Zhang Y, Jin B, Shao M, et al.Monitoring of carcinoembryonic antigen levels is predictive of EGFR mutations and efficacy of EGFR-TKI in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4921-8 [PubMed
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For the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, tumor tissues may not always be available. Not all the patients harboring EGFR mutation have a clinical response after the treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI). EGFR mutations were detected in 70 cases of newly diagnosed non-smoking adenocarcinoma, and patients harboring EGFR mutations received EGFR-TKI treatment. The EGFR mutation status of these patients' blood was analyzed by amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). The patients' carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were tested on the third, seventh, 15(th), and 30th days after EGFR-TKI treatment. Forty-four cases were found with EGFR mutations. EGFR mutation rate of CEA high-level group was significantly higher than low-level group (70.8% vs. 40.9%, P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis showed that high-level CEA is independently associated with EGFR gene mutation (P = 0.020, OR = 3.508, 95%CI, 1.223-10.059). The sensitivity of high CEA level and ARMS to predict EGFR mutation were 79.1% and 51.2%. We divided the patients who received EGFR-TKI treatment into three groups by the variation types of CEA. Univariate analysis showed that patients in descending type group have longer progression-free survival (P = 0.001, HR 6.981, 95%CI, 2.534-19.237). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analyses shows the same result (P = 0.001, HR 9.82, 95%CI, 3.322-26.031). In conditions of the current technique, using high CEA level to predict EGFR mutations seems to be more sensitive than using EGFR mutations in plasma. The variation types of CEA level could help us to predict the efficacy of EGFR-TKI in patients harboring EGFR mutation within only 1 month of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.
Dysregulation of cell surface proteolysis has been strongly implicated in tumorigenicity and metastasis. In this study, we delineated the role of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-2 (HAI-2) in prostate cancer (PCa) cell migration, invasion, tumorigenicity and metastasis using a human PCa progression model (103E, N1, and N2 cells) and xenograft models. N1 and N2 cells were established through serial intraprostatic propagation of 103E human PCa cells and isolation of the metastatic cells from nearby lymph nodes. The invasion capability of these cells was revealed to gradually increase throughout the serial isolations (103E
AIM: To investigate the mechanisms of how cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) regulates E-cadherin in gastric cancer cells.
METHODS: COX-2 expression in human gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901, BGC-823, MGC-803 and AGS were measured at the mRNA and protein level. COX-2 rich cell line SGC-7901 was chosen for subsequent experiments. siRNA mediated gene knockdown was used to investigate the impact of COX-2 on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), Snail, and E-cadherin in gastric cancer cells. Gene expression was determined by Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction. To analyze whether NF-κB inhibition could interrupt the modulatory effect of COX-2 or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on E-cadherin, gastric cancer cells were treated with celecoxib or PGE2, in the presence of NF-κB specific siRNA.
RESULTS: Highest expression level of COX-2 was found in SGC-7901 cells, both at mRNA and protein levels. siRNA mediated down-regulation of COX-2 led to a reduced expression of NF-κB and Snail, but an increased expression of E-cadherin in SGC-7901 cells. siRNA mediated down-regulation of NF-κB also led to a reduced expression of E-cadherin and Snail in SGC-7901 cells. However, COX-2 expression did not alter after cells were treated with NF-κB specific siRNA in SGC-7901 cells. Treatment of SGC-7901 cells with celecoxib led to a reduced expression of Snail but an increased expression of E-cadherin. In contrast, treatment of SGC-7901 cells with PGE2 led to an increased Snail and a decreased E-cadherin. However, siRNA-mediated knockdown of NF-κB partially abolished the effect of celecoxib and PGE2 on the regulation of E-cadherin and Snail in SGC-7901 cells.
CONCLUSION: COX-2 likely functions upstream of NF-κB and regulates the expression of E-cadherin via NF-κB/Snail signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells.
