). The positivity rate of DcR3 in patients without metastasis within 20 months decreased significantly compared with those with metastasis (p < 0.0001). DcR3 expression in patients with alphafoetoprotein levels > or = 400 microg/L, portal vein tumour emboli, capsular infiltration and multicentric tumour was significantly higher than in groups without these features (p = 0.021, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.002, respectively).
CONCLUSION: The overexpression of DcR3 might play an important role in the pathogenesis, progression and metastases of HCC. The DcR3 gene might serve as an important molecular biological indicator in diagnosing and predicting the biological behaviour of patients with HCC.

Ho CH, Chen CL, Li WY, Chen CJ
Decoy receptor 3, upregulated by Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1, enhances nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell migration and invasion.
Carcinogenesis. 2009; 30(8):1443-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a member of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, has been implicated in tumorigenesis through its abilities to modulate immune responses and induce angiogenesis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous gamma-herpesvirus, is associated with malignancies including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Previous studies show that DcR3 is overexpressed in EBV-positive lymphomas and Rta, an EBV transcription activator, can upregulate DcR3 in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. However, DcR3 expression has not been demonstrated in EBV-associated NPC nor have there been any EBV latent genes linked to DcR3 upregulation. Here, we showed DcR3 was overexpressed in NPC. Higher DcR3 expression score and DcR3-positive rate were found in metastatic NPC than in primary NPC tissues, suggesting DcR3 may enhance cell metastatic potential. This hypothesis is supported by our observation that NPC HONE-1 cells overexpressing DcR3 exhibited significant higher migration and invasion abilities in vitro. We found besides Rta, EBV latent membrane protein (LMP) 1 can upregulate DcR3 via nuclear factor-kappaB and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-signaling events. Approximate 75% of LMP1-positive NPC tissues overexpressed DcR3, suggesting LMP1 may enhance DcR3 expression in vivo. Data herein suggested that increasing DcR3 expression by LMP1 not only helps EBV-associated cancer cells gain survival advantage by preventing host immune detection but also increases the chance of cancer metastasis by enhancing cell migration and invasion. All these DcR3-mediated events facilitate normal cells to gain cancer hallmarks.

Chen C, Zhang C, Zhuang G, et al.
Decoy receptor 3 overexpression and immunologic tolerance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development.
Cancer Invest. 2008; 26(10):965-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
The recently identified decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) inhibits FasL-induced apoptosis by binding to FasL, and it is considered to play a key role in the immune escape system of neoplastic cells. In order to examine the involvement of DcR3 in the immunologic tolerance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we investigated the amplification and expression of DcR3, FasL, and Fas in an HCC mice model using RT-PCR, western blotting, and ELISA, and analyzed the space-time relationship with various cytokines including the forkhead transcription factor forkhead/winged helix transcription factor gene (Foxp3), CTLA-4, TGF-beta, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma. The RT-PCR results revealed that Fas expression preceded that of DcR3 during the early phases of tumorigenesis. Thereafter, the expression of DcR3 was up-regulated; however, the expression of Fas was down-regulated and eventually ceased. DcR3 and FasL were expressed and amplified simultaneously in muscle tumor. CTLA-4 expression was earlier than Foxp3, and both CTLA-4 and Foxp3 amplification and expression were consistent with that of DcR3. The results suggest that the elevated levels of DcR3, Foxp3, and CTLA-4 in tissue were positively correlated with tumor growth. The partial tumor immunoregulation inclined to negative modulation, and DcR3 may play an important role in inducing immunologic tolerance.

