POLI

Gene Summary

Gene:POLI; polymerase (DNA directed) iota
Aliases: RAD30B, RAD3OB
Location:18q21.1
Summary:-
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA polymerase iota
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 18 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (10)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 18 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 18 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: POLI (cancer-related)

Rizzo D, Chauzeix J, Trimoreau F, et al.
IgM peak independently predicts treatment-free survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and correlates with accumulation of adverse oncogenetic events.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(2):337-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
We examined the significance of IgM peaks in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including its association with newly reported MYD88, BIRC3, NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations. A total of 27, 25, 41 and 57 patients with monoclonal IgM or IgG peaks (IgM and IgG groups), hypogammaglobulinemia (Hypo-γ group) and normal immunoglobulin serum levels (normal-γ group) were, respectively, included. IgM peaks were mainly associated with Binet stage C and the del(17p). Biased usage of IGHV3-48 was shared by both IgM and IgG groups. IGHV3-74 and IGHV4-39 gene rearrangements were specific for IgM and IgG peaks, respectively. SF3B1, NOTCH1, MYD88 and BIRC3 mutation frequencies were 12%, 4%, 2% and 2%, respectively, being over-represented in IgM, IgG and Hypo-γ groups for SF3B1, and being equal between normal-γ and IgM groups for MYD88. Overall, 76%, 87%, 49% and 42% of cases from IgM, IgG, Hypo-γ and normal-γ groups had at least one intermediate or poor prognosis genetic marker, respectively. By multivariate analysis, IgM peaks were associated with shorter treatment-free survival independently from any other univariate poor prognosis biological parameters, including IgG peaks, Hypo-γ, IGHV status, SF3B1 mutations, cytogenetics and lymphocytosis. Therefore, as with IgG peaks, IgM peaks aggravated the natural course of CLL, with increased accumulation of adverse genetic events.

Demaria M, Camporeale A, Poli V
STAT3 and metabolism: how many ways to use a single molecule?
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(9):1997-2003 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)3 has been considered as a potential anticancer target since its first description as an oncogene in 1999, recently leading to STAT3 inhibitors been brought to clinical trial for the treatment of solid tumors. However, the past 14 years of intense basic research have uncovered novel STAT3-mediated pathways that could affect the outcome of the designed therapies while at the same time help designing function-specific inhibitors. Particularly intriguing are the recent findings that suggest profound implications of STAT3 with the regulation of cellular metabolism in both canonical, that is transcriptional, and non-canonical ways. Here, after a short description of the main known features of STAT3 signaling and function, we review the recent literature on the role of STAT3 in regulating cellular metabolism and discuss the potential consequences on the therapeutic approaches currently under clinical experimentation.

Iguchi M, Osanai M, Hayashi Y, et al.
The error-prone DNA polymerase ι provides quantitative resistance to lung tumorigenesis and mutagenesis in mice.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(27):3612-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Opposite undamaged nucleotide T, DNA polymerase ι (Polι) preferentially incorporates G rather than A, violating the Watson-Crick rule. Although the actual biological role of Polι remains enigmatic, we have identified its coding gene as a candidate for pulmonary adenoma resistance 2 (Par2), a mouse quantitative trait locus modulating chemically induced lung tumor susceptibility. Notably, the most tumor-sensitive Par2 allele possessed by the 129X1/SvJ mouse is associated with a loss-of-function mutation in Polι. To determine whether the nonfunctional Polι is responsible for the 129X1/SvJ-specific Par2 phenotype, we knocked out Polι in a C57BL/6J mouse carrying a less tumor-sensitive Par2 allele. Disruption of the C57BL/6J Polι conferred 129X1/SvJ-like sensitivity on the C57BL/6J Par2 locus and increased the in vivo mutation frequency in the lung, providing definitive proof that Polι causes the Par2 effect and inhibits tumorigenesis and mutagenesis, despite its extreme replication infidelity.

Yuan F, Xu Z, Yang M, et al.
Overexpressed DNA polymerase iota regulated by JNK/c-Jun contributes to hypermutagenesis in bladder cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69317 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human DNA polymerase iota (pol ι) possesses high error-prone DNA replication features and performs translesion DNA synthesis. It may be specialized and strictly regulated in normal mammalian cells. Dysregulation of pol ι may contribute to the acquisition of a mutator phenotype. However, there are few reports describing the transcription regulatory mechanism of pol ι, and there is controversy regarding its role in carcinogenesis. In this study, we performed the deletion and point-mutation experiment, EMSA, ChIP, RNA interference and western blot assay to prove that c-Jun activated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) regulates the transcription of pol ι in normal and cancer cells. Xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein (XPC) and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated related protein (ATR) promote early JNK activation in response to DNA damage and consequently enhance the expression of pol ι, indicating that the novel role of JNK signal pathway is involved in DNA damage response. Furthermore, associated with elevated c-Jun activity, the overexpression of pol ι is positively correlated with the clinical tumor grade in 97 bladder cancer samples and may contribute to the hypermutagenesis. The overexpressed pol ι-involved mutagenesis is dependent on JNK/c-Jun pathway in bladder cancer cells identifying by the special mutation spectra. Our results support the conclusion that dysregulation of pol ι by JNK/c-Jun is involved in carcinogenesis and offer a novel understanding of the role of pol ι or c-Jun in mutagenesis.

