Gene Summary

Gene:TNFRSF14; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 14
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor) receptor superfamily. The encoded protein functions in signal transduction pathways that activate inflammatory and inhibitory T-cell immune response. It binds herpes simplex virus (HSV) viral envelope glycoprotein D (gD), mediating its entry into cells. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Perforin
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Herpesvirus 1, Human
  • Mutation
  • p53 Protein
  • CGH
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Tropism
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes
  • Antigens, CD45
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tumor Escape
  • Chromosome 1
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Translocation
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14
  • Exome
  • Follicular Lymphoma
  • Recurrence
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 14
  • Disease Progression
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Interferon Regulatory Factors
  • CREB-Binding Protein
  • Polycomb Repressive Complex 2
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Tumor Markers
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Staging
  • BCL2 protein
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TNFRSF14 (cancer-related)

Holmes TD, Wilson EB, Black EV, et al.
Licensed human natural killer cells aid dendritic cell maturation via TNFSF14/LIGHT.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(52):E5688-96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interactions between natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DCs) aid DC maturation and promote T-cell responses. Here, we have analyzed the response of human NK cells to tumor cells, and we identify a pathway by which NK-DC interactions occur. Gene expression profiling of tumor-responsive NK cells identified the very rapid induction of TNF superfamily member 14 [TNFSF14; also known as homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibits inducible expression, and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for HVEM, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes (LIGHT)], a cytokine implicated in the enhancement of antitumor responses. TNFSF14 protein expression was induced by three primary mechanisms of NK cell activation, namely, via the engagement of CD16, by the synergistic activity of multiple target cell-sensing NK-cell activation receptors, and by the cytokines IL-2 and IL-15. For antitumor responses, TNFSF14 was preferentially produced by the licensed NK-cell population, defined by the expression of inhibitory receptors specific for self-MHC class I molecules. In contrast, IL-2 and IL-15 treatment induced TNFSF14 production by both licensed and unlicensed NK cells, reflecting the ability of proinflammatory conditions to override the licensing mechanism. Importantly, both tumor- and cytokine-activated NK cells induced DC maturation in a TNFSF14-dependent manner. The coupling of TNFSF14 production to tumor-sensing NK-cell activation receptors links the tumor immune surveillance function of NK cells to DC maturation and adaptive immunity. Furthermore, regulation by NK cell licensing helps to safeguard against TNFSF14 production in response to healthy tissues.

Hokuto D, Sho M, Yamato I, et al.
Clinical impact of herpesvirus entry mediator expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(2):157-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), also known as tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily 14, regulates a variety of physiological and pathological responses in both innate and acquired immunity. Although HVEM is also suggested to be a critical regulator in tumours, actual roles in human cancer are largely unknown. This study aimed to clarify clinical importance of HVEM in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied HVEM expression in 150 HCC patients to explore its clinical relevance, and we examined tumour infiltrating T cells and local immune status of them.
RESULTS: HVEM was expressed in HCC cells, while no or only limited expression was observed in normal tissues in the liver. Tumour HVEM expression was significantly correlated with age, serum protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) level, vascular invasion and tumour node metastasis (TNM) stage. Furthermore, tumour HVEM expression significantly correlated with postoperative recurrence and survival. Importantly, multivariate analysis indicated that the HVEM status had an independent prognostic value. Furthermore, HVEM status was inversely correlated with tumour-infiltrating CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD45RO(+) lymphocytes. In addition, it was also associated with reduced expression of perforin, granzyme B and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Taken together, tumour-expressing HVEM plays a functionally important role in HCC.
CONCLUSION: Tumour-expressing HVEM plays a critical role in human HCC, possibly through regulating immune evasion. Therefore, targeting HVEM may be a novel promising therapeutic strategy for HCC.

Kishimoto W, Nishikori M
Molecular pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2014; 54(1):23-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
t(14;18) translocation has been recognized as a genetic hallmark of follicular lymphoma (FL), but it is now known that additional genetic aberrations are required for the development of FL. With recent advances in the technology for DNA analysis, recurrent gene aberrations such as TNFRSF14, EPHA7, EZH2, CREBBP, EP300, MLL2 and MEF2B have been identified. A few t(14;18)-positive B cells can be detected in healthy individuals, and these B cells are reported to have their own biological features that are closely associated with the pathogenesis of FL. On the other hand, FL is characterized by a unique microenvironment. Further understanding of the pathogenesis of FL is expected to contribute to the development of novel treatment approaches for this disease.

