SEPP1

Gene Summary

Gene:SEPP1; selenoprotein P, plasma, 1
Aliases: SeP, SELP, SEPP
Location:5q31
Summary:This gene encodes a selenoprotein containing multiple selenocysteine (Sec) residues, which are encoded by the UGA codon that normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of selenoprotein genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), which is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. This selenoprotein is an extracellular glycoprotein, and is unusual in that it contains 10 Sec residues per polypeptide. It is a heparin-binding protein that appears to be associated with endothelial cells, and has been implicated to function as an antioxidant in the extracellular space. Several transcript variants, encoding either the same or different isoform, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:selenoprotein P
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (11)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cohort Studies
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase
  • Enterocytes
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Selenoprotein P
  • Europe
  • Logistic Models
  • Risk Assessment
  • Odds Ratio
  • selenium-independent glutathione peroxidase
  • Messenger RNA
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Sweden
  • Chromosome 5
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Selenoproteins
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Base Sequence
  • Thioredoxin Reductase 1
  • Genotype
  • Pre-Eclampsia
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Liver Cancer
  • Risk Factors
  • Alleles
  • Selenium
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Epidemiology
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
  • Questionnaires
  • Tumor Markers
  • Antioxidants
  • Genetic Variation
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Adenoma
Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SEPP1 (cancer-related)

Gozuacik D, Yagci-Acar HF, Akkoc Y, et al.
Anticancer use of nanoparticles as nucleic acid carriers.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2014; 10(9):1751-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Advances in nanotechnology opened up new horizons in the field of cancer research. Nanoparticles made of various organic and inorganic materials and with different optical, magnetic and physical characteristics have the potential to revolutionize the way we diagnose, treat and follow-up cancers. Importantly, designs that might allow tumor-specific targeting and lesser side effects may be produced. Nanoparticles may be tailored to carry conventional chemotherapeutics or new generation organic drugs. Currently, most of the drugs that are commonly used, are small chemical molecules targeting disease-related enzymes. Recent progress in RNA interference technologies showed that, even proteins that are considered to be "undruggable" by small chemical molecules, might be targeted by small RNAs for the purpose of curing diseases, including cancer. In fact, small RNAs such as siRNAs, shRNAs and miRNAs can drastically change cellular levels of almost any given disease-associated protein or protein group, resulting in a therapeutic effect. Gene therapy attempts were failing mainly due to delivery viral vector-related side effects. Biocompatible, non-toxic and efficient nanoparticle carriers raise new hopes for the gene therapy of cancer. In this review article, we discuss new advances in nucleic acid and especially RNA carrier nanoparticles, and summarize recent progress about their use in cancer therapy.

Nalwa HS
A special issue on reviews in nanomedicine, drug delivery and vaccine development.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2014; 10(9):1635-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
This thematic special issue of the Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology focused on the "Reviews in Nanomedicine, Drug Delivery and Vaccine Development" contains 30 state-of-the-art review articles covering recent advances, trends and future directions emphasized on nanoparticle-based new strategies for diagnosis and cancer phototherapies, nanomedicine, nucleic acid-based nanocarriers, gene and drug delivery systems, tuberculosis mucosal and H5N1 influenza vaccines, drug-loaded electrospun polymer nanofibers, microneedle technology for insulin delivery for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, RNA-based therapies, nanotoxicity and biosafety of nanomaterials to environment and human health.

Pardini B, Bermejo JL, Naccarati A, et al.
Inherited variability in a master regulator polymorphism (rs4846126) associates with survival in 5-FU treated colorectal cancer patients.
Mutat Res. 2014 Aug-Sep; 766-767:7-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is known to improve survival in many cancers including colorectal cancer. Response to the treatment, overall survival and recurrence show inter-individual variation.
METHODS: In this study we employed a strategy to search eQTL variants influencing the expression of a large number of genes. We identified four single nucleotide polymorphisms, defined as master regulators of transcription, and genotyped them in a set of 218 colorectal cancer patients undergoing adjuvant 5-FU based therapy.
RESULTS: Our results showed that the minor allele variant of the rs4846126 polymorphism was associated with poor overall and progression-free survival. Patients that were homozygous for the variant allele showed an over two fold increased risk of death (HR 2.20 95%CI 1.05-4.60) and progression (HR 2.88, 95% 1.47-5.63). The integration of external information from publicly available gene expression repositories suggested that the rs4846126 polymorphism deserves further investigation. This variant potentially regulates the gene expression of 273 genes with some of them possibly associated to the patient's response to 5-FU treatment or colorectal cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Present results show that mining of public data repositories in combination with own data can be a fruitful approach to identify markers that affect therapy outcome. In particular, a genetic screen of master regulators may help in order to search for the polymorphisms involved in treatment response in cancer patients.

