Gene Summary

Gene:PCDH10; protocadherin 10
Aliases: PCDH19, OL-PCDH
Summary:This gene belongs to the protocadherin gene family, a subfamily of the cadherin superfamily. This family member contains 6 extracellular cadherin domains, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic tail differing from those of the classical cadherins. The encoded protein is a cadherin-related neuronal receptor thought to function in the establishment of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. This gene plays a role in inhibiting cancer cell motility and cell migration. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

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Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: PCDH10 (cancer-related)

Yao X, Zhang H, Liu Y, et al.
miR-99b-3p promotes hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis and proliferation by targeting protocadherin 19.
Gene. 2019; 698:141-149 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world, with characteristics of high morbidity and mortality. Identifying clinically practical targets and uncovering the potential mechanism for HCC were urgent for us. Though aberrantly expressed miR-99b-3p has been reported in several cancers, the expression and roles of miR-99b-3p in HCC remain uncovered. In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time that miR-99b-3p was overexpressed in HCC by our findings and data from GEO datasets. Statistical analysis revealed that highly expressed miR-99b-3p was closely related to malignant clinicopathological characteristics and poorer prognosis of HCC patients. Furthermore, results from Wound healing assay, Transwell assays, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)assay and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay revealed that miR-99b-3p played a promoting role in migration, invasion and proliferation of HCC cells. Then, by bioinformatics tools, luciferase reporter gene assay, integrative database analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis and so on, protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) was identified as the target of miR-99b-3p in HCC cells. Furthermore, rescue experiments were conducted to confirm the mediator role of PCDH19 for miR-99b-3p. Collectively, we demonstrate that miR-99b-3p promotes HCC metastasis and proliferation by directly targeting PCDH19. MiR-99b-3p may become a potential therapy target for HCC.

Zhang T, Guan G, Chen T, et al.
Methylation of PCDH19 predicts poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2018; 14(5):e352-e358 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Several members of protocadherins (PCDHs) have been identified as tumor suppressor genes in human carcinogenesis, but little is known about PCDH19. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression and methylation of PCDH19 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: The RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas Database were downloaded and used for analyzing PCDH19 expression in HCC patients and normal liver tissues. We collected 63 paired tumor and nontumor liver tissues from hepatitis B virus-related HCC patients. The expression of PCDH19 was detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay. The methylation of PCDH19 gene was analyzed by DNA methylation-sensitive endonuclease digestion and the sequential quantitative PCR. The prognostic value of PCDH19 gene methylation was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analyses.
RESULTS: PCDH19 expression was downregulated in HCC tissues and seven HCC cell lines compared to nontumor tissues. PCHD19 promoter was frequently hypermethylated in three (SMMC7721, Hep3B and SNU387) of seven HCC cell lines and 5-aza-dC treatment could significantly increased the PCDH19 expression in these methylated cells. In addition, HCC tumor tissues exhibited significantly increased PCDH19 hypermethylation both in frequency (30.15% vs 9.52%, P = 0.003) and in intensity (P = 0.002) compared to that in nontumor tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that PCDH19 hypermethylation was correlated with the poor overall survival of HCC patients.
CONCLUSION: PCDH19 expression was downregulated in HCC, which was mediated at least in part by promoter hypermethylation. PCDH19 hypermethylation might present a potential prognostic marker in HCC patients.

Liu L, Chen F, Xiu A, et al.
Identification of Key Candidate Genes and Pathways in Endometrial Cancer by Integrated Bioinformatical Analysis
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(4):969-975 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endometrial Cancer is the most common female genital tract malignancy, its pathogenesis is complex, not yet fully described. To identify key genes of Endometrial Cancer we downloaded the gene chip GSE17025 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified through the GEO2R analysis tool. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis were performed for DEGs using DAVID database. The network of protein–protein-interaction (PPI) was established by STRING website and visualized by Cytoscape. Then, functional and pathway enrichment analysis of DEGS were performed by DAVID database. A total of 1000 significant differences genes were obtained, contain 362 up-regulated genes and 638 down-regulated genes. PCDH10, SLC6A2, OGN, SFRP4, TRH, ANGPTL, FOSB are down-regulated genes. The gene of IGH, CCL20, ELF5, LTF, ASPM expression level in tumor patients are up-regulated. Biological function of enrichment include metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, MAPK signaling pathway, Serotonergic synapse, Protein digestion and absorption, IL-17 signaling pathway, Chemokine signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway. All in all, the current study to determine endometrial differentially expressed genes and biological function, comprehensive analysis of intrauterine membrane carcinoma pathogenesis mechanism, and might be used as molecular targets and diagnostic biomarkers for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

Huang W, Xue X, Shan L, et al.
Clinical significance of PCDH10 promoter methylation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):815 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: PCDH10, one of the non-clustered protocadherins, is identified as a tumor suppressor gene in many tumors. Recently, promoter methylation of PCDH10 was found in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) but not in normal lymph nodes, suggesting that its epigenetic aberrance is essential to the lymphomagenesis. However, there are few studies on the clinicopathological relevance and prognostic significance of PCDH10 methylation status in DLBCL.
METHODS: One hundred-seven cases of DLBCL between Jan 2009 and Jul 2010 were selected to extract genomic DNA and perform bisulfite modification. Their methylation status of PCDH10 promoter were accessed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) with methylated and unmethylated primers. Analysis of overall survival and clinicopathological correlation were conducted.
RESULTS: PCDH10 hypermethylation were found in 54.2% (58/107) of DLBCL cases, but only 12.5% (1/8) in reactive lymph node/follicular hyperplasia. In RCHOP-treated cohort, promoter methylation of PCDH10 is an independent prognostic indicator of worse overall survival (p = 0.017; HR 4.045; 95%CI 1.287-12.711) and worse progress-free survival (p = 0.014; HR 2.977; 95%CI 1.245-7.119). Whereas, PCDH10 hypermethylation wasn't correlated with MYC translocation and cell of origin classification using Hans model.
CONCLUSIONS: PCDH10 methylation status could serve as a valuable biomarker for risk classification, and a potential therapeutic target for demethylating drugs in DLBCL in the future.

