SET

Gene Summary

Gene:SET; SET nuclear proto-oncogene
Aliases: 2PP2A, IGAAD, TAF-I, I2PP2A, IPP2A2, PHAPII, TAF-IBETA
Location:9q34
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene inhibits acetylation of nucleosomes, especially histone H4, by histone acetylases (HAT). This inhibition is most likely accomplished by masking histone lysines from being acetylated, and the consequence is to silence HAT-dependent transcription. The encoded protein is part of a complex localized to the endoplasmic reticulum but is found in the nucleus and inhibits apoptosis following attack by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This protein can also enhance DNA replication of the adenovirus genome. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein SET
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (22)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Wilms Tumour
  • Breast Cancer
  • RTPCR
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Yeasts
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • DNA Methylation
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • RT-PCR
  • Tissue Preservation
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Algorithms
  • SET
  • Adolescents
  • Transcriptome
  • Vitamin D-Binding Protein
  • Phenotype
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Risk Factors
  • Cluster Analysis
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Chromosome 9
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Mutation
  • Transfection
  • Gene Expression
  • Computational Biology
  • ROC Curve
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • MicroRNAs
  • User-Computer Interface
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML)t(9;9)(q34;q34) SET-NUP214 rearrangements in Acute Lyphoblastic Leukaemia
The SET-NUP214 fusion gene resulting from either cryptic t(9;9)(q34;q34) or del(9)(q34.11q34.13)is a relatively rare genetic event in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Eleven of 196 (6%) T-ALLs enrolled in the French GRAALL-2003 and -2005 clinical trials had a SET-NUP214 transcript (Abdelali, 2014).
View Publications40
Wilms TumourSET overexpression in Wilms Tumor?
Carlson (1998) reported high levels of SET expression in Wilms Tumor compared to renal cell carcinoma.
View Publications1

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SET (cancer-related)

Tsukamoto S, Huang Y, Umeda D, et al.
67-kDa laminin receptor-dependent protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activation elicits melanoma-specific antitumor activity overcoming drug resistance.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(47):32671-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/11/2015 Related Publications
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway has been identified as a major, druggable regulator of melanoma. Mutational activation of BRAF is the most prevalent genetic alteration in human melanoma, resulting in constitutive melanoma hyperproliferation. A selective BRAF inhibitor showed remarkable clinical activity in patients with mutated BRAF. Unfortunately, most patients acquire resistance to the BRAF inhibitor, highlighting the urgent need for new melanoma treatment strategies. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) inhibits cell proliferation independently of BRAF inhibitor sensitivity, suggesting that increased understanding of the anti-melanoma activity of EGCG may provide a novel therapeutic target. Here, by performing functional genetic screening, we identified protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a critical factor in the suppression of melanoma cell proliferation. We demonstrated that tumor-overexpressed 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) activates PP2A through adenylate cyclase/cAMP pathway eliciting inhibitions of oncoproteins and activation of tumor suppressor Merlin. Activating 67LR/PP2A pathway leading to melanoma-specific mTOR inhibition shows strong synergy with the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 in the drug-resistant melanoma. Moreover, SET, a potent inhibitor of PP2A, is overexpressed on malignant melanoma. Silencing of SET enhances 67LR/PP2A signaling. Collectively, activation of 67LR/PP2A signaling may thus be a novel rational strategy for melanoma-specific treatment.

Li J, Yang XF, Ren XH, et al.
Stable SET knockdown in breast cell carcinoma inhibits cell migration and invasion.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 453(1):7-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most malignant tumor for women, however, the mechanisms underlying this devastating disease remain unclear. SET is an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and involved in many physiological and pathological processes. SET could promote the occurrence of tumor through inhibiting PP2A. In this study, we explore the role of SET in the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and ZR-75-30. The stable suppression of SET expression through lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was shown to inhibit the growth, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Knockdown of SET increases the activity and expression of PP2Ac and decrease the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). These data demonstrate that SET may be involved in the pathogenic processes of breast cancer, indicating that SET can serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer.

Liu Y, He P, Liu F, et al.
[Influence of I2PP2A gene silencing by RNA interference on proliferation and apoptosis of human acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4-R1].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2014; 35(8):732-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of RNA interference of human I2PP2A gene on the proliferation and apoptosis of retinoic acid-resistant human acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line NB4-R1.
METHODS: Designed and constructed a RNA interference lentiviral vector I2PP2A-shRNA which targeted against I2PP2A gene, then transfected it into NB4-R1 via polybrene mediation. The I2PP2A expression levels before and after transfection were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Meanwhile, the proliferation and apoptosis rates of each group were determined by CCK-8 and flow cytometry assay. The protein expressions of caspase-8 and PARP were detected by Western blot.
RESULTS: Both qRT-PCR and Western blot data showed the I2PP2A expression level was significantly downregulated in the transfection group. The I2PP2A mRNA expression level decreased by (70.0 ± 9.6)% and (64.0 ± 6.2)% respectively, compared with blank control and negative control group, and the I2PP2A protein expression level showed a consistent trend. CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated the NB4-R1 cell proliferation rate in I2PP2A-shRNA transfection group significantly reduced compared to blank control group (P<0.05). Flow cytometry results showed that NB4-R1 apoptosis rate in I2PP2A-shRNA transfection group increased by (6.30 ± 0.67) times and (6.04 ± 0.56) times, respectively (P<0.01). After inhibition of I2PP2A, the total caspase-8 and total PARP expressions decreased by (44.0 ± 3.1)% and (57.0 ± 4.0)%, respectively; Meanwhile, the cleaved caspase-8 (p43) and cleaved PARP (p89) increased by (36.0 ± 2.5)% and (45.0 ± 4.8)%, respectively compared with blank control group (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: I2PP2A gene silenced by RNA interference could inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of NB4-R1, which may be regulated through caspase-8-induced exogenous apoptosis pathway.

