Gene Summary

Gene:S100B; S100 calcium binding protein B
Aliases: NEF, S100, S100-B, S100beta
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21; however, this gene is located at 21q22.3. This protein may function in Neurite extension, proliferation of melanoma cells, stimulation of Ca2+ fluxes, inhibition of PKC-mediated phosphorylation, astrocytosis and axonal proliferation, and inhibition of microtubule assembly. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in several neurological, neoplastic, and other types of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, melanoma, and type I diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein S100-B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (23)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Skin Cancer
  • Brain Tumours
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Melanoma
  • p53 Protein
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • S100B
  • Mutation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Cell Movement
  • Bladder Cancer
  • S100 Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cancer RNA
  • Western Blotting
  • Signal Transduction
  • Nerve Growth Factors
  • Transfection
  • Case-Control Studies
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
  • Taiwan
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Phosphorylation
  • Down-Regulation
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Adolescents
  • Tissue Extracts
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Chromosome 21
  • Apoptosis
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
MelanomaS100B and MelanomaPrognostic
S100B has been used as a clinical biomarker for melanoma staging and prognosis. The discovery of p53 as a S100B target and the consequent impact on cell apoptosis has led on to develop inhibitors of this S100B-p53 interaction (Hartman KG, et al, 2013).
View Publications15
Bladder CancerS100B and Bladder Cancer View Publications1

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: S100B (cancer-related)

Frauchiger AL, Dummer R, Mangana J
Serum S100B Levels in Melanoma.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1929:691-700 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant melanoma is a cancer with increasing incidence worldwide with relevant socioeconomic impact. Despite progress in prevention and early detection, it is one of the most lethal forms of skin cancer. Therefore it is urgent need to identify suitable biomarkers in order to improve early diagnosis, precise staging, and prognosis, as well as for therapy selection and monitoring. In this book chapter, we are focusing on S100B and discuss its clinical relevance in melanoma.

Wang C, Luo J, Rong J, et al.
Distinct prognostic roles of S100 mRNA expression in gastric cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(1):127-136 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The S100 protein family is implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, but its prognostic roles in gastric cancer (GC) has not been elucidated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the current study, Kaplan-Meier plotter (KM plotter) database integrated the expression data and survival information of 1065 GC patients were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (GSE22377, GSE14210 and GSE51105) that published by the three major cancer centers (Berlin, Bethesda and Melbourne). Then this database was used to explore the prognostic values of mRNA expression of each individual S100 in GC patients. We further assessed the prognostic value of S100 in different Lauren classifications, clinicopathological features and clinical treatment of gastric cancer.
RESULTS: Expression of 12 members of the S100 family correlated with overall survival (OS) for all GC patients. Increased expression of S100A3, S100A5, S100A7, S100A7A, S100A11, S100A13, S100Z and S100 G were found to be strongly associated with worse survival, while S100A8, S100A9, S100B and S100 P were correlated with better prognosis in all GC patients. Further assessment of prognostic values of S100 in gastric cancer with different clinical features indicated that different S100 members may interact with different signaling pathways and exerted different functions in gastric cancer development.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the results should be further testified in clinical studies, our findings offer new insights into the contribution of S100 members to GC progression and might promote development of S100 targeted reagents for treating GC.

Xiong TF, Pan FQ, Li D
Expression and clinical significance of S100 family genes in patients with melanoma.
Melanoma Res. 2019; 29(1):23-29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genes in the S100 family are abnormally expressed in a variety of tumor cells and are associated with clinical pathology, but their prognostic value in melanoma patients has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we extracted and profiled S100 family mRNA expression data and corresponding clinical data from the Gene Expression Omnibus database to analyze how expression of these genes correlates with clinical pathology. Compared with normal skin, S100A1, S100A13, and S100B were expressed at significantly higher levels in melanoma samples. S100A2, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, and S100P were all highly expressed in primary melanoma samples but were expressed at low levels in metastatic melanoma, and all of these genes were strongly correlated with each other (P<0.001). We found the expression of these S100 family genes to be significantly correlated with both lymphatic and distant melanoma metastasis, as well as with American Joint Committee on Cancer grade but not with Clark's grade, age, or sex. This suggests that expression of these genes may be related to the degree of tumor invasion. Although further validation through basic and clinical trials is needed, our results suggest that the S100 family genes have the potential to play an important role in the diagnosis of melanoma. S100 expression may be related to tumor invasion and may facilitate the early diagnosis of melanoma, allowing for a more accurate prognosis. Targeted S100 therapies are also potentially viable strategies in the context of melanoma.

Yang T, Cheng J, You J, et al.
S100B promotes chemoresistance in ovarian cancer stem cells by regulating p53.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(3):1574-1582 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemoresistance is one of the most important causes of ovarian cancer‑related deaths. Recently, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been recognized as the source of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate the chemoresistance of ovarian CSCs (OCSCs) remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of S100B in the regulation of OCSC chemoresistance, which provides a novel therapeutic target. We observed high expression of S100B in CD133+ OCSCs derived from ovarian cancer cell lines and primary tumors and in cisplatin‑resistant patient samples. Then, we determined that S100B knockdown promoted the apoptosis of OCSCs after treatment with different concentrations of cisplatin. The underlying mechanism of S100B‑mediated chemoresistance in OCSCs may be through p53 inhibition. Furthermore, drug‑resistance genes, including MDR1 and MRP1, were involved in the process of S100B‑mediated OCSC chemoresistance. In conclusion, our results elucidated the importance of S100B in the maintenance of OCSC chemoresistance, which may provide a promising therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