Li H, Kaminski MS, Li Y, et al.
Mutations in linker histone genes HIST1H1 B, C, D, and E; OCT2 (POU2F2); IRF8; and ARID1A underlying the pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma.
Blood. 2014; 123(10):1487-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma (FL) constitutes the second most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the western world. FL carries characteristic recurrent structural genomic aberrations. However, information regarding the coding genome in FL is still evolving. Here, we describe the results of massively parallel exome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism 6.0 array genomic profiling of 11 highly purified FL cases, and 1 transformed FL case and the validation of selected mutations in 102 FL cases. We report the identification of 15 novel recurrently mutated genes in FL. These include frequent mutations in the linker histone genes HIST1H1 B-E (27%) and mutations in OCT2 (also known as POU2F2; 8%), IRF8 (6%), and ARID1A (11%). A subset of the mutations in HIST1H1 B-E affected binding to DNMT3B, and mutations in HIST1H1 B-E and in EZH2 or ARID1A were largely mutually exclusive, implicating HIST1H1 B-E in epigenetic deregulation in FL. Mutations in OCT2 (POU2F2) affected its transcriptional and functional properties as measured through luciferase assays, the biological analysis of stably transduced cell lines, and global expression profiling. Finally, multiple novel mutated genes located within regions of acquired uniparental disomy in FL are identified. In aggregate, these data substantially broaden our understanding of the genomic pathogenesis of FL.

Huang PY, Best OG, Almazi JG, et al.
Cell surface phenotype profiles distinguish stable and progressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2014; 55(9):2085-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is clinically heterogeneous. While some patients have indolent disease for many years, 20-30% will progress and ultimately die of their disease. CLL may be classified by the Rai or Binet staging system, mutational status of the immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain gene (IGVH), ZAP-70 overexpression, cytogenetic abnormalities (13q-, + 12, 11q-, 17p-) and expression of several cell surface antigens (CD38, CD49d) that correlate with risk of disease progression. However, none of these markers identify all cases of CLL at risk. In a recent review, we summarized those CD antigens known to correlate with the prognosis of CLL. The present study has identified surface profiles of CD antigens that distinguish clinically progressive CLL from slow-progressive and stable CLL. Using an extended DotScan(™) CLL antibody microarray (Version 3; 182 CD antibodies), and with refined analysis of purified CD19 + B-cells, the following 27 CD antigens were differentially abundant for progressive CLL: CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD19, CD20 (two epitopes), CD21, CD22, CD23, CD24, CD25, CD38, CD40, CD43, CD45, CD45RA, CD52, CD69, CD81, CD84, CD98, CD102, CD148, CD180, CD196 and CD270. The extensive surface profiles obtained provide disease signatures with an accuracy of 79.2%, a sensitivity of 83.9% and a specificity of 72.5% that could provide the basis for a rapid test to triage patients with CLL according to probability of clinical progression and potential earlier requirement for treatment.

Migita K, Sho M, Shimada K, et al.
Significant involvement of herpesvirus entry mediator in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer. 2014; 120(6):808-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) is known to regulate immune response and to be expressed in several human malignancies. However, to the authors's knowledge, the precise role of HVEM in human cancer biology remains unknown. The objective of the current study was to clarify the clinical significance of HVEM in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma as well as its in vivo functions.
METHODS: HVEM expression was evaluated in 103 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma to explore its clinical relevance and prognostic value. The functions of HVEM in tumors were analyzed in vitro and in vivo using the small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing technique.
RESULTS: HVEM expression was found to be significantly correlated with depth of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, it was found to be inversely correlated with tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) , CD8(+) , and CD45RO(+) lymphocytes. It is important to note that HVEM status was identified as an independent prognostic marker. HVEM gene silencing significantly inhibited cancer cell proliferation in vitro and cancer growth in vivo. This antitumor effect was associated with reduced cell proliferation activity. The effect was also correlated with the induction of CD8(+) cells and upregulation of local immune response.
CONCLUSIONS: HVEM plays a critical role in both tumor progression and the evasion of host antitumor immune responses, possibly through direct and indirect mechanisms. Therefore, HVEM may be a promising therapeutic target for human esophageal cancer.

Mamessier E, Song JY, Eberle FC, et al.
Early lesions of follicular lymphoma: a genetic perspective.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(3):481-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma is a multi-hit process progressing over many years through the accumulation of numerous genetic alterations. Besides the hallmark t(14;18), it is still unclear which other oncogenic hits contribute to the early steps of transformation and in which precursor stages these occur. To address this issue, we performed high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization microarrays on laser-capture micro-dissected cases of follicular lymphoma in situ (n=4), partial involvement by follicular lymphoma (n=4), and duodenal follicular lymphoma (n=4), assumed to represent, potentially, the earliest stages in the evolution of follicular lymphoma. Cases of reactive follicular hyperplasia (n=2), uninvolved areas from follicular lymphoma in situ lymph nodes, follicular lymphoma grade 1-2 (n=5) and follicular lymphoma grade 3A (n=5) were used as controls. Surprisingly, alterations involving several relevant (onco)genes were found in all entities, but at significantly lower proportions than in overt follicular lymphoma. While the number of alterations clearly assigns all these entities as precursors, the pattern of partial involvement by follicular lymphoma alterations was quantitatively and qualitatively closer to that of follicular lymphoma, indicating significant selective pressure in line with its faster rate of progression. Among the most notable alterations, we observed and validated deletions of 1p36 and gains of the 7p and 12q chromosomes and related oncogenes, which include some of the most recurrent oncogenic alterations in overt follicular lymphoma (TNFRSF14, EZH2, MLL2). By further delineating distinctive and hierarchical molecular and genetic features of early follicular lymphoma entities, our analysis underlines the importance of applying appropriate criteria for the differential diagnosis. It also provides a first set of candidates likely to be involved in the cascade of hits that pave the path of the various progression phases to follicular lymphoma development.