Janghorban M, Farrell AS, Allen-Petersen BL, et al.
Targeting c-MYC by antagonizing PP2A inhibitors in breast cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(25):9157-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/11/2015 Related Publications
The transcription factor c-MYC is stabilized and activated by phosphorylation at serine 62 (S62) in breast cancer. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a critical negative regulator of c-MYC through its ability to dephosphorylate S62. By inactivating c-MYC and other key signaling pathways, PP2A plays an important tumor suppressor function. Two endogenous inhibitors of PP2A, I2PP2A, Inhibitor-2 of PP2A (SET oncoprotein) and cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A), inactivate PP2A and are overexpressed in several tumor types. Here we show that SET is overexpressed in about 50-60% and CIP2A in about 90% of breast cancers. Knockdown of SET or CIP2A reduces the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of breast cancer cells in vitro or in vivo with OP449, a novel SET antagonist, also decreases the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cells and induces apoptosis. We show that this is, at least in part, due to decreased S62 phosphorylation of c-MYC and reduced c-MYC activity and target gene expression. Because of the ubiquitous expression and tumor suppressor activity of PP2A in cells, as well as the critical role of c-MYC in human cancer, we propose that activation of PP2A (here accomplished through antagonizing endogenous inhibitors) could be a novel antitumor strategy to posttranslationally target c-MYC in breast cancer.

Pippa R, Dominguez A, Christensen DJ, et al.
Effect of FTY720 on the SET-PP2A complex in acute myeloid leukemia; SET binding drugs have antagonistic activity.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(9):1915-8 [PubMed] Related Publications

Loganathan J, Jiang J, Smith A, et al.
The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum suppresses breast-to-lung cancer metastasis through the inhibition of pro-invasive genes.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(6):2009-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer metastasis is one of the major reasons for the high morbidity and mortality of breast cancer patients. In spite of surgical interventions, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and targeted therapy, some patients are considering alternative therapies with herbal/natural products. In the present study, we evaluated a well-characterized extract from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLE) for its affects on tumor growth and breast-to-lung cancer metastasis. MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were implanted into the mammary fat pads of nude mice. GLE (100 mg/kg/every other day) was administered to the mice by an oral gavage for 4 weeks, and tumor size was measured using microcalipers. Lung metastases were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Gene expression in MDA-MB-231 cells was determined by DNA microarray analysis and confirmed by quantitative PCR. Identified genes were silenced by siRNA, and cell migration was determined in Boyden chambers and by wound-healing assay. Although an oral administration of GLE only slightly suppressed the growth of large tumors, the same treatment significantly inhibited the number of breast-to-lung cancer metastases. GLE also downregulated the expression of genes associated with invasive behavior (HRAS, VIL2, S100A4, MCAM, I2PP2A and FN1) in MDA-MB-231 cells. Gene silencing of HRAS, VIL2, S100A4, I2PP2A and FN1 by siRNA suppressed migration of MDA-MB‑231 cells. Our study suggests that an oral administration of GLE can inhibit breast-to-lung cancer metastases through the downregulation of genes responsible for cell invasiveness. The anti-metastatic benefits of GLE warrant further clinical studies.

Neviani P, Perrotti D
SETting OP449 into the PP2A-activating drug family.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(8):2026-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) tumor suppressor is inactivated in different leukemias through the activity of its endogenous inhibitors (e.g., SET), which are aberrantly regulated by oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Like other effective and nontoxic PP2A-activating drugs (PAD), OP449 inhibits SET and impairs leukemogenesis. This further supports the immediate use of PADs in patients with leukemia.

Sobral LM, Sousa LO, Coletta RD, et al.
Stable SET knockdown in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma promotes cell invasion and the mesenchymal-like phenotype in vitro, as well as necrosis, cisplatin sensitivity and lymph node metastasis in xenograft tumor models.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: SET/I2PP2A is a multifunctional protein that is up-regulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The action of SET in HNSCC tumorigenicity is unknown.
METHODS: Stable SET knockdown by shRNA (shSET) was established in three HNSCC cell lines: HN12, HN13, and Cal27. Protein expression and phosphorylated protein levels were determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence, cell migration and invasion were measured by functional analysis, and PP2A activity was determined using a serine/threonine phosphatase assay. A real-time PCR array was used to quantify 84 genes associated with cell motility. Metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was assessed by zymographic and fluorometric assays. HN12shSET xenograft tumors (flank and tongue models) were established in Balb/c nude mice; the xenograft characteristics and cisplatin sensitivity were demonstrated by macroscopic, immunohistochemical, and histological analyses, as well as lymph node metastasis by histology.
RESULTS: The HN12shSET cells displayed reduced ERK1/2 and p53 phosphorylation compared with control. ShSET reduced HN12 cell proliferation and increased the sub-G1 population of HN12 and Cal27 cells. Increased PP2A activity was also associated with shSET. The PCR array indicated up-regulation of three mRNAs in HN12 cells: vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIB. Reduced E-cadherin and pan-cytokeratin, as well as increased vimentin, were also demonstrated as the result of SET knockdown. These changes were accompanied by an increase in MMP-9 and MMP-2 activities, migration and invasion. The HN12shSET subcutaneous xenograft tumors presented a poorly differentiated phenotype, reduced cell proliferation, and cisplatin sensitivity. An orthotopic xenograft tumor model using the HN12shSET cells displayed increased metastatic potential.
CONCLUSIONS: SET accumulation has important actions in HNSCC. As an oncogene, SET promotes cell proliferation, survival, and resistance to cell death by cisplatin in vivo. As a metastasis suppressor, SET regulates invasion, the epithelial mesenchymal transition, and metastasis.