Chen G, Luo D
Over-expression of decoy receptor 3 in gastric precancerous lesions and carcinoma.
Ups J Med Sci. 2008; 113(3):297-304 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a newly discovered member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, is not only upregulated in cancer cells derived from various cell lineages, but also correlates with the overall survival of certain cancer patients. The objective of the present study was to investigate the expression ofDcR3 protein in tissue of gastric precancerous lesions and carcinoma.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of DcR3 protein in tissue of gastric carcinoma (GC, n=79), dysplasia (n=45), intestinal metaplasia (IM, n=37) and chronic superficial gastritis (CSG, n=42) was investigated by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Expression of DcR3 in GC was significantly higher than that in dysplasia (P<.05); IM (P<.05) and CSG tissue (P<.001), respectively. It was also found that DcR3 expression in well differentiated GC was significantly lower than that in poorly differentiated specimens (P<.05). Moreover, patients in tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stagesand showed significantly lower DcR3 expression compared with that in stages and ( P<.05). In addition, DcR3 expression in both lymph node metastasis-negative patients and patients without systemic metastasis was significantly decreased in comparison with that in lymph node metastasis-positive patients(P<.05) and patients with systemic metastasis (P<.001).
CONCLUSIONS: DcR3 is over-expressed in human GC and positively correlated with development and metastases of gastric lesions. The DcR3 gene might serve as an important molecular biological indicator in diagnosing and predicating the clinical outcome in GC patients.

Chang PM, Chen PM, Hsieh SL, et al.
Expression of a soluble decoy receptor 3 in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma predicts clinical outcome.
Int J Oncol. 2008; 33(3):549-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
The soluble decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily. It is regarded as a decoy receptor released from tumor cells to escape host immune response by neutralizing the cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of FasL, LIGHT and TL1A. Overexpression of DcR3 has been observed in several human malignancies; however, only limited information exists on the role of DcR3 in non-Hodgkin lymphoma especially for B-cell origin. In the current study, the expression profile of DcR3 was analyzed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a set of lymphoma cell lines including T-cell and B-cell lymphomas. The result demonstrated that overexpression of DcR3 was detected in most T-cell lymphoma cells, which was consistent with previous reports. Interestingly, overexpression of DcR3 was also detected both in the B-cell lymphoma cell lines and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. DcR3 overexpression was associated with a worse prognosis in DLBCL patients (p=0.05). An in vitro study showed that neutralization of DcR3 increased the percentage of doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis in two B-cell lymphoma cell lines, which indicated the possibility of DcR3 mediated chemo-resistance in B-cell lymphomas. We suggest that overexpression of DcR3 is associated with a worse prognosis in DLBCL and the possible mechanism may act through the increase of chemo-resistance of lymphoma cells.

Chang YC, Chen TC, Lee CT, et al.
Epigenetic control of MHC class II expression in tumor-associated macrophages by decoy receptor 3.
Blood. 2008; 111(10):5054-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily and is up-regulated in tumors originating from a diversity of lineages. DcR3 is capable of promoting angiogenesis, inducing dendritic cell apoptosis, and modulating macrophage differentiation. Since tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the major infiltrating leukocytes in most malignant tumors, we used microarray technology to investigate whether DcR3 contributes to the development of TAMs. Among the DcR3-modulated genes expressed by TAMs, those that encode proteins involved in MHC class II (MHC-II)-dependent antigen presentation were down-regulated substantially, together with the master regulator of MHC-II expression (the class II transactivator, CIITA). The ERK- and JNK-induced deacetylation of histones associated with the CIITA promoters was responsible for DcR3-mediated down-regulation of MHC-II expression. Furthermore, the expression level of DcR3 in cancer cells correlated inversely with HLA-DR levels on TAMs and with the overall survival time of pancreatic cancer patients. The role of DcR3 in the development of TAMs was further confirmed using transgenic mice overexpressing DcR3. This elucidates the molecular mechanism of impaired MHC-II-mediated antigen presentation by TAMs, and raises the possibility that subversion of TAM-induced immunosuppression via inhibition of DcR3 expression might represent a target for the design of new therapeutics.