Panagopoulos I, Gorunova L, Zeller B, et al.
Cryptic FUS-ERG fusion identified by RNA-sequencing in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2587-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sequential combination of cytogenetics and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) has been shown to be an efficient approach to detect pathogenetically important fusion genes in neoplasms carrying only one or a few chromosomal rearrangements. We performed RNA-Seq on an acute myeloid leukemia in a 2-year-old girl with the karyotype 46,XX,add(1)(p36), der(2)t(2;3)(q21;q21),del(3)(q21),der(10)t(1;10)(q32;q24),der(16)(2qter-->2q21::16p11-->16q24::16p11-->16pter)[13]/46,XX[2] and identified a cryptic FUS/ERG fusion gene. PCR and direct sequencing verified the presence of the FUS-ERG chimeric transcript in which exon 7 of FUS from 16p11 (nt 904 in sequence with accession number NM_004960 version 3) was fused in frame to exon 8 of ERG from sub-band 21q22.2 (nt 967 in NM_004449 version 4). The FUS-ERG transcript found here has been reported in only two other cases of childhood leukemia, in a 1-year-old boy and an 8-month-old boy, both diagnosed with precursor B cell ALL. The fusion transcript codes for a 497 amino acid residues FUS-ERG protein and, similar to other AML-related FUS-ERG fusion proteins, contains both functional domains (TR1 and TR2) of the transactivation domain of FUS and the ETS domain of ERG. The clinical significance, if any, of the amino acid residues which are coded by the exons 8, 9 and 10 of ERG in the fusion FUS-ERG proteins, remains unclear.

Bödör C, Grossmann V, Popov N, et al.
EZH2 mutations are frequent and represent an early event in follicular lymphoma.
Blood. 2013; 122(18):3165-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gain of function mutations in the H3K27 methyltransferase EZH2 represent a promising therapeutic target in germinal center lymphomas. In this study, we assessed the frequency and distribution of EZH2 mutations in a large cohort of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) (n = 366) and performed a longitudinal analysis of mutation during the disease progression from FL to transformed FL (tFL) (n = 33). Mutations were detected at 3 recurrent mutation hot spots (Y646, A682, and A692) in 27% of FL cases with variant allele frequencies (VAF) ranging from 2% to 61%. By comparing VAF of EZH2 with other mutation targets (CREBBP, MLL2, TNFRSF14, and MEF2B), we were able to distinguish patients harboring clonal EZH2 mutation from rarer cases with subclonal mutations. Overall, the high incidence of EZH2 mutations in FL and their stability during disease progression makes FL an appropriate disease to evaluate EZH2 targeted therapy.

Li D, Fu Z, Chen S, et al.
HVEM gene polymorphisms are associated with sporadic breast cancer in Chinese women.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e71040 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As a costimulatory molecule, Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) can bind with several costimulatory members, thus HVEM plays different roles in T cell immunity. HVEM and its ligands have been involved in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune, inflammatory diseases and tumors. In the current study, we conducted a case-control study comparing polymorphisms of HVEM and breast cancer. Subjects included 575 females with breast cancer and 604 age-matched healthy controls. Six HVEM SNPs (rs2281852, rs1886730, rs2234163, rs11573979, rs2234165, and rs2234167) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. The results showed significant differences in genotypes and alleles between rs1886730 and rs2234167 (P<0.05). One haplotype (CTGCGG) that was associated with breast cancer was found via haplotype analysis. Our research also indicated an association between polymorphisms of HVEM and clinicopathologic features, including lymph node metastasis, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and P53. Our results primarily indicate that polymorphisms of the HVEM gene were associated with the risk of sporadic breast cancer in northeast Chinese females.

Gertner-Dardenne J, Fauriat C, Orlanducci F, et al.
The co-receptor BTLA negatively regulates human Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell proliferation: a potential way of immune escape for lymphoma cells.
Blood. 2013; 122(6):922-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vγ9Vδ2 cells, the major γδ T-cell subset in human peripheral blood, represent a T-cell subset that displays reactivity against microbial agents and tumors. The biology of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells remains poorly understood. We show herein that the interaction between B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) is a major regulator of Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell proliferation control. BTLA was strongly expressed at the surface of resting Vγ9Vδ2 T cells and inversely correlated with T-cell differentiation. BTLA-HVEM blockade by monoclonal antibodies resulted in the enhancement of Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell receptor-mediated signaling, whereas BTLA-HVEM interaction led to a decrease in phosphoantigen-mediated proliferation by inducing a partial S-phase arrest. Our data also suggested that BTLA-HVEM might participate in the control of γδ T-cell differentiation. In addition, the proliferation of autologous γδ T cells after exposition to lymphoma cells was dramatically reduced through BTLA-HVEM interaction. These data suggest that HVEM interaction with BTLA may play a role in lymphomagenesis by interfering with Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell proliferation. Moreover, BTLA stimulation of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells appears as a new possible mechanism of immune escape by lymphoma cells.

