Gene Summary

Gene:NOX1; NADPH oxidase 1
Aliases: MOX1, NOH1, NOH-1, GP91-2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the NADPH oxidase family of enzymes responsible for the catalytic one-electron transfer of oxygen to generate superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:NADPH oxidase 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NOX1 (cancer-related)

Dabral S, Muecke C, Valasarajan C, et al.
A RASSF1A-HIF1α loop drives Warburg effect in cancer and pulmonary hypertension.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2130 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypoxia signaling plays a major role in non-malignant and malignant hyperproliferative diseases. Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a hypoxia-driven vascular disease, is characterized by a glycolytic switch similar to the Warburg effect in cancer. Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A) is a scaffold protein that acts as a tumour suppressor. Here we show that hypoxia promotes stabilization of RASSF1A through NOX-1- and protein kinase C- dependent phosphorylation. In parallel, hypoxia inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α) activates RASSF1A transcription via HIF-binding sites in the RASSF1A promoter region. Vice versa, RASSF1A binds to HIF-1α, blocks its prolyl-hydroxylation and proteasomal degradation, and thus enhances the activation of the glycolytic switch. We find that this mechanism operates in experimental hypoxia-induced PH, which is blocked in RASSF1A knockout mice, in human primary PH vascular cells, and in a subset of human lung cancer cells. We conclude that RASSF1A-HIF-1α forms a feedforward loop driving hypoxia signaling in PH and cancer.

Cho SY, Kim JS, Eun HS, et al.
Expression of NOX Family Genes and Their Clinical Significance in Colorectal Cancer.
Dig Dis Sci. 2018; 63(9):2332-2340 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The NADPH oxidase (NOX) family is overexpressed in many cancers and is associated with cancer cell proliferation and metastasis; however, little is known about the role of the NOX family in colorectal cancer (CRC).
AIMS: To identify the expression of the NOX family in CRC and to investigate the relationship between the expression of NOXs with the prognosis of the patients.
METHODS: In the TCGA data portal, mRNA expression data were obtained from 41 normal samples and 458 CRC samples to analyze mRNA expression and gene alteration. We compared the survival differences according to the degree of expression of NOX family in CRC patients and performed Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA).
RESULTS: The mRNA expression of NOX1, 3, 4, and DUOX1, 2 was significantly increased in the colorectal adenocarcinoma. Especially, the higher T and N stage, the more NOX4 expression was significantly increased. Survival analyses showed that NOX4 and NOX5 were associated with poor prognosis; however, NOX1 and DUOX2 were significantly associated with better prognosis. In the results of GSEA of CRC patients, the NOX4 gene was significantly associated with Angiogenesis, EMT and notch signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: The NOX family is overexpressed in CRC and is associated with the prognosis of the patient. Therefore, NOX family can predict CRC patient survival and the role of the NOX family as a molecular target in the treatment of CRC.

Hou D, Liu Z, Xu X, et al.
Increased oxidative stress mediates the antitumor effect of PARP inhibition in ovarian cancer.
Redox Biol. 2018; 17:99-111 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PARP inhibitors have been widely tested in clinical trials, especially for the treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer, and were shown to be highly successful. Because PARP primarily functions in sensing and repairing DNA strand breaks, the therapeutic effect of PARP inhibition is generally believed to be attributed to impaired DNA repair. We here report that oxidative stress is also increased by PARP inhibition and mediates the antitumor effect. We showed that PARP1 is highly expressed in specimens of high grade serous ovarian carcinoma and its activity is required for unperturbed proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. Inhibition or depletion of PARP leads to not only an increase in DNA damage, but also an elevation in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Importantly, antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated the induction of DNA damage and the perturbation of proliferation by PARP inhibition or depletion. We further showed that NADPH oxidases 1 and 4 were significantly upregulated by PARP inhibition and were partially responsible for the induction of oxidative stress. Depletion of NOX1 and NOX4 partially rescued the growth inhibition of PARP1-deficient tumor xenografts. Our findings suggest that in addition to compromising the repair of DNA damage, PARP inhibition or depletion may exert extra antitumor effect by elevating oxidative stress in ovarian cancer cells.

Eun HS, Cho SY, Joo JS, et al.
Gene expression of NOX family members and their clinical significance in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):11060 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote chronic liver inflammation and remodeling that can drive hepatocellular carcinoma development. The role of NOX expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been partially investigated; however, the clinical relevance of collective or individual NOX family member expression for HCC survival remains unclear. Here, we obtained NOX mRNA expression data for 377 HCC samples and 21 normal liver controls from the TCGA data portal and performed Kaplan-Meier survival, gene ontology functional enrichment, and gene set enrichment analyses. Although most NOX genes exhibited little change, some were significantly induced in HCC compared to that in normal controls. In addition, HCC survival analyses indicated better overall survival in patients with high NOX4 and DUOX1 expression, whereas patients with high NOX1/2/5 expression showed poor prognoses. Gene-neighbour and gene set enrichment analyses revealed that NOX1/2/5 were strongly correlated with genes associated with cancer cell survival and metastasis, whereas increased NOX4 and DUOX1 expression was associated with genes that inhibit tumour progression. On the basis of these data, NOX family gene expression analysis could be a predictor of survival and identify putative therapeutic targets in HCC.