Li W, Zhang C, Chen C, Zhuang G
Correlation between expression of DcR3 on tumor cells and sensitivity to FasL.
Cell Mol Immunol. 2007; 4(6):455-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the correlation between sensitivity to Fas ligand (FasL) and expression level of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) on tumor cell surface, Fas/DcR3 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR. Anti-DcR3 mAb was used to detect expression level of DcR3 on surface of tumor cells by flow cytometry. Caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, Bcl-2 expressions were analyzed by Western blot, respectively. Sensitivity to apoptosis induced by FasL was determined by Annexin V apoptosis kit. The expressions of DcR3 on the surface of tumor cells from high to low were approximately 35.3% in BGC823 cells, and 21.6% in MCF-7 cells, respectively. The apoptotic rates induced by FasL from low to high were 15.6% in BGC823 cells, and 58.2% in MCF-7 cells, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the expression levels of DcR3 with FasL-inducing apoptosis.

Simon I, Liu Y, Krall KL, et al.
Evaluation of the novel serum markers B7-H4, Spondin 2, and DcR3 for diagnosis and early detection of ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2007; 106(1):112-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Early detection through regular screening could significantly reduce mortality from ovarian cancer. Advances in biomarkers and imaging continue to improve the sensitivity and specificity of cancer detection, but further improvements are still needed. In this study, we identified and evaluated three new serum biomarkers that may be used to improve detection of ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Through genomic analysis, we identified B7-H4, Spondin 2, and DcR3 as over-expressed genes in ovarian cancer tissues. Sensitive sandwich ELISAs were developed to analyze the level of these novel markers in 68 serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer (16 early stage, 52 late stage) and 108 control samples, and 20 healthy women from which two serum samples were collected 1 year apart. CA125 levels were measured in all samples.
RESULTS: Markers were evaluated for their ability to identify clinical disease. The three novel markers and CA125 were elevated in serum of ovarian cancer patients as compared to normal controls. B7-H4 showed the highest specificity, with the lowest frequency of elevation in all control groups. When all cases were compared against all controls, CA125, Spondin 2, B7-H4, and DcR3 showed areas under the ROC curve of 0.87, 0.78, 0.74, and 0.71, respectively. CA125 and B7-H4 showed the best diagnostic performance for early-stage, with AUCs of 0.90 and 0.80, respectively.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that B7-H4, Spondin 2, and DcR3 are promising new ovarian cancer markers that may improve early detection of cancer when used in combination with traditional diagnostic tests.

van Dekken H, Vissers K, Tilanus HW, et al.
Genomic array and expression analysis of frequent high-level amplifications in adenocarcinomas of the gastro-esophageal junction.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2006; 166(2):157-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenocarcinomas of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) show frequent high-level amplifications (HLA), but the underlying genes are not well defined. We have characterized genomic gain in 14 GEJ carcinomas by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The most frequent gains and amplifications were detected at 7q (57%), 8q (57%), 17q (64%), and 20q (79%), with minimally amplified regions at 7q21.1, 8q24.2, 17q12, and 20q13.2. Five HLA were detected on 7q, one on 8q, two on 17q, and three on 20q. HLA of 8q24 and 17q12 were related to MYC and ERBB2, respectively. The HLA on 7q21 was associated recurrently with ABCB1, whereas the amplified region on 20q13 implicated ZNF217, BCAS1, and CYP24. RNA expression analysis of 11 adenocarcinomas by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed for cancer-related genes residing at 7q21 (ABCB1, ABCB4, CDK6, HGF, DMTF1, SRI, TP53AP1) and 20q13 (ZNF217, BCAS1, CYP24, TNFRSF6B). The most frequently upregulated gene on 7q21 was HGF (45%), but there was no association with genomic amplification. The most frequently overexpressed gene at 20q13 was BCAS1 (27%), which was related to HLA of this region (P = 0.006) in all three cases. We conclude that HLA occur often in GEJ adenocarcinomas. The gene responsible for the HLA of 7q21 requires further investigation, whereas BCAS1 is a good candidate for the frequent amplification of 20q13.