Green MR, Gentles AJ, Nair RV, et al.
Hierarchy in somatic mutations arising during genomic evolution and progression of follicular lymphoma.
Blood. 2013; 121(9):1604-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is currently incurable using conventional chemotherapy or immunotherapy regimes, compelling new strategies. Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies that can reveal oncogenic pathways have stimulated interest in tailoring therapies toward actionable somatic mutations. However, for mutation-directed therapies to be most effective, the mutations must be uniformly present in evolved tumor cells as well as in the self-renewing tumor-cell precursors. Here, we show striking intratumoral clonal diversity within FL tumors in the representation of mutations in the majority of genes as revealed by whole exome sequencing of subpopulations. This diversity captures a clonal hierarchy, resolved using immunoglobulin somatic mutations and IGH-BCL2 translocations as a frame of reference and by comparing diagnosis and relapse tumor pairs, allowing us to distinguish early versus late genetic eventsduring lymphomagenesis. We provide evidence that IGH-BCL2 translocations and CREBBP mutations are early events, whereas MLL2 and TNFRSF14 mutations probably represent late events during disease evolution. These observations provide insight into which of the genetic lesions represent suitable candidates for targeted therapies.

Fang F, Zheng Q, Zhang J, et al.
Testicular orphan nuclear receptor 4-associated protein 16 promotes non-small cell lung carcinoma by activating estrogen receptor β and blocking testicular orphan nuclear receptor 2.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(1):297-305 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The possible involvement of estrogen receptors (ERs) and testicular orphan nuclear receptors (TRs) in human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) has been suggested, but their precise roles and their relationship remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether TR4-associated protein 16 (TRA16) regulates the ERβ and TR2 pathways and could be a potential target in NSCLC. We used tissue microarrays including NSCLC tissues (n=154) and negative controls (n=14) to examine the expression of TRA16 and ERβ, and in vitro reporter gene assays, the mammalian two-hybrid method and immunoprecipitation in Cos-1 cells to investigate the relationships among TRA16, ERβ and TR2. We found that TRA16 was highly expressed in approximately 90% of the NSCLC tissues examined. TRA16 overexpression was significantly associated with TNM stage, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, tumor thrombus in vein, tumor differentiation and prognosis of NSCLC patients, in which TRA16 was shown to be an independent prognostic factor. Introduction of TRA16 into Cos-1 cells enhanced cell proliferation. Co-expression of TRA16 and ERβ in Cos-1 cells using different reporter gene systems and mammalian two-hybrid approaches revealed that TRA16 enhanced ERβ-mediated transcriptional activity. By adopting similar approaches, and immunoprecipitation and immunocytofluorescence assays, we found that TRA16 also interacted with TR2, and blocked the TR2 inhibitory effect on ERβ. Our findings demonstrate that TRA16 could be a promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in NSCLC, and promotes cancer cell growth through activation of the ERβ pathway by interacting with ERβ and TR2.

Kridel R, Sehn LH, Gascoyne RD
Pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma.
J Clin Invest. 2012; 122(10):3424-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The hallmark t(14;18)(q32;q21) in follicular lymphoma (FL) results in constitutive overexpression of the BCL2 protein, allowing B cells to abrogate the default germinal center apoptotic program. Most tumors are characterized by recurrent secondary genetic alterations including genomic gains, losses, and mutations, some providing a growth advantage, including alterations in MLL2, EPHA7, TNFRSF14, and EZH2. The sequence in which these events occur and how they contribute to progression and ultimately to transformation is unclear. Lastly, crosstalk between neoplastic B cells and non-neoplastic immune and stromal cells in the microenvironment plays an important role in sustaining tumor cell growth, cultivating immune privilege, and promoting transformation.

Hobo W, Norde WJ, Schaap N, et al.
B and T lymphocyte attenuator mediates inhibition of tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
J Immunol. 2012; 189(1):39-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) can cure hematological malignancies by inducing alloreactive T cell responses targeting minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHA) expressed on malignant cells. Despite induction of robust MiHA-specific T cell responses and long-term persistence of alloreactive memory T cells specific for the tumor, often these T cells fail to respond efficiently to tumor relapse. Previously, we demonstrated the involvement of the coinhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) in suppressing MiHA-specific CD8(+) T cell immunity. In this study, we investigated whether B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) plays a similar role in functional impairment of MiHA-specific T cells after allo-SCT. In addition to PD-1, we observed higher BTLA expression on MiHA-specific CD8(+) T cells compared with that of the total population of CD8(+) effector-memory T cells. In addition, BTLA's ligand, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), was found constitutively expressed by myeloid leukemia, B cell lymphoma, and multiple myeloma cells. Interference with the BTLA-HVEM pathway, using a BTLA blocking Ab, augmented proliferation of BTLA(+)PD-1(+) MiHA-specific CD8(+) T cells by HVEM-expressing dendritic cells. Notably, we demonstrated that blocking of BTLA or PD-1 enhanced ex vivo proliferation of MiHA-specific CD8(+) T cells in respectively 7 and 9 of 11 allo-SCT patients. Notably, in 3 of 11 patients, the effect of BTLA blockade was more prominent than that of PD-1 blockade. Furthermore, these expanded MiHA-specific CD8(+) T cells competently produced effector cytokines and degranulated upon Ag reencounter. Together, these results demonstrate that BTLA-HVEM interactions impair MiHA-specific T cell functionality, providing a rationale for interfering with BTLA signaling in post-stem cell transplantation therapies.