Stojanovska V, McQuade RM, Miller S, Nurgali K
Effects of Oxaliplatin Treatment on the Myenteric Plexus Innervation and Glia in the Murine Distal Colon.
J Histochem Cytochem. 2018; 66(10):723-736 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Oxaliplatin (platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent) is a first-line treatment of colorectal malignancies; its use associates with peripheral neuropathies and gastrointestinal side effects. These gastrointestinal dysfunctions might be due to toxic effects of oxaliplatin on the intestinal innervation and glia. Male Balb/c mice received intraperitoneal injections of sterile water or oxaliplatin (3 mg/kg/d) triweekly for 2 weeks. Colon tissues were collected for immunohistochemical assessment at day 14. The density of sensory, adrenergic, and cholinergic nerve fibers labeled with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), respectively, was assessed within the myenteric plexus of the distal colon. The number and proportion of excitatory neurons immunoreactive (IR) against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were counted, and the density of glial subpopulations was determined by using antibodies specific for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and s100β protein. Oxaliplatin treatment induced significant reduction of sensory and adrenergic innervations, as well as the total number and proportion of ChAT-IR neurons, and GFAP-IR glia, but increased s100β expression within the myenteric plexus of the distal colon. Treatment with oxaliplatin significantly alters nerve fibers and glial cells in the colonic myenteric plexus, which could contribute to long-term gastrointestinal side effects following chemotherapeutic treatment.

Liu Y, Cui J, Tang YL, et al.
Prognostic Roles of mRNA Expression of S100 in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:9815806 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The S100 protein family is involved in cancer cell invasion and metastasis, but its prognostic value in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been elucidated. In the present study we investigated the prognostic role of mRNA expression of each individual S100 in NSCLC patients through the Kaplan-Meier plotter (KM plotter) database. Expression of 14 members of the S100 family correlated with overall survival (OS) for all NSCLC patients; 18 members were associated with OS in adenocarcinoma, but none were associated with OS in squamous cell carcinoma. In particular, high mRNA expression level of S100B was associated with better OS in NSCLC patients. The prognostic value of S100 according to smoking status, pathological grades, clinical stages, and chemotherapeutic treatment of NSCLC was further assessed. Although the results should be further verified in clinical trials our findings provide new insights into the prognostic roles of S100 proteins in NSCLC and might promote development of S100-targeted inhibitors for the treatment of NSCLC.

Almiron Bonnin DA, Havrda MC, Lee MC, et al.
Secretion-mediated STAT3 activation promotes self-renewal of glioma stem-like cells during hypoxia.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(8):1107-1118 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
High-grade gliomas (HGGs) include the most common and the most aggressive primary brain tumor of adults and children. Despite multimodality treatment, most high-grade gliomas eventually recur and are ultimately incurable. Several studies suggest that the initiation, progression, and recurrence of gliomas are driven, at least partly, by cancer stem-like cells. A defining characteristic of these cancer stem-like cells is their capacity to self-renew. We have identified a hypoxia-induced pathway that utilizes the Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α) transcription factor and the JAK1/2-STAT3 (Janus Kinase 1/2 - Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3) axis to enhance the self-renewal of glioma stem-like cells. Hypoxia is a commonly found pathologic feature of HGGs. Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1α levels are greatly increased in glioma stem-like cells. Increased HIF-1α activates the JAK1/2-STAT3 axis and enhances tumor stem-like cell self-renewal. Our data further demonstrate the importance of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) secretion for this pathway of hypoxia-mediated self-renewal. Brefeldin A and EHT-1864, agents that significantly inhibit VEGF secretion, decreased stem cell self-renewal, inhibited tumor growth, and increased the survival of mice allografted with S100β-v-erbB/p53

Tan B, Shen L, Yang K, et al.
C6 glioma-conditioned medium induces malignant transformation of mesenchymal stem cells: Possible role of S100B/RAGE pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 495(1):78-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely studied as an attractive therapeutic agent for the treatment of tumors. However, the adverse effects of the tumor paracrine factors who affect MSCs are still unclear. In this study, we report for the first time that C6 glioma-conditioned medium (GCM) induces malignant transformation of MSCs. In contrast to MSCs, the transformed mesenchymal stem cells (TMCs) exhibited tumor cell characterizations in vitro and highly tumorigenic in vivo. Furthermore, GCM and recombinant S100B increased receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its downstream Akt1, STAT3 genes expression as well as phosphorylation and transcriptional activation. Finally, blockage of S100B-RAGE interaction by RAGE inhibitor FPS-ZM1 attenuated GCM and S100B-induced Akt1, STAT3 activation, abolished its cell proliferation, migration and invasion actions. Together, these results suggest that the RAGE pathway may play a possible role in malignant transformation procedure of MSCs, and that this process may be mediated through S100B.