O'Kane HF, Watson CJ, Johnston SR, et al.
Targeting death receptors in bladder, prostate and renal cancer.
J Urol. 2006; 175(2):432-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We describe key components of normal and aberrant death receptor pathways, the association of these abnormalities with tumorigenesis in bladder, prostate and renal cancer, and their potential application in novel therapeutic strategies targeted toward patients with cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE literature search of the key words death receptors, TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand), FAS, bladder, prostate, renal and cancer was done to obtain information for review. A brief overview of the TRAIL and FAS death receptor pathways, and their relationship to apoptosis is described. Mechanisms that lead to nonfunction of these pathways and how they may contribute to tumorigenesis are linked. Current efforts to target death receptor pathways as a therapeutic strategy are highlighted.
RESULTS: Activation of tumor cell expressing death receptors by cytotoxic immune cells is the main mechanism by which the immune system eliminates malignant cells. Death receptor triggering induces a caspase cascade, leading to tumor cell apoptosis. Receptor gene mutation or hypermethylation, decoy receptor or splice variant over expression, and downstream inhibitor interference are examples of the ways that normal pathway functioning is lost in cancers of the bladder and prostate. Targeting death receptors directly through synthetic ligand administration and blocking downstream inhibitor molecules with siRNA or antisense oligonucleotides represent novel therapeutic strategies under development.
CONCLUSIONS: Research into the death receptor pathways has demonstrated the key role that pathway aberrations have in the initiation and progression of malignancies of the bladder, prostate and kidney. This new understanding has resulted in exciting approaches to restore the functionality of these pathways as a novel therapeutic strategy.

Shen HW, Gao SL, Wu YL, Peng SY
Overexpression of decoy receptor 3 in hepatocellular carcinoma and its association with resistance to Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis.
World J Gastroenterol. 2005; 11(38):5926-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To characterize the expression and genomic amplification of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to evaluate the role of DcR3 in apoptosis.
METHODS: We examined 48 cases of HCC for DcR3 expression by RT-PCR and DcR3 gene amplification by quantitative genomic PCR. DcR3 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP digoxigenin nick and labeling (TUNEL) was used to identify the apoptosis cells in tissues. Primary hepatoma cell culture and MTT test were used to evaluate the protection against FasL- and chemical-induced apoptosis by DcR3 expression.
RESULTS: DcR3 mRNA overexpression was detected in 60% HCC (29/48) patients. The occurrence of HCC was not associated with amplification of the gene. One sample base substitution was found in three sites as sequence in Genbank. The expression of DcR3 in HCC was the associatied with the apoptotic index (0.067+/-0.04 vs 0.209+/-0.12, P<0.01), size of mass, stage and infiltration or metastasis (41.2% vs 71.0%, 40% vs 75%, 51.8% vs 84.6%, P<0.05). DcR3 expression could be protect hepatoma cells against apoptosis induced by FasL, but not by chemicals.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that in addition to gene amplification there may be another mechanism underlying DcR3 overexpression. The effect of overexpression of DcR3 on the apoptosis of cancer cells may have direct therapeutic implications for the management of HCC.