Chou WY, Chuang KH, Sun D, et al.
Inhibition of PKC-Induced COX-2 and IL-8 Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Glucosamine.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(9):2240-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is a common cancer leading to many deaths among females. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are two highly expressed inflammatory mediators to be induced by the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling via various inflammatory stimuli and both contribute significantly to cancer metastasis/progression. Glucosamine has been shown to act as an anti-inflammation molecule. The aim of this study was to clarify the role and acting mechanism of glucosamine during the PKC-regulation of COX-2/IL-8 expression and the associated impact on breast cancer. In MCF-7 breast cancer cells, glucosamine effectively suppresses the PKC induction of COX-2 and IL-8 promoter activity, mRNA and protein levels, as well as the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and IL-8. Glucosamine is able to promote COX-2 protein degradation in a calpain-dependent manner and IL-8 protein degradation in calpain-dependent and proteasome-dependent manners. The MAPK and NF-κB pathways are involved in PKC-induced COX-2 expression, but only the NF-κB pathway is involved in PKC-induced IL-8 expression. Glucosamine attenuates PKC-mediated IκBα phosphorylation, nuclear NF-κB translocation, and NF-κB reporter activation. Both PGE(2) and IL-8 promote cell proliferation and IL-8 induces cell migration; thus, glucosamine appears to suppress PKC-induced cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, glucosamine significantly inhibits the growth of breast cancer xenografts and this is accompanied by a reduction in COX-2 and IL-8 expression. In conclusion, glucosamine seems to attenuate the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo and this occurs, at least in part by targeting to the NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in an inhibition of breast cancer cell growth.

Yu C, Guo J, Liu Y, et al.
Oral squamous cancer cell exploits hnRNP A1 to regulate cell cycle and proliferation.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(9):2252-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common human malignant tumor with high mortality. So far, the molecular pathogenesis of OSCC remains largely unclear. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 is an important multi-function splicing factor and closely related to tumorigenesis. hnRNP A1 is overexpressed in various tumors, and promotes aerobic glycolysis and elongation of telomere, but the function of hnRNP A1 in cell cycle and proliferation remains unclear. We found that hnRNP A1 was overexpressed in OSCC tissues, and was required for the growth of OSCC cells. Moreover, hnRNP A1 was highly expressed in the G2/M cell cycle phase. Knockdown of hnRNP A1 induced G2/M arrest. DNA microarray assay result showed that hnRNP A1 regulated the expression of a number of target genes associated with G2/M phase. Moreover, hnRNP A1 controlled the alternative splicing of CDK2 exon 5. These findings suggested that hnRNP A1 plays key roles in the regulation of cell cycle progression and pathogenesis of OSCC.

Tavallai M, Hamed HA, Roberts JL, et al.
Nexavar/Stivarga and viagra interact to kill tumor cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(9):2281-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
We determined whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib or its derivative regorafenib interacted with phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors such as Viagra (sildenafil) to kill tumor cells. PDE5 and PDGFRα/β were over-expressed in liver tumors compared to normal liver tissue. In multiple cell types in vitro sorafenib/regorafenib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to cause tumor cell death, regardless of whether cells were grown in 10 or 100% human serum. Knock down of PDE5 or of PDGFRα/β recapitulated the effects of the individual drugs. The drug combination increased ROS/RNS levels that were causal in cell killing. Inhibition of CD95/FADD/caspase 8 signaling suppressed drug combination toxicity. Knock down of ULK-1, Beclin1, or ATG5 suppressed drug combination lethality. The drug combination inactivated ERK, AKT, p70 S6K, and mTOR and activated JNK. The drug combination also reduced mTOR protein expression. Activation of ERK or AKT was modestly protective whereas re-expression of an activated mTOR protein or inhibition of JNK signaling almost abolished drug combination toxicity. Sildenafil and sorafenib/regorafenib interacted in vivo to suppress xenograft tumor growth using liver and colon cancer cells. From multiplex assays on tumor tissue and plasma, we discovered that increased FGF levels and ERBB1 and AKT phosphorylation were biomarkers that were directly associated with lower levels of cell killing by 'rafenib + sildenafil. Our data are now being translated into the clinic for further determination as to whether this drug combination is a useful anti-tumor therapy for solid tumor patients.

Ismail IA, Abdel Shakor AB, Hong SH
DJ-1 Protects Breast Cancer Cells Against 2'-Benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde-induced Oxidative Stress Independent of Nrf2.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(9):2262-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
2'-Benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde (BCA) is a promising antitumor agent. BCA effectively inhibited proliferation of MDA-MB-435 more than in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Our recent findings showed that DJ-1 protects MCF7 cells from BCA-induced oxidative stress via its mitochondrial translocation and inhibition of the mitochondrial perturbation (Ismail et al., 2012). In this study, we addressed the question of whether Nrf2 works downstream to DJ-1 in mediating differential antiproliferation effects in MCF-7 and MDAMB-435 breast cancer cells induced by BCA treatment. BCA upregulated the expression and induced nuclear translocalization of DJ-1 and Nrf2 in only MCF-7 cells. However, in MDA-MB-435, BCA increased only Nrf2 expression without inducing DJ-1 and/or Nrf2 protein translocalization to the nucleus. Furthermore, DJ-1 knockdown decreased DJ-1 expression in both cells without affecting Nrf2 and its downstream target γ-GCS, suggesting that DJ-1-induced cell protection and works independent of Nrf2 signaling pathway.