Lu M, Kjellin H, Fotouhi O, et al.
Molecular profiles of oxyphilic and chief cell parathyroid adenoma.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018; 470:84-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Parathyroid adenomas may be composed of chief cells (conventional or water-clear), oxyphilic cells or a mixture of both cells. The molecular background is rarely studied.
OBJECTIVE: To molecularly characterize parathyroid adenomas of different cell type composition.
DESIGN: Chief and oxyphilic cell adenomas were compared in a cohort of 664 sporadic cases. Extensive analyses of parathyroid tissues were performed in subgroup. Gene expressions of known parathyroid-related genes were quantified by qRT-PCR. Protein expression profiles determined by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were compared between each type of parathyroid adenomas. Selected proteins were analysed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Patients with oxyphilic cell adenoma were found to be older at the time of operation than chief cell adenoma cases but did not differ in gender, serum calcium or tumor weight. The gene expression of CASR, VDR, FGFR1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, PTHLH, GCM2, NDUFA13, CDKN1B, MEN1 and CNND1 did not differ between the groups. VDR protein levels were weaker in oxyphilic adenomas. The proteomic studies identified a set of novel dysregulated proteins of interest such as nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group C member 2 (TR4), LIM domain only protein 3 (LMO3) and calcium-binding protein B (S100B). LMO3 and S100B showed higher expression in oxyphilic adenoma and may be involve in parathyroid tumorgenesis through the p53 pathway. TR4 showed different subcellular localisation between adenoma and normal rim.
CONCLUSION: Chief and oxyphilic cell parathyroid adenomas have partly overlapping but also distinct molecular profiles. The calmodulin-eEF2K, TR4 and p53 pathways may be involved in the tumor development.

Sundaresan S, Meininger CA, Kang AJ, et al.
Gastrin Induces Nuclear Export and Proteasome Degradation of Menin in Enteric Glial Cells.
Gastroenterology. 2017; 153(6):1555-1567.e15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1 (MEN1) locus encodes the nuclear protein and tumor suppressor menin. MEN1 mutations frequently cause neuroendocrine tumors such as gastrinomas, characterized by their predominant duodenal location and local metastasis at time of diagnosis. Diffuse gastrin cell hyperplasia precedes the appearance of MEN1 gastrinomas, which develop within submucosal Brunner's glands. We investigated how menin regulates expression of the gastrin gene and induces generation of submucosal gastrin-expressing cell hyperplasia.
METHODS: Primary enteric glial cultures were generated from the VillinCre:Men1
RESULTS: Enteric glial cells that stained positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP+) expressed gastrin de novo through a mechanism that required PKA. Gastrin-induced nuclear export of menin via cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR)-mediated activation of PKA. Once exported from the nucleus, menin was ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome. GFAP and other markers of enteric glial cells (eg, p75 and S100B), colocalized with gastrin in human duodenal gastrinomas.
CONCLUSIONS: MEN1-associated gastrinomas, which develop in the submucosa, might arise from enteric glial cells through hormone-dependent PKA signaling. This pathway disrupts nuclear menin function, leading to hypergastrinemia and associated sequelae.

Piltti J, Bygdell J, Fernández-Echevarría C, et al.
Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and hypoxia synergistically enhance chondrocytic phenotype and modify S100 protein profiles in human chondrosarcoma cells.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):3708 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Articular chondrocytes are slowly dividing cells that tend to lose their cell type-specific phenotype and ability to produce structurally and functionally correct cartilage tissue when cultured. Thus, culture conditions, which enhance the maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype would be very useful for cartilage research. Here we show that Rho-kinase inhibition by Y-27632 under hypoxic conditions efficiently maintains and even enhances chondrocyte-specific extracellular matrix production by chondrocytic cells. The effects of long-term Y-27632 exposure to human chondrosarcoma 2/8 cell phenotype maintenance and extracellular matrix production were studied at normoxia and at a 5% low oxygen atmosphere. Y-27632 treatment at normoxia induced ACAN and COL2A1 gene up-regulation and a minor increase of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs), while type II collagen expression was not significantly up-regulated. A further increase in expression of ACAN and COL2A1 was achieved with Y-27632 treatment and hypoxia. The production of sGAGs increased by 65.8%, and ELISA analysis revealed a 6-fold up-regulation of type II collagen. Y-27632 also induced the up-regulation of S100-A1 and S100-B proteins and modified the expression of several other S100 protein family members, such as S100-A4, S100-A6, S100-A13 and S100-A16. The up-regulation of S100-A1 and S100-B proteins is suggested to enhance the chondrocytic phenotype of these cells.

Yang T, Cheng J, Yang Y, et al.
S100B Mediates Stemness of Ovarian Cancer Stem-Like Cells Through Inhibiting p53.
Stem Cells. 2017; 35(2):325-336 [PubMed] Related Publications
S100B is one of the members of the S100 protein family and is involved in the progression of a variety of cancers. Ovarian cancer is driven by cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) that are involved in tumorigenesis, metastasis, chemo-resistance and relapse. We then hypothesized that S100B might exert pro-tumor effects by regulating ovarian CSLCs stemness, a key characteristic of CSLCs. First, we observed the high expression of S100B in ovarian cancer specimens when compared to that in normal ovary. The S100B upregulation associated with more advanced tumor stages, poorer differentiation and poorer survival. In addition, elevated S100B expression correlated with increased expression of stem cell markers including CD133, Nanog and Oct4. Then, we found that S100B was preferentially expressed in CD133

Chen C, Liu Y, Hua M, et al.
Neuropathy correlated with imbalanced Foxp3/IL-17 in bone marrow microenvironment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(17):24455-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Bone marrow (BM) neural tissues are important components of bone marrow microenvironment and play important roles in normal hematopoiesis. Neuropathy of BM can cause immunological alteration in hematopoietic microenvironment. It also can induce the impairment of normal hematopoiesis and promote the development of hematologic diseases. In the present study, we determined the expression levels and clinical significances of nerve-related molecules [nestin, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), Glial Fibrillary Acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B] and T helper-related molecules (IL-17, Foxp3) in BM of AML patients and controls by immunohistochemical analysis and RT-PCR. Our results showed that the positive rates and expression levels of nestin, TH, GFAP and IL-17 were significantly decreased while Foxp3 and the ratio of Foxp3/IL-17 were statistically elevated in BM of AML patients. We found that there were significantly positive correlations between nestin with TH and IL-17 in BM of AML patients. We also observed significantly negative correlations between nestin with TH and Foxp3/IL-17 ratio. Moreover, the expression of nestin was positively correlated with the overall survival of AML patients. Our study suggests that neuropathy together with imbalanced T helper immunology in bone marrow might play important roles in AML.