La Torre D, Conti A, Aguennouz MH, et al.
Telomere length modulation in human astroglial brain tumors.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e64296 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Telomeres alteration during carcinogenesis and tumor progression has been described in several cancer types. Telomeres length is stabilized by telomerase (h-TERT) and controlled by several proteins that protect telomere integrity, such as the Telomere Repeat-binding Factor (TRF) 1 and 2 and the tankyrase-poli-ADP-ribose polymerase (TANKs-PARP) complex.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate telomere dysfunction in astroglial brain tumors we analyzed telomeres length, telomerase activity and the expression of a panel of genes controlling the length and structure of telomeres in tissue samples obtained in vivo from astroglial brain tumors with different grade of malignancy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight Low Grade Astrocytomas (LGA), 11 Anaplastic Astrocytomas (AA) and 11 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) samples were analyzed. Three samples of normal brain tissue (NBT) were used as controls. Telomeres length was assessed through Southern Blotting. Telomerase activity was evaluated by a telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. The expression levels of TRF1, TRF2, h-TERT and TANKs-PARP complex were determined through Immunoblotting and RT-PCR.
RESULTS: LGA were featured by an up-regulation of TRF1 and 2 and by shorter telomeres. Conversely, AA and GBM were featured by a down-regulation of TRF1 and 2 and an up-regulation of both telomerase and TANKs-PARP complex.
CONCLUSIONS: In human astroglial brain tumours, up-regulation of TRF1 and TRF2 occurs in the early stages of carcinogenesis determining telomeres shortening and genomic instability. In a later stage, up-regulation of PARP-TANKs and telomerase activation may occur together with an ADP-ribosylation of TRF1, causing a reduced ability to bind telomeric DNA, telomeres elongation and tumor malignant progression.

Catalano MG, Fortunati N, Pugliese M, et al.
Histone deacetylase inhibition modulates E-cadherin expression and suppresses migration and invasion of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(7):E1150-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Anaplastic thyroid cancer cells are characterized by a mesenchymal phenotype, as revealed by spindle-shaped cells and absent or reduced levels of E-cadherin. Epigenetic silencing is considered one of the leading mechanisms of E-cadherin impairment, which causes the acquisition of the invasive and metastatic phenotype of anaplastic thyroid cancer.
OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigated the effects of histone deacetylase inhibition on E-cadherin expression, cell motility, and invasion in anaplastic thyroid cancer cell cultures.
DESIGN: Three stabilized cell lines and primary cultures of anaplastic thyroid cancer were treated with various histone deacetylase inhibitors. After treatment, we evaluated histone acetylation by Western blotting and E-cadherin expression by RT-real time PCR. The proper localization of E-cadherin/β-catenin complex was assessed by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Transcription activity of β-catenin was measured by luciferase reporter gene and cyclin D1 expression. The effect on cell motility and invasion was studied both in vitro using scratch-wound and transwell invasion assays and in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas tumor xenografts in mice in vivo.
RESULTS: Histone deacetylase inhibition induced the E-cadherin expression and the proper membrane localization of the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex, leading to reduced cancer cell migration and invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: We here demonstrate an additional molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of histone deacetylase inhibition. The antiinvasive effect in addition to the cytotoxic activity of histone deacetylase inhibitors opens up therapeutic perspectives for the anaplastic thyroid tumor that does not respond to conventional therapy.

Zhou J, Zhang S, Xie L, et al.
Overexpression of DNA polymerase iota (Polι) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2012; 103(8):1574-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study investigated the transcriptional regulation of low-fidelity translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) polymerases in human esophageal carcinoma. Significantly higher mRNA expression of polymerase zeta (Polξ), RAD18, polymerase iota (Polι), and polymerase kappa (Polκ) was found in esophageal carcinomas. The increased expression of Polι in tumor samples was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The promoter of POLI that encodes Polι was found to be hypomethylated, although the overexpression of this gene was unlikely to be associated with methylation in tumors. We further identified Sp1 and Oct-1 binding sites present in the POLI promoter. We observed that the binding affinity of Sp1 to the POLI promoter was significantly increased in cancerous tissues and that Sp1 activated POLI gene transcription in cultured cell lines. The present study demonstrates overexpression of the TLS genes in esophageal carcinoma and identifies a key role for Sp1 in upregulating POLI gene expression.

