NOX4

Gene Summary

Gene:NOX4; NADPH oxidase 4
Aliases: KOX, KOX-1, RENOX
Location:11q14.2-q21
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the NOX-family of enzymes that functions as the catalytic subunit the NADPH oxidase complex. The encoded protein is localized to non-phagocytic cells where it acts as an oxygen sensor and catalyzes the reduction of molecular oxygen to various reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS generated by this protein have been implicated in numerous biological functions including signal transduction, cell differentiation and tumor cell growth. A pseudogene has been identified on the other arm of chromosome 11. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:NADPH oxidase 4
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NOX4 (cancer-related)

Gregg JL, Turner RM, Chang G, et al.
NADPH oxidase NOX4 supports renal tumorigenesis by promoting the expression and nuclear accumulation of HIF2α.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(13):3501-11 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Most sporadically occurring renal tumors include a functional loss of the tumor suppressor von Hippel Lindau (VHL). Development of VHL-deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC) relies upon activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF2α), a master transcriptional regulator of genes that drive diverse processes, including angiogenesis, proliferation, and anaerobic metabolism. In determining the critical functions for HIF2α expression in RCC cells, the NADPH oxidase NOX4 has been identified, but the pathogenic contributions of NOX4 to RCC have not been evaluated directly. Here, we report that NOX4 silencing in VHL-deficient RCC cells abrogates cell branching, invasion, colony formation, and growth in a murine xenograft model RCC. These alterations were phenocopied by treatment of the superoxide scavenger, TEMPOL, or by overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase or catalase. Notably, NOX4 silencing or superoxide scavenging was sufficient to block nuclear accumulation of HIF2α in RCC cells. Our results offer direct evidence that NOX4 is critical for renal tumorigenesis and they show how NOX4 suppression and VHL re-expression in VHL-deficient RCC cells are genetically synonymous, supporting development of therapeutic regimens aimed at NOX4 blockade.

Guida M, Maraldi T, Beretti F, et al.
Nuclear Nox4-derived reactive oxygen species in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:456937 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
A role for intracellular ROS production has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of a wide variety of neoplasias. ROS sources, such as NAD(P)H oxidase (Nox) complexes, are frequently activated in AML (acute myeloid leukemia) blasts and strongly contribute to their proliferation, survival, and drug resistance. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, with an increased propensity to develop AML. The molecular basis for MDS progression is unknown, but a key element in MDS disease progression is the genomic instability. NADPH oxidases are now recognized to have specific subcellular localizations, this targeting to specific compartments for localized ROS production. Local Nox-dependent ROS production in the nucleus may contribute to the regulation of redox-dependent cell growth, differentiation, senescence, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We observed that Nox1, 2, and 4 isoforms and p22phox and Rac1 subunits are expressed in MDS/AML cell lines and MDS samples, also in the nuclear fractions. Interestingly, Nox4 interacts with ERK and Akt1 within nuclear speckle domain, suggesting that Nox4 could be involved in regulating gene expression and splicing factor activity. These data contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms used by nuclear ROS to drive MDS evolution to AML.

Boudreau HE, Casterline BW, Burke DJ, Leto TL
Wild-type and mutant p53 differentially regulate NADPH oxidase 4 in TGF-β-mediated migration of human lung and breast epithelial cells.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(10):2569-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) induces the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) leading to increased cell plasticity at the onset of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Mechanisms involved in TGF-β-mediated EMT and cell motility are unclear. Recent studies showed that p53 affects TGF-β/SMAD3-mediated signalling, cell migration, and tumorigenesis. We previously demonstrated that Nox4, a Nox family NADPH oxidase, is a TGF-β/SMAD3-inducible source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) affecting cell migration and fibronectin expression, an EMT marker, in normal and metastatic breast epithelial cells. Our present study investigates the involvement of p53 in TGF-β-regulated Nox4 expression and cell migration.
METHODS: We investigated the effect of wild-type p53 (WT-p53) and mutant p53 proteins on TGF-β-regulated Nox4 expression and cell migration. Nox4 mRNA and protein, ROS production, cell migration, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation were examined in three different cell models based on their p53 mutational status. H1299, a p53-null lung epithelial cell line, was used for heterologous expression of WT-p53 or mutant p53. In contrast, functional studies using siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous p53 were conducted in MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast epithelial cells that express p53-R280K and MCF-10A normal breast cells that have WT-p53.
RESULTS: We found that WT-p53 is a potent suppressor of TGF-β-induced Nox4, ROS production, and cell migration in p53-null lung epithelial (H1299) cells. In contrast, tumour-associated mutant p53 proteins (R175H or R280K) caused enhanced Nox4 expression and cell migration in both TGF-β-dependent and TGF-β-independent pathways. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous mutant p53 (R280K) in TGF-β-treated MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast epithelial cells resulted in decreased Nox4 protein and reduced phosphorylation of FAK, a key regulator of cell motility. Expression of WT-p53 or dominant-negative Nox4 decreased TGF-β-mediated FAK phosphorylation, whereas mutant p53 (R280K) increased phospho-FAK. Furthermore, knockdown of WT-p53 in MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells increased basal Nox4 expression, whereas p53-R280K could override endogenous WT-p53 repression of Nox4. Remarkably, immunofluorescence analysis revealed MCF-10A cells expressing p53-R280K mutant showed an upregulation of Nox4 in both confluent and migrating cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our findings define novel opposing functions for WT-p53 and mutant p53 proteins in regulating Nox4-dependent signalling in TGF-β-mediated cell motility.