Kesanakurti D, Maddirela D, Banasavadi-Siddegowda YK, et al.
A novel interaction of PAK4 with PPARγ to regulate Nox1 and radiation-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in glioma.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(37):5309-5320 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor recurrence in glioblastoma (GBM) is, in part, attributed to increased epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhanced tumor cell dissemination in adjacent brain parenchyma after ionizing radiation (IR). EMT is associated with aggressive behavior, increased stem-like characteristics and treatment resistance in malignancies; however, the underlying signaling mechanisms that regulate EMT are poorly understood. We identified grade-dependent p21-activated kinases 4 (PAK4) upregulation in gliomas and further determined its role in mesenchymal transition and radioresistance. IR treatment significantly elevated expression and nuclear localization of PAK4 in correlation with induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mesenchymal transition in GBM cells. Stable PAK4 overexpression promoted mesenchymal transition by elevating EMT marker expression in these cells. Of note, transcription factor-DNA-binding arrays and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments identified the formation of a novel nuclear PAK4/PPARγ complex which was recruited to the promoter of Nox1, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) target gene. In addition, IR further elevated PAK4/PPARγ complex co-recruitment to Nox1 promoter, and increased Nox1 expression and ROS levels associated with mesenchymal transition in these cells. Conversely, specific PAK4 downregulation decreased PPARγ-mediated Nox1 expression and suppressed EMT in IR-treated cells. In vivo orthotopic tumor experiments showed inhibition of growth and suppression of IR-induced PPARγ and Nox1 expression by PAK4 downregulation in tumors. Our results provide the first evidence of a novel role for PAK4 in IR-induced EMT and suggest potential therapeutic efficacy of targeting PAK4 to overcome radioresistance in gliomas.

Juhasz A, Markel S, Gaur S, et al.
NADPH oxidase 1 supports proliferation of colon cancer cells by modulating reactive oxygen species-dependent signal transduction.
J Biol Chem. 2017; 292(19):7866-7887 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in cell signaling and proliferation. NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), a membrane-bound flavin dehydrogenase that generates O

Tamura RE, Hunger A, Fernandes DC, et al.
Induction of Oxidants Distinguishes Susceptibility of Prostate Carcinoma Cell Lines to p53 Gene Transfer Mediated by an Improved Adenoviral Vector.
Hum Gene Ther. 2017; 28(8):639-653 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previously, the authors developed an adenoviral vector, Ad-PG, where transgene expression is regulated by a p53-responsive promoter. When used to transfer the p53 cDNA, a positive feedback mechanism is established. In the present study, a critical comparison is performed between Ad-PGp53 and AdRGD-PGp53, where the RGD motif was incorporated in the adenoviral fiber protein. AdRGD-PGp53 provided superior transgene expression levels and resulted in the killing of prostate carcinoma cell lines DU145 and PC3. In vitro, this effect was associated with increased production of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial oxidants, DNA damage as revealed by detection of phosphorylated H2AX, as well as cell death consistent with apoptosis. Differential gene expression of key mediators of reactive oxygen species pathways was also observed. Specifically, it was noted that induction of known p53-target genes Sestrin2 and PIG3, as well as a novel target, NOX1, occurred in PC3 cells only when transduced with the improved vector, AdRGD-PGp53. The participation of NOX1 was confirmed upon its inhibition using a specific peptide, resulting in reduced cell death. In situ gene therapy also resulted in significantly improved inhibition of tumor progression consistent with oxidant-induced DNA damage only when treated with the novel AdRGD-PGp53 vector. The study shows that the improved adenovirus overcomes limitations associated with other p53-expressing vectors and induces oxidant-mediating killing, thus supporting its further development for cancer gene therapy.

Bauer G
Central Signaling Elements of Intercellular Reactive Oxygen/Nitrogen Species-dependent Induction of Apoptosis in Malignant Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):499-513 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intercellular reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species-(ROS/RNS)-dependent induction of apoptosis in malignant cells is discussed as a potential control step during oncogenesis. In previous studies, the mechanism of intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling was mainly established through the use of specific inhibitors and scavengers. Here, a detailed analysis was carried out based on small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of central players of intercellular ROS/RNS signaling and of the mitochondrial and the FAS receptor-dependent pathway of apoptosis. The data show that transforming growth factor β1, transforming growth factor β receptor, NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX1), NOX1 organizer, and NOX1 activator control the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathways. Dual oxidase-1 (DUOX1) is specifically involved in HOCl signaling, and NO synthase in NO/peroxynitrite signaling. Both pathways utilize intracellular signal transduction through protein kinase C zeta, sphingomyelinase and central elements of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, whereas the FAS receptor and FAS ligand do not seem to play a role.