Niu F, Li Y, Lai FF, et al.
LB-1 Exerts Antitumor Activity in Pancreatic Cancer by Inhibiting HIF-1α and Stat3 Signaling.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(9):2212-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia is widely present in pancreatic cancer and subsequently causes the overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3). HIF-1α and Stat3 function cooperatively to regulate a number of downstream genes that are implicated in tumorigenesis. Thus, inhibition of HIF-1α and Stat3 is a potential therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer. In this study, we explored how LB-1, a novel triptolide (LA) derivative, exerted its antitumor effect through blockade of HIF-1α and Stat3 signaling. Our data showed that LB-1 was able to inhibit the proliferation and colony formation of Mia-PaCa2 and SW1990 cells. LB-1 suppressed HIF-1α protein accumulation by promoting its proteasome degradation and reducing transactivation. Moreover, the silence of HIF-1α by shRNA partially prevented the proliferation inhibition triggered by LB-1. As expected, LB-1 also decreased Stat3 protein accumulation and blocked the physical interactions between HIF-1α/p300/phosphor-Stat3 (p-Stat3) at the pharmacological concentration to reduce VEGF expression, thereby hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. In the Mia-PaCa2 nude xenograft model, therapeutic treatment with LB-1 significantly inhibited tumor growth and had minimal systemic toxicity compared to the mother drug LA. Furthermore, in accordance with in vitro results, HIF-1α activation and Stat3 expression in tumors were blocked by LB-1 through mTOR-dependent pathway. Taken together, these results illustrate that, as a potent inhibitor of HIF-1α and Stat3 signaling, LB-1 exhibits antitumor effect and could be potentially used to treat pancreatic cancer.

Troiano A, Lomoriello IS, di Martino O, et al.
Y-box Binding Protein-1 Is Part of a Complex Molecular Network Linking ΔNp63α to the PI3K/akt Pathway in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(9):2067-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) typically lack somatic oncogene-activating mutations and most of them contain p53 mutations. However, the presence of p53 mutations in skin premalignant lesions suggests that these represent early events during tumor progression and additional alterations may be required for SCC development. SCC cells frequently express high levels of ΔNp63α and Y-box binding 1 (YB-1 or YBX1) oncoproteins. Here, we show that knockdown of YB-1 in spontaneously immortalized HaCaT and non-metastatic SCC011 cells led to a dramatic decrease of ΔNp63α, cell detachment and death. In highly metastatic SCC022 cells, instead, YB-1 silencing induces PI3K/AKT signaling hyperactivation which counteracts the effect of YB-1 depletion and promotes cell survival. In summary, our results unveil a functional cross-talk between YB-1, ΔNp63α and the PI3K/AKT pathway critically governing survival of squamous carcinoma cells.

De Rosa MC, Caputo M, Zirpoli H, et al.
Identification of Genes Selectively Regulated in Human Hepatoma Cells by Treatment With Dyslipidemic Sera and PUFAs.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(9):2059-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Serum composition is linked to metabolic diseases not only to understand their pathogenesis but also for diagnostic purposes. Quality and quantity of nutritional intake can affect disease risk and serum composition. It is then possible that diet derived serum components directly affect pathogenetic mechanisms. To identify involved factors, we evaluated the effect on gene expression of direct addition of dyslipidemic human serum samples to cultured human hepatoma cells (HepG2). Sera were selected on the basis of cholesterol level, considering this parameter as mostly linked to dietary intake. Cells were treated with 32 sera from hypercholesterolemic and normocholesterolemic subjects to identify differentially regulated mRNAs using DNA microarray analysis. We identified several mRNAs with the highest modulations in cells treated with dyslipidemic sera versus cells treated with normal sera. Since the two serum groups had variable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) contents, selected mRNAs were further assessed for their regulation by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (AA). Four genes resulted both affected by serum composition and PUFAs: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoenzymeA synthase 2 (HMGCS2), glutathione S-transferase alpha 1 (GSTA1), liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2) and apolipoprotein M (ApoM). HMGCS2 expression appears the most relevant and was also found modulated via transcription factors peroxysome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and forkhead box O1 (FoxO1). Our data indicate that expression levels of the selected mRNAs, primarily of HMGCS2, could represent a reference of nutritional intake, PUFAs effects and dyslipidemic diseases pathogenesis.

