Gene Summary

Gene:NIN; ninein
Aliases: SCKL7
Summary:This gene encodes one of the proteins important for centrosomal function. This protein is important for positioning and anchoring the microtubules minus-ends in epithelial cells. Localization of this protein to the centrosome requires three leucine zippers in the central coiled-coil domain. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (9)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Precancerous Conditions
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Checkpoints
  • Risk Factors
  • Messenger RNA
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Chromosome 14
  • Apoptosis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • p53 Protein
  • Transfection
  • MicroRNAs
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Down-Regulation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • Transcriptome
  • Prostate Cancer
  • siRNA
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Phosphorylation
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Xenograft Models
  • Disease Progression
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Tubulin
  • Cell Proliferation
  • RNA Interference
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques
  • Cell Movement
  • NIN
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NIN (cancer-related)

Ganier O, Schnerch D, Oertle P, et al.
Structural centrosome aberrations promote non-cell-autonomous invasiveness.
EMBO J. 2018; 37(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells. Although centrosome aberrations are common in tumors, their consequences remain subject to debate. Here, we studied the impact of structural centrosome aberrations, induced by deregulated expression of ninein-like protein (NLP), on epithelial spheres grown in Matrigel matrices. We demonstrate that NLP-induced structural centrosome aberrations trigger the escape ("budding") of living cells from epithelia. Remarkably, all cells disseminating into the matrix were undergoing mitosis. This invasive behavior reflects a novel mechanism that depends on the acquisition of two distinct properties. First, NLP-induced centrosome aberrations trigger a re-organization of the cytoskeleton, which stabilizes microtubules and weakens E-cadherin junctions during mitosis. Second, atomic force microscopy reveals that cells harboring these centrosome aberrations display increased stiffness. As a consequence, mitotic cells are pushed out of mosaic epithelia, particularly if they lack centrosome aberrations. We conclude that centrosome aberrations can trigger cell dissemination through a novel, non-cell-autonomous mechanism, raising the prospect that centrosome aberrations contribute to the dissemination of metastatic cells harboring normal centrosomes.

Ma XJ, Shang L, Zhang WM, et al.
Mitotic regulator Nlp interacts with XPA/ERCC1 complexes and regulates nucleotide excision repair (NER) in response to UV radiation.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 373(2):214-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cellular response to DNA damage, including ionizing radiation (IR) and UV radiation, is critical for the maintenance of genomic fidelity. Defects of DNA repair often result in genomic instability and malignant cell transformation. Centrosomal protein Nlp (ninein-like protein) has been characterized as an important cell cycle regulator that is required for proper mitotic progression. In this study, we demonstrate that Nlp is able to improve nucleotide excision repair (NER) activity and protects cells against UV radiation. Upon exposure of cells to UVC, Nlp is translocated into the nucleus. The C-terminus (1030-1382) of Nlp is necessary and sufficient for its nuclear import. Upon UVC radiation, Nlp interacts with XPA and ERCC1, and enhances their association. Interestingly, down-regulated expression of Nlp is found to be associated with human skin cancers, indicating that dysregulated Nlp might be related to the development of human skin cancers. Taken together, this study identifies mitotic protein Nlp as a new and important member of NER pathway and thus provides novel insights into understanding of regulatory machinery involved in NER.

Schnerch D, Nigg EA
Structural centrosome aberrations favor proliferation by abrogating microtubule-dependent tissue integrity of breast epithelial mammospheres.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(21):2711-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Structural centrosome aberrations are frequently observed in early stage carcinomas, but their role in malignant transformation is poorly understood. Here, we examined the impact of overexpression of Ninein-like protein (Nlp) on the architecture of polarized epithelia in three-dimensional mammospheres. When Nlp was overexpressed to levels resembling those seen in human tumors, it formed striking centrosome-related bodies (CRBs), which sequestered Ninein and affected the kinetics of microtubule (MT) nucleation and release. In turn, the profound reorganization of the MT cytoskeleton resulted in mislocalization of several adhesion and junction proteins as well as the tumor suppressor Scribble, resulting in the disruption of epithelial polarity, cell-cell interactions and mammosphere architecture. Remarkably, cells harboring Nlp-CRBs displayed an enhanced proliferative response to epidermal growth factor. These results demonstrate that structural centrosome aberrations cause not only the disruption of epithelial polarity but also favor overproliferation, two phenotypes typically associated with human carcinomas.