Lee J, Sohn I, Do IG, et al.
Nanostring-based multigene assay to predict recurrence for gastric cancer patients after surgery.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e90133 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2015 Related Publications
Despite the benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, approximately one-third of stage II gastric cancer (GC) patients developed recurrences. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic algorithm for gastric cancer (GCPS) that can robustly identify high-risk group for recurrence among stage II patients. A multi-step gene expression profiling study was conducted. First, a microarray gene expression profiling of archived paraffin-embedded tumor blocks was used to identify candidate prognostic genes (N=432). Second, a focused gene expression assay including prognostic genes was used to develop a robust clinical assay (GCPS) in stage II patients from the same cohort (N=186). Third, a predefined cut off for the GCPS was validated using an independent stage II cohort (N=216). The GCPS was validated in another set with stage II GC who underwent surgery without adjuvant treatment (N=300). GCPS was developed by summing the product of Cox regression coefficients and normalized expression levels of 8 genes (LAMP5, CDC25B, CDK1, CLIP4, LTB4R2, MATN3, NOX4, TFDP1). A prospectively defined cut-point for GCPS classified 22.7% of validation cohort treated with chemoradiotherapy (N=216) as high-risk group with 5-year recurrence rate of 58.6% compared to 85.4% in the low risk group (hazard ratio for recurrence=3.16, p=0.00004). GCPS also identified high-risk group among stage II patients treated with surgery only (hazard ratio=1.77, p=0.0053).

Crosas-Molist E, Bertran E, Sancho P, et al.
The NADPH oxidase NOX4 inhibits hepatocyte proliferation and liver cancer progression.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2014; 69:338-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
The NADPH oxidase NOX4 has emerged as an important source of reactive oxygen species in signal transduction, playing roles in physiological and pathological processes. NOX4 mediates transforming growth factor-β-induced intracellular signals that provoke liver fibrosis, and preclinical assays have suggested NOX4 inhibitors as useful tools to ameliorate this process. However, the potential consequences of sustained treatment of liver cells with NOX4 inhibitors are yet unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze whether NOX4 plays a role in regulating liver cell growth either under physiological conditions or during tumorigenesis. In vitro assays proved that stable knockdown of NOX4 expression in human liver tumor cells increased cell proliferation, which correlated with a higher percentage of cells in S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle, downregulation of p21(CIP1/WAF1), increase in cyclin D1 protein levels, and nuclear localization of β-catenin. Silencing of NOX4 in untransformed human and mouse hepatocytes also increased their in vitro proliferative capacity. In vivo analysis in mice revealed that NOX4 expression was downregulated under physiological proliferative situations of the liver, such as regeneration after partial hepatectomy, as well as during pathological proliferative conditions, such as diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Xenograft experiments in athymic mice indicated that NOX4 silencing conferred an advantage to human hepatocarcinoma cells, resulting in earlier onset of tumor formation and increase in tumor size. Interestingly, immunochemical analyses of NOX4 expression in human liver tumor cell lines and tissues revealed decreased NOX4 protein levels in liver tumorigenesis. Overall, results described here strongly suggest that NOX4 would play a growth-inhibitory role in liver cells.

Gordillo GM, Biswas A, Khanna S, et al.
Dicer knockdown inhibits endothelial cell tumor growth via microRNA 21a-3p targeting of Nox-4.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(13):9027-38 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/03/2015 Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miR) are emerging as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in tumor management. Endothelial cell tumors are the most common soft tissue tumors in infants, yet little is known about the significance of miR in regulating their growth. A validated mouse endothelial cell (EOMA) tumor model was used to demonstrate that post-transcriptional gene silencing of dicer, the enzyme that converts pre-miR to mature miR, can prevent tumor formation in vivo. Tumors were formed in eight of eight mice injected with EOMA cells transfected with control shRNA but formed in only four of ten mice injected with EOMA cells transfected with dicer shRNA. Tumors that formed in the dicer shRNA group were significantly smaller than tumors in the control group. This response to dicer knockdown was mediated by up-regulated miR 21a-3p activity targeting the nox-4 3'-UTR. EOMA cells were transfected with miR 21a-3p mimic and luciferase reporter plasmids containing either intact nox-4 3'-UTR or with mutation of the proposed 3'-UTR miR21a-3p binding sites. Mean luciferase activity was decreased by 85% in the intact compared with the site mutated vectors (p < 0.01). Attenuated Nox-4 activity resulted in decreased cellular hydrogen peroxide production and decreased production of oxidant-inducible monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, which we have previously shown to be critically required for endothelial cell tumor formation. These findings provide the first evidence establishing the significance of dicer and microRNA in promoting endothelial cell tumor growth in vivo.

Fandy TE, Jiemjit A, Thakar M, et al.
Decitabine induces delayed reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in leukemia cells and induces the expression of ROS generating enzymes.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(5):1249-58 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Azanucleoside DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors are currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome. The relative contributions of DNMT inhibition and other off-target effects to their clinical efficacy remain unclear. Data correlating DNA methylation reversal and clinical response have been conflicting. Consequently, it is necessary to investigate so-called off-target effects and their impact on cell survival and differentiation.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation analysis. Gene expression analysis was performed using real-time PCR. DNA methylation was detected by methylation-specific PCR. Mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed using JC-1 dye staining. Western blotting was used for quantitative protein expression analysis.
RESULTS: 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in leukemia cells. p53 expression was dispensable for DAC-induced apoptosis. DAC induced delayed ROS accumulation in leukemia cells but not in solid tumor cells and p53 expression was dispensable for ROS increase. ROS increase was deoxycytidine kinase dependent, indicating that incorporation of DAC into nuclear DNA is required for ROS generation. ROS accumulation by DAC was caspase-independent and mediated the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Concordantly, ROS scavengers diminished DAC-induced apoptosis. DAC induced the expression of different NADPH oxidase isoforms and upregulated Nox4 protein expression in an ATM-dependent manner, indicating the involvement of DNA damage signaling in Nox4 upregulation.
CONCLUSION: These data highlight the importance of mechanisms other than DNA cytosine demethylation in modulating gene expression and suggest investigating the relevance of ROS accumulation to the clinical activity of DAC.