Exarchos KP, Goletsis Y, Poli T, Fotiadis DI
Gene expression profiling towards the prediction of oral cancer reoccurrence.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011; 2011:8307-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this work we perform gene expression profiling on tissue specimen obtained from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma with a twofold aim: i) to identify a limited number of genes that capture perturbations at molecular level dictating the development of a potential disease relapse after remission, and ii) to employ these genes in order to build a classifier that is able to calculate the probability of disease reoccurrence for new patients, subsequently discriminating patients into high and low risk groups based on reoccurrence probability. The proposed analysis yielded 94% overall accuracy, 100% sensitivity and 89% specificity, for discriminating patients with and without a disease relapse.

Svendsen A, Verhoeff JJ, Immervoll H, et al.
Expression of the progenitor marker NG2/CSPG4 predicts poor survival and resistance to ionising radiation in glioblastoma.
Acta Neuropathol. 2011; 122(4):495-510 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumour, where patients respond poorly to radiotherapy and exhibit dismal survival outcomes. The mechanisms of radioresistance are not completely understood. However, cancer cells with an immature stem-like phenotype are hypothesised to play a role in radioresistance. Since the progenitor marker neuron-glial-2 (NG2) has been shown to regulate several aspects of GBM progression in experimental systems, we hypothesised that its expression would influence the survival of GBM patients. Quantification of NG2 expression in 74 GBM biopsies from newly diagnosed and untreated patients revealed that 50% express high NG2 levels on tumour cells and associated vessels, being associated with significantly shorter survival. This effect was independent of age at diagnosis, treatment received and hypermethylation of the O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) DNA repair gene promoter. NG2 was frequently co-expressed with nestin and vimentin but rarely with CD133 and the NG2 positive tumour cells harboured genetic aberrations typical for GBM. 2D proteomics of 11 randomly selected biopsies revealed upregulation of an antioxidant, peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX-1), in the shortest surviving patients. Expression of PRDX-1 was associated with significantly reduced products of oxidative stress. Furthermore, NG2 expressing GBM cells showed resistance to ionising radiation (IR), rapidly recognised DNA damage and effectuated cell cycle checkpoint signalling. PRDX-1 knockdown transiently slowed tumour growth rates and sensitised them to IR in vivo. Our data establish NG2 as an important prognostic factor for GBM patient survival, by mediating resistance to radiotherapy through induction of ROS scavenging enzymes and preferential DNA damage signalling.

Bard-Chapeau EA, Li S, Ding J, et al.
Ptpn11/Shp2 acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinogenesis.
Cancer Cell. 2011; 19(5):629-39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The human gene Ptpn11, which encodes the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2, may act as a proto-oncogene because dominantly activating mutations have been detected in several types of leukemia. Herein we report a tumor-suppressor function of Shp2. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of Shp2 promotes inflammatory signaling through the Stat3 pathway and hepatic inflammation/necrosis, resulting in regenerative hyperplasia and development of tumors in aged mice. Furthermore, Shp2 ablation dramatically enhanced diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, which was abolished by concurrent deletion of Shp2 and Stat3 in hepatocytes. Decreased Shp2 expression was detected in a subfraction of human HCC specimens. Thus, in contrast to the leukemogenic effect of dominant-active mutants, Ptpn11/Shp2 has a tumor-suppressor function in liver.

Catalano MG, Pugliese M, Gargantini E, et al.
Cytotoxic activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589) in anaplastic thyroid cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 130(3):694-704 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has a rapidly fatal clinical course, being resistant to multimodal treatments. Microtubules, α/β tubulin heterodimers, are crucial in cell signaling, division and mitosis and are among the most successful targets for anticancer therapy. Panobinostat (LBH589) is a potent deacetylase inhibitor acting both on histones and nonhistonic proteins, including α-tubulin. In vitro LBH589, evaluated in three ATC cell lines (BHT-101, CAL-62 and 8305C), resulted in impairment of cell viability, inhibition of colony formation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. Mechanistically, we showed that LBH589 not only affected the expression of p21 and cyclin D1, but markedly determined microtubule stabilization as evidenced by tubulin acetylation and increased tubulin polymerization. In a SCID xenograft model implanted with CAL-62 cells, the cytotoxic properties of LBH589 were confirmed. The drug at the dose of 20 mg/kg significantly impaired tumor growth (final tumor volume 2.5-fold smaller than in untreated animals); at this dose, no relevant side effects were observed. In tumors of treated animals, a significant reduction of Ki67, which was negatively correlated with tubulin acetylation, was observed. Moreover, acetyl-tubulin levels negatively correlated with tumor volume at sacrifice, reinforcing the opinion that tubulin acetylation has a role in the inhibition of tumor growth. In conclusion, LBH589, acting on both histones and nonhistonic proteins in anaplastic thyroid cancer, appears to be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of this kind of cancer which is known not to respond to conventional therapy.