Ostrow KL, Donaldson K, Blakeley J, et al.
Immortalized Human Schwann Cell Lines Derived From Tumors of Schwannomatosis Patients.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0144620 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Schwannomatosis, a rare form of neurofibromatosis, is characterized predominantly by multiple, often painful, schwannomas throughout the peripheral nervous system. The current standard of care for schwannomatosis is surgical resection. A major obstacle to schwannomatosis research is the lack of robust tumor cell lines. There is a great need for mechanistic and drug discovery studies of schwannomatosis, yet appropriate tools are not currently available. Schwannomatosis tumors are difficult to grow in culture as they survive only a few passages before senescence. Our lab has extensive experience in establishing primary and immortalized human Schwann cell cultures from normal tissue that retain their phenotypes after immortalization. Therefore we took on the challenge of creating immortalized human Schwann cell lines derived from tumors from schwannomatosis patients. We have established and fully characterized 2 schwannomatosis cell lines from 2 separate patients using SV40 virus large T antigen. One patient reported pain and the other did not. The schwannomatosis cell lines were stained with S100B antibodies to confirm Schwann cell identity. The schwannomatosis cells also expressed the Schwann cell markers, p75NTR, S100B, and NGF after multiple passages. Cell morphology was retained following multiple passaging and freeze/ thaw cycles. Gene expression microarray analysis was used to compare the cell lines with their respective parent tumors. No differences in key genes were detected, with the exception that several cell cycle regulators were upregulated in the schwannomatosis cell lines when compared to their parent tumors. This upregulation was apparently a product of cell culturing, as the schwannomatosis cells exhibited the same expression pattern of cell cycle regulatory genes as normal primary human Schwann cells. Cell growth was also similar between normal primary and immortalized tumor cells in culture. Accurate cell lines derived directly from human tumors will serve as invaluable tools for advancing schwannomatosis research, including drug screening.

Stark MS, Klein K, Weide B, et al.
The Prognostic and Predictive Value of Melanoma-related MicroRNAs Using Tissue and Serum: A MicroRNA Expression Analysis.
EBioMedicine. 2015; 2(7):671-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The overall 5-year survival for melanoma is 91%. However, if distant metastasis occurs (stage IV), cure rates are < 15%. Hence, melanoma detection in earlier stages (stages I-III) maximises the chances of patient survival. We measured the expression of a panel of 17 microRNAs (miRNAs) (MELmiR-17) in melanoma tissues (stage III; n = 76 and IV; n = 10) and serum samples (collected from controls with no melanoma, n = 130; and patients with melanoma (stages I/II, n = 86; III, n = 50; and IV, n = 119)) obtained from biobanks in Australia and Germany. In melanoma tissues, members of the 'MELmiR-17' panel were found to be predictors of stage, recurrence, and survival. Additionally, in a minimally-invasive blood test, a seven-miRNA panel (MELmiR-7) detected the presence of melanoma (relative to controls) with high sensitivity (93%) and specificity (≥ 82%) when ≥ 4 miRNAs were expressed. Moreover, the 'MELmiR-7' panel characterised overall survival of melanoma patients better than both serum LDH and S100B (delta log likelihood = 11, p < 0.001). This panel was found to be superior to currently used serological markers for melanoma progression, recurrence, and survival; and would be ideally suited to monitor tumour progression in patients diagnosed with early metastatic disease (stages IIIa-c/IV M1a-b) to detect relapse following surgical or adjuvant treatment.

Kaehler KC, Politz O, Henderson D, et al.
Novel DNA methylation markers with potential prognostic relevance in advanced malignant melanoma identified using COBRA assays.
Melanoma Res. 2015; 25(3):225-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant methylation of promoter regions involved in silencing of tumor suppressor genes is a key feature of many human cancers including melanoma. These DNA methylation events occur early in cancer development, increase with progression, and may therefore serve as biomarkers for the detection and staging of cancer. In our study, we used an epigenomic reactivation screening approach including Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analyses (COBRA) assays to identify novel methylation markers in late-stage melanoma. Two human xenograft melanoma models have been used to identify genes methylated in cancer and reactivated upon treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Gene expression analysis and promoter scanning for DNA methylation by COBRA assays and bisulfite sequencing were used to identify candidate genes. The methylation status of the CpG island promoter region of genes related to melanoma pathophysiology in skin, lymph node, and visceral metastatic metastases in 28 patients (samples n=35) were assessed. These methylation markers have been evaluated in melanoma metastasis tissue and in control samples from normal skin. The screening in in-vitro and in-vivo systems for methylated genes in melanoma samples showed 10 candidate genes. Using COBRA assays, we detected a methylation pattern in the promoter region of 10 genes with two genes (BASP1, CDH11), together with the patient's age and the log-S100B-level at biopsy, constructing a descriptor with a trend to correlate with shorter time to death.