Wilson A, Yakovlev VA
Cells redox environment modulates BRCA1 expression and DNA homologous recombination repair.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2016; 101:190-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer development and progression have been linked to oxidative stress, a condition characterized by unbalanced increase in ROS and RNS production. The main endogenous initiators of the redox imbalance in cancer cells are defective mitochondria, elevated NOX activity, and uncoupled NOS3. Traditionally, most attention has been paid to direct oxidative damage to DNA by certain ROS. However, increase in oxidative DNA lesions does not always lead to malignancy. Hence, additional ROS-dependent, pro-carcinogenic mechanisms must be important. Our recent study demonstrated that Tyr nitration of PP2A stimulates its activity and leads to downregulation of BRCA1 expression. This provides a mechanism for chromosomal instability essential for tumor progression. In the present work, we demonstrated that inhibition of ROS production by generating mitochondrial-electron-transport-deficient cell lines (ρ

Ito K, Ota A, Ono T, et al.
Inhibition of Nox1 induces apoptosis by attenuating the AKT signaling pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2991-2998 [PubMed] Related Publications
NADPH oxidases, also known as the Nox family, are major sources of reactive oxygen species generation that regulate redox-sensitive signaling pathways. Recent studies have implicated the Nox family in cancer development and progression. However, the involvement of its members in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains to be elucidated. To clarify this issue, we first analyzed mRNA expression of Nox/Duox family members (Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2) in five OSCC cell lines. Nox1 and Nox4 mRNAs were highly expressed in four OSCC cell lines. Western blot analysis revealed that the protein expression level of Nox1 was higher than that of Nox4 in the OSCC cell lines. In addition, knockdown of Nox1, but not Nox4, significantly suppressed cell viability and induced apoptosis in the HSC-2 and HSC-3 cells. We also found that a specific AKT inhibitor, perifosine, dose-dependently suppressed OSCC cell growth. Notably, Nox1 knockdown significantly attenuated the phosphorylation level of AKT. Furthermore, both Nox1 knockdown and perifosine treatment markedly enhanced the cisplatin-induced cytotoxic effect. Taken together, our results highlight that the Nox1/AKT signaling pathway plays an important role in cell survival in OSCC cells.

Abdelmageed MM, El-Naga RN, El-Demerdash E, Elmazar MM
Indole-3- carbinol enhances sorafenib cytotoxicity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells: A mechanistic study.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:32733 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sorafenib is the only chemotherapeutic agent currently approved for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, poor response rates have been widely reported. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a potential chemopreventive phytochemical. The present study aimed to explore the potential chemomodulatory effects of I3C on sorafenib in HCC cells as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. I3C exhibited a greater cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells compared to Huh-7 cells (p < 0.0001). Moreover, the co-treatment of HepG2 cells with I3C and sorafenib was more effective (p = 0.002). Accordingly, subsequent mechanistic studies were carried on HepG2 cells. The results show that the ability of I3C to enhance sorafenib cytotoxicity in HCC cells could be partially attributed to increasing the apoptotic activity and decreasing the angiogenic potentials. The combination had a negative effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Increased NOX-1 expression was also observed which may indicate the involvement of NOX-1 in I3C chemomodulatory effects. Additionally, the combination induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that I3C enhances sorafenib anti-cancer activity in HCC cells.

Habib SL, Abboud HE
Tuberin regulates reactive oxygen species in renal proximal cells, kidney from rodents, and kidney from patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(8):1092-100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important endogenous source of DNA damage and oxidative stress in all cell types. Deficiency in tuberin resulted in increased oxidative DNA damage in renal cells. In this study, the role of tuberin in the regulating of ROS and NADPH oxidases was investigated. Formation of ROS and activity of NADPH oxidases were significantly higher in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in primary culture of rat renal proximal tubular epithelial tuberin-deficient cells compared to wild-type cells. In addition, expression of NADPH oxidase (Nox)1, Nox2, and Nox4 (Nox isoforms) was higher in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and renal proximal tubular epithelial tuberin-deficient cells compared to wild-type cells. Furthermore, activity levels of NADPH oxidases and protein expression of all Nox isoforms were higher in the renal cortex of rat deficient in tuberin. However, treatment of tuberin-deficient cells with rapamycin showed significant decrease in protein expression of all Nox. Significant increase in protein kinase C βII expression was detected in tuberin-deficient cells, whereas inhibition of protein kinase C βII by bisindolylmaleimide I resulted in decreased protein expression of all Nox isoforms. In addition, treatment of mice deficient in tuberin with rapamycin resulted in significant decrease in all Nox protein expression. Moreover, protein and mRNA expression of all Nox were highly expressed in tumor kidney tissue of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex compared to control kidney tissue of normal subjects. These data provide the first evidence that tuberin plays a novel role in regulating ROS generation, NADPH oxidase activity, and Nox expression that may potentially be involved in development of kidney tumor in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.