Hiraga R, Kato M, Miyagawa S, Kamata T
Nox4-derived ROS signaling contributes to TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(10):4431-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In this study, we investigated how NADPH oxidase (Nox) 4-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate TGF-β-induced EMT in pancreatic cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pancreatic cancer cells were transfected with Nox4 siRNAs or PTP1B mutants and subjected to TGF-β-induced EMT assay. Expression of Nox4, TGF-β, and N-cadherin was immunohistochemically-examined with patient tumor samples.
RESULTS: Treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with TGF-β induced Nox4 expression, indicating that Nox4 represents a major source for ROS production. The Nox4 inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and Nox4 siRNAs blocked TGF-β-induced EMT phenotype including morphological changes, augmented migration, and altered expression of E-cadherin and Snail. Furthermore, PTP1B as a redox-sensor for Nox4-derived ROS participated in TGF-β-promoted EMT. Nox4, TGF-β, and N-cadherin were up-regulated in tumors from pancreatic cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that Nox4-derived ROS, at least in part, transmit TGF-β-triggered EMT signals through PTP1B in pancreatic cancer.

Fletcher EV, Love-Homan L, Sobhakumari A, et al.
EGFR inhibition induces proinflammatory cytokines via NOX4 in HNSCC.
Mol Cancer Res. 2013; 11(12):1574-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Chronic inflammation plays a fundamental role in tumor promotion, migration, and invasion. With the use of microarray profiling, a profound increase was observed for those transcripts involved in proinflammatory signaling in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor-treated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells as compared with their respective controls. As such, it was hypothesized that EGFR inhibitor efficacy is offset by the proinflammatory response that these therapeutics conjure in HNSCC. Systematic evaluation of the clinical EGFR inhibitors-erlotinib, cetuximab, lapatinib, and panitumumab-revealed increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukins (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. Mechanistic focus on IL-6 revealed that erlotinib induced a time-dependent increase in IL-6 mRNA and protein expression. Importantly, exogenous IL-6 protected HNSCC cells from erlotinib-induced cytotoxicity, whereas tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor antagonist, sensitized cells to erlotinib in vitro and in vivo. Inhibitors of NF-κB, p38, and JNK suppressed erlotinib-induced IL-6 expression, suggesting critical roles for NF-κB and MAPK in IL-6 regulation. Furthermore, knockdown of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) suppressed erlotinib-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that clinical EGFR inhibitors induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines via NOX4.
IMPLICATIONS: The antitumor activity of EGFR inhibitors is reduced by activation of NOX4-mediated proinflammatory pathways in HNSCC.

Sobhakumari A, Schickling BM, Love-Homan L, et al.
NOX4 mediates cytoprotective autophagy induced by the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib in head and neck cancer cells.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013; 272(3):736-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Most head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and EGFR inhibitors are routinely used in the treatment of HNSCC. However, many HNSCC tumors do not respond or become refractory to EGFR inhibitors. Autophagy, which is a stress-induced cellular self-degradation process, has been reported to reduce the efficacy of chemotherapy in various disease models. The purpose of this study is to determine if the efficacy of the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib is reduced by activation of autophagy via NOX4-mediated oxidative stress in HNSCC cells. Erlotinib induced the expression of the autophagy marker LC3B-II and autophagosome formation in FaDu and Cal-27 cells. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine and knockdown of autophagy pathway genes Beclin-1 and Atg5 sensitized both cell lines to erlotinib-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting that autophagy may serve as a protective mechanism. Treatment with catalase (CAT) and diphenylene iodonium (DPI) in the presence of erlotinib suppressed the increase in LC3B-II expression in FaDu and Cal-27 cells. Erlotinib increased NOX4 mRNA and protein expression by increasing its promoter activity and mRNA stability in FaDu cells. Knockdown of NOX4 using adenoviral siNOX4 partially suppressed erlotinib-induced LC3B-II expression, while overexpression of NOX4 increased expression of LC3B-II. These studies suggest that erlotinib may activate autophagy in HNSCC cells as a pro-survival mechanism, and NOX4 may play a role in mediating this effect.

Zhu P, Tong BM, Wang R, et al.
Nox4-dependent ROS modulation by amino endoperoxides to induce apoptosis in cancer cells.
Cell Death Dis. 2013; 4:e552 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Tumor metastasis is the main cause of death in cancer patients. Anoikis resistance is one critical malefactor of metastatic cancer cells to resist current clinical chemotherapeutic treatments. Although endoperoxide-containing compounds have long been suggested as anticancer drugs, few have been clinically employed due to their instability, complex synthesis procedure or low tumor cell selectivity. Herein, we describe a one-pot strategy to synthesize novel amino endoperoxides and their derivatives with good yields and stabilities. In vitro cell-based assays revealed that 4 out of the 14 amino endoperoxides selectively induce metastatic breast carcinoma cells but not normal breast cells to undergo apoptosis, in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies showed that the most potent amino endoperoxide, 4-Me, is selective for cancer cells expressing a high level of Nox4. The anticancer effects are further shown to be associated with reduced O2(-):H2O2 ratio and increased ·OH level in the cancerous cells. Animal study showed that 4-Me impairs orthotopic breast tumor growth as well as tumor cell metastasis to lymph nodes. Altogether, our study suggests that anticancer strategies that focus on redox-based apoptosis induction in tumors are clinically viable.

