Gene Summary

Gene:PKD1; polycystin 1, transient receptor potential channel interacting
Aliases: PBP, PC1, Pc-1, TRPP1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the polycystin protein family. The encoded glycoprotein contains a large N-terminal extracellular region, multiple transmembrane domains and a cytoplasmic C-tail. It is an integral membrane protein that functions as a regulator of calcium permeable cation channels and intracellular calcium homoeostasis. It is also involved in cell-cell/matrix interactions and may modulate G-protein-coupled signal-transduction pathways. It plays a role in renal tubular development, and mutations in this gene cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease type 1 (ADPKD1). ADPKD1 is characterized by the growth of fluid-filled cysts that replace normal renal tissue and result in end-stage renal failure. Splice variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. Also, six pseudogenes, closely linked in a known duplicated region on chromosome 16p, have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (49)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Phenotype
  • Infant
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Adolescents
  • Pedigree
  • Polycystic Kidney Diseases
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Mutation
  • Kidney
  • Genetic Linkage
  • Tuberous Sclerosis
  • Transcription Factors
  • Protein Kinases
  • Base Sequence
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Genetic Markers
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Gene Deletion
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Protein Kinase C
  • X-Ray Computed Tomography
  • Proteins
  • Liver Diseases
  • Genotype
  • TRPP Cation Channels
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cysts
  • tuberous sclerosis complex 2 protein
  • Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1 Protein
  • Chromosome 16
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PKD1 (cancer-related)

Camp NJ, Madsen MJ, Herranz J, et al.
Re-interpretation of PAM50 gene expression as quantitative tumor dimensions shows utility for clinical trials: application to prognosis and response to paclitaxel in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 175(1):129-139 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We recently showed PAM50 gene expression data can be represented by five quantitative, orthogonal, multi-gene breast tumor traits. These novel tumor 'dimensions' were superior to categorical intrinsic subtypes for clustering in high-risk breast cancer pedigrees, indicating potential to represent underlying genetic susceptibilities and biological pathways. Here we explore the prognostic and predictive utility of these dimensions in a sub-study of GEICAM/9906, a Phase III randomized prospective clinical trial of paclitaxel in breast cancer.
METHODS: Tumor dimensions, PC1-PC5, were calculated using pre-defined coefficients. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards (PH) models for disease-free survival (DFS) were used to identify associations between quantitative dimensions and prognosis or response to the addition of paclitaxel. Results were illustrated using Kaplan-Meier curves.
RESULTS: Dimensions PC1 and PC5 were associated with DFS (Cox PH p = 6.7 [Formula: see text] 10
CONCLUSIONS: Our proof-of-concept application of quantitative dimensions illustrated novel findings and clinical utility beyond standard clinical-pathological characteristics and categorical intrinsic subtypes for prognosis and predicting chemotherapy response. Consideration of expression data as quantitative tumor dimensions offers new potential to identify clinically important patient subsets in clinical trials and advance precision medicine.

Gargalionis AN, Basdra EK, Papavassiliou AG
Polycystins in Colorectal Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 20(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cell and extracellular matrix (ECM) biomechanics emerge as a distinct feature during the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Polycystins are core mechanosensitive protein molecules that mediate mechanotransduction in a variety of epithelial cells. Polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2) are engaged in signal transduction mechanisms and during alterations in calcium influx, which regulate cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, orientation, and migration in cancer cells. Recent findings implicate polycystins in the deregulation of such functions and the formation of CRC invasive phenotypes. Polycystins participate in all aspects of the cell's biomechanical network, from the perception of extracellular mechanical cues to focal adhesion protein and nuclear transcriptional complexes. Therefore, polycystins could be employed as novel biomarkers and putative targets of selective treatment in CRC.