Pekarčíková L, Knopfová L, Beneš P, Šmarda J
c-Myb regulates NOX1/p38 to control survival of colorectal carcinoma cells.
Cell Signal. 2016; 28(8):924-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
The c-Myb transcription factor is important for maintenance of immature cells of many tissues including colon epithelium. Overexpression of c-Myb occurring in colorectal carcinomas (CRC) as well as in other cancers often marks poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanism explaining how c-Myb contributes to progression of CRC has not been fully elucidated. To address this point, we investigated the way how c-Myb affects sensitivity of CRC cells to anticancer drugs. Using CRC cell lines expressing exogenous c-myb we show that c-Myb protects CRC cells from the cisplatin-, oxaliplatin-, and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, elevates reactive oxygen species via up-regulation of NOX1, and sustains the pro-survival p38 MAPK pathway. Using pharmacological inhibitors and gene silencing of p38 and NOX1 we found that these proteins are essential for the protective effect of c-Myb and that NOX1 acts upstream of p38 activation. In addition, our result suggests that transcription of NOX1 is directly controlled by c-Myb and these genes are strongly co-expressed in human tumor tissue of CRC patients. The novel c-Myb/NOX1/p38 signaling axis that protects CRC cells from chemotherapy described in this study could provide a new base for design of future therapies of CRC.

Banskota S, Regmi SC, Kim JA
NOX1 to NOX2 switch deactivates AMPK and induces invasive phenotype in colon cancer cells through overexpression of MMP-7.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:123 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 expression is correlated with increased metastatic potential in human colon cancer cells, the underlying molecular mechanism of invasive phenotype remains unknown. In the current study, we investigated the regulatory effects of membrane NADPH oxidase (NOX) and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) on MMP-7 expression and invasive phenotype change in colon cancer cells.
METHODS: Production of superoxide anion was measured by lucigenin chemiluminescence assay using whole cells and protein extracts (NADPH oxidase activity), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fluorescence microscopy using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to measure mRNA and protein levels, respectively. siRNA transfection was used to assess involvement of genes in cancer invasion, which were identified by Matrigel transwell invasion assay. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to identify transcription factors linked to gene expression.
RESULTS: Under basal conditions, less invasive human colon cancer cells (HT29 and Caco-2) showed low MMP-7 expression but high NOX1 expression and AMPK phosphorylation. Treatment of HT29 and Caco-2 cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced an invasive phenotype response along with corresponding increases in ROS production and NOX2 and MMP-7 expression as well as reduced AMPK phosphorylation, which resemble basal conditions of highly invasive human colon cancer cells (SW620 and HCT116). In addition, inverse regulation between AMPK phosphorylation and NOX2 and MMP-7 expression was observed in HT29 cells treated with different concentrations of exogenous hydrogen peroxide. TPA-induced invasive phenotype in HT29 cells was abolished by treatment with Vit. E, DPI, apocynin, and NOX2 siRNA but not NOX1 siRNA, indicating NOX2-derived ROS production induced an invasive phenotype. TPA-induced induction of MMP-7 expression was suppressed by AP-1, NF-κB, and MAPK (ERK, p38, and JNK) inhibitors, whereas TPA-induced expression of NOX2 and its regulators, p47phox and p67phox, was blocked by p38 and NF-κB inhibitors.
CONCLUSIONS: Molecular switch from NOX1 to NOX2 in colon cancer cells induces ROS production and subsequently enhances MMP-7 expression by deactivating AMPK, which otherwise inhibits stimulus-induced autoregulation of ROS and NOX2 gene expression.

Guo S, Chen X
The human Nox4: gene, structure, physiological function and pathological significance.
J Drug Target. 2015; 23(10):888-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. NADPH oxidase (Nox), a multicomponent enzyme, has been identified as one of the key sources of ROS. Nox4, one of the seven members of Nox family (Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2), has been extensively investigated in recent years. Its unique structures result in the constitutive generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the main product. As a key oxygen sensor, Nox4-derived H2O2 plays diverse roles in cell proliferation, migration and death. Increased expression of Nox4 in cancer has been observed, which participates in metastasis, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Expression of Nox4 in endothelial cells actively mediated endothelial activation, dysfunction and injury, which contributes to the development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and among others. This article explores the experimental studies related to the gene, structure, physiological function and pathological significance of Nox4. As Nox4 might serve as a potential target for the therapy of cardiovascular diseases and cancer, the Nox4 inhibitor is also discussed in this article.

Elatrech I, Marzaioli V, Boukemara H, et al.
Escherichia coli LF82 differentially regulates ROS production and mucin expression in intestinal epithelial T84 cells: implication of NOX1.
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015; 21(5):1018-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is associated with inflamed ileal lesions in Crohn's disease colonized by pathogenic adherent-invasive Escherichia coli LF82. We investigated whether such ileal bacteria can modulate ROS production by epithelial cells, thus impacting on inflammation and mucin expression.
METHODS: Ileal bacteria from patients with Crohn's disease were incubated with cultured epithelial T84 cells, and ROS production was assayed using the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence method. The gentamicin protection assay was used for bacterial invasion of T84 cell. The expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) subunits, mucin, and IL-8 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blots. Involvement of NOX and ROS was analyzed using diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC).
RESULTS: Among different bacteria tested, only LF82 induced an increase of ROS production by T84 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This response was inhibited by DPI and NAC. Heat- or ethanol-attenuated LF82 bacteria and the mutant LF82ΔFimA, which does not express pili type 1 and poorly adheres to epithelial cells, did not induce the oxidative response. The LF82-induced oxidative response coincides with its invasion in T84 cells, and both processes were inhibited by DPI. Also, we observed an increased expression of NOX1 and NOXO1 in response to LF82 bacteria versus the mutant LF82ΔFimA. Furthermore, LF82 inhibited mucin gene expression (MUC2 and MUC5AC) in T84 cells while increasing the chemotactic IL-8 expression, both in a DPI-sensitive manner.
CONCLUSIONS: Adherent-invasive E. coli LF82 induced ROS production by intestinal NADPH oxidase and altered mucin and IL-8 expression, leading to perpetuation of inflammatory lesions in Crohn's disease.