Chang G, Chen L, Lin HM, et al.
Nox4 inhibition enhances the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in human renal cancer cells.
J Exp Ther Oncol. 2012; 10(1):9-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Kidney cancer is notoriously chemo-resistant and abundantly expresses the Nox4 NADPH oxidase. To determine if Nox4 superoxide generation contributes to drug resistance, we assayed in vitro drug cytotoxicity following Nox4 shRNA silencing in human renal cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human conventional kidney cell lines, 786-0 and RCC4 expressing Nox4-specific shRNA or a non-targeting, control shRNA were grown in serial dilutions of cisplatin, vincristine, doxorubicin, or etoposide. Cell viability curves were generated and the concentration required to kill 50% of the cells (IC50) calculated for each drug. Apopotosis was estimated by TUNEL assay. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blots were used to confirm Nox4 silencing and evaluate expression of apoptotic pathway proteins.
RESULTS: Silencing significantly lowered the IC50 for cisplatin, vincristine and etoposide, and promoted drug-induced apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Improved sensitivity to cisplatin was reproduced by Nox inhibiton with diphenyliodonium, whereas induction of intracellular superoxide by dithiothreitol superoxide enhanced chemo-resistance. RT-PCR and Western blot revealed decreased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 and increased expression of pro-apoptotic Bax following Nox4 knockdown.
CONCLUSION: Nox4 contributes to RCC chemo-resistance through modulation of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signaling, suggesting that Nox4 inhibition might enhance the efficacy of conventional cytotoxic drugs against RCC.

Weyemi U, Redon CE, Parekh PR, et al.
NADPH Oxidases NOXs and DUOXs as putative targets for cancer therapy.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2013; 13(3):502-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) form a class of molecules with both positive and negative impacts on cellular health. Negatively, ROS may react with cellular constituents including proteins, lipids, and DNA to generate an array of oxidative lesions. These lesions may compromise genome stability which is critical for long-term cellular homeostasis and healthy progeny. Paradoxically, ROS also function as strong signalling molecules that mediate various growth-related responses, so their presence is also essential for cellular metabolism. While ROS are generated in an unregulated manner by physical stresses such as exposure to ionizing radiation and biochemical malfunctions such as mitochondrial leakage, cells also contain the NADPH oxidases NOXs and DUOXs, which specifically generate ROS in a wide variety of tissues. While the NOXs/DUOXs may be involved in maintaining optimal cellular redox levels, there is also accumulating evidence that NADPH oxidases-derived ROS may elevate the risk for genomic instability and cancer. Cancer cells may produce high levels of ROS, and in some cases, the source of these ROS has been linked to NOX/DUOX deregulation as reported for prostate cancer (NOX1 and NOX5), melanoma and glioblastoma (NOX4) among others. In addition, recent studies reveal that targeting NADPH oxidases with NOXs inhibitors may impair tumor growth in vivo; indicating that these proteins may be useful targets in future clinical strategies to fight cancer. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge concerning these enzymes, their roles in cancer, and their potential as targets in future cancer therapies.

Hsieh CH, Wu CP, Lee HT, et al.
NADPH oxidase subunit 4 mediates cycling hypoxia-promoted radiation resistance in glioblastoma multiforme.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2012; 53(4):649-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cycling hypoxia is a well-recognized phenomenon within animal and human solid tumors. It mediates tumor progression and radiotherapy resistance through mechanisms that involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, details of the mechanism underlying cycling hypoxia-mediated radioresistance remain obscure. We have previously shown that in glioblastoma, NADPH oxidase subunit 4 (Nox4) is a critical mediator involved in cycling hypoxia-mediated ROS production and tumor progression. Here, we examined the impact of an in vivo tumor microenvironment on Nox4 expression pattern and its impact on radiosensitivity in GBM8401 and U251, two glioblastoma cell lines stably transfected with a dual hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling reporter construct. Furthermore, in order to isolate hypoxic tumor cell subpopulations from human glioblastoma xenografts based on the physiological and molecular characteristics of tumor hypoxia, several techniques were utilized. In this study, the perfusion marker Hoechst 33342 staining and HIF-1 activation labeling were used together with immunofluorescence imaging and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Our results revealed that Nox4 was predominantly highly expressed in the endogenous cycling hypoxic areas with HIF-1 activation and blood perfusion within the solid tumor microenvironment. Moreover, when compared to the normoxic or chronic hypoxic cells, the cycling hypoxic tumor cells derived from glioblastoma xenografts have much higher Nox4 expression, ROS levels, and radioresistance. Nox4 suppression in intracerebral glioblastoma-bearing mice suppressed tumor microenvironment-mediated radioresistance and enhanced the efficiency of radiotherapy. In summary, our findings indicated that cycling hypoxia-induced Nox4 plays an important role in tumor microenvironment-promoted radioresistance in glioblastoma; hence, targeting Nox4 may be an attractive therapeutic strategy for blocking cycling hypoxia-mediated radioresistance.