Zhang L, Li Z, Liu Y, et al.
Analysis of oncogenic activities of protein kinase D1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1107 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth leading cause of cancer death in the US. The protein kinase D (PKD) family has emerged as a promising target for cancer therapy with PKD1 being most intensively studied; however, its role in HNSCC has not been investigated.
METHODS: The expression of PKD was evaluated in human HNSCC by quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Cell proliferation, wound healing, and matrigel invasion assays were performed upon siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKD1 in HNSCC cells, and subcutaneous xenograft mouse model was established by implantation of the stable doxycycline (Dox)-inducible PKD1 expression cell lines for analysis of tumorigenic activity in vivo.
RESULTS: PKD1 was frequently downregulated in HNSCC cell lines at both transcript and protein levels. In human HNSCC tissues, PKD1 was significantly down-regulated in localized tumors and metastases, and in patient-paired tumor tissues as compared to their normal counterparts, which was in part due to epigenetic modification of the PRKD1 gene. The function of PKD1 in HNSCC was analyzed using stable doxycycline-inducible cell lines that express native or constitutive-active PKD1. Upon induction, the rate of proliferation, survival, migration and invasion of HNSCC cells did not differ significantly between the control and PKD1 overexpressing cells in the basal state, and depletion of endogenous PKD1 did not impact the proliferation of HNSCC cells. However, the median growth rate of the subcutaneous HNSCC tumor xenografts over time was elevated with PKD1 induction, and the final tumor weight was significantly increased in Dox-induced vs. the non-induced tumors. Moreover, induced expression of PKD1 promoted bombesin-induced cell proliferation of HNSCC and resulted in sustained ERK1/2 activation in response to gastrin-releasing peptide or bombesin stimulation, suggesting that PKD1 potentiates GRP/bombesin-induced mitogenic response through the activation of ERK1/2 in HSNCC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study has identified PKD1 as a frequently downregulated gene in HNSCC, and functionally, under certain cellular context, may play a role in GRP/bombesin-induced oncogenesis in HNSCC.

Toteda G, Vizza D, Lupinacci S, et al.
Olive leaf extract counteracts cell proliferation and cyst growth in an in vitro model of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
Food Funct. 2018; 9(11):5925-5935 [PubMed] Related Publications
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by progressive enlargement of kidney cysts, leading to chronic kidney disease. Since the available treatment for ADPKD is limited, there is emerging interest for natural compounds as potential therapeutic candidates. The aim of our study was to investigate whether an olive leaf extract may be able to counteract the cyst growth in an in vitro model of ADPKD. We treated WT9-12 cells with an olive leaf extract (OLE). In monolayer culture we evaluated cell viability by the MTT assay, protein expression by western-blot analysis and apoptosis by DNA laddering and TUNEL assays. For functional studies we used transient transfection and ChIP assays. Intracellular calcium measurement was performed with a spectrofluorimeter using a fluorescent probe. 3D-cell-culture was used for cyst growth studies. OLE reduced the WT9-12 cell growth rate and affected intracellular signaling due to high c-AMP levels, as OLE reduced PKA levels, enhanced p-AKT, restored B-Raf-inactivation and down-regulated p-ERK. We elucidated the molecular mechanism by which OLE, via Sp1, transactivates the p21WAF1/Cip1 promoter, whose levels are down-regulated by mutated PKD1. We demonstrated that p-AKT up-regulation also played a crucial role in the OLE-induced anti-apoptotic effect and that OLE ameliorated intracellular calcium levels, the primary cause of ADPKD. Finally, using a 3D-cell-culture model we observed that OLE reduced the cyst size. Therefore, multifaceted OLE may be considered a new therapeutic approach for ADPKD treatment.

Gonzalez-Hormazabal P, Romero S, Musleh M, et al.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(10):5703-5708 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Inflammation is a key process in gastric carcinogenesis. Cytokines are mediators of inflammation and are involved in metastasis and tumorigenicity. We previously assessed the role of cytokine gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer risk in Chile. In the present study, we aimed to analyze whether these polymorphisms are associated with overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer (GC) patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 153 individuals with GC diagnosis were followed-up for at least 2 years. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated from Cox regression models using SNPs as predictor variables. The following SNPs were genotyped for study using a TaqMan assay: rs16944 (IL1B -511C>T); rs4073 (IL8 -251 T>A); rs2275913 (IL-17 -197G>A); rs1800872 (IL10 -592 C>A); rs1800896 (IL10 -1082A>G); rs28372698 (IL32).
RESULTS: Interleukin-8 rs4073 (IL-8 -251T>A) showed association with OS under the dominant model (TA + AA) only when adjusted by clinicopathological variables (HR=1.64, 95%CI=1.05-2.55, p=0.030, q-value=0.18), but not with the univariate model (HR=1.51, 95%CI=0.98-2.31, p=0.062, q-value=0.37). No significant differences were observed after adjusting for population stratification (PC1 and PC2 from Principal Component Analysis using genotypes from Infinium Global Screening Array). After stratification by clinicopathological variables, the association with shorter overall survival was higher among patients with diffuse-type tumors (HR=2.24, 95%CI=1.16-4.45) and patients with tumor size >5 cm (HR=1.79, 95%CI=1.08-2.97).
CONCLUSION: These results suggest a role of IL-8 rs4073 in cancer prognosis. Its use as a prognostic marker of GC survival warrants further investigation.