Almeida LO, Garcia CB, Matos-Silva FA, et al.
Accumulated SET protein up-regulates and interacts with hnRNPK, increasing its binding to nucleic acids, the Bcl-xS repression, and cellular proliferation.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 445(1):196-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
SET and hnRNPK are proteins involved in gene expression and regulation of cellular signaling. We previously demonstrated that SET accumulates in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); hnRNPK is a prognostic marker in cancer. Here, we postulate that SET and hnRNPK proteins interact to promote tumorigenesis. We performed studies in HEK293 and HNSCC (HN6, HN12, and HN13) cell lines with SET/hnRNPK overexpression and knockdown, respectively. We found that SET and/or hnRNPK protein accumulation increased cellular proliferation. SET accumulation up-regulated hnRNPK mRNA and total/phosphorylated protein, promoted hnRNPK nuclear location, and reduced Bcl-x mRNA levels. SET protein directly interacted with hnRNPK, increasing both its binding to nucleic acids and Bcl-xS repression. We propose that hnRNPK should be a new target of SET and that SET-hnRNPK interaction, in turn, has potential implications in cell survival and malignant transformation.

Tian Y, Liu Y, He P, et al.
Arsenic sulfide promotes apoptosis in retinoid acid resistant human acute promyelocytic leukemic NB4-R1 cells through downregulation of SET protein.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e83184 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
Tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide (As4S4) is an arsenic compound with anti-tumor activity, especially in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) that are resistant to retinoic acid (RA). Although recent studies revealed that the therapeutic action of As4S4 is closely associated with the induction of cellular apoptosis, the exact molecular mechanism of action of As4S4 in RA-resistant APL remains to be clarified. In this study, we found that As4S4-induced apoptosis was accompanied by reduced mRNA and protein expression of SET gene in RA-resistant NB4-R1 cells. Moreover, RNAi knockdown of SET gene further promoted As4S4-induced apoptosis, while SET over-expression inhibited it, suggesting that As4S4 induces apoptosis through the reduction of SET protein in NB4-R1 cells. We also demonstrated that the knockdown of SET gene resulted in the upregulation of protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) expression and the downregulation of promyelocytic leukemia and retinoic acid receptor α fusion gene (PML-RARα) expression, which were enhanced by As4S4 treatments. By contrast, over-expression of SET gene resulted in PP2A downregulation and PML-RARα upregulation, which were abolished by As4S4 pretreatment. Since PP2A is a pro-apoptotic factor and PMLRARα is an anti-apoptotic factor, our results suggest that As4S4-induced apoptosis in NB4-R1 cells is through the downregulation of SET protein expression, which in turn increases PP2A and reduces PML-RARα expressions to lead to cell apoptosis.

Ben Abdelali R, Roggy A, Leguay T, et al.
SET-NUP214 is a recurrent γδ lineage-specific fusion transcript associated with corticosteroid/chemotherapy resistance in adult T-ALL.
Blood. 2014; 123(12):1860-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
The SET-NUP214 (TAF1/CAN) fusion gene is a rare genetic event in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Eleven (6%) of 196 T-ALL patients enrolled in the French Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL) 2003 and 2005 trials harbored a SET-NUP214 transcript. SET-NUP214-positive patients were predominantly (10 [91%] of 11) T-cell receptor (TCR)-negative and strikingly associated with TCRγδ lineage T-ALLs, as defined by expression of TCRγδ, TCRδ and/or TCRγ rearrangements but no complete TCRβ variable diversity joining rearrangement in surface CD3/TCR-negative cases. When compared with SET-NUP214-negative patients, SET-NUP214-positive patients showed a significantly higher rate of corticosteroid resistance (91% vs 44%; P = .003) and chemotherapy resistance (100% vs 44%; P = .0001). All SET-NUP214-positive patients but one achieved complete remission, and 9 were allografted. Despite the poor early-treatment sensitivity, the outcome of SET-NUP214-positive patients was similar to that of SET-NUP214-negative patients.

Cristóbal I, Manso R, Rincón R, et al.
PP2A inhibition is a common event in colorectal cancer and its restoration using FTY720 shows promising therapeutic potential.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(4):938-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a tumor suppressor that regulates many signaling pathways crucial for cell transformation. In fact, decreased activity of PP2A has been reported as a recurrent alteration in many types of cancer. Here, we show that PP2A is frequently inactivated in patients with colorectal cancer, indicating that PP2A represents a potential therapeutic target for this disease. We identified overexpression of the endogenous PP2A inhibitors SET and CIP2A, and downregulation of regulatory PP2A such as PPP2R2A and PPP2R5E, as contributing mechanisms to PP2A inhibition in colorectal cancer. Moreover, we observed that its restoration using FTY720 impairs proliferation and clonogenic potential of colorectal cancer cells, induces caspase-dependent apoptosis, and affects AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 activation status. Interestingly, treatment with FTY720 showed an additive effect with 5-fluorouracil, SN-38, and oxaliplatin, drugs used in standard chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer. These results suggest that PP2A activity is commonly decreased in colorectal cancer cells, and that the use of PP2A activators, such as FTY720, might represent a potential novel therapeutic strategy in colorectal cancer.