Rong G, Kang H, Wang Y, et al.Candidate markers that associate with chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer through the study on Taxotere-induced damage to tumor microenvironment and gene expression profiling of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs).
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e70960 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recently, emerging evidence has suggested that carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) could contribute to chemotherapy resistances in breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the gene expression profiling of CAFs before and after chemotherapy and pick up candidate genes that might associate with chemotherapy resistance and could be used as predictors of treatment response. CAFs were cultured from surgically resected primary breast cancers and identified with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Flow cytometry (FCM). MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured as the breast cancer cell line. Cell adhesion assay, invasion assay, and proliferation assay (MTT) were performed to compare the function of MDA-MB-231 cells co-cultured with CAFs and MDA-MB-231 cells without co-culture, after chemotherapy. Totally 6 pairs of CAFs were prepared for microarray analysis. Each pair of CAFs were obtained from the same patient and classified into two groups. One group was treated with Taxotere (regarded as after chemotherapy) while the other group was not processed with Taxotere (regarded as before chemotherapy). According to our study, the primary-cultured CAFs exhibited characteristic phenotype. After chemotherapy, MDA-MB-231 cells co-cultured with CAFs displayed increasing adhesion, invasiveness and proliferation abilities, compared with MDA-MB-231 cells without CAFs. Moreover, 35 differentially expressed genes (absolute fold change >2) were identified between CAFs after chemotherapy and before chemotherapy, including 17 up-regulated genes and 18 down-regulated genes. CXCL2, MMP1, IL8, RARRES1, FGF1, and CXCR7 were picked up as the candidate markers, of which the differential expression in CAFs before and after chemotherapy was confirmed. The results indicate the changes of gene expression in CAFs induced by Taxotere treatment and propose the candidate markers that possibly associate with chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer.
Fan YC, Mei PJ, Chen C, et al.MiR-29c inhibits glioma cell proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis.
J Neurooncol. 2013; 115(2):179-88 [PubMed
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Previous studies reported that miR-29c is significantly downregulated in several tumors. However, little is known about the effect and molecular mechanisms of action of miR-29c in human glioma. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrated that miR-29c was significantly downregulated in glioma cell lines and human primary glioma tissues, compared to normal human astrocytes and matched non-tumor associated tissues (P < 0.05, χ(2) test). Overexpression of miR-29c dramatically reduced the proliferation and caused cessation of cell cycle. The reduced cell proliferation is due to G1 phase arrest as cyclin D1 and cyclin E are diminished whereas p27 and p21 are upregulated. We further demonstrated that miR-29c overexpression suppressed the glioma cell migration and invasion abilities by targeting MMP-2. In addition, we also found that overexpression of miR-29c sharply inhibited angiogenesis, which correlated with down-regulation of VEGF. The data indicate that miR-29c may be a tumor suppressor involved in the progression of glioma.
Host response to cancer signals has emerged as a key factor in cancer development; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not well understood. In this report, we demonstrate that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a hub of the cellular adaptive response network, plays an important role in host cells to enhance breast cancer metastasis. Immunohistochemical analysis of patient tumor samples revealed that expression of ATF3 in stromal mononuclear cells, but not cancer epithelial cells, is correlated with worse clinical outcomes and is an independent predictor for breast cancer death. This finding was corroborated by data from mouse models showing less efficient breast cancer metastasis in Atf3-deficient mice than in WT mice. Further, mice with myeloid cell-selective KO of Atf3 showed fewer lung metastases, indicating that host ATF3 facilitates metastasis, at least in part, by its function in macrophage/myeloid cells. Gene profiling analyses of macrophages from mouse tumors identified an ATF3-regulated gene signature that could distinguish human tumor stroma from distant stroma and could predict clinical outcomes, lending credence to our mouse models. In conclusion, we identified ATF3 as a regulator in myeloid cells that enhances breast cancer metastasis and has predictive value for clinical outcomes.