Danilova NV, Davydova SY
Immunohistochemical characteristics of uveal melanoma assording to the age at diagnosis, histological type and extension of the tumor.
Arkh Patol. 2014 Sep-Oct; 76(5):55-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between MMP9 expression and tumour invasion in different structures of the eye. We also examined whether there was any correlation between the growth factors (TGFb and EGF), onco-suppressor proteins (p16 and p53) and Ki-67, and the tumour histological subtypes, atypia level and age at diagnosis. Tumour specimens were obtained from 42 primary uveal melanomas immediately after enucleation at The Helmholtz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases. The patients were not treated with radio- or thermotherapy. During our systematic study, we exclusively employed 10%-formalin fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissue sections of UM for histological diagnosis and immunohistochemistry. According to our data the hyperexpression of MMP9 and EGFR correlates with a high proportion of spindle cells in a tumour (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0,1 for each). Moreover, we have demonstrated the association between the level of EGFR, TGFb and MMP9 expression and the initial invasion stage (Spearman's test p=0,1). In addition, we have revealed the significant correlation between TGFb hyperexpression and atypia level (Spearman's test p=0,059). Our data reflect that the diagnoses at an advanced age correlate with hyperexpression of p16 (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0,068). An interesting result is that p16 level reduced in inverse proportion to that of TGFb. On the basis of our data and previous studies, we reached the conclusion that after the lapse of time the level of p16 rises significantly in order to inhibit proliferating activity of melanocytes in the normally functioning pigmented layer. However, although the probability of UM diagnoses in elderly is increasing, we have no reliable data for the relationship with high atypia levels.

Schat KA, Erb HN
Lack of evidence that avian oncogenic viruses are infectious for humans: a review.
Avian Dis. 2014; 58(3):345-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chickens may be infected with three different oncogenic viruses: avian leukosis virus (ALV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), and Marek's disease herpesvirus (MDV). Several epidemiological studies have suggested a link between these viruses and different types of cancer in people working in poultry processing plants and with multiple sclerosis. In this article, we analyze the epidemiological evidence that these viruses are causative agents for human cancer, followed by description of the relevant key characteristics of ALV, REV, and MDV. Finally, we discuss the biological evidence or lack thereof that avian tumor viruses are involved in the etiology of human cancer and multiple sclerosis (MS). The recent primary epidemiologic articles that we reviewed as examples were only hypothesis-generating studies examining massive numbers of risk factors for associations with various imprecise, non-viral-specific outcomes. The studies lacked precise evidence of exposure to the relevant viruses and the statistical methods failed to adjust for the large risks of false-positive claims. ALV subgroups A-D and J have been eradicated in the United States from the pure lines down to the parent stocks by the breeder companies, which have greatly reduced the incidence of infection in layer flocks and broilers. As a consequence, potential exposure of humans to these viruses has greatly diminished. Infection of humans working in processing plants with ALV-A and ALV-B is unlikely, because broilers are generally resistant to infection with these two subgroups. Moreover, these viruses enter cells by specific receptors present on chicken, but not on mammalian, cells. Infection of mammalian cell cultures or animals with ALV-A, ALV-B, and ALV-J has not been reported. Moreover, humans vaccinated with exogenous or endogenous ALV-contaminated vaccines against yellow fever, measles, and mumps did not become antibody- or virus-positive for ALV. The risks for human infection with REV are similarly limited. First of all, REV also has been eradicated from pure lines down to parent stock by breeder companies in the United States. Broilers can still become infected with REV through infection with fowl pox virus containing REV. However, there is no indication that REV can infect human cells. Low levels of antibodies to ALV and REV in human sera have been reported by a few groups. Absorption of sera with chicken antigens reduced the antibody titers, and there was no clear association with contacts with poultry. Possible cross-reactions with human endogenous or exogenous retroviruses were not considered in these publications. MDV is typically associated with infection of chickens, and almost all experimental data show that MDV cannot infect mammalian cells or animals, including nonhuman primates. One study reports the presence of MDV gD DNA in human sera, but this finding could not be confirmed by another group. A Medline search of the term "gene expression in human cancers" was negative for publications with avian retroviruses or MDV. In conclusion, there is no indication that avian oncogenic viruses are involved in human cancer or MS or even able to infect and replicate in humans.

Evans DG, Barwell J, Eccles DM, et al.
The Angelina Jolie effect: how high celebrity profile can have a major impact on provision of cancer related services.
Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(5):442 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: It is frequent for news items to lead to a short lived temporary increase in interest in a particular health related service, however it is rare for this to have a long lasting effect. In 2013, in the UK in particular, there has been unprecedented publicity in hereditary breast cancer, with Angelina Jolie's decision to have genetic testing for the BRCA1 gene and subsequently undergo risk reducing mastectomy (RRM), and a pre-release of the NICE guidelines on familial breast cancer in January and their final release on 26th June. The release of NICE guidelines created a lot of publicity over the potential for use of chemoprevention using tamoxifen or raloxifene. However, the longest lasting news story was the release of details of film actress Angelina Jolie's genetic test and surgery.
METHODS: To assess the potential effects of the 'Angelina Jolie' effect, referral data specific to breast cancer family history was obtained from around the UK for the years 2012 and 2013. A consortium of over 30 breast cancer family history clinics that have contributed to two research studies on early breast surveillance were asked to participate as well as 10 genetics centres. Monthly referrals to each service were collated and increases from 2012 to 2013 assessed.
RESULTS: Data from 12 family history clinics and 9 regional genetics services showed a rise in referrals from May 2013 onwards. Referrals were nearly 2.5 fold in June and July 2013 from 1,981 (2012) to 4,847 (2013) and remained at around two-fold to October 2013. Demand for BRCA1/2 testing almost doubled and there were also many more enquiries for risk reducing mastectomy. Internal review shows that there was no increase in inappropriate referrals.
CONCLUSIONS: The Angelina Jolie effect has been long lasting and global, and appears to have increased referrals to centres appropriately.