Lohr JG, Stojanov P, Lawrence MS, et al.
Discovery and prioritization of somatic mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by whole-exome sequencing.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(10):3879-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To gain insight into the genomic basis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we performed massively parallel whole-exome sequencing of 55 primary tumor samples from patients with DLBCL and matched normal tissue. We identified recurrent mutations in genes that are well known to be functionally relevant in DLBCL, including MYD88, CARD11, EZH2, and CREBBP. We also identified somatic mutations in genes for which a functional role in DLBCL has not been previously suspected. These genes include MEF2B, MLL2, BTG1, GNA13, ACTB, P2RY8, PCLO, and TNFRSF14. Further, we show that BCL2 mutations commonly occur in patients with BCL2/IgH rearrangements as a result of somatic hypermutation normally occurring at the IgH locus. The BCL2 point mutations are primarily synonymous, and likely caused by activation-induced cytidine deaminase-mediated somatic hypermutation, as shown by comprehensive analysis of enrichment of mutations in WRCY target motifs. Those nonsynonymous mutations that are observed tend to be found outside of the functionally important BH domains of the protein, suggesting that strong negative selection against BCL2 loss-of-function mutations is at play. Last, by using an algorithm designed to identify likely functionally relevant but infrequent mutations, we identify KRAS, BRAF, and NOTCH1 as likely drivers of DLBCL pathogenesis in some patients. Our data provide an unbiased view of the landscape of mutations in DLBCL, and this in turn may point toward new therapeutic strategies for the disease.

Li X, Wu Y, Chen Y
Down-regulating the expression of IL-3Rβ interfered with the proliferation, not differentiation in NB4 cells.
Int J Hematol. 2011; 93(1):83-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human IL-3 receptor is composed of both α and β subunits. In early studies, we showed that the level of IL-3Rβ expression was lower in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) than healthy donors and patients in complete remission by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). With the differentiation of cells, enhanced expression of IL-3Rβ was also observed in all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced NB4 cells. To unravel the role of IL-3Rβ upregulation in NB4 cells induced with ATRA, we knocked down IL-3Rβ expression by RNA interference (RNAi). Knockdown of IL-3Rβ resulted in decreased proliferation in NB4 cells induced with or without ATRA, observed by cell growth curves, colony formation assays and cell cycle analysis. Surface expression of CD11b antigen and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assays were also carried out at different time points. However, no significant difference was observed between the experimental and control groups treated with ATRA. Other findings suggested that IL-3Rα was decreased in NB4-IL-3Rβ shRNA cells by western blot. Down-regulation of IL-3Rβ also caused a decrease in PML/RARα expression detected with RT-qPCR. Together, these results suggest that abnormalities of IL-3Rβ expression were observed in APL; knockdown of IL-3Rβ inhibited the proliferation of NB4 cells with or without ATRA, but no effect was detected in the cellular differentiation. When NB4 cells exposed to ATAR, the up-regulation of IL-3Rβ expression may contribute to the maintenance of proliferation rather than cell differentiation.

Kaneko K, Nagai M, Murakami Y, et al.
TS gene tandem repeats in esophageal cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2011; 16:1036-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) interferes with tumor-cell proliferation by inhibiting thymidylate synthase (TS). We examined the relationship between tandem repeat (TR) variations in the TS gene and survival following concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). TS-TR variations were analyzed in 57 stage II-IV ESCC patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy combined with 5-FU and cisplatinum (CDDP), and in 106 controls. Pretreatment non-neoplastic biopsy specimens from ESCC patients and lymphocytes from controls were used for analysis. Variations were identified by the size of DNA fragments amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Two to five TRs were found in Japanese individuals. TR3 homozygotes were predominant in 74% of ESCC patients and 61% of controls. Three-year survival rates were significantly longer in patients with TR2/2 or TR2/3 genotypes (38%) than in patients with TR3/3, 3/4, or 3/5 genotypes (9%; p=0.011). In the Cox proportional hazard model, the TR2/2 or TR2/3 genotypes were the only independent predictor for survival (Hazard ratio, 2.647; 95% confidence interval, 1.271-5.513). The TS-TR variations exert an important influence on survival following chemoradiotherapy in ESCC patients.