Wang F, Lin F, Zhang P, et al.
Thioredoxin-1 inhibitor, 1-methylpropyl 2-imidazolyl disulfide, inhibits the growth, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cell lines.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(2):967-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
1-Methylpropyl 2-imidazolyl disulfide (PX-12) has been proposed as an inhibitor of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) with antitumor activity. However, the antitumor activity of the Trx-1 redox signaling inhibitor PX-12 on colorectal cancer is still obscure. In the present study, we showed that PX-12 inhibited the growth of colorectal cancer DLD-1 and SW620 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Further analysis demonstrated that PX-12 reduced cell colony formation and induced a G2/M phase arrest of the cell cycle. In addition, PX-12 treatment induced apoptosis, as observed by the increased number of Annexin V-positive cells and increased activation of caspase-3. Notably, a low dose of PX-12 inhibited colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion. Treatment of cancer cells with PX-12 reduced NOX1, CDH17 and S100A4 mRNA expression, and increased KLF17 mRNA expression. Moreover, PX-12 decreased S100A4 protein expression in the colorectal cancer cells. Collectively, the present study demonstrates the antitumor effects and therapeutic potential of PX-12 in colorectal cancer.

Drew JE, Farquharson AJ, Mayer CD, et al.
Predictive gene signatures: molecular markers distinguishing colon adenomatous polyp and carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e113071 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancers exhibit abnormal molecular signatures associated with disease initiation and progression. Molecular signatures could improve cancer screening, detection, drug development and selection of appropriate drug therapies for individual patients. Typically only very small amounts of tissue are available from patients for analysis and biopsy samples exhibit broad heterogeneity that cannot be captured using a single marker. This report details application of an in-house custom designed GenomeLab System multiplex gene expression assay, the hCellMarkerPlex, to assess predictive gene signatures of normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma colon tissue using archived tissue bank material. The hCellMarkerPlex incorporates twenty-one gene markers: epithelial (EZR, KRT18, NOX1, SLC9A2), proliferation (PCNA, CCND1, MS4A12), differentiation (B4GANLT2, CDX1, CDX2), apoptotic (CASP3, NOX1, NTN1), fibroblast (FSP1, COL1A1), structural (ACTG2, CNN1, DES), gene transcription (HDAC1), stem cell (LGR5), endothelial (VWF) and mucin production (MUC2). Gene signatures distinguished normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma. Individual gene targets significantly contributing to molecular tissue types, classifier genes, were further characterised using real-time PCR, in-situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry revealing aberrant epithelial expression of MS4A12, LGR5 CDX2, NOX1 and SLC9A2 prior to development of carcinoma. Identified gene signatures identify aberrant epithelial expression of genes prior to cancer development using in-house custom designed gene expression multiplex assays. This approach may be used to assist in objective classification of disease initiation, staging, progression and therapeutic responses using biopsy material.

Guida M, Maraldi T, Beretti F, et al.
Nuclear Nox4-derived reactive oxygen species in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:456937 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A role for intracellular ROS production has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of a wide variety of neoplasias. ROS sources, such as NAD(P)H oxidase (Nox) complexes, are frequently activated in AML (acute myeloid leukemia) blasts and strongly contribute to their proliferation, survival, and drug resistance. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, with an increased propensity to develop AML. The molecular basis for MDS progression is unknown, but a key element in MDS disease progression is the genomic instability. NADPH oxidases are now recognized to have specific subcellular localizations, this targeting to specific compartments for localized ROS production. Local Nox-dependent ROS production in the nucleus may contribute to the regulation of redox-dependent cell growth, differentiation, senescence, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We observed that Nox1, 2, and 4 isoforms and p22phox and Rac1 subunits are expressed in MDS/AML cell lines and MDS samples, also in the nuclear fractions. Interestingly, Nox4 interacts with ERK and Akt1 within nuclear speckle domain, suggesting that Nox4 could be involved in regulating gene expression and splicing factor activity. These data contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms used by nuclear ROS to drive MDS evolution to AML.

Bauer G
Targeting extracellular ROS signaling of tumor cells.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(4):1467-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression of membrane-associated NADPH oxidase (NOX1) represents a characteristic feature of malignant cells. NOX1-derived extracellular superoxide anions are the basis for autocrine stimulation of proliferation, but also drive the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathways. This may cause the elimination of transformed cells. Tumor cells express membrane-associated catalase that efficiently protects the cells against apoptosis-inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling. Membrane-associated superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays a co-modulatory protective role that is functionally interrelated with the protective effect mediated by catalase. Due to the co-localization of NOX1, catalase and SOD on the outer membrane of tumor cells, specific inhibition of membrane-associated SOD causes superoxide anion-dependent inhibition of catalase. This establishes a strong apoptotic signaling through the NO/peroxynitrite pathway. In parallel, it causes a drastic decrease in the concentration of proliferation-stimulating H2O2. Knowledge of the biochemical network on the surface of tumor cells should, therefore, allow development of specific novel strategies for tumor therapy, based on the specific features of tumor cell-specific extracellular ROS interactions.