Ye M, Li J, Gong J
PCDH10 gene inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(6):3167-3174 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protocadherin10 (PCDH10), a member of the non‑clustered protocadherin (PCDH) family, functions as a tumor-suppressor gene in many cancers. Previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of PCDH10 was noticeably downregulated in the tissue and cells of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), when compared to those in normal liver tissue. The decreased PCDH10 expression in HCC was correlated with the aberrant methylation status of PCDH10 promoter. However, the biological functions and molecular mechanism of PCDH10 in HCC have yet to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to identify the biological function and mechanisms of PCDH10 in HCC. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of PCDH10 in HCC cells with decreased expression of PCDH10 which were transfected with plasmid pcDNA3.1-PCDH10 or pcDNA3.1-vector using Lipofectamine 2000. The biological effects of PCDH10 in HCC cells were detected by CCK-8, colony formation and flow cytometric assays. Western blot and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays were performed to explore the mechanism of PCDH10 in HCC cells. PCDH10 expression was downregulated in the HCC cells (HepG2, HuH7, HuH1, and SNU387) when compared to the normal liver cells (L02). Upregulation of PCDH10 inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in the HCC cells. More importantly, we revealed that PCDH10 inhibited the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway thus carrying out its suppressive function in HCC. This study provides insights into the tumorigenesis and progression of HCC, and puts forward the novel hypothesis that PCDH10 could be a new biomarker for HCC, or that combined with other molecular markers could increase the specificity and sensitivity of diagnostic tests for HCC. Restoration of PCDH10 could be a valuable therapeutic target for HCC.

Zhu C, Feng X, Ye G, Huang T
Meta-analysis of possible role of cadherin gene methylation in evolution and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma with a PRISMA guideline.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(16):e6650 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cadherins (CDHs) have been reported to be associated with cancer. However, the clinical significance of CDH gene methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear.
METHODS: Based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement criteria, available studies were identified from online electronic database. The overall odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated and analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 29 eligible studies with 2562 HCC samples and 1685 controls were included. E-cadherin (CDH1) hypermethylation was observed to be significantly higher in HCC than in benign, adjacent, or normal samples. Moreover, CDH1 hypermethylation was not associated with gender, tumor grade, clinical stage, hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HCC patients. H-cadherin (CDH13), protocadherin-10 (PCDH10), P-cadherin (CDH3), and M-cadherin (CDH15) methylation may have an increased risk of HCC in fewer than 4 studies, and methylated cadherin 8, type 2 (CDH8) and OB-cadherin (CDH11) had a similar OR in HCC and adjacent samples. When HCC samples were compared with normal samples, the analysis of sample type revealed a significantly higher OR in normal blood samples than in normal tissues for hypermethylated CDH1 (50.82 vs 4.44).
CONCLUSION: CDH1 hypermethylation may play a key role in the carcinogenesis of HCC. However, CDH1 hypermethylation was not correlated with clinicopathological features. Methylated CDH13, PCDH10, CDH3, and CDH15, but not methylated CDH8 or CDH11, may lead to an increased risk of HCC. Hypermethylated CDH1 may become a noninvasive blood biomarker. Further studies with more data are necessary.

Bhat S, Kabekkodu SP, Varghese VK, et al.
Aberrant gene-specific DNA methylation signature analysis in cervical cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(3):1010428317694573 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multicomponent molecular modifications such as DNA methylation may offer sensitive and specific cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer biomarkers. In this study, we tested cervical tissues at various stages of tumor progression for 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels and also DNA promoter methylation profile of a panel of genes for its diagnostic potential. In total, 5-methylcytosine, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, and promoter methylation of 33 genes were evaluated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based technique, and bisulfate-based next generation sequencing. The 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine contents were significantly reduced in squamous cell carcinoma and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a significant difference in (1) 5-methylcytosine between normal and squamous cell carcinoma tissues (area under the curve = 0.946) and (2) 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels among normal, squamous intraepithelial lesions and squamous cell carcinoma. Analyses of our next generation sequencing results and data from five independent published studies consisting of 191 normal, 10 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 21 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 335 malignant tissues identified a panel of nine genes ( ARHGAP6, DAPK1, HAND2, NKX2-2, NNAT, PCDH10, PROX1, PITX2, and RAB6C) which could effectively discriminate among the various groups with sensitivity and specificity of 80%-100% (p < 0.05). Furthermore, 12 gene promoters (ARHGAP6, HAND2, LHX9, HEY2, NKX2-2, PCDH10, PITX2, PROX1, TBX3, IKBKG, RAB6C, and DAPK1) were also methylated in one or more of the cervical cancer cell lines tested. The global and gene-specific methylation of the panel of genes identified in our study may serve as useful biomarkers for the early detection and clinical management of cervical cancer.