Agarwal A, MacKenzie RJ, Pippa R, et al.
Antagonism of SET using OP449 enhances the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and overcomes drug resistance in myeloid leukemia.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(8):2092-103 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: The SET oncoprotein, a potent inhibitor of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is overexpressed in leukemia. We evaluated the efficacy of SET antagonism in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, a murine leukemia model, and primary patient samples using OP449, a specific, cell-penetrating peptide that antagonizes SET's inhibition of PP2A.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In vitro cytotoxicity and specificity of OP449 in CML and AML cell lines and primary samples were measured using proliferation, apoptosis, and clonogenic assays. Efficacy of target inhibition by OP449 was evaluated by immunoblotting and PP2A assay. In vivo antitumor efficacy of OP449 was measured in human HL-60 xenografted murine model.
RESULTS: We observed that OP449 inhibited growth of CML cells including those from patients with blastic phase disease and patients harboring highly drug-resistant BCR-ABL1 mutations. Combined treatment with OP449 and ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors was significantly more cytotoxic to K562 cells and primary CD34(+) CML cells. SET protein levels remained unchanged with OP449 treatment, but BCR-ABL1-mediated downstream signaling was significantly inhibited with the degradation of key signaling molecules such as BCR-ABL1, STAT5, and AKT. Similarly, AML cell lines and primary patient samples with various genetic lesions showed inhibition of cell growth after treatment with OP449 alone or in combination with respective kinase inhibitors. Finally, OP449 reduced the tumor burden of mice xenografted with human leukemia cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a novel therapeutic paradigm of SET antagonism using OP449 in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of CML and AML.

Liu Y, He P, Liu F, et al.
Tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide (As4S 4) promotes apoptosis in retinoid acid -resistant human acute promyelocytic leukemic NB4-R1 cells through downregulation of SET protein.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(4):3421-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide (As4S4) is an arsenic compound with antitumor activity, especially in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) that are resistant to retinoic acid (RA). Although recent studies have revealed that the therapeutic action of As4S4 is closely associated with the induction of cellular apoptosis, the exact molecular mechanism underlying this action in RA-resistant APL remains to be clarified. In this study, we found that As4S4-induced apoptosis was accompanied by reduced mRNA and protein expression of SET gene in RA-resistant NB4-R1 cells. Moreover, RNAi knockdown of SET gene further promoted As4S4-induced apoptosis, while SET overexpression recovered the cell viability, suggesting that As4S4 induces apoptosis through the reduction of SET protein in NB4-R1 cells. We also observed that the knockdown of SET gene resulted in the upregulation of protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) expression and the downregulation of promyelocytic leukemia and retinoic acid receptor α fusion gene (PML-RARα) expression, which were enhanced by As4S4 treatments. By contrast, overexpression of SET gene resulted in PP2A downregulation and PML-RARα upregulation, which were abolished by As4S4 pretreatment. Since PP2A is a proapoptotic factor and PML-RARα is an antiapoptotic factor, our results suggest that As4S4-induced apoptosis in RA-resistant NB4-R1 cells is through the downregulation of SET protein expression, which, in turn, increases PP2A and reduces PML-RARα expressions to lead to cell apoptosis.

Chen S, Dong Q, Hu S, et al.
Proteomic analysis of the proteins that are associated with the resistance to paclitaxel in human breast cancer cells.
Mol Biosyst. 2014; 10(2):294-303 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancers frequently develop resistance to paclitaxel but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be determined. We have investigated the proteins that are associated with the paclitaxel resistance in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells using proteomic analysis. Paclitaxel resistant human breast cancer MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/P) were established by escalating the concentrations of paclitaxel to drug-sensitive MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/S). The global protein profiles of MCF-7/P and MCF-7/S were compared using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Eleven proteins were upregulated while six proteins were downregulated in MCF-7/P cells. Western blot and real-time PCR analyses showed that the protein and mRNA levels of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP C1/C2), SET nuclear oncogene (SET), aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), transgelin-2 (TAGLN2) were increased, while those of nucleoside-diphosphate kinase A (NDKA) were decreased in MCF-7/P cells. Accordingly, knockdown of TAGLN2 by siRNA sensitized MCF-7/P cells to paclitaxel and reduced the multidrug resistance (MDR). Our identification of differential proteins, particularly transgelin-2, provides new insights into the mechanism of MDR to paclitaxel and novel biological targets for breast cancer treatment.

Mukhopadhyay A, Tabanor K, Chaguturu R, Aldrich JV
Targeting inhibitor 2 of protein phosphatase 2A as a therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer treatment.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2013; 14(10):962-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
Inhibitor 2 of protein phosphatase 2A (I2PP2A), a biological inhibitor of the cellular serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP2A, is associated with numerous cellular processes that often lead to the formation and progression of cancer. In this study we hypothesized that targeting the inhibition of I2PP2A's multiple functions in prostate cancer cells might prevent cancer progression. We have investigated the effect of the small chain C6-ceramide, known to be a bioactive tumor suppressor lipid, on I2PP2A function, thereby affecting c-Myc signaling and histone acetylation in cells. Our data indicated that C6-ceramide treatment of prostate cancer cells induces cell death in PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP cells, but not normal prostate epithelial cells. C6-ceramide was able to disrupt the association between PP2A and I2PP2A. C6-ceramide inhibits I2PP2A's upregulation of c-Myc and downregulation of histone acetylation in prostate cancer cells. Our data indicated that targeting cancer related signaling pathways through I2PP2A using ceramide as an anti-I2PP2A agent could have beneficial effects as a therapeutic approach to prevent prostate cancer.