Bai J, Sui J, Demirjian A, et al.
Predominant Bcl-XL knockdown disables antiapoptotic mechanisms: tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-based triple chemotherapy overcomes chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro.
Cancer Res. 2005; 65(6):2344-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is lethal because of its invasiveness, rapid progression, and profound resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. To identify the molecular mechanisms underlying this, we have examined the expression and potency of three major death receptors: tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R), and Fas in mediating cytotoxicity in four invasive pancreatic cancer cell lines. We have analyzed the expression of major antiapoptotic factors, cell cycle regulators and death receptor decoys (DcR) in comparison with normal pancreas tissues and five other human malignant tumor cell lines. We have found that different pancreatic cancer cell lines coexpress high-level TRAIL-R, Fas, and TNF-R1 but are strongly resistant to apoptosis triggered by the death receptors. DcR2 and DcR3 overexpression may partly contribute to the resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-R- and Fas-mediated cytotoxicity. Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 are predominantly overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cell lines, respectively. Bcl-XL is also predominantly overexpressed in prostate, colorectal, and intestinal cancer cells. The knockdown of the predominant Bcl-XL overexpression significantly reduces the viability of pancreatic cancer cells to TNFalpha- and TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by sublethal-dose single and combined antitumor drugs, including geldanamycin, PS-341, Trichostatin A, and doxorubicine. Geldanamyin and PS-341 synergistically block NFkappaB activation, suppress Akt/PKB pathway, and down-regulate Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, cIAP-1, and cyclin D1 expression. This combined regimen dramatically enhances TRAIL cytotoxic effects and breaks through chemoresistance. Bcl-XL plays a vital role in pancreatic cancer chemoresistance. Geldanamycin, PS-341, and TRAIL triple combination may be a novel therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer.

Arakawa Y, Tachibana O, Hasegawa M, et al.
Frequent gene amplification and overexpression of decoy receptor 3 in glioblastoma.
Acta Neuropathol. 2005; 109(3):294-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) gene is amplified at high frequency in human lung, colon, and liver cancers. DcR3 has been demonstrated to produce a secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that negatively regulates Fas-mediated apoptosis. In this study we examined DcR3 gene amplification, DcR3 mRNA expression, and DcR3 protein expression in 46 human astrocytic brain tumors by quantitative genomic PCR, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The DcR3 gene amplification was detected in none of 6 (0%) low-grade astrocytomas, 1 of 16 (6%) anaplastic astrocytomas, and 6 of 24 ( 25%) glioblastomas. Six of 7 (86%) cases with gene amplification exhibited both mRNA overexpression and/or protein overexpression, suggesting that DcR3 mRNA and protein were expressed more abundantly in the cases with gene amplification. We thus concluded that high DcR3 mRNA expression and protein expression may be positively related to the gene amplification in astrocytic brain tumors, especially glioblastomas. Further, we speculated that the DcR3 gene amplification with overexpression may be responsible for malignant features in glioblastomas.

Somiari SB, Shriver CD, He J, et al.
Global search for chromosomal abnormalities in infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast using array-comparative genomic hybridization.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2004; 155(2):108-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique for detection of multiple chromosomal abnormalities in genomic DNA samples. Using an a-CGH with 287 probes, we examined 14 cases of breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDCA) that had previously been classified by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) as either human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive (HER2+) or HER2- and analyzed the data by hierarchical, K-means, and principal component analyses. The aim of the study was to identify the genetic abnormalities that are present in breast IDCAs and determine if the global status of 287 cytogenetic locations could be used as a more objective method for breast IDCA classification. Concordance between FISH and a-CGH at the HER2 locus was 78.6% (11/14). In general, a-CGH detected more abnormalities in HER2+ cases. In HER 2+ cases, chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 17, and 20 had more regions that showed statistically significant (P < or = 0.01) changes in DNA copy number. Among all the aberrant cytogenetic locations detected, 20q13, 7p12.3 approximately p12.1, and 17q23.2 approximately q25.3, which contain among others, genes for TNFRSF6B, EGFR, and TK1 showed statistically significant gains (P < or = 0.01) in 83, 66.7, and 50% of the HER2+ IDCA cases, respectively. Chromosome location 8q24.12 approximately q24.13 was the only region that showed consistent amplification in approximately 50% of the HER2- cases. Unsupervised hierarchical and K-means cluster analyses and principal component analysis using the DNA copy number status of 287 cytogenetic locations or the 177 cytogenetic locations that showed statistically significant differences revealed a cluster consisting of mainly HER2- IDCA cases. Even though this study demonstrates the usefulness of a-CGH in the rapid identification of aberrant DNA regions in tumor samples, we conclude that an array-CGH with more than 287 probes will be needed for a more precise mapping of DNA aberrations at the global level.