Sun D, Li X, Ma M, et al.
The predictive value and potential mechanisms of miRNA-328 and miRNA-378 for brain metastases in operable and advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2015; 45(5):464-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of brain metastases greatly varies in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, and molecular markers are considered to predict brain metastases. Therefore, this study sought to identify the predictive value and potential mechanisms of miRNA-328 and miRNA-378 for brain metastases in non-small-cell lung cancer.
METHODS: Patients who received a curable surgery for their lung cancer were screened according to our criteria. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from the patients were examined for the expression of miRNA-328 and miRNA-378 using real-time polymerase chain reaction and the expression of N-cadherin, E-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor, protein kinase Cα and S100B were investigated using immunohistochemical staining.
RESULTS: In total, 86 patients were screened for this study and 23 patients were diagnosed with brain metastases during the follow-up period. Comparing patients with and without brain metastases, the expression of miRNA-328 and miRNA-378 in tumor tissues were significantly different (P = 6.2 × 10(-5) and P = 2.8 × 10(-5), respectively). For the patients with brain metastases, the expression of miRNA-328 and miRNA-378 in tumor tissues compared with para-carcinoma tissues were also significantly different (P = 2.2 × 10(-5) and P = 1.6 × 10(-5), respectively). For patients with brain metastases, the association between miRNA-328 and protein kinase Cα was significant (r = 0.591, P = 0.003), but that between miRNA-378 and protein kinase Cα was not significant (r = 0.259, P = 0.232).
CONCLUSIONS: The expression of miRNA-328 and miRNA-378 in tumor tissues can be used to predict brain metastases in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. miRNA-328 might promote brain metastases by regulating the expression of protein kinase Cα. However, the mechanisms of miRNA-378 to promote brain metastases should be studied in the future.

Solin SL, Wang Y, Mauldin J, et al.
Molecular and cellular characterization of a zebrafish optic pathway tumor line implicates glia-derived progenitors in tumorigenesis.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):e114888 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
In this study we describe the molecular and cellular characterization of a zebrafish mutant that develops tumors in the optic pathway. Heterozygous Tg(flk1:RFP)is18 transgenic adults develop tumors of the retina, optic nerve and optic tract. Molecular and genetic mapping demonstrate the tumor phenotype is linked to a high copy number transgene array integrated in the lincRNA gene lincRNAis18/Zv9_00007276 on chromosome 3. TALENs were used to isolate a 147 kb deletion allele that removes exons 2-5 of the lincRNAis18 gene. Deletion allele homozygotes are viable and do not develop tumors, indicating loss of function of the lincRNAis18 locus is not the trigger for tumor onset. Optic pathway tumors in the Tg(flk1:RFP)is18 mutant occur with a penetrance of 80-100% by 1 year of age. The retinal tumors are highly vascularized and composed of rosettes of various sizes embedded in a fibrous matrix. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased expression of the glial markers GFAP and BLBP throughout retinal tumors and in dysplastic optic nerve. We performed transcriptome analysis of pre-tumorous retina and retinal tumor tissue and found changes in gene expression signatures of radial glia and astrocytes (slc1a3), activated glia (atf3, blbp, apoeb), proliferating neural progenitors (foxd3, nestin, cdh2, her9/hes1), and glioma markers (S100β, vim). The transcriptome also revealed activation of cAMP, Stat3 and Wnt signal transduction pathways. qRT-PCR confirmed >10-fold overexpression of the Wnt pathway components hbegfa, ascl1a, and insm1a. Together the data indicate Müller glia and/or astrocyte-derived progenitors could contribute to the zebrafish Tg(flk1:RFP)is18 optic pathway tumors.

Kolar K, Freitas-Andrade M, Bechberger JF, et al.
Podoplanin: a marker for reactive gliosis in gliomas and brain injury.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2015; 74(1):64-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reactive astrogliosis is associated with many pathologic processes in the central nervous system, including gliomas. The glycoprotein podoplanin (PDPN) is upregulated in malignant gliomas. Using a syngeneic intracranial glioma mouse model, we show that PDPN is highly expressed in a subset of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes within and adjacent to gliomas. The expression of PDPN in tumor-associated reactive astrocytes was confirmed by its colocalization with the astrocytic marker S100β and with connexin43, a major astrocytic gap junction protein. To determine whether the increase in PDPN is a general feature of gliosis, we used 2 mouse models in which astrogliosis was induced either by a needle injury or ischemia and observed similar upregulation of PDPN in reactive astrocytes in both models. Astrocytic PDPN was also found to be coexpressed with nestin, an intermediate filament marker for neural stem/progenitor cells. Our findings confirm that expression of PDPN is part of the normal host response to brain injury and gliomas, and suggest that it may be a novel cell surface marker for a specific population of reactive astrocytes in the vicinity of gliomas and nonneoplastic brain lesions. The findings also highlight the heterogeneity of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes in reactive gliosis.