Dip N, Reis ST, Abe DK, et al.
Micro RNA expression and prognosis in low-grade non-invasive urothelial carcinoma.
Int Braz J Urol. 2014 Sep-Oct; 40(5):644-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To analyze a possible correlation between a miRNA expression profile and important prognostic factors for pTa urothelial carcinomas (UC), including tumor size, multiplicity and episodes of recurrence.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty low-grade non-invasive pTa bladder UC from patients submitted to transurethral resection were studied, in a mean follow-up of 17.7 months. As controls, we used normal bladder tissue from five patients submitted to retropubic prostatectomy to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. Extraction, cDNA and amplification were performed for 14 miRNAs (miR-100, -10a, -21, -205, -let7c, -143, -145, -221, -223, -15a, -16, -199a and -452) using specific kits, and RNU-43 and -48 were used as endogenous controls. Statistical tests were used to compare tumor size, multiplicity and episodes of recurrence with miRNAs expression profiles.
RESULTS: There was a marginal correlation between multiplicity and miR-let7c over-expression. For all others miRNA no correlation between their expression and prognostic factors was found.
CONCLUSION: We did not find differences for miRNAs expression profiles associated with prognostic factors in tumor group studied. The majority of miRNAs are down-regulated, except mir-10a, over-expressed in most of cases, seeming to have increased levels as tumor with more unfavorable prognostic factors. More studies are needed in order to find a miRNA profile able to provide prognosis in pTa UC to be used in clinical practice.

Bainbridge MN, Armstrong GN, Gramatges MM, et al.
Germline mutations in shelterin complex genes are associated with familial glioma.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(1):384 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Gliomas are the most common brain tumor, with several histological subtypes of various malignancy grade. The genetic contribution to familial glioma is not well understood. Using whole exome sequencing of 90 individuals from 55 families, we identified two families with mutations in POT1 (p.G95C, p.E450X), a member of the telomere shelterin complex, shared by both affected individuals in each family and predicted to impact DNA binding and TPP1 binding, respectively. Validation in a separate cohort of 264 individuals from 246 families identified an additional mutation in POT1 (p.D617Efs), also predicted to disrupt TPP1 binding. All families with POT1 mutations had affected members with oligodendroglioma, a specific subtype of glioma more sensitive to irradiation. These findings are important for understanding the origin of glioma and could have importance for the future diagnostics and treatment of glioma.

Strongin DE, Groudine M, Politz JC
Nucleolar tethering mediates pairing between the IgH and Myc loci.
Nucleus. 2014 Sep-Oct; 5(5):474-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Gene loci on different chromosomes can preferentially colocalize in the cell nucleus. However, many of the mechanisms mediating this spatial proximity remain to be elucidated. The IgH locus on Chromosome 12 and the Myc locus on Chromosome 15 are a well-studied model for gene colocalization in murine B cells, where the two loci are positioned in close proximity at a higher than expected frequency. These gene loci are also partners in the chromosomal translocation that causes murine plasmacytoma and Burkitt's lymphoma. Because both Chromosome 12 and Chromosome 15 carry nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) in the most commonly studied mouse strains, we hypothesized that NOR-mediated tethering of the IgH and Myc loci to shared nucleoli could serve as a mechanism to drive IgH:Myc colocalization. Using mouse strains that naturally carry nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) on different sets of chromosomes, we establish that IgH and Myc are positioned proximal to nucleoli in a NOR dependent manner and show that their joint association with nucleoli significantly increases the frequency of IgH and Myc pairing. Thus we demonstrate that simple nucleolar tethering can increase the colocalization frequency of genes on NOR-bearing chromosomes.

Sciamanna I, Gualtieri A, Piazza PF, Spadafora C
Regulatory roles of LINE-1-encoded reverse transcriptase in cancer onset and progression.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(18):8039-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
LINE-1 retrotransposons encode the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme, required for their own mobility, the expression of which is inhibited in differentiated tissues while being active in tumors. Experimental evidence indicate that the inhibition of LINE-1-derived RT restores differentiation in cancer cells, inhibits tumor progression and yields globally reprogrammed transcription profiles. Newly emerging data suggest that LINE-1-encoded RT modulates the biogenesis of miRNAs, by governing the balance between the production of regulatory double-stranded RNAs and RNA:DNA hybrid molecules, with a direct impact on global gene expression. Abnormally high RT activity unbalances the transcriptome in cancer cells, while RT inhibition restores "normal" miRNA profiles and their regulatory networks. This RT-dependent mechanism can target the myriad of transcripts - both coding and non-coding, sense and antisense - in eukaryotic transcriptomes, with a profound impact on cell fates. LINE-1-encoded RT emerges therefore as a key regulator of a previously unrecognized mechanism in tumorigenesis.