Pham DH, Tan CC, Homan CC, et al.
Protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) interacts with paraspeckle protein NONO to co-regulate gene expression with estrogen receptor alpha (ERα).
Hum Mol Genet. 2017; 26(11):2042-2052 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
De novo and inherited mutations of X-chromosome cell adhesion molecule protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) cause frequent, highly variable epilepsy, autism, cognitive decline and behavioural problems syndrome. Intriguingly, hemizygous null males are not affected while heterozygous females are, contradicting established X-chromosome inheritance. The disease mechanism is not known. Cellular mosaicism is the likely driver. We have identified p54nrb/NONO, a multifunctional nuclear paraspeckle protein with known roles in nuclear hormone receptor gene regulation, as a PCDH19 protein interacting partner. Using breast cancer cells we show that PCDH19-NONO complex is a positive co-regulator of ERα-mediated gene expression. Expression of mutant PCDH19 affects at least a subset of known ERα-regulated genes. These data are consistent with our findings that genes regulated by nuclear hormone receptors and those involved in the metabolism of neurosteroids in particular are dysregulated in PCDH19-epilepsy girls and affected mosaic males. Overall we define and characterize a novel mechanism of gene regulation driven by PCDH19, which is mediated by paraspeckle constituent NONO and is ERα-dependent. This PCDH19-NONO-ERα axis is of relevance not only to PCDH19-epilepsy and its comorbidities but likely also to ERα and generally nuclear hormone receptor-associated cancers.

Patai ÁV, Barták BK, Péterfia B, et al.
Comprehensive DNA Methylation and Mutation Analyses Reveal a Methylation Signature in Colorectal Sessile Serrated Adenomas.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2017; 23(3):589-594 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal sessile serrated adenomas (SSA) are hypothesized to be precursor lesions of an alternative, serrated pathway of colorectal cancer, abundant in genes with aberrant promoter DNA hypermethylation. In our present pilot study, we explored DNA methylation profiles and examined selected gene mutations in SSA. Biopsy samples from patients undergoing screening colonoscopy were obtained during endoscopic examination. After DNA isolation and quality analysis, SSAs (n = 4) and healthy controls (n = 5) were chosen for further analysis. DNA methylation status of 96 candidate genes was screened by q(RT)PCR using Methyl-Profiler PCR array system. Amplicons for 12 gene mutations were sequenced by GS Junior Instrument using ligated and barcoded adaptors. Analysis of DNA methylation revealed 9 hypermethylated genes in both normal and SSA samples. 12 genes (CALCA, DKK2, GALR2, OPCML, PCDH10, SFRP1, SFRP2, SLIT3, SST, TAC1, VIM, WIF1) were hypermethylated in all SSAs and 2 additional genes (BNC1 and PDLIM4) were hypermethylated in 3 out of 4 SSAs, but in none of the normal samples. 2 SSAs exhibited BRAF mutation and synchronous MLH1 hypermethylation and were microsatellite instable by immunohistochemical analysis. Our combined mutation and DNA methylation analysis revealed that there is a common DNA methylation signature present in pre-neoplastic SSAs. This study advocates for the use of DNA methylation as a potential biomarker for the detection of SSA; however, further investigation is needed to better characterize the molecular background of these newly recognized colorectal lesions.

Lee NK, Lee JH, Kim WK, et al.
Promoter methylation of PCDH10 by HOTAIR regulates the progression of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(46):75307-75318 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HOTAIR, a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), plays a crucial role in tumor initiation and metastasis by interacting with the PRC2 complex and the modulation of its target genes. The role of HOTAIR in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is remains unclear. Herein we investigate the mechanism of HOTAIR in the genesis and promotion of GISTs. The expression of HOTAIR was found to be higher in surgically resected high-risk GISTs than that in low- and intermediate-risk GISTs. Using GIST-T1 and GIST882 cells, we demonstrated that HOTAIR repressed apoptosis, was associated with cell cycle progression, and controlled the invasion and migration of GIST cells. Using a gene expression microarray and lists of HOTAIR-associated candidate genes, we suggested that protocadherin 10 (PCDH10) is a key molecule. PCDH10 expression was significantly decreased in GIST-T1 and GIST882 cells, possibly as a consequence of hypermethylation. We observed that HOTAIR induced PCDH10 methylation in a SUZ12-dependent manner. In this study, we found that the malignant character of GISTs was initiated and amplified by PCDH10 in a process regulated by HOTAIR. In summary, our findings imply that PCDH10 and HOTAIR may be useful markers of disease progression and therapeutic targets.

Qiu C, Bu X, Jiang Z
Protocadherin-10 acts as a tumor suppressor gene, and is frequently downregulated by promoter methylation in pancreatic cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(1):383-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protocadherin-10 (PCDH10), a member of non-clustered protocadherin family which plays important roles in calcium-dependent cell-cell signal transduction and adhesion. PCDH10 functions as a tumor suppressor gene and its expression is downregulated by promoter methylation in many malignances. In the present study, we explored PCDH10 expression and promoter methylation status, and its biological effects in pancreatic cancer cells, and furthermore, we explored the mechanism of PCDH10 preliminary in pancreatic cancer cells. the mRNA level of PCDH10 was detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR and promoter methylation status examined by methylation-specific PCR in the pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-1, Panc-1, AsPC-1 and BxPC-3) as well as the human normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells HPDE6-C7 which was used as a control. The human pancreatic cells were transfected with plasmid pcDNA3.1-PCDH10 or pcDNA3.1 by lipofectamine 2000. The biological function of PCDH10 in pancreatic cancer cells was determined by CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry, Transwell invasion assay and wound-healing assay. The levels of apoptosis related proteins were examined by western blotting. PCDH10 expression was obviously downregulated in the pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-1, Panc-1, BxPC-3) compared to the normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. PCDH10 promoter methylation was observed in the two pancreatic cancer cells Capan-1 and BxPC-3,and the expression of PCDH10 could be restored after treating with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A in the two cell types. Overexpression of PCDH10 can inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion ability of pancreatic cancer cells and induce apoptosis. Ectopic expression of PCDH10 could increase the levels of PARP, caspase-3, caspase-9 and decrease the level of bcl-2, AKT and p-AKT. PCDH10 acts as a tumor suppressor gene, and is frequently down-regulated by promoter methylation in pancreatic cancer cells. PCDH10 may induce cancer cell apoptosis via the AKT pathway.