Liu Q, Wang X, Lv M, et al.
Effects of the ninein-like protein centrosomal protein on breast cancer cell invasion and migration.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(2):1659-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To investigate the effects of the centrosomal protein, ninein-like protein (Nlp), on the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, the present study established green fluorescent protein (GFP)-containing MCF7 plasmids with steady and overexpression of Nlp (MCG7-GFP-N1p) and blank plasmids (MCF7-GFP) using lentiviral transfection technology in MCF7 the breast cancer cell line. The expression of Nlp was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blott analysis. Differences in levels of proliferation, invasion and metastasis between the MCF7-GFP-Nlp group and MCF-GFP group were compared using MTT, plate colony formation and Transwell migration assays. The cell growth was more rapid and the colony forming rate was markedly increased in the MCF7-GFP-Nlp group (P<0.05) compared with the MCF7-GFP group. The number of cells in the MCF-GFP-Nlp and MCF7-GFP groups transferred across membranes were 878 ± 18.22 and 398 ± 8.02, respectively, in the migration assay. The invasive capacity was significantly increased in the MCF7-GFP-Nlp group (P<0.05) compared with the MCF7-GFP group. The western blotting results demonstrated high expression levels of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 in the MCF7-GFP-Nlp group. The increased expression of Nlp was associated with an increase in MCF7 cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, which indicated that Nlp promoted breast tumorigenesis and may be used as a potent biological index to predict breast cancer metastasis and develop therapeutic regimes.

Baranova A, Tran TP, Afendy A, et al.
Molecular signature of adipose tissue in patients with both non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).
J Transl Med. 2013; 11:133 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive disorders with strong association with both insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To untangle the complex relationship between PCOS and NAFLD, we analyzed serum biomarkers of apoptosis, some adipokines and mRNA profiles in the visceral adipose tissue of obese patients with NAFLD who were also diagnosed with PCOS and compared to a group with NAFLD only.
METHODS: We included patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and PCOS (N = 12) and BMI-matched biopsy-proven NAFLD patients without PCOS (N = 12). Expression levels of individual mRNAs and soluble serum biomarkers were compared by non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. The analysis also included Spearman rank correlation tests and multiple regression analysis. For co-correlated genes, the factor analysis was performed.
RESULTS: The total serum levels of apoptotic biomarker M30 were significantly elevated in PCOS patients with liver steatosis as compared to non-PCOS NAFLD controls (P < 0.02), pointing that androgen-dependent proapoptotic PCOS environment that may directly contribute to NAFLD progression in these patients. Similarly, hyperandrogenism may explain the observed PCOS-specific decrease (P < 0.04) in adipose LDLR mRNA expression that may be connected to the proneness of PCOS patients to NAFLD. The levels of mRNA encoding angiogenesis-associated GSK-3B interacting protein ninein were also significantly increased in the adipose tissue of NAFLD patients with PCOS (P < 0.007). Furthermore, the levels of resistin positively correlated with expression levels of LDLR and prothrombin time (PT).
CONCLUSION: An androgen-dependent proapoptotic PCOS environment may directly contribute to NAFLD progression in these patients. Hyperandrogenism may explain an observed decrease in adipose LDLR mRNA expression. An inflammation-associated increase in the release of resistin into circulation might contribute to the prothrombotic state observed under conditions associated with insulin resistance, including PCOS. The studies of larger cohorts of NAFLD with and without PCOS patients are needed to further assess these potential interactions.