Dubey M, Bugiani M, Ridder MC, et al.
Mice with megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with cysts: a developmental angle.
Ann Neurol. 2015; 77(1):114-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with cysts (MLC) is a genetic disease characterized by infantile onset white matter edema and delayed onset neurological deterioration. Loss of MLC1 function causes MLC. MLC1 is involved in ion-water homeostasis, but its exact role is unknown. We generated Mlc1-null mice for further studies.
METHODS: We investigated which brain cell types express MLC1, compared developmental expression in mice and men, and studied the consequences of loss of MLC1 in Mlc1-null mice.
RESULTS: Like humans, mice expressed MLC1 only in astrocytes, especially those facing fluid-brain barriers. In mice, MLC1 expression increased until 3 weeks and then stabilized. In humans, MLC1 expression was highest in the first year, decreased, and stabilized from approximately 5 years. Mlc1-null mice had early onset megalencephaly and increased brain water content. From 3 weeks, abnormal astrocytes were present with swollen processes abutting fluid-brain barriers. From 3 months, widespread white matter vacuolization with intramyelinic edema developed. Mlc1-null astrocytes showed slowed regulatory volume decrease and reduced volume-regulated anion currents, which increased upon MLC1 re-expression. Mlc1-null astrocytes showed reduced expression of adhesion molecule GlialCAM and chloride channel ClC-2, but no substantial changes in other known MLC1-interacting proteins.
INTERPRETATION: Mlc1-null mice replicate early stages of the human disease with early onset intramyelinic edema. The cellular functional defects, described for human MLC, were confirmed. The earliest change was astrocytic swelling, substantiating that in MLC the primary defect is in volume regulation by astrocytes. MLC1 expression affects expression of GlialCAM and ClC-2. Abnormal interplay between these proteins is part of the pathomechanisms of MLC.

Cavalier MC, Pierce AD, Wilder PT, et al.
Covalent small molecule inhibitors of Ca(2+)-bound S100B.
Biochemistry. 2014; 53(42):6628-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Elevated levels of the tumor marker S100B are observed in malignant melanoma, and this EF-hand-containing protein was shown to directly bind wild-type (wt) p53 in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, dissociate the p53 tetramer, and inhibit its tumor suppression functions. Likewise, inhibiting S100B with small interfering RNA (siRNA(S100B)) is sufficient to restore wild-type p53 levels and its downstream gene products and induce the arrest of cell growth and UV-dependent apoptosis in malignant melanoma. Therefore, it is a goal to develop S100B inhibitors (SBiXs) that inhibit the S100B-p53 complex and restore active p53 in this deadly cancer. Using a structure-activity relationship by nuclear magnetic resonance approach (SAR by NMR), three persistent binding pockets are found on S100B, termed sites 1-3. While inhibitors that simultaneously bind sites 2 and 3 are in place, no molecules that simultaneously bind all three persistent sites are available. For this purpose, Cys84 was used in this study as a potential means to bridge sites 1 and 2 because it is located in a small crevice between these two deeper pockets on the protein. Using a fluorescence polarization competition assay, several Cys84-modified S100B complexes were identified and examined further. For five such SBiX-S100B complexes, crystallographic structures confirmed their covalent binding to Cys84 near site 2 and thus present straightforward chemical biology strategies for bridging sites 1 and 3. Importantly, one such compound, SC1982, showed an S100B-dependent death response in assays with WM115 malignant melanoma cells, so it will be particularly useful for the design of SBiX molecules with improved affinity and specificity.

Zhang Q, Zhu M, Cheng W, et al.
Downregulation of 425G>a variant of calcium-binding protein S100A14 associated with poor differentiation and prognosis in gastric cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(4):691-703 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Altered level of S100 calcium-binding proteins is involved in tumor development and progression. However, their role in gastric cancer (GC) is not well documented. We investigated the expression pattern of S100 proteins and differentiation or prognosis as well as possible mechanisms in GC.
METHODS: RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression of S100 family genes in GC. The polymorphisms of promoter and 5'-UTR of S100A14 gene were identified and related to luciferase reporter gene activity. Association of S100A14 expression with clinicopathologic features and survival in GC was analyzed.
RESULTS: We detected upregulated S100A2, S100A6, S100A10, and S100A11 expression and downregulated S100P and S100B expression in GC. Particularly, we detected differential mRNA and protein expression of S100A14 in GC cell lines and primary tumors. Furthermore, S100A14 expression change was related to a differentiated GC phenotype, with an expression in 31/40 (77.5 %) samples of well-differentiated tumors and 29/85 (34.1 %) samples of poorly differentiated tumors (P < 0.001). Moreover, 5-year survival was better in GC cases with positive than negative S100A14 level (P = 0.02). The genetic variant 425G>A on the 5'-UTR of S100A14 was associated with reduced S100A14 expression in GC cells.
CONCLUSION: Decreased expression of S100A14 with presence of its genetic variant 425G>A may be associated with an undifferentiated phenotype and poor prognosis in GC.

Qin B, Panickar KS, Anderson RA
Cinnamon polyphenols attenuate the hydrogen peroxide-induced down regulation of S100β secretion by regulating sirtuin 1 in C6 rat glioma cells.
Life Sci. 2014; 102(1):72-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: It is well established that the brain is particularly susceptible to oxidative damage due to its high consumption of oxygen. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of a water soluble polyphenol-rich extract of cinnamon and the possible mechanisms, under conditions of oxidative stress-induced by hydrogen peroxide, in rat C6 glioma cells.
MAIN METHODS: After 24h of H2O2 incubation, the secretion and intracellular expression of S100β were determined by immunoprecitation/immunoblotting and immunofluorescence imaging.
KEY FINDINGS: Cinnamon polyphenols (CP) counteracted the oxidative effects of H2O2 on S100β secretion and expression. CP also enhanced the impaired protein levels of sirtuins 1, 2, and 3, which are deacetylases important in cell survival. H2O2 also induced the overexpression of the proinflammatory factors, TNF-α, phospho-NF-κB p65, as well as of Bcl-xl, Bax and Caspase-3, which are all the members of the Bcl-2 family. CP not only suppressed the expression of these proteins but also attenuated the phosphorylation induced by H2O2. CP also upregulated the decreased Bcl-2 protein levels in H2O2 treated C6 cells. The effects of CP on H2O2-induced downregulation of S100β secretion were blocked by SIRT1 siRNA demonstrating that SIRT1 plays a regulatory role in CP-mediated prevention by H2O2.
SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that Cinnamon polyphenols may exert neuroprotective effects in glial cells by the regulation of Bcl-2 family members and enhancing SIRT1 expression during oxidative stress.