Luconi M, Mangoni M, Gelmini S, et al.
Rosiglitazone impairs proliferation of human adrenocortical cancer: preclinical study in a xenograft mouse model.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010; 17(1):169-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. The lack of a specific and effective medical treatment is due to the poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying tumor growth. Research on potential drugs able to specifically interfere with tumor proliferation is essential to develop more efficacious therapies. We evaluated for the first time the in vivo effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ), an anti-diabetic drug with in vitro anti-tumor properties, on ACC proliferation in a xenograft model obtained by s.c. injection of human ACC H295R cells in athymic mice. When the tumor size reached 5 mm, animals were allocated to 5 mg/kg RGZ- or water-treated groups. Tumor volume was measured twice a week. A significant reduction of tumor growth in RGZ versus control (control) group was observed and was already maximal following 17 day treatment (1-T/C=75.4% (43.7-93.8%)). After 31 days of treatment, mice were killed and tumor analyzed. Tumor histological evaluation revealed characteristics of invasiveness, richness in small vessels and mitotic figures in control group, while RGZ group tumors presented non infiltrating borders, few vessels, and many apoptotic bodies. Tumor immunohistochemistry showed that Ki-67 was reduced in RGZ versus control group. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR demonstrated a significant reduction in the expression of angiogenic (VEGF), vascular (CD31), proliferation (BMI-1), and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) genes in RGZ versus control group tumors. The same inhibitory effects were confirmed in in vitro RGZ-treated H295R. Our findings support and expand the role of RGZ in controlling ACC proliferation and angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro.

Luedeke M, Linnert CM, Hofer MD, et al.
Predisposition for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in prostate cancer by variants in DNA repair genes.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18(11):3030-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The somatic fusion of TMPRSS2 to ETS oncogenes is a common event in prostate cancer (PCa). We hypothesized that defects in DNA repair may lead to an increase of chromosomal rearrangements and thus to the occurrence of ETS oncogene fusion. We have previously conducted a genome-wide linkage analysis in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-positive PCa families, revealing potential susceptibility loci on chromosomes 5q14, 9q21, 10q26, 11q24, 12q15, 13q12, 18q, and Xq27. In the present study, nine candidate genes from these regions were selected from the context of DNA repair and screened for mutations in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-positive families. Thirteen nonsynonymous variants, 5 of which had a minor allele frequency of <0.05, were genotyped in 210 familial cases, 47 of which with a known TMPRSS2-ERG status, 329 sporadic cases, and 512 controls. Significant association of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-positive PCa was found with rare variants in the genes for POLI [variant F532S: P = 0.0011; odds ratios (OR), 4.62; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.84-11.56] and ESCO1 (variant N191S: P = 0.0034; OR, 4.27; 95% CI, 1.62-11.28). Additional findings, regardless of TMPRSS2-ERG status, were the overrepresentation of a rare BRCA2 variant (V2728I: P = 0.03; OR, 6.16; 95% CI, 1.19-32.00) in familial PCa and of a common allele of RMI1 (variant N455S: P = 0.02; OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04-1.70) in unselected PCa cases. The DNA repair genes POLI and ESCO1 are proposed as susceptibility genes for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-positive PCa that warrant further investigation.

Regis G, Icardi L, Conti L, et al.
IL-6, but not IFN-gamma, triggers apoptosis and inhibits in vivo growth of human malignant T cells on STAT3 silencing.
Leukemia. 2009; 23(11):2102-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
STAT1 and STAT3 are the main mediators of the signaling of interferons (IFNs) and of gp130 cytokines, respectively. Neoplastic T lymphocytes frequently become resistant to the IFN-gamma/STAT1 apoptotic pathway, often because of the downregulation of the IFN-gammaR2 receptor chain. Many studies suggest that cross-regulation between different STATs, in particular between STAT1 and STAT3, may profoundly affect cytokine/growth factor signaling. Here, the function of STAT3 in the negative regulation of STAT1 apoptotic pathway was investigated by RNA interference-mediated STAT3 silencing in human malignant T lymphocytes. In STAT3-depleted cells, interleukin (IL)-6 acquired the capacity to induce apoptosis, correlating with prolonged STAT1 activation and the induction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression. In contrast, in the absence of STAT3, IFN-gamma could slightly enhance apoptosis but its ability to induce MHC class I expression was unchanged. Accordingly, IL-6, but not IFN-gamma, could significantly impair the in vivo growth of STAT3-depleted human neoplastic T lymphocytes transplanted into severe combined immunodeficient mice. Therefore, treatment with IL-6 and simultaneous STAT3 silencing may represent a potential therapeutic approach to control the expansion of IFN-gamma-unresponsive neoplastic T cells.