Loh JK, Lieu AS, Chou CH, et al.
Differential expression of centrosome-associated proteins in human brain tumors: a possible role of hNinein isoform 6 in cell differentiation.
Biofactors. 2012 Nov-Dec; 38(6):470-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dysregulated centrosomal expression has been observed in high grade gliomas. Thus, this study aimed to examine the expression of Aurora family kinase and various centrosomal proteins, including centrin, γ-tubulin, and hNinein isoforms, in human brain tumors, including 29 meningiomas, 34 astrocytomas, 6 pituitary adenomas, and 6 metastatic tumors. mRNA expression was evaluated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The role of hNinein isoform 6 expression in cell differentiation was assessed in BrdU-treated IMR-32 cells. Differential expression of centrosomal proteins of brain tumors and cell lines was observed. Specifically, centrin 2 and centrin 3 expression levels were classified as moderate or abundant in >97% of samples in the meningioma group, 63% of astrocytomas, >83% of metastatic and pituitary tumors. Alternatively, hNinein isoform 6 expression was only detected in normal brain and astrocytoma tumors (17/34); however, it was not expressed in meningioma (0/29), metastatic tumors (0/6) (P < 0.001). Of the six neuroblastoma cell lines analyzed only IMR-32 cells expressed hNinein isoform 6. Furthermore, downregulated expression of hNinein isoform 6 and upregulation of γ-tubulin was correlated to astrocytoma tumor grade (P < 0.001). Increased hNinein isoform 6 mRNA expression was observed in response to BrdU treatment, and its expression was greater in teratomas as compared to embryonic stem cells. Further studies are necessary to determine if hNinein isoform 6 functions as a tumor-suppressor gene in brain tumors. Differential centrosomal protein expression may result in altered centrosome function that is observed the in progression of various brain tumors.

Zhao W, Song Y, Xu B, Zhan Q
Overexpression of centrosomal protein Nlp confers breast carcinoma resistance to paclitaxel.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2012; 13(3):156-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nlp (ninein-like protein), an important molecule involved in centrosome maturation and spindle formation, plays an important role in tumorigenesis and its abnormal expression was recently observed in human breast and lung cancers. In this study, the correlation between overexpression of Nlp and paclitaxel chemosensitivity was investigated to explore the mechanisms of resistance to paclitaxel and to understand the effect of Nlp upon apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Nlp expression vector was stably transfected into breast cancer MCF-7 cells. With Nlp overexpression, the survival rates, cell cycle distributions and apoptosis were analyzed in transfected MCF-7 cells by MTT test and FCM approach. The immunofluorescent assay was employed to detect the changes of microtubule after paclitaxel treatment. Immunoblotting analysis was used to examine expression of centrosomal proteins and apoptosis associated proteins. Subsequently, Nlp expression was retrospectively examined with 55 breast cancer samples derived from paclitaxel treated patients. Interestingly, the survival rates of MCF-7 cells with Nlp overexpressing were higher than that of control after paclitaxel treatment. Nlp overexpression promoted G2-M arrest and attenuated apoptosis induced by paclitaxel, which was coupled with elevated Bcl-2 protein. Nlp expression significantly lessened the microtubule polymerization and bundling elicited by paclitaxel attributing to alteration on the structure or dynamics of β-tubulin but not on its expression. The breast cancer patients with high expression of Nlp were likely resistant to the treatment of paclitaxel, as the response rate in Nlp negative patients was 62.5%, whereas was 58.3 and 15.8% in Nlp (+) and Nlp (++) patients respectively (p = 0.015). Nlp expression was positive correlated with those of Plk1 and PCNA. These findings provide insights into more rational chemotherapeutic regimens in clinical practice, and more effective approaches might be developed through targeting Nlp to increase chemotherapeutic sensitivity.