Meghnani V, Vetter SW, Leclerc E
RAGE overexpression confers a metastatic phenotype to the WM115 human primary melanoma cell line.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1842(7):1017-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
The formation of melanoma metastases from primary tumor cells is a complex phenomenon that involves the regulation of multiple genes. We have previously shown that the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) was up-regulated in late metastatic stages of melanoma patient samples and we hypothesized that up-regulation of RAGE in cells forming a primary melanoma tumor could contribute to the metastatic switch of these cells. To test our hypothesis, we overexpressed RAGE in the WM115 human melanoma cell line that was established from a primary melanoma tumor of a patient. We show here that overexpression of RAGE in these cells is associated with mesenchymal-like morphologies of the cells. These cells demonstrate higher migration abilities and reduced proliferation properties, suggesting that the cells have switched to a metastatic phenotype. At the molecular level, we show that RAGE overexpression is associated with the up-regulation of the RAGE ligand S100B and the down-regulation of p53, ERK1/2, cyclin E and NF-kB. Our study supports a role of RAGE in the metastatic switch of melanoma cells.

Welinder C, Jönsson G, Ingvar C, et al.
Feasibility study on measuring selected proteins in malignant melanoma tissue by SRM quantification.
J Proteome Res. 2014; 13(3):1315-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Currently there are no clinically recognized molecular biomarkers for malignant melanoma (MM) for either diagnosing disease stage or measuring response to therapy. The aim of this feasibility study was to develop targeted selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assays for identifying candidate protein biomarkers in metastatic melanoma tissue lysate. In a pilot study applying the SRM assay, the tissue expression of nine selected proteins [complement 3 (C3), T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain E (CD3E), dermatopontin, minichromosome maintenance complex component (MCM4), premelanosome protein (PMEL), S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8), S100 calcium binding protein A13 (S100A13), transgelin-2 and S100B] was quantified in a small cohort of metastatic malignant melanoma patients. The SRM assay was developed using a TSQ Vantage triple quadrupole mass spectrometer that generated highly accurate peptide quantification. Repeated injection of internal standards spiked into matrix showed relative standard deviation (RSD) from 6% to 15%. All nine target proteins were identified in tumor lysate digests spiked with heavy peptide standards. The multiplex SRM peptide assay panel was then measured and quantified on a set of frozen MM tissue samples obtained from the Malignant Melanoma Biobank collected in Lund, Sweden. All nine proteins could be accurately quantified using the new SRM assay format. This study provides preliminary data on the heterogeneity of biomarker expression within MM patients. The S100B protein, which is clinically used as the pathology identifier of MM, was identified in 9 out of 10 MM tissue lysates. The use of the targeted SRM assay provides potential advancements in the diagnosis of MM that can aid in future assessments of disease in melanoma patients.

Angulo-Rojo C, Manning-Cela R, Aguirre A, et al.
Involvement of the Notch pathway in terminal astrocytic differentiation: role of PKA.
ASN Neuro. 2013; 5(5):e00130 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The Notch pathway is a highly conserved signaling system essential for modulating neurogenesis and promoting astrogenesis. Similarly, the cAMP signaling cascade can promote astrocytic commitment in several cell culture models, such as the C6 glioma cell line. These cells have the capacity to differentiate into oligodendrocytes or astrocytes, characteristics that allow their use as a glial progenitor model. In this context, we explore here the plausible involvement of cAMP in Notch-dependent signal transactions. The exposure of C6 cells to a non-hydrolysable cAMP analogue resulted in a sustained augmentation of Notch activity, as detected by nuclear translocation of its intracellular domain portion (NICD) and transcriptional activity. The cAMP effect is mediated through the activation of the γ-secretase complex, responsible for Notch cleavage and is sensitive to inhibitors of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA. As expected, Notch cleavage and nuclear translocation resulted in the up-regulation of the mRNA levels of one of its target genes, the transcription factor Hair and enhancer of split 5. Moreover, the glutamate uptake activity, as well as the expression of astrocytic markers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100β protein and GLAST was also enhanced in cAMP-exposed cells. Our results clearly suggest that during the process of C6 astrocytic differentiation, cAMP activates the PKA/γ-secretase/NICD/RBPJ(κ) pathway and Notch1 expression, leading to transcriptional activation of the genes responsible for glial progenitor cell fate decision.

Ducourneau VR, Dolique T, Hachem-Delaunay S, et al.
Cancer pain is not necessarily correlated with spinal overexpression of reactive glia markers.
Pain. 2014; 155(2):275-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bone cancer pain is a common and disruptive symptom in cancer patients. In cancer pain animal models, massive reactive astrogliosis in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord has been reported. Because astrocytes may behave as driving partners for pathological pain, we investigated the temporal development of pain behavior and reactive astrogliosis in a rat bone cancer pain model induced by injecting MRMT-1 rat mammary gland carcinoma cells into the tibia. Along with the development of bone lesions, a gradual mechanical and thermal allodynia and hyperalgesia as well as a reduced use of the affected limb developed in bone cancer-bearing animals, but not in sham-treated animals. Dorsal horn Fos expression after nonpainful palpation of the injected limb was also increased in bone cancer-bearing animals. However, at any time during the evolution of tumor, there was no increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn. Further analysis at 21days after injection of the tumor showed no increase in GFAP and interleukin (IL) 1β transcripts, number of superficial dorsal horn S100β protein immunoreactive astrocytes, or immunoreactivity for microglial markers (OX-42 and Iba-1). In contrast, all these parameters were increased in the dorsal horn of rats 2weeks after sciatic nerve ligation. This suggests that in some cases, bone cancer pain may not be correlated with spinal overexpression of reactive glia markers, whereas neuropathic pain is. Glia may thus play different roles in the development and maintenance of chronic pain in these 2 situations.