Lam HC, Siroky BJ, Henske EP
Renal disease in tuberous sclerosis complex: pathogenesis and therapy.
Nat Rev Nephrol. 2018; 14(11):704-716 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by hamartomatous tumours of the brain, heart, skin, lung and kidney. Patients with TSC show a diverse range of neurological features (including seizures, cognitive disability and autism) and renal manifestations (including angiomyolipomas, epithelial cysts and renal cell carcinoma (RCC)). TSC is caused by inactivating mutations in TSC1 and TSC2, which encode hamartin and tuberin, respectively. These two proteins form a complex that negatively regulates mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a master regulator of cellular growth and metabolism. In clinical trials, allosteric inhibitors of mTORC1 decrease angiomyolipoma size, but the tumours regrow after treatment cessation. Therefore, the development of strategies to eliminate rather than suppress angiomyolipomas remains a high priority. This Review describes important advances in the TSC field and highlights several remaining critical knowledge gaps: the factors that promote aggressive behaviour by a subset of TSC-associated RCCs; the molecular mechanisms underlying early-onset cystogenesis in TSC2-PKD1 contiguous gene deletion syndrome; the effect of early, long-term mTORC1 inhibition on the development of TSC renal disease; and the identification of the cell or cells of origin of angiomyolipomas.

Chen J, Cui B, Fan Y, et al.
Protein kinase D1 regulates hypoxic metabolism through HIF-1α and glycolytic enzymes incancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(2):1073-1082 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein kinase D1 (PKD1), one of the protein kinase D (PKD) family members, plays a prominent role in multiple bio-behaviors of cancer cells. Low pH and hypoxia are unique characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanism of PKD1 in regulating metabolism in the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) cell line SCC25 under a hypoxic condition, as well as growth and apoptosis. Here, we found that hypoxia not only induced the expression of HIF-1α, but also induced the expression and activation of PKD1. Moreover, we inhibited the expression of PKD1 by shRNA interference, and the growth of SCC25 cells under hypoxia was significantly decreased, as well as the expression of HIF-1α, while the percentage of apoptotic SCC25 cells was increased. Furthermore, stable silencing of PKD1 in SCC25 cells under a hypoxic condition decreased glucose uptake, lactate production and glycolytic enzyme (GLUT-1 and LDHA) expression, as well as reduced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. The results revealed that following inhibition of the expression of PKD1 under a hypoxic condition, the growth and metabolism of the SCC25 cells were significantly suppressed. In contrast, when PKD1 was overexpressed in SCC25 cells, the results were completely reversed, except for growth and apoptosis. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PKD1 not only regulates the hypoxic glycolytic metabolism of cancer cells via regulation of the expression of HIF-1α and glycolytic enzymes, but is also involved in the remodeling of the acidic tumor microenvironment. This study suggests that PKD1 may be a potential target for microenvironment-directed tumor biotherapy.