Li J, Zhan Q
The role of centrosomal Nlp in the control of mitotic progression and tumourigenesis.
Br J Cancer. 2011; 104(10):1523-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The human centrosomal ninein-like protein (Nlp) is a new member of the γ-tubulin complexes binding proteins (GTBPs) that is essential for proper execution of various mitotic events. The primary function of Nlp is to promote microtubule nucleation that contributes to centrosome maturation, spindle formation and chromosome segregation. Its subcellular localisation and protein stability are regulated by several crucial mitotic kinases, such as Plk1, Nek2, Cdc2 and Aurora B. Several lines of evidence have linked Nlp to human cancer. Deregulation of Nlp in cell models results in aberrant spindle, chromosomal missegregation and multinulei, and induces chromosomal instability and renders cells tumourigenic. Overexpression of Nlp induces anchorage-independent growth and immortalised primary cell transformation. In addition, we first demonstrate that the expression of Nlp is elevated primarily due to NLP gene amplification in human breast cancer and lung carcinoma. Consistently, transgenic mice overexpressing Nlp display spontaneous tumours in breast, ovary and testicle, and show rapid onset of radiation-induced lymphoma, indicating that Nlp is involved in tumourigenesis. This review summarises our current knowledge of physiological roles of Nlp, with an emphasis on its potentials in tumourigenesis.

Lieu AS, Cheng TS, Chou CH, et al.
Functional characterization of AIBp, a novel Aurora-A binding protein in centrosome structure and spindle formation.
Int J Oncol. 2010; 37(2):429-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aurora-A is involved in chromosome alignment, centrosome maturation, mitotic spindle assembly and regards to an oncogene. Aurora-A is also known to bind to several other proteins affecting its up-regulation or down-regulation and localization. However, how these different binding signals work together to regulate Aurora-A is not properly known. To explore more Aurora-A interacting proteins, the low-copy yeast two-hybrid screening using Aurora-A as bait protein was performed. One novel gene, AIBp, was demonstrated to associate with Aurora-A by the yeast two-hybrid method and in vitro GST pull-down assay. Molecular characterization showed that AIBp possessed a binding site at the C-terminal with Aurora-A (kinase domain). Interestingly, AIBp also interacts with hNinein at the N-terminal, which overlaps with a previously reported hNinein and GSK3beta binding site. Using a kinase assay, AIBp interacts with the Aurora-A kinase domain functions as a positive regulator, whereas AIBp binding to hNinein appears to block the phosphorylation of hNinein by both Aurora-A and GSK3beta. siRNA-mediated elimination of AIBp from HeLa cells, results in a doughnut-like shape, asymmetrical spindle pole and multiple spindle pole formation. We also demonstrated that both AIBp and Aurora-A are co-overexpressed in various brain tumors. These studies demonstrate that AIBp may not only be required for the dynamic movement of Aurora-A at the centrosomes and spindle apparatus during the cell cycle, but may also be important during brain tumorigenesis.

Shao S, Liu R, Wang Y, et al.
Centrosomal Nlp is an oncogenic protein that is gene-amplified in human tumors and causes spontaneous tumorigenesis in transgenic mice.
J Clin Invest. 2010; 120(2):498-507 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Disruption of mitotic events contributes greatly to genomic instability and results in mutator phenotypes. Indeed, abnormalities of mitotic components are closely associated with malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. Here we show that ninein-like protein (Nlp), a recently identified BRCA1-associated centrosomal protein involved in microtubule nucleation and spindle formation, is an oncogenic protein. Nlp was found to be overexpressed in approximately 80% of human breast and lung carcinomas analyzed. In human lung cancers, this deregulated expression was associated with NLP gene amplification. Further analysis revealed that Nlp exhibited strong oncogenic properties; for example, it conferred to NIH3T3 rodent fibroblasts the capacity for anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice. Consistent with these data, transgenic mice overexpressing Nlp displayed spontaneous tumorigenesis in the breast, ovary, and testicle within 60 weeks. In addition, Nlp overexpression induced more rapid onset of radiation-induced lymphoma. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Nlp transgenic mice showed centrosome amplification, suggesting that Nlp overexpression mimics BRCA1 loss. These findings demonstrate that Nlp abnormalities may contribute to genomic instability and tumorigenesis and suggest that Nlp might serve as a potential biomarker for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic target.