Pensa S, Watson CJ, Poli V
Stat3 and the inflammation/acute phase response in involution and breast cancer.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2009; 14(2):121-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcription factor Stat3 is essential for timely initiation of post-lactational regression and orchestrates the processes of cell death and tissue remodelling that occur during the first 6 days of involution in the mouse. Paradoxically, STAT3 is also frequently found to be constitutively active in breast cancer and tumors can become addicted to STAT3. This raises two interesting questions: 1) do the high levels of active Stat3 present in the mammary epithelium during involution promote tumor spread and 2) how do tumor cells escape the pro-apoptotic effects of Stat3? In order to address these questions, it is essential to understand the role of Stat3 in involution and the mechanisms by which Stat3 regulates both cell death and tissue remodelling. A number of studies have been undertaken using genetically modified mice and microarray analyses and two significant findings arose from these investigations. Firstly, post-lactational regression is associated with an acute phase and inflammatory response in addition to cell death and secondly, Stat3 alone is insufficient to induce involution in the absence of the NF-kappaB regulatory kinase IKKbeta. Both Stat3 and NF-kappaB have been shown to regulate the expression of genes involved in inflammatory signalling and the acute phase response. These findings suggest a role for the innate immune response in mammary epithelial cell fate during involution and highlight potential roles for this response in tissue remodelling-associated breast cancer metastasis.

de Arias AE, Haworth SE, Belli LS, et al.
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genotype and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor-human leukocyte antigen C ligand compatibility affect the severity of hepatitis C virus recurrence after liver transplantation.
Liver Transpl. 2009; 15(4):390-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
In 20% to 30% of infected individuals, hepatitis C virus (HCV) can cause cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, for which liver transplantation is the best treatment available. HCV re-infection is universal, and hepatitis disease recurrence occurs in most cases with a 30% probability of progression to graft cirrhosis at 5 years post-transplant. The immunological response to HCV involves natural killer (NK) cells and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), which specifically recognize human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigens present on target cells. The effector functions of NK cells are influenced by inhibitory KIR interaction with self-HLA class I ligands, with HLA-C being the most predominant. This study examines the roles of KIR genotypes and their HLA ligands in both HCV disease recurrence and its progression. A total of 151 patients were included in the cohort, and their clinical details were recorded. Liver biopsies were used to define the absence/presence of recurrent hepatitis, the degree of fibrosis, and the progression to cirrhosis over a 10-year period. Mismatching of KIR-HLA-C ligands between donor-recipient pairs was associated with the recurrence of hepatitis (P = 0.008). The presence of KIR2DL3 in the recipient correlated with progression to liver fibrosis (P = 0.04). The mismatching of HLA-KIR ligands favored the progression of the recurrent hepatitis to fibrosis only in the presence of KIR2DL3 (P = 0.04). These preliminary results indicate that the KIR genotype and KIR-HLA-C ligand compatibility play roles in the recurrence and progression of hepatitis C disease in liver transplant recipients.

Starr TK, Allaei R, Silverstein KA, et al.
A transposon-based genetic screen in mice identifies genes altered in colorectal cancer.
Science. 2009; 323(5922):1747-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human colorectal cancers (CRCs) display a large number of genetic and epigenetic alterations, some of which are causally involved in tumorigenesis (drivers) and others that have little functional impact (passengers). To help distinguish between these two classes of alterations, we used a transposon-based genetic screen in mice to identify candidate genes for CRC. Mice harboring mutagenic Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposons were crossed with mice expressing SB transposase in gastrointestinal tract epithelium. Most of the offspring developed intestinal lesions, including intraepithelial neoplasia, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas. Analysis of over 16,000 transposon insertions identified 77 candidate CRC genes, 60 of which are mutated and/or dysregulated in human CRC and thus are most likely to drive tumorigenesis. These genes include APC, PTEN, and SMAD4. The screen also identified 17 candidate genes that had not previously been implicated in CRC, including POLI, PTPRK, and RSPO2.

Catalano MG, Pugliese M, Poli R, et al.
Effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid on the sensitivity of anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines to imatinib.
Oncol Rep. 2009; 21(2):515-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
New therapeutic approaches are mandatory for anaplastic thyroid cancer. We investigated the ability of a new combined treatment using valproic acid (VPA), the only clinically available histone deacetylase inhibitor, and the tyrosine-kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate to control the cell growth of anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines. We showed that treatment with imatinib alone is unable to affect the cell growth of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells, whereas in ARO cells, the combined treatment resulted in a cytostatic effect, with clinically achievable doses of imatinib and VPA. The effect is mediated by G1 growth arrest, acting through p21 expression and the impairment of AKT phosphorylation.

Minelli A, Maserati E, Nicolis E, et al.
The isochromosome i(7)(q10) carrying c.258+2t>c mutation of the SBDS gene does not promote development of myeloid malignancies in patients with Shwachman syndrome.
Leukemia. 2009; 23(4):708-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, skeletal abnormalities and bone marrow (BM) dysfunction with an increased risk to develop myelodysplastic syndrome and/or acute myeloid leukaemia (MDS/AML). SDS is caused, in nearly 90% of cases, by two common mutations (that is, c.183_184TA>CT and c.258+2T>C) in exon 2 of the SBDS gene, localized on chromosome 7. Clonal chromosome anomalies are often found in the BM of SDS patients; the most frequent is an isochromosome for long arms of chromosome 7, i(7)(q10). We studied eight patients with SDS carrying the i(7)(q10) who were compound heterozygotes for SBDS mutations. By assessing the parental origin of the i(7)(q10) using microsatellite analysis, we inferred from the results which mutation was present in double dose in the isochromosome. We demonstrate that in all cases the i(7)(q10) carries a double dose of the c.258+2T>C, and we suggest that, as the c.258+2T>C mutation still allows the production of some amount of normal protein, this may contribute to the low incidence of MDS/AML in this subset of SDS patients.