Baek H, Uchida H, Jun K, et al.
Bispecific adapter-mediated retargeting of a receptor-restricted HSV-1 vector to CEA-bearing tumor cells.
Mol Ther. 2011; 19(3):507-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The safety and efficacy of viral therapies for solid tumors can be enhanced by redirecting the virus infection to tumor-specific cell-surface markers. Successful retargeting of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been achieved using vectors that carry a modified envelope glycoprotein D (gD) engineered to interact directly with novel receptors. In addition, soluble bridging molecules (adapters) have been used to link gD indirectly to cell-specific receptors. Here, we describe the development of an adapter connecting gD to the common tumor antigen carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The adapter consisted of a CEA-specific single-chain antibody fused to the gD-binding region of the gD receptor, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM). We used this adapter in combination with a vector that is detargeted for recognition of the widely expressed gD receptor nectin-1, but retains an intact binding region for the less common HVEM. We show that the adapter enabled infection of HSV-resistant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing ectopic CEA and nectin-1/CEA-bearing human gastric carcinoma cells that are resistant to the vector alone. We observed cell-to-cell spread following adapter-mediated infection in vitro and reduced tumor growth in vivo, indicating that this method of vector retargeting may provide a novel strategy for tumor-specific delivery of tumoricidal HSV.

Cheung KJ, Johnson NA, Affleck JG, et al.
Acquired TNFRSF14 mutations in follicular lymphoma are associated with worse prognosis.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(22):9166-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clinical correlative studies have linked 1p36 deletions with worse prognosis in follicular lymphoma (FL). In this study, we sought to identify the critical gene(s) in this region that is responsible for conferring inferior prognosis. BAC array technology applied to 141 FL specimens detected a minimum region of deletion (MRD) of ∼97 kb within 1p36.32 in 20% of these cases. Frequent single-nucleotide polymorphism-detected copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity was also found in this region. Analysis of promoter CpGs in the MRD did not reveal differential patterns of DNA methylation in samples that differed in 1p36 status. Exon sequencing of MRD genes identified somatic alterations in the TNFRSF14 gene in 3 of 11 selected cases with matching normal DNA. An expanded cohort consisting of 251 specimens identified 46 cases (18.3%) with nonsynonymous mutations affecting TNFRSF14. Overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were associated with the presence of TNFRSF14 mutation in patients whose overall treatment included rituximab. We further showed that inferior OS and DSS were most pronounced in patients whose lymphomas contained both TNFRSF14 mutations and 1p36 deletions after adjustment for the International Prognostic Index [hazard ratios of 3.65 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-9.878, P=0.011) and 3.19 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-9.57, P=0.039), respectively]. Our findings identify TNFRSF14 as a candidate gene associated with a subset of FL, based on frequent occurrence of acquired mutations and their correlation with inferior clinical outcomes.

Economidou F, Antoniou KM, Soufla G, et al.
Role of VEGF-stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha/CXCL12 axis in pleural effusion of lung cancer.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2010; 30(3):154-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha ((SDF-1alpha) or CXCL12, both transcripts, TR1 and TR2) and its cognate receptor CXCR4 may regulate cancer metastasis. We have investigated the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietins (Ang-1 and Ang-2) and the biological axis of CXCL12-CXCR4, in patients with malignant pleural effusions (PEs).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty five patients, seven with transudative PEs due to heart failure and 18 with exudative malignant PEs (7 with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and 11 with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC)) were included in the study. Expression analysis of the mediators was performed in pleural fluid pellet using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Protein expression has been evaluated by western blot analysis.
RESULTS: SDF-TR1 (P = 0.02) but not SDF-TR2 (P = 0.23) or CXCR4 levels (P = 0.23) were higher in malignant PEs than in transudates. SDF-TR1 (P = 0.04) and SDF- TR2 levels (P = 0.04) but not CXCR4 levels (P = 0.123) were higher in SCLC PEs than in heart failure PEs. SDF-TR1 (P = 0.03) but not SDF-TR2 levels (P = 0.6) and CXCR4 levels (P = 0.4) were higher in NSCLC PEs than in transudates. Ang-1 has not been expressed in PEs, whereas no significant difference has been detected in VEGF and Ang-2 expression between malignant PEs and transudates. However, protein expression showed increased VEGF and SDF expression in malignant PEs.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that elevated SDF-1alpha/CXCL12 levels would be suggestive of a link to metastasis and may participate in pleural trafficking in lung cancer.

Pasero C, Barbarat B, Just-Landi S, et al.
A role for HVEM, but not lymphotoxin-beta receptor, in LIGHT-induced tumor cell death and chemokine production.
Eur J Immunol. 2009; 39(9):2502-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
The TNF member LIGHT also known as TL4 or TNFSF14) can play a major role in cancer control via its two receptors; it induces tumor cell death through lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LT-betaR) and ligation to the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) amplifies the immune response. By studying the effect of LIGHT in the transcriptional profile of a lymphoid malignancy, we found that HVEM, but not LT-betaR, stimulation induces a significant increase in the expression of chemokine genes such as IL-8, and an unexpected upregulation of apoptotic genes. This had functional consequences, since LIGHT, or HVEM mAb, thus far known to costimulate T- and B-cell activation, induced chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell death. Many of the mediators involved were identified here, with an apoptotic pathway as demonstrated by caspases activation, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, but also a role of TRAIL. Moreover, HVEM induced endogenous TNF-alpha production and TNF-alpha enhanced HVEM-mediated cell death. HVEM function was mainly dependent on LIGHT, since other ligands like HSV-glycoprotein D and B and T lymphocyte attenuator were essentially ineffective. In conclusion, we describe a novel, as yet unknown killing effect of LIGHT through HVEM on a lymphoid malignancy, and combined with induction of chemokine release this may represent an additional tool to boost cancer immunotherapy.