Couch FJ, Wang X, Bamlet WR, et al.
Association of mitotic regulation pathway polymorphisms with pancreatic cancer risk and outcome.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010; 19(1):251-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mitosis is a highly regulated process that serves to ensure the fidelity of cell division. The disruption of mitotic regulators leading to aneuploidy and polyploidy is commonly observed in cancer cells. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in regulators of mitosis may promote chromosome missegregation and influence pancreatic cancer and/or survival.
METHODS: Thirty-four SNPs, previously associated with breast cancer risk, from 33 genes involved in the regulation of mitosis, were investigated for associations with pancreatic cancer risk in 1,143 Caucasian patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 1,097 unaffected controls from the Mayo Clinic. Associations with survival from pancreatic cancer were also assessed using 1,030 pancreatic cancer cases with known outcome.
RESULTS: Two SNPs in the APC (rs2431238) and NIN (rs10145182) loci, of 34 examined, were significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (P = 0.035 and P = 0.038, respectively). Further analyses of individuals categorized by smoking and body mass index identified several SNPs displaying significant associations (P < 0.05) with pancreatic cancer risk, including APC rs2431238 in individuals with high body mass index (>/=30; P = 0.031) and NIN rs10145182 in ever smokers (P = 0.01). In addition, survival analyses detected significant associations between SNPs in EIF3S10 and overall survival (P = 0.009), SNPs from five genes and survival in resected cancer cases (P < 0.05), and SNPs from two other genes (P < 0.05) and survival of locally advanced cancer cases.
CONCLUSION: Common variation in genes encoding regulators of mitosis may independently influence pancreatic cancer susceptibility and survival.

Yu L, Song Y, Zhang Q, Zhan Q
Ninein-like protein is overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and contributes to cancer growth and resistance to apoptosis.
Oncol Rep. 2009; 22(4):789-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and survival rates are not improving. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this disease becomes critical to develop more effective treatments. Ninein-like protein (Nlp), a recently identified centrosome-associated protein, is a key regulator in centrosome maturation, which contributes to chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Recent studies have revealed overexpression of Nlp in several types of human tumors and suggested it was a potential oncogenic protein. To investigate the role of Nlp in the development of HNSCC, expression of Nlp in tumor tissues of 76 HNSCC patients were analyzed, and the correlations of Nlp expression with the clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. Our data showed overexpression of Nlp in tumor tissues compared with their normal counterparts. Moreover, overexpression of Nlp correlated with tumor differentiation and immunohistochemistry analysis of preinvasive dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma showed that overexpression of Nlp occurred in premalignant lesions. Biological studies with human HNSCC cell lines indicated that overexpression of Nlp promoted cell proliferation and inhibited cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest a novel mechanism that is closely related to malignant phenotype and anti-cancer drugs resistance of HNSCC and support the notion that Nlp overexpression might contribute to the development of HNSCC.