Poli M, Camargo A, Villa L, et al.
Intraoperative autologous blood recovery in prostate cancer surgery: in vivo validation using a tumour marker.
Vox Sang. 2008; 95(4):308-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intraoperative autologous blood recovery during radical retro pubic prostatectomy has the potential of contamination with tumour cells. Its safety is proved by similar survival rates between allogeneic and autologous transfusion to oncology patients without standardization. Silencing of the gene encoding pi class of gluthatione-S transferase is a specific and sensitive molecular marker for prostate cancer, because it is present in more than 90% of prostate tumours. Using such tumour marker, we aimed to demonstrate that viable tumour cells could be eliminated using leucodepletion filters followed by irradiation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with pi class of gluthatione-S transferase promoter hypermethylation in their primary prostate tumours were included in the analysis. Peripheral blood samples were collected during anaesthetic induction and recovered blood was collected throughout the surgery and then submitted to washing, leucoreduction and irradiation. Samples were analysed stepwise for the presence of promoter hypermethylation using real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Positive hypermethylation was found in recovered blood (two samples), recovered and washed blood (three samples), and recovered washed and filtered blood (two samples). After filtration and irradiation of the recovered blood, this marker could not be detected in any of the cases analysed, suggesting the absence of viable tumour cells.
CONCLUSION: Even though the risk of disseminating tumour cells in prostate cancer surgery by intraoperative autologous blood recovery is not yet fully established, no tumour-specific gene amplification was found after the association of blood filtration and irradiation, suggesting a significant reduction of such risk.

Bétous R, Rey L, Wang G, et al.
Role of TLS DNA polymerases eta and kappa in processing naturally occurring structured DNA in human cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2009; 48(4):369-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accurate DNA replication during S-phase is fundamental to maintain genome integrity. During this critical process, replication forks frequently encounter obstacles that impede their progression. While the regulatory pathways which act in response to exogenous replication stress are beginning to emerge, the mechanisms by which fork integrity is maintained at naturally occurring endogenous replication-impeding sequences remains obscure. Notably, little is known about how cells replicate through special chromosomal regions containing structured non-B DNA, for example, G4 quartets, known to hamper fork progression or trigger chromosomal rearrangements. Here, we have investigated the role in this process of the human translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases of the Y-family (pol eta, pol iota, and pol kappa), specialized enzymes known to synthesize DNA through DNA damage. We show that depletion by RNA interference of expression of the genes for Pol eta or Pol kappa, but not Pol iota, sensitizes U2OS cells treated with the G4-tetraplex interactive compound telomestatin and triggers double-strand breaks in HeLa cells harboring multiple copies of a G-rich sequence from the promoter region of the human c-MYC gene, chromosomally integrated as a transgene. Moreover, we found that downregulation of Pol kappa only raises the level of DSB in HeLa cells containing either one of two breakage hotspot structured DNA sequences in the chromosome, the major break region (Mbr) of BCL-2 gene and the GA rich region from the far right-hand end of the genome of the Kaposi Sarcoma associated Herpesvirus. These data suggest that naturally occurring DNA structures are physiological substrates of both pol eta and pol kappa. We discuss these data in the light of their downregulation in human cancers.

Vineis P, Manuguerra M, Kavvoura FK, et al.
A field synopsis on low-penetrance variants in DNA repair genes and cancer susceptibility.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009; 101(1):24-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Several genes encoding for DNA repair molecules implicated in maintaining genomic integrity have been proposed as cancer-susceptibility genes. Although efforts have been made to create synopses for specific fields that summarize the data from genetic association studies, such an overview is not available for genes involved in DNA repair.
METHODS: We have created a regularly updated database of studies addressing associations between DNA repair gene variants (excluding highly penetrant mutations) and different types of cancer. Using 1087 datasets and publicly available data from genome-wide association platforms, meta-analyses using dominant and recessive models were performed on 241 associations between individual variants and specific cancer types that had been tested in two or more independent studies. The epidemiological strength of each association was graded with Venice criteria that assess amount of evidence, replication, and protection from bias. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Thirty-one nominally statistically significant (ie, P < .05 without adjustment for multiple comparisons) associations were recorded for 16 genes in dominant and/or recessive model analyses (BRCA2, CCND1, ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC4, ERCC5, MGMT, NBN, PARP1, POLI, TP53, XPA, XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, and XRCC4). XRCC1, XRCC2, TP53, and ERCC2 variants were each nominally associated with several types of cancer. Three associations were graded as having "strong" credibility, another four had modest credibility, and 24 had weak credibility based on Venice criteria. Requiring more stringent P values to account for multiplicity of comparisons, only the associations of ERCC2 codon 751 (recessive model) and of XRCC1 -77 T>C (dominant model) with lung cancer had P CONCLUSIONS: We have conducted meta-analyses of 241 associations between variants in DNA repair genes and cancer and have found sparse association signals with strong epidemiological credibility. This synopsis offers a model to survey the current status and gaps in evidence in the field of DNA repair genes and cancer susceptibility, may indicate potential pleiotropic activity of genes and gene pathways, and may offer mechanistic insights in carcinogenesis.