Liu F, Gomez Garcia AM, Meyskens FL
NADPH oxidase 1 overexpression enhances invasion via matrix metalloproteinase-2 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in melanoma cells.
J Invest Dermatol. 2012; 132(8):2033-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) is a member of the NADPH oxidase family that has not been well characterized in the melanocytic cell lineage. Here we demonstrated that Nox1 and Nox4 were detected in melanocytic lineage, with only Nox1 detected in normal human melanocytes and Nox4 in a subset of metastatic melanoma cell lines. The protein level and enzymatic activity of Nox1 was elevated in all melanoma cells as compared with normal melanocytes. Overexpression of GFP-Nox1 protein in Wm3211 primary melanoma cells increased invasion rate by 4- to 6-fold as measured by Matrigel invasion assay, whereas knocking down or inhibiting Nox1 decreased invasion by approximately 40-60% in Wm3211 and SK-Mel-28 cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was increased by Nox1 overexpression at the mRNA, protein, and activity levels, and decreased by Nox1 knockdown. MMP-2 promoter activity was also regulated by Nox1 knockdown. In addition, stable clones overexpressing Nox1 exhibited an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as examined by cell morphology and EMT markers; knockdown or inhibiting Nox1 led to a reversal of EMT. Supplementing MMP-2 to culture media did not induce EMT, suggesting that EMT induction by Nox1 was not through MMP-2 upregulation. In summary, Nox1 was overexpressed in all melanoma cell lines examined, and enhanced cell invasion by MMP-2 upregulation and EMT induction.

Seo JM, Park S, Kim JH
Leukotriene B4 receptor-2 promotes invasiveness and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(17):13840-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in women. Despite the fact that the metastatic spread is associated with the majority of deaths from ovarian cancer, the molecular mechanisms regulating the invasive and metastatic phenotypes of ovarian cancer are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that BLT2, a low affinity leukotriene B(4) receptor, is highly expressed in OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer cells, and that this receptor plays a key role in the invasiveness and metastasis of these cells through activation of STAT3 and consequent up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). In addition, our results suggest that activation of NAD(P)H oxidase-4 (NOX4) and subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation lie downstream of BLT2, mediating the stimulation of STAT3-MMP2 cascade in this process. For example, knockdown of BLT2 or NOX4 using each specific siRNA suppressed STAT3 stimulation and MMP2 expression. Similarly, inhibition of STAT3 suppressed the expression of MMP2, thus leading to attenuated invasiveness of these ovarian cancer cells. Finally, the metastasis of SKOV-3 cells in nude mice was markedly suppressed by pharmacological inhibition of BLT2. Together, our results implicate a BLT2-NOX4-ROS-STAT3-MMP2 cascade in the invasiveness and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells.

Fitzgerald JP, Nayak B, Shanmugasundaram K, et al.
Nox4 mediates renal cell carcinoma cell invasion through hypoxia-induced interleukin 6- and 8- production.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e30712 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory cytokines are detected in the plasma of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and are associated with poor prognosis. However, the primary cell type involved in producing inflammatory cytokines and the biological significance in RCC remain unknown. Inflammation is associated with oxidative stress, upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha, and production of pro-inflammatory gene products. Solid tumors are often heterogeneous in oxygen tension together suggesting that hypoxia may play a role in inflammatory processes in RCC. Epithelial cells have been implicated in cytokine release, although the stimuli to release and molecular mechanisms by which they are released remain unclear. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved sensor of cellular energy status and a role for AMPK in the regulation of cell inflammatory processes has recently been demonstrated.
METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified for the first time that interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 (IL-6 and IL-8) are secreted solely from RCC cells exposed to hypoxia. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the NADPH oxidase isoform, Nox4, play a key role in hypoxia-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in RCC. Finally, we have characterized that enhanced levels of IL-6 and IL-8 result in RCC cell invasion and that activation of AMPK reduces Nox4 expression, IL-6 and IL-8 production, and RCC cell invasion.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, our data identify novel mechanisms by which AMPK and Nox4 may be linked to inflammation-induced RCC metastasis and that pharmacological activation of AMPK and/or antioxidants targeting Nox4 may represent a relevant therapeutic intervention to reduce IL-6- and IL-8-induced inflammation and cell invasion in RCC.

Lu JP, Hou ZF, Duivenvoorden WC, et al.
Adiponectin inhibits oxidative stress in human prostate carcinoma cells.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2012; 15(1):28-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Emerging data suggest that obesity increases the risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PC), but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain to be fully elucidated. Oxidative stress (OS) is a key process in the development and progression of PC. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific hormone, circulates at relatively high levels in healthy humans, but at reduced levels in obese subjects. Moreover, case-control studies also document lower levels of serum adiponectin in PC patients compared with healthy individuals.
METHODS: Human 22Rv1 and DU-145 PC cell lines were examined for the generation of OS and detoxification of reactive oxygen species after treatment with adiponectin. Normality was confirmed using the Shapiro-Wilk test and results were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance.
RESULTS: We demonstrate that adiponectin increased cellular anti-oxidative defense mechanisms and inhibited OS in a significant and dose-dependent manner. We show that adiponectin treatment decreased the generation of superoxide anion in both cell lines, whereas the transcript levels of NADPH oxidase (NOX)2 and NOX4 increased. We also found indications of an overall anti-oxidative effect, as the total anti-oxidative potential, catalase activity and protein levels, and manganese superoxide dismutase protein levels increased significantly (P<0.05) in both cell lines after treatment with adiponectin.
CONCLUSION: Lower levels of adiponectin in obese individuals may result in higher levels of prostatic OS, which may explain the clinical association between obesity, hypoadiponectinemia and PC.