Garufi A, D'Orazi V, Arbiser JL, D'Orazi G
Gentian violet induces wtp53 transactivation in cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(4):1084-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent studies suggest that gentian violet (GV) may have anticancer activity by inhibiting for instance NADPH oxidases (Nox genes) whose overexpression is linked to tumor progression. Nox1 overexpression has been shown to inhibit transcriptional activity of the oncosuppressor p53, impairing tumor cell response to anticancer drugs. The tumor suppressor p53 is a transcription factor that, upon cellular stress, is activated to induce target genes involved in tumor cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Thus, its activation is important for efficient tumor eradication. In this study, we examined the effect of GV on wild-type (wt) p53 activity in cancer cells. We found that GV was able to overcome the inhibitory effect of the NADPH oxidase Nox1 on p53 transcriptional activity. For the first time we show that GV was able to directly induce p53/DNA binding and transcriptional activity. In vitro, GV markedly induced cancer cell death and apoptotic marker PARP cleavage in wtp53-carrying cells. GV-induced cell death was partly inhibited in cells deprived of p53, suggesting that the anticancer activity of GV may partly depend on p53 activation. GV is US Food and Drug Administration approved for human use and may, therefore, have therapeutic potential in the management of cancer through p53 activation.

Li Q, Fu GB, Zheng JT, et al.
NADPH oxidase subunit p22(phox)-mediated reactive oxygen species contribute to angiogenesis and tumor growth through AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in prostate cancer.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1833(12):3375-3385 [PubMed] Related Publications
Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells is associated with cancer development, but the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic significance remain elusive. In this study, we reported that levels of ROS and p22(phox) expression are greatly increased in human prostate cancer tissues, and knockdown of p22(phox) by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased ROS levels in prostate cancer cells. We also showed that stable downregulation of p22(phox) in prostate cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation, which was mediated by AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling pathways and their downstream molecules hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The NADPH oxidase subunit NOX1 was also elevated in prostate cancer cells, and was involved in activation of AKT/ERK/HIF-1/VEGF pathway and regulation of cell proliferation. Knockdown of p22(phox) resulted in inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth in nude mice. These findings reveal a new function of p22(phox) in tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth, and suggest that p22(phox) is a potential novel target for prostate cancer treatment.

Pervin S, Tran L, Urman R, et al.
Oxidative stress specifically downregulates survivin to promote breast tumour formation.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 108(4):848-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer, a heterogeneous disease has been broadly classified into oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) or oestrogen receptor negative (ER-) tumour types. Each of these tumours is dependent on specific signalling pathways for their progression. While high levels of survivin, an anti-apoptotic protein, increases aggressive behaviour in ER- breast tumours, oxidative stress (OS) promotes the progression of ER+ breast tumours. Mechanisms and molecular targets by which OS promotes tumourigenesis remain poorly understood.
RESULTS: DETA-NONOate, a nitric oxide (NO)-donor induces OS in breast cancer cell lines by early re-localisation and downregulation of cellular survivin. Using in vivo models of HMLE(HRAS) xenografts and E2-induced breast tumours in ACI rats, we demonstrate that high OS downregulates survivin during initiation of tumourigenesis. Overexpression of survivin in HMLE(HRAS) cells led to a significant delay in tumour initiation and tumour volume in nude mice. This inverse relationship between survivin and OS was also observed in ER+ human breast tumours. We also demonstrate an upregulation of NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX1) and its activating protein p67, which are novel markers of OS in E2-induced tumours in ACI rats and as well as in ER+ human breast tumours.
CONCLUSION: Our data, therefore, suggest that downregulation of survivin could be an important early event by which OS initiates breast tumour formation.

Doroshow JH, Gaur S, Markel S, et al.
Effects of iodonium-class flavin dehydrogenase inhibitors on growth, reactive oxygen production, cell cycle progression, NADPH oxidase 1 levels, and gene expression in human colon cancer cells and xenografts.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2013; 57:162-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Iodonium-class flavoprotein dehydrogenase inhibitors have been demonstrated to possess antiproliferative potential and to inhibit reactive oxygen production in human tumor cells, although the mechanism(s) that explains the relationship between altered cell growth and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remains an area of active investigation. Because of the ability of these compounds to inhibit the activity of flavoprotein-containing epithelial NADPH oxidases, we chose to examine the effects of several iodonium-class flavoprotein inhibitors on human colon cancer cell lines that express high, functional levels of a single such oxidase (NADPH oxidase 1, or Nox1). We found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), di-2-thienyliodonium (DTI), and iodonium diphenyl inhibited the growth of Caco2, HT-29, and LS-174T colon cancer cells at concentrations (10-250nM for DPI, 0.5-2.5μM for DTI, and 155nM to 10μM for iodonium diphenyl) substantially lower than needed for DU145 human prostate cancer cells, which do not possess functional NADPH oxidase activity. Drug treatment was associated with decreased H2O2 production and diminished intracellular ROS levels, lasting up to 24h, after short-term (1-h) exposure to the iodonium analogs. Decreased tumor cell proliferation was caused, in part, by a profound block in cell cycle progression at the G1/S interface in both LS-174T and HT-29 cells exposed to either DPI or DTI; and the G1 block was produced, for LS-174T cells, by upregulation of p27 and a drug concentration-related decrease in the expression of cyclins D1, A, and E that was partially prevented by exogenous H2O2. Not only did DPI and DTI decrease intracellular ROS, they both also significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of Nox1, potentially contributing to the prolonged reduction in tumor cell reactive oxygen levels. We also found that DPI and DTI significantly decreased the growth of both HT-29 and LS-174T human tumor xenografts, at dose levels that produced peak plasma concentrations similar to those utilized for our in vitro experiments. These findings suggest that iodonium analogs have therapeutic potential for NADPH oxidase-containing human colon cancers in vivo and that at least part of their antineoplastic mechanism of action may be related to targeting Nox1.