Dent P
Ceramide in the prostate.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2013; 14(10):881-2 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
The nomenclature for the serine/threonine protein phosphatases was established by Professor Sir Philip Cohen over 30 years ago. (1) At that time protein phosphatase 1 was known to have two small inhibitory proteins (I-1 and I-2) and be regulated by sub-cellular location whereas no protein inhibitor had yet been discovered for the related multi-subunit phosphatase PP2A. That paradigm subsequently changed, and several PP2A protein inhibitors have been discovered. (2) The protein I2PP2A (SET) is considered to be oncogenic, i.e., PP2A is a tumor suppressor, and is overexpressed in many tumor cell types (ref. 3, and refs. therein). I2PP2A also has other targets besides PP2A, e.g., DNA exonucleases and modification of histone acetylation. (4) PP2A activity is known to be regulated by the bioactive lipid ceramide, and this occurs through both I2PP2A inhibition and PP2A de-repression and through ceramide actions on subunits of the PP2A enzyme complex. (5)(,) (6) In the present manuscript the authors examined the expression of I2PP2A in prostate cancer and prostate epithelial cells. They determined whether ceramide could decrease accumulation of the oncogene c-Myc through inhibition of I2PP2A and activation of PP2A. As I2PP2A is also an inhibitor of histone acetylation they determined whether ceramide could block the epigenetic action of I2PP2A.

Walker CJ, Oaks JJ, Santhanam R, et al.
Preclinical and clinical efficacy of XPO1/CRM1 inhibition by the karyopherin inhibitor KPT-330 in Ph+ leukemias.
Blood. 2013; 122(17):3034-44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
As tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) fail to induce long-term response in blast crisis chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML-BC) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), novel therapies targeting leukemia-dysregulated pathways are necessary. Exportin-1 (XPO1), also known as chromosome maintenance protein 1, regulates cell growth and differentiation by controlling the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of proteins and RNAs, some of which are aberrantly modulated in BCR-ABL1(+) leukemias. Using CD34(+) progenitors from CML, B-ALL, and healthy individuals, we found that XPO1 expression was markedly increased, mostly in a TKI-sensitive manner, in CML-BC and Ph(+) B-ALL. Notably, XPO1 was also elevated in Ph(-) B-ALL. Moreover, the clinically relevant XPO1 inhibitor KPT-330 strongly triggered apoptosis and impaired the clonogenic potential of leukemic, but not normal, CD34(+) progenitors, and increased survival of BCR-ABL1(+) mice, 50% of which remained alive and, mostly, became BCR-ABL1 negative. Moreover, KPT-330 compassionate use in a patient with TKI-resistant CML undergoing disease progression significantly reduced white blood cell count, blast cells, splenomegaly, lactate dehydrogenase levels, and bone pain. Mechanistically, KPT-330 altered the subcellular localization of leukemia-regulated factors including RNA-binding heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 and the oncogene SET, thereby inducing reactivation of protein phosphatase 2A tumor suppressor and inhibition of BCR-ABL1 in CML-BC cells. Because XPO1 is important for leukemic cell survival, KPT-330 may represent an alternative therapy for TKI-refractory Ph(+) leukemias.

Liu Y, He P, Zhang M, et al.
Silencing of the human SET gene in vitro with lentivirus-mediated RNA interference.
Mol Med Rep. 2013; 7(3):843-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
In our previous study, SET was identified as one of the differentially expressed proteins that was associated with tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide (As4S4)-induced NB4-R1 [retinoic acid-resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line] apoptosis. However, the mechanism through which SET regulates pathways during this process remains unclear. The aim of this study was to construct lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against SET and investigate the effect of SET on As4S4-induced retinoic acid-resistant APL cell apoptosis. In the present study, 4 different oligonucleotides targeting the human SET gene were synthesized and cloned into the eukaryotic expression plasmid pGCSIL-GFP. The recombinant vectors were introduced into NB4-R1 cells. The silencing efficiency was measured by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blotting. Our results showed that the 4 recombinant RNA interference (RNAi) vectors were constructed successfully. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that infection efficiency ranged from 70 to 90%. Infection with the 4 different RNAi vectors significantly knocked down the expression of SET by 52.8, 69.1, 48.9 and 90.3% at the mRNA level, and 92.5, 96.3, 91.7 and 98.4% at the protein level, respectively. We attempt to clarify the mechanism of As4S4 treatment on retinoic acid-resistant APL.