Madsen MJ, Knight S, Sweeney C, et al.
Reparameterization of PAM50 Expression Identifies Novel Breast Tumor Dimensions and Leads to Discovery of a Genome-Wide Significant Breast Cancer Locus at
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018; 27(6):644-652 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Ganju A, Chauhan SC, Hafeez BB, et al.
Protein kinase D1 regulates subcellular localisation and metastatic function of metastasis-associated protein 1.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 118(4):587-599 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer progression and metastasis is profoundly influenced by protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) in addition to other pathways. However, the nature of regulatory relationship between the PKD1 and MTA1, and its resulting impact on cancer metastasis remains unknown. Here we present evidence to establish that PKD1 is an upstream regulatory kinase of MTA1.
METHODS: Protein and mRNA expression of MTA1 in PKD1-overexpressing cells were determined using western blotting and reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR. Immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay (PLA) were used to determine the interaction between PKD1 and MTA1. PKD1-mediated nucleo-cytoplasmic export and polyubiquitin-dependent proteosomal degradation was determined using immunostaining. The correlation between PKD1 and MTA1 was determined using intra-tibial, subcutaneous xenograft, PTEN-knockout (PTEN-KO) and transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mouse models, as well as human cancer tissues.
RESULTS: We found that MTA1 is a PKD1-interacting substrate, and that PKD1 phosphorylates MTA1, supports its nucleus-to-cytoplasmic redistribution and utilises its N-terminal and kinase domains to effectively inhibit the levels of MTA1 via polyubiquitin-dependent proteosomal degradation. PKD1-mediated downregulation of MTA1 was accompanied by a significant suppression of prostate cancer progression and metastasis in physiologically relevant spontaneous tumour models. Accordingly, progression of human prostate tumours to increased invasiveness was also accompanied by decreased and increased levels of PKD1 and MTA1, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study, for the first time, establishes that PKD1 is an upstream regulatory kinase of MTA1 status and its associated metastatic activity, and that the PKD1-MTA1 axis could be targeted for anti-cancer strategies.

Cornec-Le Gall E, Torres VE, Harris PC
Genetic Complexity of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney and Liver Diseases.
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018; 29(1):13-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Data indicate significant phenotypic and genotypic overlap, plus a common pathogenesis, between two groups of inherited disorders, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseases (ADPKD), a significant cause of ESRD, and autosomal dominant polycystic liver diseases (ADPLD), which result in significant PLD with minimal PKD. Eight genes have been associated with ADPKD (

Ishimoto Y, Inagi R, Yoshihara D, et al.
Mitochondrial Abnormality Facilitates Cyst Formation in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.
Mol Cell Biol. 2017; 37(24) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) constitutes the most inherited kidney disease. Mutations in the

Santos SF, Francisco T, Cordeiro AI, Lopes MJP
Beyond polycystic kidney disease.
BMJ Case Rep. 2017; 2017 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tuberous sclerosis(TS) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in

Caso S, Maric D, Arambasic M, et al.
AKAP-Lbc mediates protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte toxicity.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2017; 1864(12):2336-2346 [PubMed] Related Publications
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapic agent that is widely used to treat hematological and solid tumors. Despite its efficacy, DOX displays significant cardiac toxicity associated with cardiomyocytes death and heart failure. Cardiac toxicity is mainly associated with the ability of DOX to alter mitochondrial function. The current lack of treatments to efficiently prevent DOX cardiotoxicity underscores the need of new therapeutic approaches. Our current findings show that stimulation of cardiomyocytes with the α1-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist phenylephrine (PE) significantly inhibits the apoptotic effect of DOX. Importantly, our results indicate that AKAP-Lbc is critical for transducing protective signals downstream of α1-ARs. In particular, we could show that suppression of AKAP-Lbc expression by infecting primary cultures of ventricular myocytes with lentiviruses encoding AKAP-Lbc specific short hairpin (sh) RNAs strongly impairs the ability of PE to reduce DOX-induced apoptosis. AKAP-Lbc-mediated cardiomyocyte protection requires the activation of anchored protein kinase D1 (PKD1)-dependent prosurvival pathways that promote the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and inhibit the translocation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax to mitochondria. In conclusion, AKAP-Lbc emerges as a coordinator of signals that protect cardiomyocytes against the toxic effects of DOX.

van de Laarschot LFM, Drenth JPH
Genetics and mechanisms of hepatic cystogenesis.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2018; 1864(4 Pt B):1491-1497 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is a heterogeneous genetic condition. PKD1 and PKD2 germline mutations are found in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (ADPLD) is associated with germline mutations in PRKCSH, SEC63, LRP5, and recently ALG8 and SEC61. GANAB mutations are found in both patient groups. Loss of heterozygosity of PLD-genes in cyst epithelium contributes to the development of hepatic cysts. A genetic interaction network is implied in hepatic cystogenesis that connects the endoplasmic glycoprotein control mechanisms and polycystin expression and localization. Wnt signalling could be the major downstream signalling pathway that results in hepatic cyst growth. PLD in ADPLD and ADPKD probably results from changes in one common final pathway that initiates cyst growth. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cholangiocytes in Health and Diseaseedited by Jesus Banales, Marco Marzioni, Nicholas LaRusso and Peter Jansen.