Maschietto M, Charlton J, Perotti D, et al.
The IGF signalling pathway in Wilms tumours--a report from the ENCCA Renal Tumours Biology-driven drug development workshop.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(18):8014-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
It is hypothesised that Wilms tumour (WT) results from aberrant renal development due to its embryonic morphology, associated undifferentiated precursor lesions (termed nephrogenic rests) and embryonic kidney-like chromatin and gene expression profiles. From the study of overgrowth syndrome-associated WT, germline dysregulation was identified in the imprinted region at 11p15 affecting imprinted genes IGF2 and H19. This is also detected in ~70% sporadic cases, making this the most common somatic molecular aberration in WT. This review summarises the critical discussion at an international workshop held under the auspices of The European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) consortium, where the potential for drug development to target IGF2 and the WT epigenome was debated. Here, we consider current cancer treatments which include targeting the IGF pathway and the use of methylation agents alone or in combination with other drugs in clinical trials of paediatric cancers. Finally, we discuss the possibility of the use of these drugs to treat patients with WT.

Davidson B, Holth A, Hellesylt E, et al.
The clinical role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem cell markers in advanced-stage ovarian serous carcinoma effusions.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(1):1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We recently identified gene signatures that allow classification of ovarian carcinoma into 5 distinct clinically relevant groups. In the present study, we investigated the clinical role of 10 protein products of the discriminating genes, with focus on epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem cell markers. Expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, P-cadherin, Zeb1, HMGA2, Rab25, CD24, NCAM (CD56), Sox11, and vimentin was assessed in 100 advanced-stage (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages III-IV) serous ovarian carcinoma effusions using immunohistochemistry. Results were analyzed for association with clinicopathological parameters, including chemotherapy response, and survival. All 10 proteins were frequently expressed in carcinoma cells. HMGA2 expression was related to older age (P = .015). HMGA2 and NCAM expression was related to stage III disease (P = .011 and P = .023, respectively), and NCAM was overexpressed in peritoneal compared with pleural effusions (P = .001). Vimentin and Zeb1 expression was significantly related to poor chemotherapy response at diagnosis (P = .005 and P = .017, respectively). The associations between NCAM and peritoneal localization and of vimentin and poor chemoresponse were retained after Bonferroni correction. NCAM expression was associated with a trend for shorter overall survival in univariate survival analysis (P = .187), but emerged as an independent prognosticator in Cox multivariate analysis (P = .042). This study identifies vimentin and Zeb1 as markers of poor chemoresponse in metastatic serous ovarian carcinoma effusions and suggests NCAM as potential prognostic marker in metastatic disease. The generally limited prognostic role of the studied markers emphasizes the difficulty in applying data obtained in studies of primary ovarian carcinomas to analyses of ovarian carcinoma effusions, reflecting the unique biology of the latter.

Douer D
Will novel agents for ALL finally change the natural history?
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2014 Sep-Dec; 27(3-4):247-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cure rates have markedly improved over the past years to approximately 85%, but remain at 40%-50% in adults. Redefining current adult chemotherapy regimens is likely to improve the natural course of the disease, but new agents are needed. Immunotherapy approaches for pre-B ALL are in the forefront of research on novel agents; in particular, advances are being made in manipulating autologous T cells either by infusion of a bifunctional antibody (eg, blinatumomab) or by ex vivo genetic modification of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). The natural course of Philadelphia positive ALL has already improved by targeting ABL/BCR1. Other mutated genes are being discovered and novel small molecules that target their products are being studied in clinical trials. Finally, ALL is a heterogeneous disease and novel agents are likely to impact the natural course of smaller populations of biologically defined ALL subtypes.

Majeti R
Clonal evolution of pre-leukemic hematopoietic stem cells precedes human acute myeloid leukemia.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2014 Sep-Dec; 27(3-4):229-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Massively parallel DNA sequencing has uncovered recurrent mutations in many human cancers. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cancer genome/exome resequencing has identified numerous recurrently mutated genes with an average of 5 mutations in each case of de novo AML. In order for these multiple mutations to accumulate in a single lineage of cells, they are serially acquired in clones of self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), termed pre-leukemic HSC. Isolation and characterization of pre-leukemic HSC have shown that their mutations are enriched in genes involved in regulating DNA methylation, chromatin modifications, and the cohesin complex. On the other hand, genes involved in regulating activated signaling are generally absent. Pre-leukemic HSC have been found to persist in clinical remission and may ultimately give rise to relapsed disease through the acquisition of novel mutations. Thus, pre-leukemic HSC may constitute a key cellular reservoir that must be eradicated for long-term cures.