Yang Y, Jiang Y, Jiang M, et al.
Protocadherin 10 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis via regulation of DEP domain containing 1 in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2016; 100(2):344-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy and about 80% of these cancers are endometrial endometrioid carcinoma (EEC). Previously, we have demonstrated that protocadherin 10 (PCDH10) is a tumor suppressor gene in EEC, and in this study we further explored the molecular mechanisms of PCDH10 in EEC. We first detect the PCDH10 expression in EEC tissues and then investigate the mechanism in two EEC cell lines. The mRNA and protein expression levels were measured by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot, respectively; Cell growth was determined by MTS, CCK-8 and colony formation assays; Cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry, and cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. The downstream mediator of PCHD10 was confirmed by Topflash luciferase reporter assay. QRT-PCR and western blot results showed that PCDH10 was down-regulated in EEC clinical tissues. Restoration of PCDH10 suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis in EEC cells. Dishevelled, EGL-10 and Pleckstrin domain containing 1 (DEPDC1) was a potential downstream mediator of PCDH10 as revealed by RNA-sequencing, and mechanistic studies suggested that DEPDC1 is a downstream mediator and promotes cell growth and induces apoptosis in EEC cells. Western blot further showed that PCDH10 restoration activate apoptotic signaling pathway via caspase signaling in both EEC cell lines and EEC clinical tissues. Collectively, our results suggest that PCDH10-DEPDC1-caspase signaling may be a novel regulatory axis in EEC development and it will be of great interest to explore the clinical significance of PCDH10 and DEPDC1 in the future.

Qi Y, Ooi HS, Wu J, et al.
MALAT1 long ncRNA promotes gastric cancer metastasis by suppressing PCDH10.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(11):12693-703 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
EZH2, the catalytic component of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is frequently overexpressed in human cancers and contributes to tumor initiation and progression, in part through transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes. A number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) recruit EZH2 to specific chromatin loci, where they modulate gene expression. Here, we used RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (RIP-seq) to profile EZH2-associated transcripts in human gastric cancer cell lines. We identified 8,256 transcripts, including both noncoding and coding transcripts, some of which were derived from cancer-related loci. In particular, we found that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) MALAT1 binds EZH2, suppresses the tumor suppressor PCDH10, and promotes gastric cellular migration and invasion. Our work thus provides a global view of the EZH2-associated transcriptome and offers new insight into the function of EZH2 in gastric tumorigenesis.

Hou YC, Deng JY, Zhang RP, et al.
Evaluating the clinical feasibility: The direct bisulfite genomic sequencing for examination of methylated status of protocadherin10 (PCDH10) promoter to predict the prognosis of gastric cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2015; 15(5):567-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the clinical significance of the methylated status of CpG site count of PCDH10 promoter in the survival prediction in gastric cancer (GC).
METHODS: In the previous study, we demonstrated that the methylated CpG site count was significantly associated with the overall survival (OS) of GC patients by using the bisulfite genomic sequencing (BGS) with no less than five clones per sample. It was so complex and expensive for patients to undergo the BGS clones. In this study, we detected the different CpG site counts (hypermethylated and hypomethylated) of PCDH10 DNA promoter in GC samples of 471 patients by directly bisulfite genomic sequencing (D-BGS) without any clone. Furthermore, we evaluated the relationships between the methylated status of PCDH10 promoter and OS.
RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty-seven of 471 (54.6%) GC patients were identified to present with PCDH10 promoter methylation by D-BGS. Patients who presented with 5 or more methylated CpG site counts of PCDH10 promoter had significantly poorer prognosis than patients who with less than 5 methylated CpG site counts of PCDH10 promoter (p= 0.039). With the multivariate survival analysis, we demonstrated that T stage, N stage and the hypermethylated CpG site counts of PCDH10 DNA promoter were the independent predictors of OS of GC patients. In addition, the hypermethylated CpG site counts of PCDH10 DNA promoter had smaller Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) values than the other two independent predictors of the OS, indicating the hypermethylated CpG site counts of PCDH10 DNA promoter as the best prognostic predictor of GC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our present findings suggested that the hypermethylated CpG site counts of PCDH10 DNA promoter for evaluating the prognosis of GC was reasonable by using the D-BGS.