Niclou SP, Danzeisen C, Eikesdal HP, et al.
A novel eGFP-expressing immunodeficient mouse model to study tumor-host interactions.
FASEB J. 2008; 22(9):3120-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A NOD/Scid mouse expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) is described, in which human and mouse tumors marked with red fluorescent protein can be established in vivo, both at subcutaneous and orthotopic locations. Using light microscopy as well as multiphoton confocal microscopy techniques, we visualized in detail the intricate colocalization of tumor and host cells in situ. Moreover, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), we were able to completely separate the host cells from the tumor cells, thus providing a system for detailed cellular and molecular analysis of tumor-host cell interactions. The fact that tumor and host cells can be reliably identified also allowed us to detect double-positive cells, possibly arising from cell fusion events or horizontal gene transfer. Similarly, the model can be applied for the detection of circulating metastatic cells and for detailed studies on the vascular compartments within tumors, including vasculogenic mimicry. Thus, the model described should provide significant insight into how tumor cells communicate with their microenvironment.

Zhang J, Ye F, Cheng Q, et al.
No association of the POLI Thr706Ala polymorphism with the risk of cervical carcinoma.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2008; 34(8):916-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of repair gene POLI genetic polymorphisms with cervical carcinoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred sixty one cervical carcinoma patients and 628 normal women were randomly selected for this study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (POLI Thr706Ala) were genotyped, and the epidemiological risk factor was assessed.
RESULTS: Compared with the POLI Thr706Thr genotype, neither POLI Thr706Ala nor POLI Ala706Ala elevated or decreased the risk of cervical carcinoma or cervical squamous cell carcinoma [ORs and 95% CIs 1.25(0.97-1.61), 1.11(0.67-1.83), 1.22(0.94-1.58), 1.06(0.63-1.78), respectively]. When analyzing the risk of the POLI Thr706Ala variant genotype for cervical carcinoma in different histological types or HPV infection status, very similar risk factors were observed for the squamous cell carcinoma group or the HPV positive group to the overall carcinoma. Regardless of sexual or reproductive histories, patients with the POLI Thr706Ala or POLI Ala706Ala genotype showed a significantly increased risk of cervical carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: The POLI Thr706Ala genotype was not associated with cervical carcinoma in a Chinese population, but we cannot exclude the possibility that the POLI polymorphism might be associated with sexual and reproductive history.

Gokul G, Gautami B, Malathi S, et al.
DNA methylation profile at the DNMT3L promoter: a potential biomarker for cervical cancer.
Epigenetics. 2007 Apr-Jun; 2(2):80-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic events play a prominent role during cancer development. This is evident from the fact that almost all cancer types show aberrant DNA methylation. These abnormal DNA methylation levels are not restricted to just a few genes but affect the whole genome. Previous studies have shown genome-wide DNA hypomethylation and gene-specific hypermethylation to be a hallmark of most cancers. Molecules like DNA methyltransferase act as effectors of epigenetic reprogramming. In the present study we have examined the possibility that the reprogramming genes themselves undergo epigenetic modifications reflecting their changed transcriptional status during cancer development. Comparison of DNA methylation status between the normal and cervical cancer samples was carried out at the promoters of a few reprogramming molecules. Our study revealed statistically significant DNA methylation differences within the promoter of DNMT3L. A regulator of de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B, DNMT3L promoter was found to have lost DNA methylation to varying levels in 14 out of 15 cancer cervix samples analysed. The present study highlights the importance of DNA methylation profile at DNMT3L promoter not only as a promising biomarker for cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, but also provides insight into the possible role of DNMT3L in cancer development.

Ito A, Koshikawa N, Mochizuki S, et al.
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 mediates the expression of DNA polymerase iota in human tumor cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006; 351(1):306-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia generated in tumors has been shown to contribute to mutations and genetic instability. However, the molecular mechanisms remain incompletely defined. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) are overproduced immediately after reoxygenation of hypoxic cells and generate oxidized guanine, we assumed that the mechanisms might involve translesion DNA polymerases that can bypass oxidized guanine. We report here that hypoxia as well as hypoxia mimetics, desferrioxamine, and CoCl(2), enhanced the expression of DNA polymerase iota (pol iota) in human tumor cell lines. Searching the consensus sequence of hypoxia response element to which HIF-1 binds revealed that it locates in the intron 1 of the pol iota gene. These results suggest that HIF-1-mediated pol iota gene expression may be involved in the generation of translesion mutations during DNA replication after hypoxia followed by reoxygenation, thereby contributing to the accumulation of genetic changes in tumor cells.