Cen G, Wu WAssociation between tumor necrosis factor-alpha 857C/T polymorphism and gastric cancer: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(6):3383-8 [PubMed
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Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an inflammatory cytokine which may play an important role on the immune response may control the progression of gastric cancer. Previous studies on the association between TNF-α 857C/T polymorphism and gastric cancer risk reported conflicting results. We performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively assess the association between TNF-α 857C/T polymorphism and gastric cancer risk. Literature search was performed for all publications on the association between TNF-α 857C/T polymorphism and gastric cancer risk through March 6, 2013. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence interval (95%CIs) were calculated to assess the association between TNF-α 857C/T polymorphism and gastric cancer risk. Nine individual case-control studies with a total of 5,054 subjects (1,835 cases and 3,219 controls) were finally included into the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of total nine studies showed that TNF-α 857C/T polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer under four genetic models (for T vs. C: OR = 1.19, 95%CI 1.07-1.33, P = 0.002; for TT vs. CC: OR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.03-2.02, P = 0.032; for CT vs. CC: OR = 1.19, 95%CI 1.05-1.36, P = 0.008; and for TT/CT vs. CC: OR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.07-1.38, P = 0.003). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity further showed that there was a significant association between TNF-α 857C/T polymorphism and increased risk of gastric cancer in Asians but not in Caucasians. The meta-analysis suggests that TNF-α 857C/T polymorphism is significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer, especially in Asians.
Wang XX, Cheng Q, Zhang SN, et al.PAK5-Egr1-MMP2 signaling controls the migration and invasion in breast cancer cell.
Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(5):2721-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are activated by various extracellular stimuli and, in turn, activate other kinases by phosphorylating them at specific serine/threonine residues or through protein-protein interaction. As a recently identified member of the group B PAK family, the role of PAK5 in cancer is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of PAK5 on the malignant phenotype, such as proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. Cell growth assay and cell cycle analysis consistently showed that knockdown of PAK5 could significantly inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Wound healing assay. migration assay, and invasion assay showed that PAK5 promoted cell migration. Furthermore, in order to elucidate the underlying mechanism of PAK5 on cellular growth and migration, we examined the protein expressions of cyclin D1, p21, early growth response protein 1 (Egr1), and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). Our work further reveals the PAK5-Egr1-MMP2 signaling pathway to be a critical regulator of cell migration and invasion. These results suggest that PAK5 may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer.
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.
BACKGROUND: Proteomic discovery of cancer biomarkers in body fluids is challenging because of their low abundance in a complex background. Altered gene expression in tumours may not reflect protein levels in body fluids. We have tested combining gene expression profiling of tumours with proteomic analysis of cancer cell line secretomes as a strategy to discover urinary biomarkers for bladder cancer.
METHODS: We used shotgun proteomics to identify proteins secreted by three bladder cancer cell lines. Secreted proteins with high mRNA levels in bladder tumours relative to normal urothelium were assayed by ELISA in urine samples from 642 patients.
RESULTS: Midkine and HAI-1 were significantly increased in bladder cancer patients, with the highest levels in invasive disease (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.89 vs non-cancer). The urinary concentration of both proteins was too high to be explained by bladder cancer associated haematuria and most likely arises by direct tumour secretion.
CONCLUSIONS: This 'dual-omic' strategy identified tumour secreted proteins whose urine concentrations are increased significantly by bladder cancer. Combined secretome-transcriptome analysis may be more useful than direct proteomic analysis of body fluids for biomarker discovery in both bladder cancer and other tumour types.
Zhou X, Liu Z, Shi Q, et al.Geranylgeranyltransferase I regulates HIF-1α promoting glioblastoma cell migration and invasion.