Harada H, Miyamoto K, Yamashita Y, et al.
Prognostic signature of protocadherin 10 methylation in curatively resected pathological stage I non-small-cell lung cancer.
Cancer Med. 2015; 4(10):1536-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although curative resection is the current treatment of choice for localized non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), patients show a wide spectrum of survival even after complete resection of pathological stage I NSCLC. Thus, identifying molecular biomarkers that help to accurately select patients at high risk of relapse is an important key to improving the treatment strategy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic signature of protocadherin 10 (PCDH10) promoter methylation in curatively resected pathological stage I NSCLC. Using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assays, methylation of PCDH10 promoter was assessed in cancer tissues of 109 patients who underwent curative resection of pathological stage I NSCLC. Associations between PCDH10 methylation status and disease outcome was analyzed. PCDH10 promoter methylation was detected in 46/109 patients (42.2%). Patients with methylated PCDH10 showed significantly worse recurrence-free, overall, and disease-specific survival compared with those without methylation (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0004, P = 0.0002, respectively). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that adjusted hazard ratios of methylated PCDH10 were 5.159 for recurrence-free, 1.817 for overall, and 5.478 for disease-specific survival (P = 0.0005, P = 0.1475, P = 0.0109, respectively). The pattern of recurrence was not significantly different between patients with and without PCDH10 methylation (P = 0.5074). PCDH10 methylation is a potential biomarker that predicts a poor prognosis after curative resection of pathological stage I NSCLC. Assessment of PCDH10 methylation status might assist in patient stratification for determining an appropriate adjuvant treatment and follow-up strategy.

Schneider BG, Mera R, Piazuelo MB, et al.
DNA Methylation Predicts Progression of Human Gastric Lesions.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015; 24(10):1607-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Development of the intestinal subtype of gastric adenocarcinoma is marked by a progression of histopathologic lesions. Residents of the Andean regions of Colombia are at high risk for gastric cancer.
METHODS: A cohort of 976 Colombian subjects was followed over 16 years examining effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication and treatment with antioxidants on progression of lesions. We performed methylation analysis of DNA from baseline antral biopsies from 104 subjects for whom follow-up data were available for at least 12 years. Methylation was quantitated for AMPH, CDKN2A, CDH1, EN1, EMX1, NKX6-1, PCDH10, RPRM, RSPO2, SORCS3, ZIC1, and ZNF610 genes, using Pyrosequencing.
RESULTS: Levels of DNA methylation were associated with baseline diagnosis for AMPH, EMX1, RPRM, RSPO2, SORCS3, and ZNF610. After adjusting for baseline diagnosis and H. pylori infection, methylation levels of AMPH, PCDH10, RSPO2, and ZNF610 had progression coefficients that increased and P values that decreased over 6, 12, and 16 years. Methylation for SORCS3 was associated with progression at all 3 time points but without the continual strengthening of the effect. Scores for mononuclear leukocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or intraepithelial lymphocytes were unrelated to progression.
CONCLUSIONS: Methylation levels of AMPH, PCDH10, RSPO2, SORCS3, and ZNF610 predict progression of gastric lesions independent of the effect of duration of H. pylori infection, baseline diagnosis, gender of the patient, or scores for mononuclear leukocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or intraepithelial lymphocytes.
IMPACT: DNA methylation levels in AMPH, PCDH10, RSPO2, SORCS3, and ZNF610 may contribute to identification of persons with gastric lesions likely to progress.

Xu Y, Yang Z, Yuan H, et al.
PCDH10 inhibits cell proliferation of multiple myeloma via the negative regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin/BCL-9 signaling pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(2):747-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor suppressor protocadherin-10 (PCDH10) gene is important in cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis and migration. Inactivation of PCDH10 by promoter methylation is a frequent pathogenetic event in multiple myeloma (MM). The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is known to be involved in the cell growth of various types of cancer, including MM. However, the relationship between PCDH10 and Wnt signaling in MM remains unclear. In this study, we found that PCDH10 deficiency highly enhanced MM cell proliferation, Wnt signaling and the expression of BCL-9, an essential coactivator of Wnt transcriptional activity that is correlated with cell growth, survival and drug resistance. Restoration of PCDH10 suppressed nuclear localization of β-catenin, the activity of LEF/TCF, the expression of BCL-9 and AKT, whereas the expression of GSK3β was increased. The antagonistic effect of PCDH10 was associated with G1-phase blockage. Collectively, PCDH10 antagonized MM cell proliferation via the downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin/BCL-9 signaling, whereas PCDH10 repressed the expression of AKT to promote the expression of GSK3β and then to restrain the activation of β-catenin. Thus, the results offer a novel preclinical rationale in order to explore PCDH10 as an effective and selective therapeutic strategy to eradicate MM cells.

Shi D, Murty VV, Gu W
PCDH10, a novel p53 transcriptional target in regulating cell migration.
Cell Cycle. 2015; 14(6):857-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis are commonly regarded as the major tumor suppression mechanisms of p53. However, accumulating evidence indicates that loss of these canonical functions is not sufficient for tumor formation, highlighting the complexity of p53-mediated tumor suppression. PCDH10 belongs to a proto cadherin protein family and is a potential tumor suppressor protein as the dysregulation of PCDH10 gene frequently existed in multiple human tumors. Here, we found that PCDH10 is a transcriptional target of p53 and that the levels of PCDH10 expression can be induced by wild type p53 but not mutant p53 in a number of human cancer cell lines. Moreover, we identified a p53 consensus binding site located in the PCDH10 promoter region that is responsive to p53 regulation. Although upregulation of PCDH10 has no obvious effect on growth arrest or apoptosis in human cells, PCDH10 exhibits inhibitory roles in cancer cell motility and cell migration. These results suggest an important role of p53 in regulating tumor cell migration through activating PCDH10 expression and support the notion that non-canonical activities of p53 may contribute to its tumor suppressor function in vivo.