Alter BP
Fanconi anemia and the development of leukemia.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2014 Sep-Dec; 27(3-4):214-21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2015 Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive cancer-prone inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, due to mutations in 16 genes, whose protein products collaborate in a DNA repair pathway. The major complications are aplastic anemia, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and specific solid tumors. A severe subset, due to mutations in FANCD1/BRCA2, has a cumulative incidence of cancer of 97% by age 7 years; the cancers are AML, brain tumors, and Wilms tumor; several patients have multiple events. Patients with the other genotypes (FANCA through FANCQ) have cumulative risks of more than 50% of marrow failure, 20% of AML, and 30% of solid tumors (usually head and neck or gynecologic squamous cell carcinoma), by age 40, and they too are at risk of multiple adverse events. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant may cure AML and MDS, and preemptive transplant may be appropriate, but its use is a complicated decision.

Rowe JM
The increasing genomic complexity of acute myeloid leukemia.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2014 Sep-Dec; 27(3-4):209-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is impacted by the increasing genomic complexity of the disease. Multiple targets as expressed by genetics and mutations and the relationships between them add another layer of intricacy to the prognosis and treatment of the disease. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the interactions between mutations are of utmost importance, particularly from a prognostic standpoint. For example, inv(16) or 6(16; 16) AML frequently involves a second genetic lesion that significantly impacts prognosis. In addition, epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, are becoming increasingly integrated into the genetic landscape and may also have prognostic impact. Despite increased understanding of the genetic and epigenetic aspects of AML, the outcome for AML patients has not changed significantly. Until it does, further inquiry into the genomic complexity of the disease and advances in drug development are needed.

Ju F, Lu L, Zhao QY, et al.
Systematic analysis of gene expression and molecular interactions in cardiac and non-cardiac gastric carcinomas.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2014; 61(134):1835-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: : This study aims to comparing the gene expression profiles and molecular interactions among gastric cardiac adenocarcinomas (GCA), gastric noncardiac adenocarcinomas (GNCA) and their adjacent normal tissues.
METHODOLOGY: Gene expression profile of GSE29272 was downloaded from Gene expression omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at the cut-off of p-value ≤ 0.01. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was further performed for the DEGs, and then the binding sites of the transcriptional factors and the specific protein-protein interactions were analyzed.
RESULTS: Total 1024 DEGs were screened, including 741 up-regulated genes and 283 down-regulated genes. VSNL1 (visinin-like protein-1) is expressed relatively higher in the GNCA and could be its molecular biomarker, as KRT14 (cytokeratin 14) in the GCA. GO analysis showed that the analogous cancer-relevant factors network appears in these two cancer subgroups. The DEGs in the GCA tend to be bound by SPIB and ZNF354C. FN1 lies in the center of the protein-protein interaction networks of the two cancer subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS: We found out the RNA expression level of the two gastric cancers varied greatly from the normal tissues while gene expression profile of them were very similar, however, the different biomarker and transcriptional factors indicate the differences of two mechanisms.

Fan LQ, Li Y, Zhao Q, et al.
Comparative proteomics in gastric cancer cell line BGC823 after ZNF139 gene inhibited with RNA interference.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2014; 61(134):1822-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Zinc finger protein 139 (ZNF139) gene is proved play an important role in gastric cancer. Aim of this study is to identify changes of proteins after ZNF139 gene was inhibited in gastric cancer cell line BGC823.
METHODS: siRNA-specific ZNF139 was synthesized and transfected into BGC823; 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were applied to screen, identify differentially expressed proteins, and function of these proteins was analyzed; Western blot method was applied to verify the identified proteins.
RESULTS: ZNF139 expression in siRNA transfected cancer cell BGC823 decreased significantly. Results of 2-D DIGE showed eight differential protein spots, of which seven were identified with LC-MS, including switches associated protein 70, far upstream element binding protein 1, heat shock protein 60, annexin A7, small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 activating enzyme, chaperonin-containing tail-less complex protein 1 and annexin A2. These proteins were found to be associated with proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, adhesion of gastric cancer cells with bioinformatic analysis. Western blot analysis confirmed that expressions of these proteins in BGC823 were consistent with the proteomic results.
CONCLUSIONS: ZNF139 gene may influence the biological behavior of gastric cancer cells in many ways by regulating multiple proteins.

EI-Emshaty HM, Gadelhak SA, Abdelaziz MM, et al.
Serum P53 Abs in HCC patients with viral hepatitis - type C.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2014; 61(134):1688-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: P53 gene mutations have a higher malignant potential and often leads to the production of p53 Abs. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical implications of p53Abs in HCV-related HCC and its diagnostic capacity as a new biomarker in HCC.
METHODOLOGY: 83 patients with HCV-chronic liver disease (25 with LC and 58 with HCC) were enrolled in this study. Ten healthy individuals (HI) served as control group. The studied group was subjected to clinical examination, imaging radiology, laboratory investigation and liver biopsy. Serum p53 Abs was assessed by (ELISA).
RESULTS: Serum p53 Abs in HCC (0.5567±0.227) was significantly elevated (p<0.0001) than LC (0.252±0.0099) and HI (0.214±0.068) (p=0.001). Serum P53 Abs was significantly (p=0.01) increased with the progression of child score but there was no significant difference with regard to age, sex, tumor size or serum liver profile. However, serum p53 Abs showed no significant positive correlation with AFP in HCV-related HCC (r=0.09, p value= 0.6) but serum p53 Abs in combination with AFP showed higher diagnostic sensitivity (82.2%) of HCC than either alone.
CONCLUSIONS: P53 Abs could be regarded as a specific biomarker for cancer process and its use in combination with AFP may increase the diagnostic sensitivity of HCC.