Treeck O, Lattrich C, Juhasz-Boess I, et al.
Adiponectin differentially affects gene expression in human mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.
Br J Cancer. 2008; 99(8):1246-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Serum levels of adiponectin are inversely associated with breast cancer risk. In this study, its effect on growth and gene expression of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells was compared. The antiproliferative effect of adiponectin on MCF-10A cells was more pronounced and was accompanied by elevated transcript levels of caspase 1, ERbeta2, ERbeta5, TR2 and USP2. Our data suggest that upregulation of genes with known growth inhibitory or apoptotic functions in mammary epithelial cells might contribute to the protective action of this adipocytokine.

Longoni M, Orzan F, Stroppi M, et al.
Evaluation of 1p36 markers and clinical outcome in a skull base chordoma study.
Neuro Oncol. 2008; 10(1):52-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chordomas are rare embryogenetic tumors, arising from remnants of the notochord, characterized by local invasiveness and variable tendency for recurrence. No molecular markers are currently used in a clinical setting to distinguish chordomas with an indolent or an aggressive pattern. Among the genetic lesions observed in this tumor, one of the most commonly detected is 1p loss. In a previous study we observed 1p36 loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 85% of the analyzed chordomas. We studied a group of 16 homogeneously treated skull base chordomas (SBCs), reporting 1p36 LOH in 75% of them and determining the expression pattern of eight apoptotic genes mapped at 1p36. No tumors shared a common expression profile with nucleus pulposus, which is considered the only adult normal tissue deriving from notochord. In particular, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily genes TNFRSF8, TNFRSF9, and TNFRSF14 were differently expressed compared with control in a higher percentage of tumors (40%-53%) than were the remaining analyzed genes, suggesting that the deregulation of these three genes might have a role in chordoma tumorigenesis. The presence/absence of LOH and the expression/nonexpression of each apoptotic gene were studied in a survival analysis. Our results suggest that the lack of 1p36 LOH or the presence of TNFRSF8 expression might be associated with a better prognosis in patients with SBCs.

Loeffler M, Le'Negrate G, Krajewska M, Reed JC
Attenuated Salmonella engineered to produce human cytokine LIGHT inhibit tumor growth.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007; 104(31):12879-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Intravenously administered bacteria reportedly accumulate in tumors. Furthermore, systemic administration of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium has little or no significant side-effects in humans. Consequently, we engineered such bacteria to improve their oncolytic activity by stably inserting a gene encoding LIGHT, a cytokine known to promote tumor rejection. Unlike control bacteria, attenuated S. typhimurium expressing LIGHT inhibited growth of primary tumors, as well as the dissemination of pulmonary metastases, in various mouse tumor models employing murine carcinoma cell lines in immunocompetent mice. Antitumor activity was achieved without significant toxicity and was associated with infiltration of inflammatory cells and dependent on the LIGHT receptors, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), and lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR). These findings provide evidence that nonvirulent bacteria can be exploited as targeting vehicles for local generation of therapeutic proteins in tumors.

Xu Y, Tamada K, Chen L
LIGHT-related molecular network in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity.
Immunol Res. 2007; 37(1):17-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
The LIGHT-related molecular network is composed of at least seven interacting receptors and ligands. Recent studies reveal that this network has profound immune regulatory functions for both innate and adaptive immunity. Experimental data support the concept that this network may also play roles in the pathogenesis of human diseases including cancer, infection, transplantation tolerance, and autoimmune diseases. In this review, we attempt to dissect each molecular interaction in detail and assemble them in the context of their roles in the pathogenesis and possible therapeutic potential in human diseases.

Li J, Shen F, Wu D, et al.
Expression level of Bcl-XL critically affects sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to LIGHT-enhanced and interferon-gamma-induced apoptosis.
Oncol Rep. 2007; 17(5):1067-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular mechanisms of apoptosis caused by IFN-gamma (interferon gamma)/LIGHT (lymphotoxin-related inducible ligand that competes for glycoprotein D binding to herpes virus entry mediator on T cells) have not been studied in detail. The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the signaling pathways involved in apoptosis induced by IFN-gamma/LIGHT in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry, Western blotting, gene transfer and RNA interference were used in this study. LIGHT enhanced IFN-gamma-mediated apoptosis in Hep3B cells. IFN-gamma/LIGHT-induced apoptosis was inhibited by blocking peptides to the lymphotoxin beta receptor (LT-beta R), and not by the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM). Expression of LT-beta R remained unchanged after cytokine treatments. IFN-gamma/LIGHT treatment resulted in the down-regulation of Bcl-XL and the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 as well as the decrease of phosphorylation of STAT3. HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, which showed high levels of endogenous Bcl-XL, displayed resistance to IFN-gamma/LIGHT-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of Bcl-XL in Hep3B cells increased the resistance to IFN-gamma/LIGHT induced apoptosis while the down-regulation of Bcl-XL in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells by RNA interference decreased the resistance. Our study provides important mechanistic insights into IFN-gamma/LIGHT- induced apoptosis in HCC cells and may help to select better therapeutic strategies for certain cancers with distinct Bcl-XL expression.