Deng J, Liang H, Ying G, et al.
Clinical significance of the methylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites of protocadherin-10 promoter for evaluating the prognosis of gastric cancer.
J Am Coll Surg. 2014; 219(5):904-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Protocadherin-10 (PCDH10) has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene in multiple carcinomas. In this study, we intended to elucidate the clinical applicability of the methylation of CpG sites of PCDH10 promoter for prognostic prediction in gastric cancer (GC).
STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative detections of PCDH10 promoter methylation were performed with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) and bisulphite genomic sequencing, respectively. The methylated statuses of 27 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites in PCDH10 promoter were detected in a series of 458 GC tissues to supply precise information of prognostic prediction. Associations between molecular, clinicopathologic, and survival data were analyzed.
RESULTS: Protocadherin-10 promoter methylation was found in 91.92% in all patients. Gastric cancer patients with 5 or more methylated CpG sites of PCDH10 promoter was significantly associated with poorer survival (p = 0.038). Meanwhile, methylation of combined CpG (-115, -108, -13, and +3) sites was also identified to provide elaborate survival discrimination for GC patients (p = 0.044). On multivariate survival analysis, methylation of combined CpG (-115, -108, -13, and +3) sites (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.255; p = 0.049) was identified to be an independent prognostic indicator of GC, as were N stage and T stage. Additionally, the methylation of combined CpG (-115, -108, -13, and +3) sites had smaller Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) values than the other 2 independent predictors of the survival. Ultimately, we demonstrated that the methylation of combined CpG (-115, -108, -13, and +3) sites was negatively associated with PCDH10 expression in GC tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: The methylated CpG sites of PCDH10 promoter had significant applicability for clinical evaluation of the prognosis of GC.

Wang L, Xie PG, Lin YL, et al.
Aberrant methylation of PCDH10 predicts worse biochemical recurrence-free survival in patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy.
Med Sci Monit. 2014; 20:1363-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men, and inevitably some patients experience biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. To date, there are no reliable predictors for prostate cancer recurrence, and novel predictors are urgently needed. PCDH10 (protocadherin-10) is a novel tumor suppressor gene, which is down-regulated by promoter methylation in prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using PCDH10 methylation to predict the biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy.
MATERIAL/METHODS: Fresh tissue samples were obtained from 151 patients with primary prostate cancer, and from 34 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) as control. The methylation status of PCDH10 in prostate cancer tissues and controls were examined using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), and then associated with clinicopathological features and BCR-free survival of patients with prostate cancer.
RESULTS: We found that PCDH10 methylation was detected in 79 (52.3%) patients with prostate cancer, but no methylation was found in controls (P<0.0001). Moreover, PCDH10 methylation was significantly associated with higher preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (P <0.0001), higher Gleason Score (P<0.0001), advanced clinical stage (P=0.0002), lymph node metastasis (P=0.0389), angiolymphatic invasion (P=0.0303), and biochemical recurrence (P=0.0068). Moreover, PCDH10 methylation was associated with poor BCR-free survival (P<0.0001), and may be used as an independent predictor of BCR-free survival (P=0.0046).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that PCDH10 methylation in prostate cancer tissue is an independent prognostic biomarker of worse BCR-free survival of patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy.

Zhao Y, Yang Y, Trovik J, et al.
A novel wnt regulatory axis in endometrioid endometrial cancer.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(18):5103-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Protocadherin 10 (PCDH10) is inactivated often by promoter hypermethylation in various human tumors, but its possible functional role as a tumor suppressor gene is not established. In this study, we identify PCDH10 as a novel Wnt pathway regulatory element in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). PCDH10 was downregulated in EEC tumor cells by aberrant methylation of its promoter. Restoring PCDH10 levels suppressed cell growth and triggered apoptosis in EEC cells and tumor xenografts. Gene expression profiling revealed as part of the transcriptomic changes induced by PCDH10 a reduction in levels of MALAT1, a long noncoding RNA, that mediated tumor suppression functions of PCDH10 in EEC cells. We found that MALAT1 transcription was regulated by Wnt/β-catenin signaling via TCF promoter binding and PCDH10 decreased MALAT1 by modulating this pathway. Clinically, MALAT1 expression was associated with multiple parameters in patients with EEC. Taken together, our findings establish a novel PCDH10-Wnt/β-catenin-MALAT1 regulatory axis that contributes to EEC development. Cancer Res; 74(18); 5103-17. ©2014 AACR.

Li Z, Yang Z, Peng X, et al.
Nuclear factor-κB is involved in the protocadherin-10-mediated pro-apoptotic effect in multiple myeloma.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 10(2):832-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gene encoding protocadherin-10 (PCDH10), a member of the cadherin superfamily, has been recently identified as a tumor suppressor gene (TSG). PCDH10 plays important roles in the apoptosis of tumor cells in some cancer types. However, the exact role of PCDH10 in multiple myeloma (MM) is largely unknown. Increasing evidence has suggested that the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is crucial for apoptosis in myeloma cells. In this study, we investigated the pro-apoptotic effect of PCDH10 on myeloma cells and whether this effect may involve inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. We report here, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, that PCDH10 markedly induces apoptosis of myeloma cells, accompanied by an increase in activated caspase-3 and poly-ADP‑ribose polymerase (PARP) levels, and inhibited expression of anti‑apoptotic proteins. We also demonstrate that PCDH10 inhibits the activation of NF-κB, by inhibiting the expression of the inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (IκB) kinase subunits (IKKs) and the phosphorylation of IκBα. Moreover, the constitutive NF-κB DNA-binding activity and the expression of the NF-κB‑regulated proteins cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were inhibited by PCDH10 in MM cells. These results suggest that PCDH10 induces myeloma cell apoptosis, probably by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway.