Shimada K, Fujii T, Anai S, et al.
ROS generation via NOX4 and its utility in the cytological diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.
BMC Urol. 2011; 11:22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via NADPH oxidase (NOX) contributes to various types of cancer progression. In the present research, we examined the pathobiological role of NADPH oxidase (NOX)4-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the urinary bladder, and demonstrated the utility of ROS labeling in urine cytology.
METHODS: NOX4 gene was silenced in vivo and in vitro by NOX4 siRNA transfection with or without atlocollagen. Cell cycle and measurement of ROS were analyzed by flowcytometry. Orthotopic implantation animal model was used in vivo experiment. NOX4 expression in urothelial carcinoma cells was observed by immunohistochemical analysis using surgical specimens of human bladder cancer. Urine cytology was performed after treatment with ROS detection reagents in addition to Papanicolaou staining.
RESULTS: NOX4 was overexpressed in several UC cell lines and the NOX inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium reduced intracellular ROS and induced p16-dependent cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Moreover, silencing of NOX4 by siRNA significantly reduced cancer cell growth in vivo as assessed in an orthotopic mouse model. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated high expression of NOX4 in low grade/non-invasive and high grade/invasive UC including precancerous lesions such as dysplasia but not in normal urothelium. Then, we assessed the usefulness of cytological analysis of ROS producing cells in urine (ROS-C). Urine samples obtained from UC cases and normal controls were treated with fluorescent reagents labeling the hydrogen peroxide/superoxide anion and cytological atypia of ROS positive cells were analyzed. As a result, the sensitivity for detection of low grade, non-invasive UC was greatly increased (35% in conventional cytology (C-C) vs. 75% in ROS-C), and the specificity was 95%. Through ROS-C, we observed robust improvement in the accuracy of follow-up urine cytology for cases with previously diagnosed UC, especially in those with low grade/non-invasive cancer recurrence (0% in C-C vs. 64% in ROS-C).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report demonstrating that ROS generation through NOX4 contributes to an early step of urothelial carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival. In addition, cytology using ROS labeling could be a useful diagnostic tool in human bladder cancer.

Hsieh CH, Shyu WC, Chiang CY, et al.
NADPH oxidase subunit 4-mediated reactive oxygen species contribute to cycling hypoxia-promoted tumor progression in glioblastoma multiforme.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(9):e23945 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cycling and chronic tumor hypoxia are involved in tumor development and growth. However, the impact of cycling hypoxia and its molecular mechanism on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) progression remain unclear.
METHODOLOGY: Glioblastoma cell lines, GBM8401 and U87, and their xenografts were exposed to cycling hypoxic stress in vitro and in vivo. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in glioblastoma cells and xenografts was assayed by in vitro ROS analysis and in vivo molecular imaging studies. NADPH oxidase subunit 4 (Nox4) RNAi-knockdown technology was utilized to study the role of Nox4 in cycling hypoxia-mediated ROS production and tumor progression. Furthermore, glioblastoma cells were stably transfected with a retroviral vector bearing a dual reporter gene cassette that allowed for dynamic monitoring of HIF-1 signal transduction and tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo, using optical and nuclear imaging. Tempol, an antioxidant compound, was used to investigate the impact of ROS on cycling hypoxia-mediated HIF-1 activation and tumor progression.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Glioblastoma cells and xenografts were compared under cycling hypoxic and normoxic conditions; upregulation of NOX4 expression and ROS levels were observed under cycling hypoxia in glioblastoma cells and xenografts, concomitant with increased tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. However, knockdown of Nox4 inhibited these effects. Moreover, in vivo molecular imaging studies demonstrated that Tempol is a good antioxidant compound for inhibiting cycling hypoxia-mediated ROS production, HIF-1 activation, and tumor growth. Immunofluorescence imaging and flow cytometric analysis for NOX4, HIF-1 activation, and Hoechst 3342 in glioblastoma also revealed high localized NOX4 expression predominantly in potentially cycling hypoxic areas with HIF-1 activation and blood perfusion within the endogenous solid tumor microenvironment.
CONCLUSIONS: Cycling hypoxia-induced ROS via Nox4 is a critical aspect of cancer biology to consider for therapeutic targeting of cycling hypoxia-promoted HIF-1 activation and tumor progression in GBM.

Lu CL, Qiu JL, Huang PZ, et al.
NADPH oxidase DUOX1 and DUOX2 but not NOX4 are independent predictors in hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy.
Tumour Biol. 2011; 32(6):1173-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
NADPH oxidase DUOX1, DUOX2, and NOX4 have recently been gained considerable concerns, owing to the fact that they involve in reactive oxygen species-induced genetic and epigenetic alternations of human carcinogenesis and serve as biomarkers in several cancers. Whether they predict survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still uncertain. Here, we detected the expressions of DUOX1, DUOX2, and NOX4 in one normal liver cell line, seven HCC cell lines, 30 non-cirrhotic normal liver tissues, and 107 paired HCC tissues using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The correlations of genes expression with prognoses were analyzed. DUOX1 was expressed at high levels in MHCC-97H and MHCC-97L, but at low levels in Bel-7402. In contrast to low expression level at SMMC-7721, DUOX2 was expressed at considerably high levels in MHCC-97H and MHCC-97L. The transcript of NOX4 was only detected in SMMC-7721. All the 30 normal liver tissues failed to express the three candidate markers. Compared with adjacent non-neoplastic tissues, DUOX1, DUOX2, and NOX4 were expressed at higher frequencies in tumor specimens. Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that elevated expression of DUOX1 or DUOX2 predicted poorer recurrence-free survival and overall survival. No such significance trend regarding NOX4 predictive value in survival, however, was seen in univariate analysis. These results suggested DUOX1 and DUOX2, but not NOX4, could predict HCC prognoses after hepatectomy.