Kobayashi-Watanabe N, Sato A, Watanabe T, et al.
Functional analysis of Discoidin domain receptor 2 mutation and expression in squamous cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer. 2017; 110:35-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Discoidin domain receptor (DDR) 2 mutations have recently been reported to be candidate targets of molecular therapy in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC). However, the status of DDR2 expression and mutations, as well as their precise roles in lung SQCC, have not been clarified. We here report DDR2 mutation and expression status in clinical samples and its role of lung SQCC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated DDR2 expression and mutation status in 44 human clinical samples and 7 cell lines. Biological functions of DDR2 were assessed by in vitro cell invasion assay and animal model experiments.
RESULTS: Endogenous DDR2 protein expression levels were high in one cell line, PC-1, and immunohistochemistry of lung cancer tissue array showed high levels of DDR2 protein in 29% of lung SQCC patients. A mutation (T681I) identified in lung SQCC and the cell line EBC-1 was detected among 44 primary lung SQCC samples and 7 lung SQCC cell lines. Although Forced expression of DDR2 and its mutant (T681I) led to induce SQCC cell invasion in vitro, only wild type DDR2 enhanced lung metastasis in an animal model. We also found that ectopic expression of DDR2 induced MMP-1 mRNA expression accompanied by phosphorylation of c-Jun after treatment with its ligand, collagen type I, but DDR2 with the T681I mutation did not, suggesting that T681I mutation is an inactivating mutation.
CONCLUSION: Overexpression of DDR2 might contribute to tumor progression in lung SQCC. The overexpression of DDR2 could be potential molecular target of lung SQCC.

Barazeghi E, Gill AJ, Sidhu S, et al.
A role for
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2017; 24(7):329-338 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is rarely caused by parathyroid carcinoma (PC, <1-5% of pHPT cases). The TET proteins oxidize the epigenetic mark 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and inactivation by mutation or epigenetic deregulation of

Ma M, Gallagher AR, Somlo S
Ciliary Mechanisms of Cyst Formation in Polycystic Kidney Disease.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2017; 9(11) [PubMed] Related Publications
Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a disease of defective tissue homeostasis resulting in active remodeling of nephrons and bile ducts to form fluid-filled sacs called cysts. The causal genes

Lai J, Modi L, Ramai D, Tortora M
Tuberous sclerosis complex and polycystic kidney disease contiguous gene syndrome with Moyamoya disease.
Pathol Res Pract. 2017; 213(4):410-415 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are two diseases sharing close genetic loci on chromosome 16. Due to contiguous gene syndrome, also known as contiguous gene deletion syndrome, the proximity of TSC2 and PKD1 genes increases the risk of co-deletion resulting in a shared clinical presentation. Furthermore, Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare vaso-occlusive disease in the circle of Willis. We present the first case of TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene syndrome in a patient with MMD along with detailed histopathologic, radiologic, and cytogenetic analyses. We also highlight the clinical presentation and surgical complications in this case.

Zhang L, Zhao Z, Xu S, et al.
Androgen suppresses protein kinase D1 expression through fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 in prostate cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(8):12800-12811 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In prostate cancer, androgen/androgen receptor (AR) and their downstream targets play key roles in all stages of disease progression. The protein kinase D (PKD) family, particularly PKD1, has been implicated in prostate cancer biology. Here, we examined the cross-regulation of PKD1 by androgen signaling in prostate cancer cells. Our data showed that the transcription of PKD1 was repressed by androgen in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells. Steroid depletion caused up regulation of PKD1 transcript and protein, an effect that was reversed by the AR agonist R1881 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, thus identifying PKD1 as a novel androgen-repressed gene. Kinetic analysis indicated that the repression of PKD1 by androgen required the induction of a repressor protein. Furthermore, inhibition or knockdown of AR reversed AR agonist-induced PKD1 repression, indicating that AR was required for the suppression of PKD1 expression by androgen. Downstream of AR, we identified fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 (FRS2) and its downstream MEK/ERK pathway as mediators of androgen-induced PKD1 repression. In summary, PKD1 was identified as a novel androgen-suppressed gene and could be downregulated by androgen through a novel AR/FRS2/MEK/ERK pathway. The upregulation of prosurvival PKD1 by anti-androgens may contribute to therapeutic resistance in prostate cancer treatment.