Jao TM, Tsai MH, Lio HY, et al.
Protocadherin 10 suppresses tumorigenesis and metastasis in colorectal cancer and its genetic loss predicts adverse prognosis.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(11):2593-603 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protocadherin 10 (PCDH10), a novel tumor suppressor gene in human cancers, is located in a common deleted region at chromosome 4q28 in colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to ascertain the genetic loss of PCDH10 and its clinical relevance in CRC and to explore the tumor suppressor function of PCDH10. The genetic deletion of PCDH10 was determined in 171 pairs of primary tumors and corresponding normal mucosae by loss of heterozygosity study. In total, 53 carcinomas were positive for allelic loss of PCDH10. The genetic aberration was significantly associated with tumor progression and distant metastasis (p = 0.021 and p = 0.018, respectively) and was an independent predictor of poor survival for CRC patients (p = 0.005). Expression of PCDH10 gene was silenced or markedly down-regulated in all of 12 CRC cell lines tested and in 41 of 53 colorectal carcinomas compared with their matched normal mucosae. Ectopic expression of PCDH10 suppressed cancer cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion in vitro. Subcutaneous injection of PCDH10-expressing CRC cells into SCID mice revealed the reduction of tumor growth compared with that observed in mock-inoculated mice. Furthermore, through intrasplenic implantation, the re-expression of PCDH10 in silenced cells restrained liver metastasis and improved survival in SCID mice. In conclusion, PCDH10 is a pivotal tumor suppressor in CRC, and the loss of its function promotes not only tumor progression but also liver metastasis. In addition, the genetic deletion of PCDH10 represents an adverse prognostic marker for the survival of patients with CRC.

Echizen K, Nakada M, Hayashi T, et al.
PCDH10 is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 444(1):13-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protocadherin10 (PCDH10)/OL-protocadherin is a cadherin-related transmembrane protein that has multiple roles in the brain, including facilitating specific cell-cell connections, cell migration and axon guidance. It has recently been reported that PCDH10 functions as a tumor suppressor and that its overexpression inhibits proliferation or invasion of multiple tumor cells. However, the function of PCDH10 in glioblastoma cells has not been elucidated. In contrast to previous reports on other tumors, we show here that suppression of the expression of PCDH10 by RNA interference (RNAi) induces the growth arrest and apoptosis of glioblastoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that knockdown of PCDH10 inhibits the growth of glioblastoma cells xenografted into immunocompromised mice. These results suggest that PCDH10 is required for the proliferation and tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. We speculate that PCDH10 may be a promising target for the therapy of glioblastoma.

Heitzer E, Artl M, Filipits M, et al.
Differential survival trends of stage II colorectal cancer patients relate to promoter methylation status of PCDH10, SPARC, and UCHL1.
Mod Pathol. 2014; 27(6):906-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Surgical excision of colorectal cancer at early clinical stages is highly effective, but 20-30% of patients relapse. Therefore, it is of clinical relevance to identify patients at high risk for recurrence, who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to identify prognostic and/or predictive methylation markers in stage II colorectal cancer patients. Therefore, we selected six gene promoters (FZD9, PCDH10 (protocadherin 10), SFRP2, SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine), UCHL1 (ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 1), and WIF1) for methylation analysis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary tumor samples of colorectal cancer patients (n=143) who were enrolled in a prospective randomized phase III trial of the Austrian Breast and Colorectal cancer Study Group. Patients were randomized to adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin or surveillance only. Survival analyses revealed that combined evaluation of three promoters (PCDH10, SPARC, and UCHL1) showed differential effects with regard to disease-free survival and overall survival in the two treatment groups (significance level 0.007). In the chemotherapy arm, a statistically insignificant trend for patients without methylation toward longer survival was observed (P=0.069 for disease-free survival and P=0.139 for overall survival). Contrary, patients in the surveillance arm without methylation in their gene promoters had shorter disease-free survival and overall survival (P=0.031 for disease-free survival and P=0.003 for overall survival), indicating a prognostic effect of methylation in this group (test for interaction, P=0.006 for disease-free survival and P=0.018 for overall survival). These results indicate that promoter methylation status of PCDH10, SPARC, and UCHL1 may be used both as prognostic and predictive molecular marker for colorectal cancer patients and, therefore, may facilitate treatment decisions for stage II colorectal cancer.

Schneider BG, Piazuelo MB, Sicinschi LA, et al.
Virulence of infecting Helicobacter pylori strains and intensity of mononuclear cell infiltration are associated with levels of DNA hypermethylation in gastric mucosae.
Epigenetics. 2013; 8(11):1153-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA methylation changes are known to occur in gastric cancers and in premalignant lesions of the gastric mucosae. In order to examine variables associated with methylation levels, we quantitatively evaluated DNA methylation in tumors, non-tumor gastric mucosae, and in gastric biopsies at promoters of 5 genes with methylation alterations that discriminate gastric cancers from non-tumor epithelia (EN1, PCDH10, RSPO2, ZIC1, and ZNF610). Among Colombian subjects at high and low risk for gastric cancer, biopsies from subjects from the high-risk region had significantly higher levels of methylation at these 5 genes than samples from subjects in the low risk region (p ≤ 0.003). When results were stratified by Helicobacter pylori infection status, infection with a cagA positive, vacA s1m1 strain was significantly associated with highest methylation levels, compared with other strains (p = 0.024 to 0.001). More severe gastric inflammation and more advanced precancerous lesions were also associated with higher levels of DNA methylation (p ≤ 0.001). In a multivariate model, location of residence of the subject and the presence of cagA and vacA s1m1 in the H. pylori strain were independent variables associated with higher methylation in all 5 genes. High levels of mononuclear cell infiltration were significantly related to methylation in PCDH10, RSPO2, and ZIC1 genes. These results indicate that for these genes, levels of methylation in precancerous lesions are related to H. pylori virulence, geographic region and measures of chronic inflammation. These genes seem predisposed to sustain significant quantitative changes in DNA methylation at early stages of the gastric precancerous process.