Owens KM, Kulawiec M, Desouki MM, et al.
Impaired OXPHOS complex III in breast cancer.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23846 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
We measured the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mtOXPHOS) activities of all five complexes and determined the activity and gene expression in detail of the Complex III subunits in human breast cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Our analysis revealed dramatic differences in activity of complex III between normal and aggressive metastatic breast cancer cell lines. Determination of Complex III subunit gene expression identified over expression and co-regulation of UQCRFS1 (encoding RISP protein) and UQCRH (encoding Hinge protein) in 6 out of 9 human breast tumors. Analyses of UQCRFS1/RISP expression in additional matched normal and breast tumors demonstrated an over expression in 14 out of 40 (35%) breast tumors. UQCRFS1/RISP knockdown in breast tumor cell line led to decreased mitochondrial membrane potential as well as a decrease in matrigel invasion. Furthermore, reduced matrigel invasion was mediated by reduced ROS levels coinciding with decreased expression of NADPH oxidase 2, 3, 4 and 5 involved in ROS production. These studies provide direct evidence for contribution of impaired mtOXPHOS Complex III to breast tumorigenesis.

Hsieh CH, Chang HT, Shen WC, et al.
Imaging the impact of Nox4 in cycling hypoxia-mediated U87 glioblastoma invasion and infiltration.
Mol Imaging Biol. 2012; 14(4):489-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We determined the impact of the cycling hypoxia tumor microenvironment on tumor cell invasion and infiltration in U87 human glioblastoma cells and investigated the underlying mechanisms using molecular bio-techniques and imaging.
PROCEDURES: The invasive phenotype of U87 cells and xenografts exposed to experimentally imposed cycling hypoxic stress in vitro and in vivo was determined by the matrigel invasion assay in vitro and dual optical reporter gene imaging in vivo. RNAi-knockdown technology was utilized to study the role of the NADPH oxidase subunit 4 (Nox4) on cycling hypoxia-mediated tumor invasion.
RESULTS: Cycling hypoxic stress significantly promoted tumor invasion in vitro and in vivo. However, Nox4 knockdown inhibited this effect. Nox4-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required for cycling hypoxia-induced invasive potential in U87 cells through the activation of NF-κB- and ERK-mediated stimulation of MMP-9.
CONCLUSIONS: Cycling hypoxia-induced ROS via Nox4 should be considered for therapeutic targeting of tumor cell invasion and infiltration in glioblastoma.

Bauer KM, Hummon AB, Buechler S
Right-side and left-side colon cancer follow different pathways to relapse.
Mol Carcinog. 2012; 51(5):411-21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
There is growing evidence that cancer of the ascending (right-side) colon is different from cancer of the descending (left-side) colon at the molecular level. Using microarray data from 102 right-side colon carcinomas and 95 left-side colon carcinomas we show that different pathways dominate progression to relapse in right-side and left-side colon cancer. Right-side tumors at a high risk for relapse exhibit elevated expression of cell cycle control genes and elevated Wnt signaling. On the other hand, relapse-prone left-side tumors show elevated expression of genes that promote stromal expansion and reduced expression of tumor suppressor genes that initiate Wnt signaling. Single gene prognostic biomarkers are found separately for right-side and left-side disease. In left-side tumors with low expression levels of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) the 5-yr relapse-free survival probability is 0.89 95% CI (0.80-0.99), and in tumors with elevated NOX4 expression the probability is 0.51 95% CI (0.37-0.70). Right-side tumors with elevated expression levels of caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) have a 5-yr relapse-free survival probability of 0.88 95% CI (0.80-0.96), and those with low CDX2 expression have a corresponding probability of 0.39 95% CI (0.15-0.78). Both NOX4 and CDX2 are much less prognostic on the opposite sides. This newly identified role of NOX4 in colon cancer is further investigated using the SW620 lymph node metastasis colon adenocarcinoma cell line and RNA interference. We show that NOX4 is expressed in the SW620 cell line and that application of NOX4 siRNA causes a significant reduction in reactive oxidative species production.

Orcutt KP, Parsons AD, Sibenaller ZA, et al.
Erlotinib-mediated inhibition of EGFR signaling induces metabolic oxidative stress through NOX4.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(11):3932-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Redox regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling helps protect cells against oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether the cytotoxicity of an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, erlotinib (ERL), was mediated by induction of oxidative stress in human head and neck cancer (HNSCC) cells. ERL elicited cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo while increasing a panel of oxidative stress parameters which were all reversible by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. Knockdown of EGFR by using siRNA similarly increased these oxidative stress parameters. Overexpression of mitochondrial targeted catalase but not superoxide dismutase reversed ERL-induced cytotoxicity. Consistent with a general role for NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes in ERL-induced oxidative stress, ERL-induced cytotoxicity was reversed by diphenylene iodonium, a NOX complex inhibitor. ERL reduced the expression of NOX1, NOX2, and NOX5 but induced the expression of NOX4. Knockdown of NOX4 by using siRNA protected HNSCC cells from ERL-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Our findings support the concept that ERL-induced cytotoxicity is based on a specific mechanism of oxidative stress mediated by hydrogen peroxide production through NOX4 signaling.

Garrido-Urbani S, Jemelin S, Deffert C, et al.
Targeting vascular NADPH oxidase 1 blocks tumor angiogenesis through a PPARα mediated mechanism.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(2):e14665 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species, ROS, are regulators of endothelial cell migration, proliferation and survival, events critically involved in angiogenesis. Different isoforms of ROS-generating NOX enzymes are expressed in the vasculature and provide distinct signaling cues through differential localization and activation. We show that mice deficient in NOX1, but not NOX2 or NOX4, have impaired angiogenesis. NOX1 expression and activity is increased in primary mouse and human endothelial cells upon angiogenic stimulation. NOX1 silencing decreases endothelial cell migration and tube-like structure formation, through the inhibition of PPARα, a regulator of NF-κB. Administration of a novel NOX-specific inhibitor reduced angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo in a PPARα dependent manner. In conclusion, vascular NOX1 is a critical mediator of angiogenesis and an attractive target for anti-angiogenic therapies.