J Neurooncol. 2013; 112(3):365-74 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly migratory and invasive brain tumor in which hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays important roles. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the action of HIF-1α in glioma cell migration and invasion ability remain unclear. We reported here that HIF-1α was regulated by geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGTI), a protein prenylation transferase, and then promoted glioma cell migration and invasion. The migratory and invasive ability of glioma cells were enhanced by hypoxia treatment but inhibited by down-regulation of HIF-1α. GGTI activity inhibition or GGTI specific β subunit (GGTI β) knocking-down decreased HIF-1α protein level. In addition, down-regulation of GGTI β inhibited migration and invasion of glioma cells under hypoxia, while GGTI β over-expression promoted it. Furthermore, the effect of GGTI β over-expression on cell migration and invasion was abolished by HIF-1α down-regulation. In summary, our study showed, for the first time, that HIF-1α was regulated by protein prenylation transferase GGTI and mediated the effect of GGTI on glioma cell migration and invasion.
Cheng TS, Chen WC, Lin YY, et al.Curcumin-targeting pericellular serine protease matriptase role in suppression of prostate cancer cell invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013; 6(5):495-505 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Curcumin has been shown to possess potent chemopreventive and antitumor effects on prostate cancer. However, the molecular mechanism involved in curcumin's ability to suppress prostate cancer cell invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis is not yet well understood. In this study, we have shown that curcumin can suppress epidermal growth factor (EGF)- stimulated and heregulin-stimulated PC-3 cell invasion, as well as androgen-induced LNCaP cell invasion. Curcumin treatment significantly resulted in reduced matrix metalloproteinase 9 activity and downregulation of cellular matriptase, a membrane-anchored serine protease with oncogenic roles in tumor formation and invasion. Our data further show that curcumin is able to inhibit the induction effects of androgens and EGF on matriptase activation, as well as to reduce the activated levels of matriptase after its overexpression, thus suggesting that curcumin may interrupt diverse signal pathways to block the protease. Furthermore, the reduction of activated matriptase in cells by curcumin was also partly due to curcumin's effect on promoting the shedding of matriptase into an extracellular environment, but not via altering matriptase gene expression. In addition, curcumin significantly suppressed the invasive ability of prostate cancer cells induced by matriptase overexpression. In xenograft model, curcumin not only inhibits prostate cancer tumor growth and metastasis but also downregulates matriptase activity in vivo. Overall, the data indicate that curcumin exhibits a suppressive effect on prostate cancer cell invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis, at least in part via downregulating matriptase function.
Bose S, Tripathi DM, Sukriti, et al.Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and DNA repair genes HOGG1 and XRCC1: association with hepatitis B related advanced liver disease and cancer.
Gene. 2013; 519(2):231-7 [PubMed
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A population based case-control study was designed to explore the genetic risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) related liver disease susceptibility. A total of 424 subjects comprising 210 controls, 50 acute HBV (AVH), 84 chronic HBV (CHBV), 25 HBV related cirrhosis and 55 HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases were included in the study. PCR-RFLP was used for the genotyping of Cyp2E1*5B, hOGG1 codon 326 and XRCC1 codon 399. Compared to controls, Cyp2E1 rsaI variant c2 genotype increased the risk of HBV related liver disease severity by 2.68 fold, the highest for HCC cases (3.981 folds, p=0.106); and was associated with higher histology activity index (HAI) (p<0.001) in CHBV patients. Cyp2E1 and hOGG1 variants were independently associated with a significantly higher fibrosis score in CHBV group. Analysis of gene-gene interaction studies showed an increased risk of HCC, cirrhosis and CHBV in a Cyp2E1 variant+XRCC1 variant combination (p<0.001); and hOGG1 variants+XRCC1 variants. A mutually independent heterozygous hOGG1 and XRCC1 combination resulted in a decreased risk of HBV related liver disease. On the other hand, a wild-type hOGG1 and XRCC1 combination was associated with a significantly higher risk of AVH (p=0.010) but a lower risk of CHBV (p=0.032) and HCC (p=0.006). The gene-gene interactions were also associated with a significant increase in HAI and fibrosis score in CHBV patients. Cyp2E1, hOGG1 and XRCC1 genotypes significantly alter the risk of HBV related liver disease susceptibility and severity, independently or through gene-gene interaction.