Albrecht B, Hausmann M, Zitzelsberger H, et al.
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization for the detection of DNA sequence copy number changes in Barrett's adenocarcinoma.
J Pathol. 2004; 203(3):780-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) allows the identification of DNA sequence copy number changes at high resolution by co-hybridizing differentially labelled test and control DNAs to a micro-array of genomic clones. The present study has analysed a series of 23 formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples of Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BCA, n = 18) and non-neoplastic squamous oesophageal (n = 2) and gastric cardia mucosa (n = 3) by aCGH. The micro-arrays used contained 287 genomic targets covering oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes, and DNA sequences localized within chromosomal regions previously reported to be altered in BCA. DNA sequence copy number changes for a panel of approximately 50 genes were identified, most of which have not been previously described in BCA. DNA sequence copy number gains (mean 41 +/- 25/BCA) were more frequent than DNA sequence copy number losses (mean 20 +/- 15/BCA). The highest frequencies for DNA sequence copy number gains were detected for SNRPN (61%); GNLY (44%); NME1 (44%); DDX15, ABCB1 (MDR), ATM, LAMA3, MYBL2, ZNF217, and TNFRSF6B (39% each); and MSH2, TERC, SERPINE1, AFM137XA11, IGF1R, and PTPN1 (33% each). DNA sequence copy number losses were identified for PDGFB (44%); D17S125 (39%); AKT3 (28%); and RASSFI, FHIT, CDKN2A (p16), and SAS (CDK4) (28% each). In all non-neoplastic tissue samples of squamous oesophageal and gastric cardia mucosa, the measured mean ratios were 1.00 (squamous oesophageal mucosa) or 1.01 (gastric mucosa), indicating that no DNA sequence copy number chances were present. For validation, the DNA sequence copy number changes of selected clones (SNRPN, CMYC, HER2, ZNF217) detected by aCGH were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These data show the sensitivity of aCGH for the identification of DNA sequence copy number changes at high resolution in BCA. The newly identified genes may include so far unknown biomarkers in BCA and are therefore a starting point for further studies elucidating their possible role in Barrett's carcinogenesis.

Fujita Y, Sakakura C, Shimomura K, et al.
Chromosome arm 20q gains and other genomic alterations in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, as analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2003 Nov-Dec; 50(54):1857-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Our recent analysis of gastric cancers and colorectal cancers using comparative genomic hybridization revealed a novel, high frequent copy number increases the long arm of chromosome 20 in association with possible involvement of liver metastases and poor prognosis. This led to further comparative genomic hybridization analysis of chromosomal aberrations in primary tumors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of the study presented here was to analyze the chromosomal aberrations and to determine the numbers of copies of AIB1, BTAK, DcR3 and E2F1 as putative target genes on chromosome 20q as well as their expression and relation to clinicopathological features in 41 primary tumors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
METHODOLOGY: We used comparative genomic hybridization to screen 41 primary tumors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma for changes in the number of copies of DNA sequences. To further characterize the gain of DNA sequences at 20q, we also performed fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. We examined the relationship between these changes and clinicopathological factors.
RESULTS: Gains in chromosome arm 20q were detected (34.1%) as well as a high level of gain in 20q12-13 (4.8%). AIB1 amplification was observed in 4.9% (2/41), BTAK amplification in 9.8% (4/41), DcR3 amplification was in 4.9% (2/41), and E2F1 amplification in 7.3% (3/41). The survival of patients with BTAK or E2F1 amplification was significantly lower than that of patients without these abnormalities.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence for a number of previously unknown genomic aberrations in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, suggesting the existence of target regions relevant to its progression. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with 20q gain showed extensive lung metastases, pleural effusion and liver metastases and poorer prognosis compared to cases without 20q gain. Our results suggest that amplification of BTAK or E2F1 are likely to lead to an increase in the number of malignant phenotypes of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and that these aberrations can be expected to be useful as markers of poor prognosis.