Koev IG, Feodorova YN, Kazakova MH, et al.
Glioblastoma multiforme classified as mesenchymal subtype.
Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2014 Jul-Sep; 56(3):215-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Recently, researchers have been considering as adverse prognostic factors in primary glioblastomas not only clinical indicators but also various cellular, genetic and immunological markers. The aim of the present article was to report a case of primary glioblastoma multiforme with poor survival in a patient after surgical intervention, and to determine the unfavorable prognostic markers.
CASE REPORT: We present a 71-year-old man with histologically verified glioblastoma multiforme and a postoperative survival of 48 days. The patient did not receive any radiotherapy and adjuvant therapy with temozolomide because of the short survival. Serum and transcription levels of TNF-α, CD44, YKL-40 and IL-6 were determined by molecular-biological and immunological analyses. We found very high transcription levels of the genes CD44, YKL-40 and IL-6, increased gene expression of TNF-α, and elevated serum concentrations of TNF-α, YKL-40 and IL-6 and reduced serum concentration of CD44.
CONCLUSION: Molecular-biological and immunological analyses support the hypothesis that glioblastoma multiforme is presented by a heterogeneous group of glial tumors with different clinical course and prognosis. The high expression levels of TNF-α, CD44, YKL-40, and IL-6 indicate that the tumor can be categorized as mesenchymal subtype of glioblastoma multiforme, which accounts for the rapid clinical course and lethal outcome of the condition.

Gupta R, Kitaichi M, Inoue Y, et al.
Lymphatic manifestations of lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Lymphology. 2014; 47(3):106-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a slowly progressive, low grade, metastasizing neoplasm, associated with cellular invasion and cystic destruction of the pulmonary parenchyma. Although the source of LAM cells that infiltrate the lung is unknown, available evidence indicates that the disease spreads primarily through lymphatic channels, often involving abdominal, axial, and retroperitoneal nodes, suggestive of an origin in the pelvis. LAM cells harbor mutations in tuberous sclerosis genes and produce lymphangiogenic growth factors, which facilitate access to and movement through the lymphatic system and likely play an important role in destructive tissue remodeling in the lung. Lymphatic manifestations of LAM include thoracic duct wall invasion, lymphangioleiomyoma formation, chylous fluid collections in the peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial spaces, chyloptysis, chylocolporrheal chylometrorrhea, chyle leak from the umbilicus, chylous pulmonary congestion, and lower extremity lymphedema. LAM lesions express lymphangiogenic growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D; growth factor receptors, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3; and markers LYVE-1 and podoplanin, and are laced with chaotic lymphatic channels. Serum VEGF-D is elevated in 70% of patients with LAM and is a clinically useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. Molecular targeted therapy with sirolimus stabilizes lung function, is anti-lymphangiogenic, and is highly effective for the lymphatic and chylous complications of LAM. Future trials in patients with LAM who have lymphatic manifestations or elevated serum VEGF-D will likely focus on the VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGFR-3 axis.

Mihai D, Voiculescu S, Cristian D, et al.
Multimodal treatment of aggressive forms of breast cancer.
J Med Life. 2014; 7(3):415-20 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2015 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Aggressive breast cancer is an invasive form with G3, G4 differentiation degree, the absence of receptors for estrogen and progesterone and the absence or presence of HER2 (+ or 3+) gene. The final diagnosis is established by cumulating the clinical, paraclinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: 84 out of 268 aggressive breast cancer cases were presented in the study, which were operated in October 2011-September 2013. The inclusion and exclusion criteria are exposed in the study lot and the treatment schemes.
RESULTS: For the study lot (lot A made up of 36 cases, lot B made up of 41 cases, lot C made up of 7 cases) the distribution was presented on age groups, histopathological and immunohistochemical classification, etiologic factors, type of surgery, postoperative staging and complications.
CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of aggressive breast cancer depends on the level of the aggressiveness of the disease, the biologic status and the age that imposes the order of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgical treatment and target therapy.

Zamfir Chiru AA, Popescu CR, Gheorghe DC
Enzymatic aspects in ENT cancer-Matrix metalloproteinases.
J Med Life. 2014; 7(3):379-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2015 Related Publications
The study of ENT cancer allows the implementation of molecular biology methods in diagnosis, predicting the evolution of the disease and suggesting a certain treatment. MMPs are proteolytic enzymes, zinc dependent endopeptidases, secreted by tissues and proinflammatory cells that play a role in the clearance of cell surface receptors. They are expressed as zymogens (inactive forms). Proteolytic enzymes cleave zymogens generating active forms. They are involved in cell proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, migration, angiogenesis, apoptosis and host defense.

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