Tang LL, Chen FY, Wang H, et al.Haplotype analysis of eight genes of the monoubiquitinated FANCD2-DNA damage-repair pathway in breast cancer patients.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2013; 37(3):311-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ten genes are associated with increased susceptibility to inherited breast cancer have also been associated with population breast cancer risk, and all are involved directly or indirectly in the monoubiquitinated FANCD2-DNA damage repair pathway. We analyzed 13 haplotype blocks in eight of these genes to estimate the breast cancer risk conferred by individual haplotypes.
METHODS: Haplotype blocks were constructed with 48 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) identified in eight breast cancer susceptibility genes, TP53, PTEN, CHEK2, ATM, NBS1, RAD50, BRIP1, and PALB2. Genotyping was performed by SNPscan on 734 female patients and 672 female age-matched controls.
RESULTS: Forty-five tSNPs were successfully genotyped by SNPscan, and call rates for each tSNP were above 98.9%. Thirteen haplotype blocks of eight genes were constructed with 41 successfully genotyped tSNPs. We found that seven haplotypes from four haplotype blocks located within three genes (NBS1, PTEN, and BRIP1) were significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Among these, four haplotypes (ATC in block 1 of NBS1, GCCCC and GCCCT in block 2 of NBS1, and GCT in block 2 of BRIP1) were correlated with breast cancer risk in sporadic cases (OR (95% CI) 1.350(1.124-1.623), 0.752(0.584-0.969), 0.803(0.649-0.993), and 0.776(0.604-0.997), respectively), and only one haplotype (GGCCT in block 2 of NBS1) was significantly associated with breast cancer risk in familial and early-onset cases (OR(95% CI) 1.902(1.134-3.191)).
CONCLUSIONS: Four haplotypes within two genes (NBS1 and BRIP1) involved in the monoubiquitinated FANCD2-DNA damage-repair pathway are significantly associated with increased sporadic breast cancer risk, while one haplotype within NBS1 is correlated with an increased risk of familial or early-onset breast cancer, indicating that specific haplotypes may be distinct predictors of breast cancer.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) mRNA expression could predict treatment response of patients with locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma (LACSCC) who underwent cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCCRT).
METHODS: A total of sixty LACSCC patients, treated with radical CCCRT from a single institution were evaluated. ERCC1 mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in pre-treatment tumor tissues. The association of ERCC1 status with clinicopathological characteristics (age, histological grade, tumor size, parametrial invasion, lymph node metastasis and FIGO stage) and treatment response were analyzed.
RESULTS: No significant association between ERCC1 mRNA expression and clinicopathological characteristics were observed. Patients with low ERCC1 mRNA level had a significantly higher rate of complete response (86.21%) than patients with high level of ERCC1 expression (19.36%; p < 0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, low ERCC1 mRNA level retained an independent role in predicting complete response to CCCRT (P < 0.001). An ERCC1 expression level of 0.0901 was determined as an optimal cutoff value to identify complete response patients to CCCRT treatment. The sensitivity for detection of a complete response was 81.48% with a specificity of 96.97% (area under the curve, 0.893; 95% confidence interval, 0.804-0.983).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first analysis of the association between ERCC1 mRNA levels and treatment response in patients with LACSCC. Low ERCC1 mRNA level appears to be a highly specific predictor of response to CCCRT in LACSCC.