Bhutia YD, Hung SW, Krentz M, et al.
Differential processing of let-7a precursors influences RRM2 expression and chemosensitivity in pancreatic cancer: role of LIN-28 and SET oncoprotein.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e53436 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
Overexpression of ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2 (RRM2), involved in deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, drives the chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer to nucleoside analogs (e.g., gemcitabine). While silencing RRM2 by synthetic means has shown promise in reducing chemoresistance, targeting endogenous molecules, especially microRNAs (miRNAs), to advance chemotherapeutic outcomes has been poorly explored. Based on computational predictions, we hypothesized that the let-7 tumor suppressor miRNAs will inhibit RRM2-mediated gemcitabine chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer. Reduced expression of the majority of let-7 miRNAs with an inverse relationship to RRM2 expression was identified in innately gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines. Direct binding of let-7 miRNAs to the 3' UTR of RRM2 transcripts identified post-transcriptional regulation of RRM2 influencing gemcitabine chemosensitivity. Intriguingly, overexpression of human precursor-let-7 miRNAs led to differential RRM2 expression and chemosensitivity responses in a poorly differentiated pancreatic cancer cell line, MIA PaCa-2. Defective processing of let-7a precursors to mature forms, in part, explained the discrepancies observed with let-7a expressional outcomes. Consistently, the ratios of mature to precursor let-7a were progressively reduced in gemcitabine-sensitive L3.6pl and Capan-1 cell lines induced to acquire gemcitabine resistance. Besides known regulators of let-7 biogenesis (e.g., LIN-28), short hairpin RNA library screening identified several novel RNA binding proteins, including the SET oncoprotein, to differentially impact let-7 biogenesis and chemosensitivity in gemcitabine-sensitive versus -resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Further, LIN-28 and SET knockdown in the cells led to profound reductions in cellular proliferation and colony-formation capacities. Finally, defective processing of let-7a precursors with a positive correlation to RRM2 overexpression was identified in patient-derived pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues. These data demonstrate an intricate post-transcriptional regulation of RRM2 and chemosensitivity by let-7a and that the manipulation of regulatory proteins involved in let-7a transcription/processing may provide a mechanism for improving chemotherapeutic and/or tumor growth control responses in pancreatic cancer.

Piazza R, Valletta S, Winkelmann N, et al.
Recurrent SETBP1 mutations in atypical chronic myeloid leukemia.
Nat Genet. 2013; 45(1):18-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) shares clinical and laboratory features with CML, but it lacks the BCR-ABL1 fusion. We performed exome sequencing of eight aCMLs and identified somatic alterations of SETBP1 (encoding a p.Gly870Ser alteration) in two cases. Targeted resequencing of 70 aCMLs, 574 diverse hematological malignancies and 344 cancer cell lines identified SETBP1 mutations in 24 cases, including 17 of 70 aCMLs (24.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 16-35%). Most mutations (92%) were located between codons 858 and 871 and were identical to changes seen in individuals with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Individuals with mutations had higher white blood cell counts (P = 0.008) and worse prognosis (P = 0.01). The p.Gly870Ser alteration abrogated a site for ubiquitination, and cells exogenously expressing this mutant exhibited higher amounts of SETBP1 and SET protein, lower PP2A activity and higher proliferation rates relative to those expressing the wild-type protein. In summary, mutated SETBP1 represents a newly discovered oncogene present in aCML and closely related diseases.

Saddoughi SA, Gencer S, Peterson YK, et al.
Sphingosine analogue drug FTY720 targets I2PP2A/SET and mediates lung tumour suppression via activation of PP2A-RIPK1-dependent necroptosis.
EMBO Mol Med. 2013; 5(1):105-21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
Mechanisms that alter protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent lung tumour suppression via the I2PP2A/SET oncoprotein are unknown. We show here that the tumour suppressor ceramide binds I2PP2A/SET selectively in the nucleus and including its K209 and Y122 residues as determined by molecular modelling/simulations and site-directed mutagenesis. Because I2PP2A/SET was found overexpressed, whereas ceramide was downregulated in lung tumours, a sphingolipid analogue drug, FTY720, was identified to mimick ceramide for binding and targeting I2PP2A/SET, leading to PP2A reactivation, lung cancer cell death, and tumour suppression in vivo. Accordingly, while molecular targeting of I2PP2A/SET by stable knockdown prevented further tumour suppression by FTY720, reconstitution of WT-I2PP2A/SET expression restored this process. Mechanistically, targeting I2PP2A/SET by FTY720 mediated PP2A/RIPK1-dependent programmed necrosis (necroptosis), but not by apoptosis. The RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin and knockdown or genetic loss of RIPK1 prevented growth inhibition by FTY720. Expression of WT- or death-domain-deleted (DDD)-RIPK1, but not the kinase-domain-deleted (KDD)-RIPK1, restored FTY720-mediated necroptosis in RIPK1(-/-) MEFs. Thus, these data suggest that targeting I2PP2A/SET by FTY720 suppresses lung tumour growth, at least in part, via PP2A activation and necroptosis mediated by the kinase domain of RIPK1.

Fujiwara N, Kawasaki H, Yabe R, et al.
A potential therapeutic application of SET/I2PP2A inhibitor OP449 for canine T-cell lymphoma.
J Vet Med Sci. 2013; 75(3):349-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymphoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in canine. Chemotherapy results in a high rate of remission; however, relapse and clinical drug resistance are usually seen within a year. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) acts as a tumor suppressor and plays a critical role in mammalian cell transformation. Increased protein levels of SET, endogenous PP2A inhibitor, have been reported to correlate with poor prognosis in human leukemia. Here, we test the potential therapeutic role for a SET antagonist in canine lymphoma. We observed SET protein levels increased in multiple canine lymphoma cell lines compared with primary peripheral blood cells. A novel SET antagonist OP449 increased PP2A activity and effectively killed SET high-expressing canine lymphoma cells, but not SET low-expressing cells. Caspase-3 activation and enhanced Annexin V positive staining were observed after OP449 treatment, suggesting apoptotic cell death by OP449. Consistent with this, pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK blocked OP449 induced cell death. These data demonstrated the potential therapeutic application of SET antagonists for canine lymphoma.