Hartman KG, McKnight LE, Liriano MA, Weber DJ
The evolution of S100B inhibitors for the treatment of malignant melanoma.
Future Med Chem. 2013; 5(1):97-109 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Malignant melanoma continues to be an extremely fatal cancer due to a lack of viable treatment options for patients. The calcium-binding protein S100B has long been used as a clinical biomarker, aiding in malignant melanoma staging and patient prognosis. However, the discovery of p53 as a S100B target and the consequent impact on cell apoptosis redirected research efforts towards the development of inhibitors of this S100B-p53 interaction. Several approaches, including computer-aided drug design, fluorescence polarization competition assays, NMR, x-ray crystallography and cell-based screens have been performed to identify compounds that block the S100B-p53 association, reactivate p53 transcriptional activities and induce cancer cell death. Eight promising compounds, including pentamidine, are presented in this review and the potential for future modifications is discussed. Synthesis of compound derivatives will likely exhibit increased S100B affinity and mimic important S100B-target dynamic properties that will result in high specificity.

Miki Y, Gion Y, Mukae Y, et al.
Morphologic, flow cytometric, functional, and molecular analyses of S100B positive lymphocytes, unique cytotoxic lymphocytes containing S100B protein.
Eur J Haematol. 2013; 90(2):99-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
Little is known about the S100B⁺ lymphocytes, which are unique human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) containing the S100B protein. It has recently been shown that S100B is released from various types of S100B⁺ cells and exhibits varied cytokine-like activities. In this study, we precisely characterized the S100B⁺ lymphocytes of healthy adults with respect to the proportion in the whole PBL, immunophenotypes, function, and their S100B mRNA expression and also evaluated their S100B-releasing activity upon stimulation. S100B⁺ lymphocytes were detected in all individuals examined, and the proportion of S100B⁺ lymphocytes in the whole PBL ranged from 0.42% to 16.15% (mean, 4.21%). In addition, two subtypes of S100B ⁺ lymphocytes, a CTL subtype (CD3⁺ CD8⁺ CD16⁻) and a NK subtype (CD3⁻ CD3⁻ CD16⁺), were detected. The majority of the CTL subtype of S100B⁺ lymphocytes expressed the αβ-T-cell receptor. Surprisingly, S100B mRNA was detected not only in S100B⁺ lymphocytes, but also in every S100B⁺ lymphocytes, although the expression levels of S100B mRNA in S100B⁻ lymphocytes were much lower than those of S100B⁺ lymphocytes. The CTL subtype of S100B⁺ lymphocytes exhibited blastic morphological changes, proliferated and released S100B upon stimulation with phytohemagglutinin. The NK subtype of S100B⁺ lymphocytes exhibited morphological NK activity when cocultivated with NK-sensitive target, K-562 cells. Thus, the CTL subtype of S100B⁺ lymphocytes exhibit the biological characteristics of T cells, while the NK subtype of S100B⁺ lymphocytes exhibit the characteristics of NK cells. These results suggest that S100B⁺ lymphocytes are a particular subtype of cytotoxic lymphocytes that play a unique role in antitumor immunity.

Krenacs T, Kiszner G, Stelkovics E, et al.
Collagen XVII is expressed in malignant but not in benign melanocytic tumors and it can mediate antibody induced melanoma apoptosis.
Histochem Cell Biol. 2012; 138(4):653-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
The 180 kDa transmembrane collagen XVII is known to anchor undifferentiated keratinocytes to the basement membrane in hemidesmosomes while constitutively shedding a 120 kDa ectodomain. Inherited mutations or auto-antibodies targeting collagen XVII cause blistering skin disease. Collagen XVII is down-regulated in mature keratinocytes but re-expressed in skin cancer. By recently detecting collagen XVII in melanocyte hyperplasia, here we tested its expression in benign and malignant melanocytic tumors using endodomain and ectodomain selective antibodies. We found the full-length collagen XVII protein in proliferating tissue melanocytes, basal keratinocytes and squamous cell carcinoma whereas resting melanocytes were negative. Furthermore, the cell-residual 60 kDa endodomain was exclusively detected in 62/79 primary and 15/18 metastatic melanomas, 8/9 melanoma cell lines, HT199 metastatic melanoma xenografts and atypical nests in 8/63 dysplastic nevi. The rest of 19 nevi including common, blue and Spitz subtypes were also negative. In line with the defective ectodomain, sequencing of COL17A1 gene revealed aberrations in the ectodomain coding region including point mutations. Collagen XVII immunoreaction-stained spindle cell melanomas, showed partly overlapping profiles with those of S100B, Melan A and HMB45. It was concentrated at vertical melanoma fronts and statistically associated with invasive phenotype. Antibody targeting the extracellular aa507-529 terminus of collagen XVII endodomain promoted apoptosis and cell adhesion, while inhibiting proliferation in HT199 cells. These results suggest that the accumulation of collagen XVII endodomain in melanocytic tumors is associated with malignant transformation to be a potential marker of malignancy and a target for antibody-induced melanoma apoptosis.

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