Weyemi U, Redon CE, Parekh PR, et al.
NADPH Oxidases NOXs and DUOXs as putative targets for cancer therapy.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2013; 13(3):502-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) form a class of molecules with both positive and negative impacts on cellular health. Negatively, ROS may react with cellular constituents including proteins, lipids, and DNA to generate an array of oxidative lesions. These lesions may compromise genome stability which is critical for long-term cellular homeostasis and healthy progeny. Paradoxically, ROS also function as strong signalling molecules that mediate various growth-related responses, so their presence is also essential for cellular metabolism. While ROS are generated in an unregulated manner by physical stresses such as exposure to ionizing radiation and biochemical malfunctions such as mitochondrial leakage, cells also contain the NADPH oxidases NOXs and DUOXs, which specifically generate ROS in a wide variety of tissues. While the NOXs/DUOXs may be involved in maintaining optimal cellular redox levels, there is also accumulating evidence that NADPH oxidases-derived ROS may elevate the risk for genomic instability and cancer. Cancer cells may produce high levels of ROS, and in some cases, the source of these ROS has been linked to NOX/DUOX deregulation as reported for prostate cancer (NOX1 and NOX5), melanoma and glioblastoma (NOX4) among others. In addition, recent studies reveal that targeting NADPH oxidases with NOXs inhibitors may impair tumor growth in vivo; indicating that these proteins may be useful targets in future clinical strategies to fight cancer. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge concerning these enzymes, their roles in cancer, and their potential as targets in future cancer therapies.

Lu W, Hu Y, Chen G, et al.
Novel role of NOX in supporting aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells with mitochondrial dysfunction and as a potential target for cancer therapy.
PLoS Biol. 2012; 10(5):e1001326 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Elevated aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells (the Warburg effect) may be attributed to respiration injury or mitochondrial dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic significance remain elusive. Here we report that induction of mitochondrial respiratory defect by tetracycline-controlled expression of a dominant negative form of DNA polymerase γ causes a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and increases ROS generation. We show that upregulation of NOX is critical to support the elevated glycolysis by providing additional NAD+. The upregulation of NOX is also consistently observed in cancer cells with compromised mitochondria due to the activation of oncogenic Ras or loss of p53, and in primary pancreatic cancer tissues. Suppression of NOX by chemical inhibition or genetic knockdown of gene expression selectively impacts cancer cells with mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to a decrease in cellular glycolysis, a loss of cell viability, and inhibition of cancer growth in vivo. Our study reveals a previously unrecognized function of NOX in cancer metabolism and suggests that NOX is a potential novel target for cancer treatment.

Liu F, Gomez Garcia AM, Meyskens FL
NADPH oxidase 1 overexpression enhances invasion via matrix metalloproteinase-2 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in melanoma cells.
J Invest Dermatol. 2012; 132(8):2033-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) is a member of the NADPH oxidase family that has not been well characterized in the melanocytic cell lineage. Here we demonstrated that Nox1 and Nox4 were detected in melanocytic lineage, with only Nox1 detected in normal human melanocytes and Nox4 in a subset of metastatic melanoma cell lines. The protein level and enzymatic activity of Nox1 was elevated in all melanoma cells as compared with normal melanocytes. Overexpression of GFP-Nox1 protein in Wm3211 primary melanoma cells increased invasion rate by 4- to 6-fold as measured by Matrigel invasion assay, whereas knocking down or inhibiting Nox1 decreased invasion by approximately 40-60% in Wm3211 and SK-Mel-28 cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was increased by Nox1 overexpression at the mRNA, protein, and activity levels, and decreased by Nox1 knockdown. MMP-2 promoter activity was also regulated by Nox1 knockdown. In addition, stable clones overexpressing Nox1 exhibited an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as examined by cell morphology and EMT markers; knockdown or inhibiting Nox1 led to a reversal of EMT. Supplementing MMP-2 to culture media did not induce EMT, suggesting that EMT induction by Nox1 was not through MMP-2 upregulation. In summary, Nox1 was overexpressed in all melanoma cell lines examined, and enhanced cell invasion by MMP-2 upregulation and EMT induction.