Seo JM, Cho KJ, Kim EY, et al.
Up-regulation of BLT2 is critical for the survival of bladder cancer cells.
Exp Mol Med. 2011; 43(3):129-37 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
The incidence rates of urinary bladder cancer continue to rise yearly, and thus new therapeutic approaches and early diagnostic markers for bladder cancer are urgently needed. Thus, identifying the key mediators and molecular mechanisms responsible for the survival of bladder cancer has valuable implications for the development of therapy. In this study, the role of BLT2, a receptor for leukotriene B((4)) (LTB((4))) and 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), in the survival of bladder cancer 253J-BV cells was investigated. We found that the expression of BLT2 is highly elevated in bladder cancer cells. Also, we observed that blockade of BLT2 with an antagonist or BLT2 siRNA resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death, suggesting a role of BLT2 in the survival of human bladder cancer 253J-BV cells. Further experiments aimed at elucidating the mechanism by which BLT2 mediates survival revealed that enhanced level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated via a BLT2-dependent up-regulation of NADPH oxidase members NOX1 and NOX4. Additionally, we observed that inhibition of ROS generation by either NOX1/4 siRNAs or treatment with an ROS-scavenging agent results in apoptotic cell death in 253J-BV bladder cancer cells. These results demonstrated that a 'BLT2-NOX1/4-ROS' cascade plays a role in the survival of this aggressive bladder cancer cells, thus pointing to BLT2 as a potential target for anti-bladder cancer therapy.

Caja L, Sancho P, Bertran E, Fabregat I
Dissecting the effect of targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor on TGF-β-induced-apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
J Hepatol. 2011; 55(2):351-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) induces apoptosis in hepatocytes, a process that is inhibited by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. The aim of this work was to ablate EGFR in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells to understand its role in impairing TGF-β-induced cell death.
METHODS: Response to TGF-β in terms of apoptosis was analyzed in different HCC cell lines and the effect of canceling EGFR expression was evaluated.
RESULTS: TGF-β induces apoptosis in some HCC cells (such as Hep3B, PLC/PRF/5, Huh7, or SNU449), but it also mediates survival signals, coincident with the up-regulation of EGFR ligands. Inhibition of the EGFR, either by targeted knock-down with specific siRNA or by pharmacological inhibition, significantly enhances apoptotic response. TGF-β treatment in EGFR targeted knock-down cells correlates with higher levels of the NADPH oxidase NOX4 and changes in the expression profile of BCL-2 and IAP families. However, other HCC cells, such as HepG2, which show over activation of the Ras/ERKs pathway, SK-Hep1, with an endothelial phenotype, or SNU398, where the TGF-β-Smad signaling is altered, show apoptosis resistance that is not restored through EGFR blockade.
CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of EGFR in HCC may enhance TGF-β-induced pro-apoptotic signaling. However, this effect may only concern those tumors with an epithelial phenotype which do not bear alterations in TGF-β signaling nor exhibit an over-activation of the survival pathways downstream of the EGFR.

Edderkaoui M, Nitsche C, Zheng L, et al.
NADPH oxidase activation in pancreatic cancer cells is mediated through Akt-dependent up-regulation of p22phox.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(10):7779-87 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
We recently showed that Nox4 NADPH oxidase is highly expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and that it is activated by growth factors and plays a pro-survival, anti-apoptotic role. Here we investigate the mechanisms through which insulin-like growth factor I and serum (FBS) activate NADPH oxidase in pancreatic cancer (PaCa) cells. We show that in PaCa cells, NADPH oxidase is composed of Nox4 and p22(phox) catalytic subunits, which are both required for NADPH oxidase activity. Insulin-like growth factor I and FBS activate NADPH oxidase through transcriptional up-regulation of p22(phox). This involves activation of the transcription factor NF-κB mediated by Akt kinase. Up-regulation of p22(phox) by the growth factors results in increased Nox4-p22(phox) complex formation and activation of NADPH oxidase. This mechanism is different from that for receptor-induced activation of phagocytic NADPH oxidase, which is mediated by phosphorylation of its regulatory subunits. Up-regulation of p22(phox) represents a novel pro-survival mechanism through which growth factors and Akt inhibit apoptosis in PaCa cells.

Reddy MM, Fernandes MS, Salgia R, et al.
NADPH oxidases regulate cell growth and migration in myeloid cells transformed by oncogenic tyrosine kinases.
Leukemia. 2011; 25(2):281-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Transformation by tyrosine kinase oncogenes (TKOs) in myeloid malignancies, including BCR-ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia, FLT3ITD in acute myeloid leukemia or JAK2V617F in myeloproliferative neoplasms, is associated with increased growth and cytoskeletal abnormalities. Using targeted approaches against components of the superoxide-producing NADPH-oxidases, including NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), NOX4 and the common p22(phox) subunit of NOX1-4, myeloid cells were found to display reduced cell growth and spontaneous migration. Consistent with a role of NOXs as regulators of membrane proximal signaling events in nonphagocytic cells, NOX2 and NOX4 were not involved in the excess production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and did not significantly increase oxygen consumption. All NOX family members are controlled in part through levels of the rate-limiting substrate NADPH, which was found to be significantly elevated in TKO-transformed cells. Also, reduced phosphorylation of the actin filament crosslinking protein myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) in response to suppression of p22(phox) hints at a novel effector of NOX signaling. MARCKS was also found to be required for increased migration. Overall, these data suggest a model whereby NOX links metabolic NADPH production to cellular events that directly contribute to transformation.

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