Narayan G, Xie D, Freddy AJ, et al.
PCDH10 promoter hypermethylation is frequent in most histologic subtypes of mature lymphoid malignancies and occurs early in lymphomagenesis.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(11):1030-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
PCDH10 is epigenetically inactivated in multiple tumor types; however, studies in mature lymphoid malignancies are limited. Here, we have investigated the presence of promoter hypermethylation of the PCDH10 gene in a large cohort of well-characterized subsets of lymphomas. PCDH10 promoter hypermethylation was identified by methylation-specific PCR in 57 to 100% of both primary B- and T-cell lymphoma specimens and cell lines. These findings were further validated by Sequenom Mass-array analysis. Promoter hypermethylation was also identified in 28.6% cases of reactive follicular hyperplasia, more commonly occurring in states of immune deregulation and associated with rare presence of clonal karyotypic aberrations, suggesting that PCDH10 methylation occurs early in lymphomagenesis. PCDH10 expression was down regulated via promoter hypermethylation in T- and B-cell lymphoma cell lines. The transcriptional down-regulation resulting from PCDH10 methylation could be restored by pharmacologic inhibition of DNA methyltransferases in cell lines. Both T- and B-cell lymphoma cell lines harboring methylation-mediated inactivation of PCDH10 were resistant to doxorubicin treatment, suggesting that hypermethylation of this gene might contribute to chemotherapy response.

Danese E, Minicozzi AM, Benati M, et al.
Epigenetic alteration: new insights moving from tissue to plasma - the example of PCDH10 promoter methylation in colorectal cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 109(3):807-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumour-released DNA in blood represents a promising biomarker for cancer detection. Although epigenetic alterations such as aberrant promoter methylation represent an appealing perspective, the discordance existing between frequencies of alterations found in DNA extracted from tumour tissue and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has challenged their practical clinical application. With the aim to explain this bias of agreement, we investigated whether protocadherin 10 (PCDH10) promoter methylation in tissue was associated with methylation pattern in matched cfDNA isolated from plasma of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and whether the strength of concordance may depend on levels of cfDNA, integrity index, as well as on different clinical-pathological features.
METHODS: A quantitative methylation-specific PCR was used to analyse a selected CpG site in the PCDH10 promoter of 67 tumour tissues, paired normal mucosae, and matched plasma samples. The cfDNA integrity index and cfDNA concentration were assessed using a real-time PCR assay.
RESULTS: The PCDH10 promoter methylation was detected in 63 out of 67 (94.0%) surgically resected colorectal tumours and in 42 out of 67 (62.7%) plasma samples. The median methylation rate in tumour tissues and plasma samples was 43.5% (6.3-97.8%) and 5.9% (0-80.9%), respectively. There was a significant correlation between PCDH10 methylation in cfDNA and tumour tissue in patients with early CRC (P<0.0001). The ratio between plasma and tissue methylation rate increases with increasing cfDNA integrity index in early-stage cancers (P=0.0299) and with absolute cfDNA concentration in advanced cancers (P=0.0234).
CONCLUSION: Our findings provide new insight into biological aspects modulating the concordance between tissues and plasma methylation profiles.

Qu Y, Dang S, Hou P
Gene methylation in gastric cancer.
Clin Chim Acta. 2013; 424:53-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.

Ma JG, He ZK, Ma JH, et al.
Downregulation of protocadherin-10 expression correlates with malignant behaviour and poor prognosis in human bladder cancer.
J Int Med Res. 2013; 41(1):38-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: This study retrospectively evaluated the prognostic significance of downregulated protocadherin-10 (PCDH10) gene expression in bladder cancer.
METHODS: To evaluate the prognostic significance of downregulated PCDH10 protein levels, immunohistochemistry was used to assess the level of PCDH10 protein in surgically-resected formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded transitional cell carcinoma specimens. Relationships between PCDH10 protein levels, clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival were also evaluated.
RESULTS: A total of 105 bladder transitional cell carcinoma specimens and 33 normal bladder epithelial samples were investigated using immunohistochemical staining. PCDH10 protein levels were downregulated in 63.8% (67/105) of bladder cancer specimens compared with control samples. Downregulated levels of PCDH10 were significantly associated with advanced stage, higher grade, larger tumour size, nonpapillary shape, tumour recurrence and decreased overall survival rates. Multivariate analysis indicated that downregulated PCDH10 levels were independently associated with decreased overall survival and had a relative risk of death of 4.571.
CONCLUSIONS: Downregulated PCDH10 levels correlated with malignant behaviour and poor overall survival in patients with bladder cancer. Downregulated PCDH10 levels might be useful as a prognostic biomarker for bladder cancer.

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