Dai HP, Wang Q, Wu LL, et al.
[Expression of SET-NUP214 fusion gene in patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and its clinical significance].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2012; 20(5):1047-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was aimed to investigate the occurrence and clinical significance of the SET-NUP214 fusion gene in patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), analyse clinical and biological characteristics in this disease. RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of SET-NUP214 fusion gene in 58 T-ALL cases. Interphase FISH and Array-CGH were used to detect the deletion of 9q34. Direct sequencing was applied to detect mutations of PHF6 and NOTCH1. The results showed that 6 out of 58 T-ALL cases (10.3%) were detected to have the SET-NUP214 fusion gene by RT-PCR. Besides T-lineage antigens, expression of CD13 and(or) CD33 were detected in all the 6 cases. Deletions of 9q34 were detected in 4 out of the 6 patients by FISH. Array-CGH results of 3 SET-NUP214 positive T-ALL patients confirmed that this fusion gene was resulted from a cryptic deletion of 9q34.11q34.13. PHF6 and NOTCH1 gene mutations were found in 4 and 5 out of 6 SET-NUP214 positive T-ALL patients, respectively. It is concluded that SET-NUP214 fusion gene is often resulted from del(9)(q34). PHF6 and NOTCH1 mutations may be potential leukemogenic event in SET-NUP214 fusion gene.

Leopoldino AM, Squarize CH, Garcia CB, et al.
SET protein accumulates in HNSCC and contributes to cell survival: antioxidant defense, Akt phosphorylation and AVOs acidification.
Oral Oncol. 2012; 48(11):1106-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Determination of the SET protein levels in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tissue samples and the SET role in cell survival and response to oxidative stress in HNSCC cell lineages.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: SET protein was analyzed in 372 HNSCC tissue samples by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray and HNSCC cell lineages. Oxidative stress was induced with the pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (50 and 250μM) in the HNSCC HN13 cell lineage either with (siSET) or without (siNC) SET knockdown. Cell viability was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion and annexin V/propidium iodide assays. It was assessed caspase-3 and -9, PARP-1, DNA fragmentation, NM23-H1, SET, Akt and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) status. Acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) were assessed by the acridine orange assay. Glutathione levels and transcripts of antioxidant genes were assayed by fluorometry and real time PCR, respectively.
RESULTS: SET levels were up-regulated in 97% tumor tissue samples and in HNSCC cell lineages. SiSET in HN13 cells (i) promoted cell death but did not induced caspases, PARP-1 cleavage or DNA fragmentation, and (ii) decreased resistance to death induced by oxidative stress, indicating SET involvement through caspase-independent mechanism. The red fluorescence induced by siSET in HN13 cells in the acridine orange assay suggests SET-dependent prevention of AVOs acidification. NM23-H1 protein was restricted to the cytoplasm of siSET/siNC HN13 cells under oxidative stress, in association with decrease of cleaved SET levels. In the presence of oxidative stress, siNC HN13 cells showed lower GSH antioxidant defense (GSH/GSSG ratio) but higher expression of the antioxidant genes PRDX6, SOD2 and TXN compared to siSET HN13 cells. Still under oxidative stress, p-Akt levels were increased in siNC HN13 cells but not in siSET HN13, indicating its involvement in HN13 cell survival. Similar results for the main SET effects were observed in HN12 and CAL 27 cell lineages, except that HN13 cells were more resistant to death.
CONCLUSION: SET is potential (i) marker for HNSCC associated with cancer cell resistance and (ii) new target in cancer therapy.

Sirma Ekmekci S, G Ekmekci C, Kandilci A, et al.
SET oncogene is upregulated in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Tumori. 2012 Mar-Apr; 98(2):252-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The SET gene is a target of chromosomal translocations in acute leukemia and encodes a widely expressed multifunctional phosphoprotein. It has been shown that SET is upregulated in BCR-ABL1-positive cell lines, patient-derived chronic myeloid leukemia CD34-positive cells, and some solid tumors.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We determined the expression level of SET in 59 pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients who were BCR-ABL-negative using quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results. We showed that SET expression was significantly upregulated in 96.5% of B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (28 of 29; 16.6 fold) and 93% of T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (28 of 30; 47.6 fold) patients. This upregulation was not associated with any clinical features or overall and relapse-free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that SET is significantly overexpressed in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia samples, and an increased level of SET might contribute to leukemic process.

Bareford MD, Hamed HA, Allegood J, et al.
Sorafenib and pemetrexed toxicity in cancer cells is mediated via SRC-ERK signaling.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2012; 13(9):793-803 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
The present studies sought to further understand how the anti-folate pemetrexed and the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib interact to kill tumor cells. Sorafenib activated SRC, and via SRC the drug combination activated ERK1/2. Expression of dominant negative SRC or dominant negative MEK1 abolished drug-induced ERK1/2 activation, together with drug-induced autophagy, acidic lysosome formation, and tumor cell killing. Protein phosphatase 2A is an important regulator of the ERK1/2 pathway. Fulvestrant resistant MCF7 cells expressed higher levels of the PP2A inhibitor SET/I2PP2A, had lower endogenous PP2A activity, and had elevated basal ERK1/2 activity compared with their estrogen dependent counterparts. Overexpression of I2PP2A blocked drug-induced activation of ERK1/2 and tumor cell killing. PP2A can be directly activated by ceramide and SET/I2PP2A can be inhibited by ceramide. Inhibition of the de novo ceramide synthase pathway blocked drug-induced ceramide generation, PP2A activation and tumor cell killing. Collectively these findings demonstrate that ERK1/2 plays an essential role downstream of SRC in pemetrexed and sorafenib lethality and that PP2A plays an important role in regulating this process.