Chaiswing L, Zhong W, Liang Y, et al.
Regulation of prostate cancer cell invasion by modulation of extra- and intracellular redox balance.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2012; 52(2):452-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent metabolic profiles of human prostate cancer tissues showed a significant increase in cysteine (Cys) and a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) during cancer progression from low- to high-grade Gleason scores. Cys is primarily localized extracellularly, whereas GSH is present mostly inside the cell. We hypothesized that extra- or intracellular redox state alterations differentially regulate cell invasion in PC3 prostate carcinoma cells versus PrEC normal prostate epithelial cells. Cells were exposed to media with calculated Cys/CySS redox potentials (E(h)CySS) ranging from -60 to -180mV. After 3h exposure to a reducing extracellular redox state (E(h)CySS=-180mV), matrix metalloprotease (MMP), gelatinase, and NADPH oxidase activities increased, correlating with increases in cell invasion, cell migration, and extracellular hydrogen peroxide levels in PC3 cells but not PrECs. Knockdown of NADPH oxidase or MMP with silencing RNAs during cultivation with E(h)CySS=-180mV medium significantly decreased PC3 cell invasion. Modulation of extra- and intracellular redox states by exposure of PC3 cells to Cys/CySS-free medium (approx E(h)CySS=-87mV) containing 500μMN-acetylcysteine resulted in a more reducing intracellular redox state and a significant decrease in cell invasive ability. The decrease in PC3 cell invasion induced by these conditions correlated with a decrease in MMP activity. Our studies demonstrated that an extracellular redox state that was more reducing than a physiologic microenvironment redox state increased PC3 cancer cell invasive ability, whereas an intracellular redox environmental that was more reducing than an intracellular physiologic redox state inhibited PC3 cell invasive ability.

Cao JY, Mansouri S, Frappier L
Changes in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma nuclear proteome induced by the EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus reveal potential roles for EBNA1 in metastasis and oxidative stress responses.
J Virol. 2012; 86(1):382-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is causatively associated with a variety of human cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The only viral nuclear protein expressed in NPC is EBNA1, which can alter cellular properties in ways that may promote oncogenesis. Here, we used 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DiGE) to profile changes in the nuclear proteome that occur after stable expression of EBNA1 in the EBV-negative NPC cell line CNE2. We found that EBNA1 consistently altered the levels of a small percentage of the nuclear proteins. The identification of 19 of these proteins by mass spectrometry revealed that EBNA1 upregulated three proteins affecting metastatic potential (stathmin 1, maspin, and Nm23-H1) and several proteins in the oxidative stress response pathway, including the antioxidants superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1). Western blot analysis verified that EBNA1 expression upregulated and EBNA1 silencing downregulated these proteins. In addition, transcripts for stathmin 1 were induced by EBNA1, whereas EBNA1 only affected Prx1 and SOD1 at the protein level. Further investigation of the EBNA1 effects on the redox pathway showed that long-term EBNA1 expression in NPC resulted in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased levels of the NADPH oxidases NOX1 and NOX2, known to generate ROS. In addition, EBNA1 depletion in EBV-positive cells decreased NOX2 and ROS. The results show multiple roles for EBNA1 in the oxidative stress response pathway and suggest mechanisms by which EBNA1 may promote NPC metastases.

Sattayakhom A, Ittiwat W, Stremmel W, Chamulitrat W
Redox regulation of cytokeratin 18 protein by NADPH oxidase 1 in preneoplastic human epithelial cells.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011; 137(11):1669-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: A catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) is implicated to be involved in neoplastic progression in human epithelial cancers. We had previously demonstrated that Nox1 overexpression of immortalized epithelial cells was able to induce the generation of progenitor cells that expressed fetal-type cytokeratins 8 and 18.
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the direct effects and underlying mechanisms of Nox1 on expression of cytokeratin 18 (CK18).
METHODS: Immortalized human epithelial GM16 cells with low CK18 were used in Nox1 overexpression experiments. NuB2 cells with high CK18 were used in Nox1 knockdown experiments. Protein expression of CK18, phosphorylated and ubiquitinated CK18 were analyzed by Western blot.
RESULTS: With no effects on the mRNA levels, CK18 protein was increased upon Nox1 overexpression and decreased upon Nox1 knockdown. Treatment with proteasome inhibitor MG132 prevented CK18 degradation and increased CK18 protein indicating translational regulation of CK18. Treatment for NuB2 cells with N-acetyl-L: -cysteine, diphenyleneiodonium, or apocynin decreased CK18 protein levels indicating its regulation involving reactive oxygen species and flavoprotein Nox. It has been known that phosphorylation of CK18 regulates CK18 turnover by ubiquination. Consistently, Nox1 modulated CK18 phosphorylation at ser52. Nox1 knockdown and treatment with diphenyleneiodonium accumulated the levels of ubiquinated CK18 enhancing degradation causing decreased CK18 protein.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that Nox1 was able to induce CK18 stabilization by inhibiting CK18 protein degradation in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. CK18 accumulation induced by Nox1 is consistent with the persistence of fetal-type CK18 protein in many epithelial carcinomas.

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