Point mutations at Arg132 of the cytoplasmic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) occur frequently in gliomas and result in a gain of function to produce the "oncometabolite" D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). The mutated IDH1 allele is usually associated with a wild-type IDH1 allele (heterozygous) in cancer. Here, we identify 2 gliomas that underwent loss of the wild-type IDH1 allele but retained the mutant IDH1 allele following tumor progression from World Health Organization (WHO) grade III anaplastic astrocytomas to WHO grade IV glioblastomas. Intratumoral D-2HG was 14-fold lower in the glioblastomas lacking wild-type IDH1 than in glioblastomas with heterozygous IDH1 mutations. To characterize the contribution of wild-type IDH1 to cancer cell D-2HG production, we established an IDH1-mutated astrocytoma (IMA) cell line from a WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytoma. Disruption of the wild-type IDH1 allele in IMA cells by gene targeting resulted in an 87-fold decrease in cellular D-2HG levels, showing that both wild-type and mutant IDH1 alleles are required for D-2HG production in glioma cells. Expression of wild-type IDH1 was also critical for mutant IDH1-associated D-2HG production in the colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. These insights may aid in the development of therapeutic strategies to target IDH1-mutated cancers.
Zhou X, Qian J, Hua L, et al.Geranylgeranyltransferase I promotes human glioma cell growth through Rac1 membrane association and activation.
J Mol Neurosci. 2013; 49(1):130-9 [PubMed
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Geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGTase-I) is responsible for the posttranslational lipidation of several signaling proteins such as RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42, which contribute to tumor development and metastasis. However, the role of GGTase-I in the progression of human glioma is largely unknown. Here, we provide the evidence that Rac1 mediates the effects of GGTase-I on the proliferation and apoptosis in human glioma cells. We found that GGTase-I was abundantly expressed in human primary glioma tissues. Inhibition or downregulation of GGTase-I markedly decreased the proliferation of glioma cells and induced their apoptosis, while overexpression of GGTase-I promoted cell growth in vitro. Inactivation of GGTase-I eliminated geranylgeranylation of RhoA and Rac1, prevented them from targeting to the plasma membrane, and inhibited Rac1 activity. Furthermore, overexpressing wild type or constitutively active Rac1 stimulated glioma cell growth, similar to the effect of GGTase-I overexpression. Importantly, overexpressing dominant-negative Rac1 or Rac1 with the prenylation site deleted or mutated abrogated GGTase-I-induced proliferation in glioma cells. These results confirm the view that geranylgeranylation is essential to the activity and localization of Rho family proteins and suggest that Rac1 is required for GGTase-I-mediated glioma growth.
Shangguan L, Ti X, Krause U, et al.Inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling by BAMBI blocks differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells to carcinoma-associated fibroblasts and abolishes their protumor effects.
Stem Cells. 2012; 30(12):2810-9 [PubMed
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Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have multiple therapeutic potentials for regenerative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory purposes and also show promise as vehicles for gene therapy of various metastatic cancers based on their tumor-tropic capacity. However, BM-MSCs are also a source of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and may promote growth and metastasis of cancer. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling is required to induce CAF differentiation of mouse BM-MSCs in vivo and can induce expression of some CAF markers in human BM-MSCs in vitro. To determine whether inhibiting TGF-β signaling in human BM-MSCs can block their differentiation to CAFs induced by tumor microenvironments and the consequent protumor effects, we transduced human BM-MSCs with a lentiviral vector encoding bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI), a decoy TGF-β receptor. BAMBI transduction significantly inhibited TGF-β/Smad signaling and expression of CAF markers in human BM-MSCs treated with TGF-β1 or tumor-conditioned medium or cocultured with cancer cells, but did not alter the stem cell properties and the tumor-tropic property of MSCs. In addition, BAMBI transduction disrupted the cytokine network mediating the interaction between MSCs and breast cancer cells. Consequently, BAMBI transduction abolished protumor effects of BM-MSCs in vitro and in an orthotopic breast cancer xenograft model, and instead significantly inhibited growth and metastasis of coinoculated cancer. These results indicated that TGF-β signaling is essential for differentiation of human BM-MSCs to CAFs in tumor microenvironments and the consequent protumor effects, and inhibiting TGF-β/Smad pathway may improve the safety of MSC-based therapies in cancer patients.