Li WJ, Cui L, Gao C, et al.
[Gene rearrangement pattern of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor (Ig/TR) and its clinical characteristics in children with SET-NUP214 fusion gene-positive leukemia/lymphoma].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2011; 19(6):1362-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to analyze the gene rearrangement pattern of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor (Ig/TR) and its clinical characteristics in three children with SET-NUP214 fusion gene positive leukemia/lymphoma. The transcript of SET-NUP214 fusion gene was detected by RT-nested PCR. The pattern of Ig/TR gene rearrangement was analyzed by using the BIOMED-2 multiplex PCR assays. Allelic-specific primers were designed for further monitoring the minimal residual disease (MRD). The results indicated that the fusion site located between exon 7 of SET and exon 18 of NUP214 at mRNA level in the three patients. The diagnoses were made as the mixed phenotype of acute leukemia (MPAL) for patients 1, acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) for patients 2, and stage IV T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) for patients 3, respectively. Patient 1 responded to chemotherapy very poorly and relapsed at month 6 after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Patient 2 had high MRD (> 10(-2)) at the end of inducing remission therapy (day 33) which implied poor outcome, and died of toxic epidermal necrolysis and sequent serious infection. Patient 3 achieved hematological complete remission (CR) and MRD negative at day 15 and day 33 respectively. The duration of CR lasted for 30 months. Clonal TR gene rearrangements were detected in all the three patients. The rearrangements of TRD, TRG and TRB were found in patient 1 and 3. The rearrangements of TRD, TRB, IgH and IgK Kde were detected in patient 2. All the 6 TRB rearrangements detected were incomplete rearrangements, whereas 85.7% and 14.3% of the TRD, and TRG rearrangements were complete and incomplete, respectively. It is concluded that the transformation of SET-NUP214(+) leukemia/lymphoma cells may occur after the rearrangements of TRD and TRG and shortly after TRB rearrangement. The leukemia/lymphoma cells of patient 1 and 2 are more immature which may be related with poor outcome or response to chemotherapy.

Cristóbal I, Garcia-Orti L, Cirauqui C, et al.
Overexpression of SET is a recurrent event associated with poor outcome and contributes to protein phosphatase 2A inhibition in acute myeloid leukemia.
Haematologica. 2012; 97(4):543-50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Protein phosphatase 2A is a novel potential therapeutic target in several types of chronic and acute leukemia, and its inhibition is a common event in acute myeloid leukemia. Upregulation of SET is essential to inhibit protein phosphatase 2A in chronic myeloid leukemia, but its importance in acute myeloid leukemia has not yet been explored.
DESIGN AND METHODS: We quantified SET expression by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in 214 acute myeloid leukemia patients at diagnosis. Western blot was performed in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines and in 16 patients' samples. We studied the effect of SET using cell viability assays. Bioinformatics analysis of the SET promoter, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and luciferase assays were performed to evaluate the transcriptional regulation of SET.
RESULTS: SET overexpression was found in 60/214 patients, for a prevalence of 28%. Patients with SET overexpression had worse overall survival (P<0.01) and event-free survival (P<0.01). Deregulation of SET was confirmed by western blot in both cell lines and patients' samples. Functional analysis showed that SET promotes proliferation, and restores cell viability after protein phosphatase 2A overexpression. We identified EVI1 overexpression as a mechanism involved in SET deregulation in acute myeloid leukemia cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that SET overexpression is a key mechanism in the inhibition of PP2A in acute myeloid leukemia, and that EVI1 overexpression contributes to the deregulation of SET. Furthermore, SET overexpression is associated with a poor outcome in acute myeloid leukemia, and it can be used to identify a subgroup of patients who could benefit from future treatments based on PP2A activators.

Li C, Ruan HQ, Liu YS, et al.
Quantitative proteomics reveal up-regulated protein expression of the SET complex associated with hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Proteome Res. 2012; 11(2):871-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
We combined culture-derived isotope tags (CDITs) with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) to extensively survey abnormal protein expression associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in clinical tissues. This approach yielded an in-depth quantitated proteome of 1360 proteins. Importantly, 267 proteins were significantly regulated with a fold-change of at least 1.5. The proteins up-regulated in HCC tissues are involved in regulatory processes, such as the granzyme A-mediated apoptosis pathway (The GzmA pathway). The SET complex, a central component in the GzmA pathway, was significantly up-regulated in HCC tissue. The elevated expressions of all of the SET complex components were validated by Western blotting. Among them, ANP32A and APEX1 were further investigated by immunohistochemistry staining using tissue microarrays (59 cases), confirming their overexpression in tumors. The up-regulation and nuclear accumulations of APEX1 was associated not only with HCC malignancy but also with HCC differentiation in 96 clinical HCC cases. Our work provided a systematic and quantitative analysis and demonstrated key changes in clinical HCC tissues. These proteomic signatures could help to unveil the underlying mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis and may be useful for the discovery of candidate biomarkers.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. SET gene, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/SET.htm Accessed:

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