Pitti RM, Marsters SA, Lawrence DA, et al.
Genomic amplification of a decoy receptor for Fas ligand in lung and colon cancer.
Nature. 1998; 396(6712):699-703 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fas ligand (FasL) is produced by activated T cells and natural killer cells and it induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) in target cells through the death receptor Fas/Apol/CD95. One important role of FasL and Fas is to mediate immune-cytotoxic killing of cells that are potentially harmful to the organism, such as virus-infected or tumour cells. Here we report the discovery of a soluble decoy receptor, termed decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), that binds to FasL and inhibits FasL-induced apoptosis. The DcR3 gene was amplified in about half of 35 primary lung and colon tumours studied, and DcR3 messenger RNA was expressed in malignant tissue. Thus, certain tumours may escape FasL-dependent immune-cytotoxic attack by expressing a decoy receptor that blocks FasL.

Bai C, Connolly B, Metzker ML, et al.
Overexpression of M68/DcR3 in human gastrointestinal tract tumors independent of gene amplification and its location in a four-gene cluster.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000; 97(3):1230-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fas-mediated apoptosis is an important regulator of cell survival, and abnormalities in this system have been shown to result in a number of human pathological conditions. A secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, DcR3, was recently reported to be amplified in human lung and colon cancers as a negative regulator of Fas-mediated apoptosis. We identified this gene, which we call M68. M68 genomic DNA, mRNA, and protein levels were examined in a series of human gastrointestinal tract tumors. Using M68 immunohistochemistry and a scoring system similar to that used for HER-2/neu, we found that M68 protein was overexpressed in 30 of 68 (44%) human adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum. Tumors examined by Northern blot revealed M68 mRNA highly elevated in a similar fraction of primary tumors from the same gastrointestinal tract regions, as well as in the colon adenocarcinoma cell lines SW480 and SW1116. Further, we found M68 protein to be overexpressed in a substantial number of tumors in which gene amplification could not be detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization or quantitative genomic PCR, suggesting that overexpression of M68 may precede amplification in tumors. Finally, we find that M68 lies within a four-gene cluster that includes a novel helicase-like gene (NHL) related to RAD3/ERCC2, a plasma membrane Ras-related GTPase and a member of the stathmin family, amplification or overexpression of which may also contribute to cell growth and tumor progression.

Mild G, Bachmann F, Boulay JL, et al.
DCR3 locus is a predictive marker for 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2002; 102(3):254-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the incidence of distant metastasis and increases survival of patients with colorectal cancer. However, predictive markers are needed to define subsets of patients with stage II and III disease that may benefit from adjuvant treatment. A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily, the decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), was reported to be amplified in colorectal cancer as a negative regulator of Fas-mediated apoptosis. We analyzed DcR3 gene copy number and protein expression in a large series of tumors from a randomized multicenter trial of 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin C (FU/MMC) adjuvant chemotherapy of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK 40/81), using real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry on tumor microarrays. Results of gene status and protein expression of DcR3 were correlated with disease-free and overall survival of patients. We observed amplification of the DcR3 gene in 185/294 (63%) and overexpression of the DcR3 protein in 163/223 (73%) of colorectal tumors. Multivariate analysis showed no prognostic effect of DcR3 gene amplification and protein overexpression. However, adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly more beneficial in patients with normal DcR3 gene copy number than in patients with amplification (DFS: HR 2.84, 95% CI 1.16-6.98, p = 0.02; OS: HR 3.15, 95% CI 1.19-8.32, p = 0.02), whereas DcR3 protein overexpression did not influence the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy (DFS: HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.65-1.60, p = 0.95; OS: HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.61-1.49, p = 0.83). We conclude that amplification of the 20q13 locus is a predictive marker for adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer.

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