Guo M, Luo G, Jin K, et al.
Somatic Genetic Variation in Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor of the Pancreas by Whole Exome Sequencing.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPT) is a rare pancreatic disease with a unique clinical manifestation. Although

Ouyang Q, Zhou X, Chen J, et al.
Human embryonic stem cells derived from abnormal blastocyst donated by polycystic kidney syndrome patient.
Stem Cell Res. 2016; 17(3):637-639 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line chHES-468 was derived from abnormal blastocyst donated by polycystic kidney syndrome (PKD) patient after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) treatment. DNA sequencing analysis confirmed that chHES-468 cell line carried a heterozygous mutation, c.10526_10527delAG, of PKD1. Characteristic tests proved that the chHES-468 cell line presented typical markers of pluripotency and had the capability to form the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo.

Wang J, Zhang H, Zhang X, et al.
PC-1 works in conjunction with E3 ligase CHIP to regulate androgen receptor stability and activity.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(49):81377-81388 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) is not only a ligand-dependent transcription factor, but also functions as a licensing factor, a component of DNA replication, which is degraded during mitosis. Furthermore, the deregulation of AR activity is involved in the initiation of prostate cancer and contributes to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). While AR degradation is known to occur primarily through a proteasome-mediated pathway, very little is known about how this process is regulated, especially in M phase. PC-1 is an androgen-responsive factor and expresses specificity in prostate cancer, with higher expression noted at G2/M. In this study, PC-1 was shown to interact with AR and E3 ligase CHIP (Carboxy-terminus of Hsc70 Interacting Protein) and to enhance AR/CHIP interactions, thereby decreasing AR stability. Moreover, PC-1 was found to act in conjunction with CHIP in the decreasing of AR via ubiquitination, with the subsequent degradation predominantly occurring during M phase. PC-1 was also found to repress AR transcriptional activity in androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells and attenuate the growth inhibition of AR. In conclusion, these findings should provide new clues regarding the modulation of AR turnover and activity via PC-1 and reveals an essential role of PC-1 in AR signaling.

Belmonte JM, Clendenon SG, Oliveira GM, et al.
Virtual-tissue computer simulations define the roles of cell adhesion and proliferation in the onset of kidney cystic disease.
Mol Biol Cell. 2016; 27(22):3673-3685 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), cysts accumulate and progressively impair renal function. Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 genes are causally linked to ADPKD, but how these mutations drive cell behaviors that underlie ADPKD pathogenesis is unknown. Human ADPKD cysts frequently express cadherin-8 (cad8), and expression of cad8 ectopically in vitro suffices to initiate cystogenesis. To explore cell behavioral mechanisms of cad8-driven cyst initiation, we developed a virtual-tissue computer model. Our simulations predicted that either reduced cell-cell adhesion or reduced contact inhibition of proliferation triggers cyst induction. To reproduce the full range of cyst morphologies observed in vivo, changes in both cell adhesion and proliferation are required. However, only loss-of-adhesion simulations produced morphologies matching in vitro cad8-induced cysts. Conversely, the saccular cysts described by others arise predominantly by decreased contact inhibition, that is, increased proliferation. In vitro experiments confirmed that cell-cell adhesion was reduced and proliferation was increased by ectopic cad8 expression. We conclude that adhesion loss due to cadherin type switching in ADPKD suffices to drive cystogenesis. Thus, control of cadherin type switching provides a new target for therapeutic intervention.