Yu Z, Adusumilli PS, Eisenberg DP, et al.
Nectin-1 expression by squamous cell carcinoma is a predictor of herpes oncolytic sensitivity.
Mol Ther. 2007; 15(1):103-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncolytic viruses based on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are able to infect and lyse a variety of malignant cell lines. However, there is variability in the degree of tumor susceptibility, and the cancer cell determinants of HSV sensitivity are poorly defined. Nectin-1 is a cell surface adhesion molecule that functions as a cellular receptor to HSV envelope glycoprotein D (gD). We assessed tumor nectin-1 expression as a predictor of oncolytic HSV sensitivity. A panel of human squamous carcinoma cell lines was evaluated for viral entry, replication, and cytotoxicity to an attenuated, replication-competent, oncolytic HSV (NV1023). Potential tumor determinants of HSV sensitivity were assessed, including nectin-1, herpes viral entry mediator, total gD receptor expression, S-phase fraction, and doubling time. Significant correlations between nectin-1 expression measured by quantitative fluorescence-activated cell sorting and viral sensitivity measures were identified using Pearson's coefficients. Cancer cell nectin-1 receptor blockade and nectin-1 transfection led to inhibition and enhancement of NV1023 viral entry, respectively. Cell lines with varying nectin-1 expression showed corresponding sensitivity to NV1023 therapy in vivo. Immunohistochemistry for nectin-1 was inversely related to E-cadherin staining, suggesting increased herpes sensitivity of E-cadherin-deficient tumors. These results suggest that nectin-1 may be used as a marker to predict the sensitivity of a tumor to herpes oncolytic therapy.

Zhou G, Roizman B
Characterization of a recombinant herpes simplex virus 1 designed to enter cells via the IL13Ralpha2 receptor of malignant glioma cells.
J Virol. 2005; 79(9):5272-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant glioma tumor cells in situ exhibit on their surfaces the interleukin 13 (IL-13) receptor designated IL13Ralpha2. To target herpes simplex virus 1 to this receptor, we constructed a recombinant virus (R5111) in which the known heparan sulfate binding sites in glycoproteins B and C were deleted and IL-13 was inserted into both glycoproteins C and D. We also transduced a baby hamster kidney cell line lacking the known viral receptors (J1-1) and Vero cells with a plasmid encoding IL13Ralpha2. The J1-1 derivative (J-13R) cell line is susceptible to and replicates the R5111 recombinant virus but not the wild-type parent virus. We report the following. (i) Expression of IL13Ralpha2 was rapidly lost from the surface of transduced cells grown in culture. The loss appeared to be related to ligands present in fetal bovine serum in the medium. None of the malignant glioma cell lines cultivated in vitro and tested to date exhibited the IL13Ralpha2 receptor. (ii) Soluble IL-13 but not IL-4 or IL-2 blocked the replication of R5111 recombinant virus in J-13R cells. (iii) The endocytosis inhibitor PD98059 blocked the replication in J1-1 cells of a mutant lacking glycoprotein D (gD-/-) but not the replication of R5111 in the J-13R cells. We conclude that R5111 enters cells via its interaction with the IL13Ralpha2 receptor in a manner that cannot be differentiated from the interaction of wild-type virus with its receptors.

Sternberg LR, Byrd JC, Hansson GC, et al.
Alternative splicing of the human MUC2 gene.
Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004; 421(1):21-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human colon cancers differ in amounts of MUC2 mucin synthesized. However, it is unclear whether MUC2 encodes a single protein. When clones of human colon cancer cells were assayed with antibodies against the TR2 mucin repeat or non-TR2 epitopes, differences in relative expression of MUC2 proteins suggested multiple immunoreactive forms. RT-PCR analysis detected the established 15kbp MUC2 cDNA and a novel form (designated MUC2.1) lacking the MUC2 TR2 repeat. Sequencing of cDNA and genomic DNA indicated that MUC2.1 results from an alternate splice donor. RT-PCR with splice-junction spanning primers confirmed the expression of MUC2.1 mRNA. Anti-MUC2.1 antibody stained colon cancer cells and normal colon in a pattern different from TR2-specific antibody. The presence of MUC2.1 mucin may help us to explain previous conflicting reports that have attempted to correlate the relative abundance of MUC2 protein and/or mRNA with the biological behavior of colon cancer cells.

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