Sakiyama T, Kohno T, Mimaki S, et al.
Association of amino acid substitution polymorphisms in DNA repair genes TP53, POLI, REV1 and LIG4 with lung cancer risk.
Int J Cancer. 2005; 114(5):730-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were searched for in 36 genes involved in diverse DNA repair pathways, and 50 nonsynonymous (associated with amino acid changes) SNPs identified were assessed for associations with lung cancer risk by a case-control study consisting of 752 adenocarcinoma cases, 250 squamous cell carcinoma cases and 685 controls. An SNP, Arg72Pro, of the TP53 gene encoding a DNA damage response protein showed the strongest association with squamous cell carcinoma risk (OR Pro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg = 2.2), while 2 other SNPs, Phe257Ser of the REV gene encoding a translesion DNA polymerase and Ile658Val of the LIG4 gene encoding a DNA double-strand break repair protein, also showed associations (OR Ser/Ser vs. Phe/Phe = 2.0 and OR Ile/Val vs. Ile/Ile = 0.4, respectively). An SNP, Thr706Ala, in the POLI gene encoding another translesion DNA polymerase was associated with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma risk, particularly in individuals of ages < 61 years (OR Ala/Ala + Ala/Thr vs. Thr/Thr = 1.5 and 2.4, respectively). POLI is the human counterpart of PolI, a strong candidate for the Par2 (pulmonary adenoma resistance 2) gene responsible for adenoma/adenocarcinoma susceptibility in mice. The present results suggest that these 4 SNPs function as genetic factors underlying lung cancer susceptibility by modulating activities to maintain the genome integrity of each individual.

Catalano MG, Fortunati N, Pugliese M, et al.
Valproic acid induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 90(3):1383-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma is an aggressive human cancer that is resistant to conventional therapy. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a promising class of drugs, acting as antiproliferative agents by promoting differentiation, as well as inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Valproic acid (VPA), a class I selective histone deacetylase inhibitor widely used as an anticonvulsant, promotes differentiation in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells by inducing Na(+)/I(-) symporter and increasing iodine uptake. Here, we show that it is also highly effective at suppressing growth in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cell lines (N-PA and BHT-101). Apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest are the underlying mechanisms of VPA's effect on cell growth. It induces apoptosis by activating the intrinsic pathway; caspases 3 and 9 are activated but not caspase 8. Cell cycle is selectively arrested in G(1) and is associated with the increased expression of p21 and the reduced expression of cyclin A. Both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest are induced by treatment with 1 mm VPA, a dose that promotes cell redifferentiation and that is slightly above the serum concentration reached in patients treated for epilepsy. These multifaceted properties make VPA of clinical interest as a new approach to treating poorly differentiated thyroid cancer.

Poli MC, Villa LL, Colella R, Deheinzelin D
Molecular evidence of tumour cell removal from salvaged blood after irradiation and leucocyte depletion.
Transfus Med. 2004; 14(2):151-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intra-operative autologous blood recovery offers many advantages. However, blood salvage during cancer surgery is of limited use due to the potential presence of circulating tumour cells. It was the aim of this study to show that intra-operative salvage blood can be freed of cells and cellular DNA after leucoreduction by filtration and irradiation of washed blood. Known amounts of tissue culture derived from carcinoma, melanoma and osteosarcoma were added to whole blood bags. This mixture was then submitted to washing, leucoreduction and irradiation. Samples were studied stepwise in relation to the integrity and size of DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After filtration and irradiation, PCR targeting the beta-globin gene (268 bp amplicon) was negative. Our results were corroborated by studying plasma samples added with tumoural cells. Using PCR methodology, we showed the absence of DNA from cells in experimentally contaminated blood and plasma bags after filtration and irradiation. This experimental study is an effort to ensure the safety of intra-operative autologous transfusion.

Wang M, Devereux TR, Vikis HG, et al.
Pol iota is a candidate for the mouse pulmonary adenoma resistance 2 locus, a major modifier of chemically induced lung neoplasia.
Cancer Res. 2004; 64(6):1924-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we performed systematic candidate gene analyses of the Pulmonary adenoma resistance 2 locus. Differential gene expression in lung tissues and nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions between A/J and BALB/cJ mice were examined using reverse transcription-PCR and direct sequencing. Although not all genes in the interval were analyzed at this moment due to the recent database updating, we have found that the Pol iota gene, encoding the DNA polymerase iota, contains 25 nucleotide polymorphisms in its coding region between A/J and BALB/cJ mice, resulting in a total of ten amino acid changes. Primer extension assays with purified BALB/cJ and A/J proteins in vitro demonstrate that both forms of Pol iota are active but that they may differ in substrate discrimination, which may affect the formation of Kras2 mutations in mouse lung tumors. Altered expression of POL iota protein and an amino acid-changing nucleotide polymorphism were observed in human lung cancer cells, suggesting a possible role in the development of lung cancer. Thus, our data support the Pol iota gene as a modifier of lung tumorigenesis by altering DNA polymerase activity.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. POLI, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/POLI.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 18 August, 2015     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999