Pappalardo MA, Vita R, Di Bari F, et al.
Gly972Arg of IRS-1 and Lys121Gln of PC-1 polymorphisms act in opposite way in polycystic ovary syndrome.
J Endocrinol Invest. 2017; 40(4):367-376 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was associated with a number of polymorphisms of genes involved in insulin signaling. So far, they have been studied separately. The aim of this study was to verify the impact of the coexistence of two polymorphisms of insulin signaling.
METHODS: One hundred consecutive PCOS women (diagnosed by Rotterdam criteria) and 45 age-matched healthy women were genotyped for two polymorphisms: Gly972Arg of IRS-1 and Lys121Gln of PC-1. Also, they underwent clinical evaluation, blood sampling for measurement of metabolic and hormonal indices, and a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
RESULTS: Comparing PCOS women with controls, the rate of homo-/heterozygosity was significantly greater (50 vs. 24.5%, P = 0.004) for IRS-1 polymorphism, but insignificantly greater (20 vs. 13.3%, P = 0.33) for PC-1 polymorphism. In PCOS women, compared with controls, the genotypes IRS-1 hetero/PC-1 wild type (WT) (36 vs. 17.8%, P = 0.03) and IRS-1 hetero/PC-1 hetero (14 vs. 6.7%, P = 0.20) were overrepresented at the expense of IRS-1 WT/PC-1 WT (44 vs. 68.8%, P = 0.005), while IRS-1 WT/PC-1 hetero was similarly represented (6 vs. 6.7%). Based on genotype, metabolic and hormonal indices changed significantly. For instance, six indices (HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, insulin area under the curve at OGTT, triglycerides, total and calculated free testosterone) were the highest in IRS-1 hetero/PC-1 WT women.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations in insulin signaling contribute to the extent and the variability of metabolic and hormonal derangement.

Döppler H, Panayiotou R, Reid EM, et al.
The PRKD1 promoter is a target of the KRas-NF-κB pathway in pancreatic cancer.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:33758 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increased expression of PRKD1 and its gene product protein kinase D1 (PKD1) are linked to oncogenic signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, but a direct functional relationship to oncogenic KRas has not been established so far. We here describe the PRKD1 gene promoter as a target for oncogenic KRas signaling. We demonstrate that KRas-induced activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway is one mechanism of how PRKD1 expression is increased and identify the binding sites for NF-κB in the PRKD1 promoter. Altogether, these results describe a novel mechanism governing PRKD1 gene expression in PDA and provide a functional link between oncogenic KRas, NF-κB and expression of PRKD1.

Furlano M, Barreiro Y, Martí T, et al.
Renal angiomyolipoma bleeding in a patient with TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene syndrome after 17 years of renal replacement therapy.
Nefrologia. 2017 Jan - Feb; 37(1):87-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report the case of a 32-year-old male diagnosed with TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene syndrome, presenting with tuberous sclerosis (TS) and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease simultaneously. He progressed to end-stage renal disease and received a kidney transplant at the age of 12. The native kidneys presented angiomyolipomas (AML), which are common benign tumours in patients with TS. Seventeen years after transplantation, he presented with abdominal pain, anaemia and a retroperitoneal haematoma, the latter caused by renal AML bleeding. Selective embolisation was performed. Our patient could have benefited from the administration of mTOR inhibitors at transplant. This therapy is immunosuppressive and reduces the size of benign tumours in TS as well as the risk of rupture and bleeding. This patient did not receive mTOR inhibitors at the time of the transplant because the relationship between mTOR inhibitors and TS was unknown at that time. This case confirms the persistent risk of renal AML bleeding for both transplanted patients and patients on dialysis. As a result, we would recommend routine check-ups of native kidneys and nephrectomy assessment.

Truscott L, Gell J, Chang VY, et al.
Novel association of familial testicular germ cell tumor and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with PKD1 mutation.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017; 64(1):100-102 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adolescent brothers were diagnosed with testicular germ cell tumors within the same month. Both were found to have multiple renal cysts on pretreatment imaging done for staging. The proband, his brother, and their mother, were all found to have a novel splice variant in intron 8 of the PKD1 gene by clinical exome sequencing. This is the second family reported with both familial testicular germ cell tumor (FTGCT) and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and the first described association of FTGCT with a splice variant in PKD1. We suggest that this novel variant in PKD1 may convey increased risk for FTGCT in addition to causing ADPKD.

Alaiya AA, Aljurf M, Shinwari Z, et al.
Protein signatures as potential surrogate biomarkers for stratification and prediction of treatment response in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 49(3):913-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is unmet need for prediction of treatment response for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. The present study aims to identify disease-specific/disease-associated protein biomarkers detectable in bone marrow and peripheral blood for objective prediction of individual's best treatment options and prognostic monitoring of CML patients. Bone marrow plasma (BMP) and peripheral blood plasma (PBP) samples from newly-diagnosed chronic-phase CML patients were subjected to expression-proteomics using quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and label-free liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of 2-DE protein fingerprints preceding therapy commencement accurately predicts 13 individuals that achieved major molecular response (MMR) at 6 months from 12 subjects without MMR (No-MMR). Results were independently validated using LC-MS/MS analysis of BMP and PBP from patients that have more than 24 months followed-up. One hundred and sixty-four and 138 proteins with significant differential expression profiles were identified from PBP and BMP, respectively and only 54 proteins overlap between the two datasets. The protein panels also discriminates accurately patients that stay on imatinib treatment from patients ultimately needing alternative treatment. Among the identified proteins are TYRO3, a member of TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the S100A8, and MYC and all of which have been implicated in CML. Our findings indicate analyses of a panel of protein signatures is capable of objective prediction of molecular response and therapy choice for CML patients at diagnosis as 'personalized-medicine-model'.

Wills ES, Cnossen WR, Veltman JA, et al.
Chromosomal abnormalities in hepatic cysts point to novel polycystic liver disease genes.
Eur J Hum Genet. 2016; 24(12):1707-1714 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (ADPLD) is caused by variants in PRKCSH, SEC63, and LRP5, whereas autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is caused by variants in PKD1 and PKD2. Liver cyst development in these disorders is explained by somatic loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) of the wild-type allele in the developing cyst. We hypothesize that we can use this mechanism to identify novel disease genes that reside in LOH regions. In this study, we aim to map abnormal genomic regions using high-density SNP microarrays to find novel PLD genes. We collected 46 cysts from 23 patients with polycystic or sporadic hepatic cysts, and analyzed DNA from those cysts using high-resolution microarray (n=24) or Sanger sequencing (n=22). We here focused on regions of homozygosity on the autosomes (>3.0 Mb) and large CNVs (>1.0 Mb). We found frequent LOH in PRKCSH (22/29) and PKD1/PKD2 (2/3) cysts of patients with known heterozygous germline variants in the respective genes. In the total cohort, 12/23 patients harbored abnormalities outside of familiar areas. In individual ADPLD cases, we identified germline events: a 2q13 complex rearrangement resulting in BUB1 haploinsufficiency, a 47XXX karyotype, chromosome 9q copy-number loss, and LOH on chromosome 3p. The latter region was overlapping with an LOH region identified in two other cysts. Unique germline and somatic abnormalities occur frequently in and outside of known genes underlying cysts. Each liver cyst has a unique genetic makeup. LOH driver gene BUB1 may imply germline causes of genetic instability in PLD.

Porath B, Gainullin VG, Cornec-Le Gall E, et al.
Mutations in GANAB, Encoding the Glucosidase IIα Subunit, Cause Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney and Liver Disease.
Am J Hum Genet. 2016; 98(6):1193-1207 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common, progressive, adult-onset disease that is an important cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), which requires transplantation or dialysis. Mutations in PKD1 or PKD2 (∼85% and ∼15% of resolved cases, respectively) are the known causes of ADPKD. Extrarenal manifestations include an increased level of intracranial aneurysms and polycystic liver disease (PLD), which can be severe and associated with significant morbidity. Autosomal-dominant PLD (ADPLD) with no or very few renal cysts is a separate disorder caused by PRKCSH, SEC63, or LRP5 mutations. After screening, 7%-10% of ADPKD-affected and ∼50% of ADPLD-affected families were genetically unresolved (GUR), suggesting further genetic heterogeneity of both disorders. Whole-exome sequencing of six GUR ADPKD-affected families identified one with a missense mutation in GANAB, encoding glucosidase II subunit α (GIIα). Because PRKCSH encodes GIIβ, GANAB is a strong ADPKD and ADPLD candidate gene. Sanger screening of 321 additional GUR families identified eight further likely mutations (six truncating), and a total of 20 affected individuals were identified in seven ADPKD- and two ADPLD-affected families. The phenotype was mild PKD and variable, including severe, PLD. Analysis of GANAB-null cells showed an absolute requirement of GIIα for maturation and surface and ciliary localization of the ADPKD proteins (PC1 and PC2), and reduced mature PC1 was seen in GANAB(+/-) cells. PC1 surface localization in GANAB(-/-) cells was rescued by wild-type, but not mutant, GIIα. Overall, we show that GANAB mutations cause ADPKD and ADPLD and that the cystogenesis is most likely driven by defects in PC1 maturation.

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