Qu D, Qu H, Fu M, et al.
Increased expression of Nlp, a potential oncogene in ovarian cancer, and its implication in carcinogenesis.
Gynecol Oncol. 2008; 110(2):230-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Nlp (Ninein-like protein), a novel centrosome protein involved in microtubule nucleation, has been studied extensively in our laboratory, and its overexpression has been found in some human tumors. To understand the role of Nlp in human ovarian cancer development, we studied the correlation of Nlp expression with clinicopathological parameters and survival in epithelial ovarian cancer, and the impact of Nlp overexpression on ovarian cancer cells.
METHODS: Nlp expression in normal, borderline, benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between Nlp expression and tumor grade, FIGO stage and histological type was also evaluated. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assayed after stable transfection of pEGFP-C3-Nlp or empty vector in human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3.
RESULTS: Nlp was positive in 1 of 10 (10%) normal ovarian tissues, 5 of 34 (14.7%) benign tumors, 9 of 26 (34.6%) borderline tumors and 73 of 131 (56.0%) ovarian tumors. Nlp immunoreactivity intensity significantly correlated with tumor grade, but not with FIGO stage or histological type. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that Nlp overexpression was marginally associated with decreased overall survival. Overexpression of Nlp enhanced proliferation and inhibited apoptosis induced by paclitaxel in the SKOV3 cell line.
CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of Nlp in ovarian tumors raises the possibility that Nlp may play a role in ovarian carcinogenesis.

Cenciarelli C, Tanzarella C, Vitale I, et al.
The tubulin-depolymerising agent combretastatin-4 induces ectopic aster assembly and mitotic catastrophe in lung cancer cells H460.
Apoptosis. 2008; 13(5):659-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
The relationship between microtubular dynamics, dismantling of pericentriolar components and induction of apoptosis was analysed after exposure of H460 non-small lung cancer cells to anti-mitotic drugs. The microtubule destabilising agent, combretastatin-A4 (CA-4) led to microtubular array disorganization, arrest in mitosis and abnormal metaphases, accompanied by the presence of numerous centrosome-independent "star-like" structures containing tubulin and aggregates of pericentrosomal matrix components like gamma-tubulin, pericentrin and ninein, whereas the structural integrity of centrioles was not affected by treatment. On the contrary, in condition of prolonged exposure or high concentrations of CA-4 such aggregates never formed. Treatment with 7.5 nM CA-4, which produced a high frequency "star-like" aggregates, was accompanied by mitotic catastrophe commitment characterized by translocation of the proapoptotic Bim protein to mitochondria activation of caspases-3/9 and DNA fragmentation as a result of either prolonged metaphase arrest or attempt of cells to divide. Drug concentrations which fail to block cells at mitosis were also unable to activate apotosis. A detailed time-course analysis of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis indicated that after CA-4 washout the number of metaphases with "star-like" structures decreased as a function of time and arrested cells proceeded in anaphase. After 4 h, the multiple alpha- and gamma-tubulin aggregates coalesced into two well-defined spindles in a bipolar mitotic spindle organization. Overall, our findings suggest that the maintenance of microtubular integrity plays a relevant role in stabilising the pericentriolar matrix, whose dismantling can be associated with apoptosis after exposure to microtubule depolymerising agents.

Shin SY, Choi BH, Ko J, et al.
Clozapine, a neuroleptic agent, inhibits Akt by counteracting Ca2+/calmodulin in PTEN-negative U-87MG human glioblastoma cells.
Cell Signal. 2006; 18(11):1876-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clozapine (CZP), a dibenzodiazepine derivative with a piperazinyl side chain, is in clinical use as an antipsychotic drug. This study investigated the effect of CZP on the modulation of the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3beta pathway in PTEN-negative U-87MG glioblastoma cells. Treatment with CZP rapidly inhibited the basal and EGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt. The inhibition of Akt resulted in the dephosphorylation of GSK-3beta and increased GSK-3beta kinase activity. A voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channel blocker and calmodulin (CaM) antagonists inhibited Akt phosphorylation, whereas elevation of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration prevented CZP-induced dephosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta, suggesting that Ca(2+)/CaM participates in the inhibition of Akt by CZP in U-87MG cells. In addition, similar to LY294002, CZP arrested cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase, which was accompanied by decreased expression of cyclin D1. The reduction in the cyclin D1 level induced by CZP was abrogated by the inhibition of GSK-3beta, the inhibition of proteasome-dependent proteolysis, or an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. These results suggest that the antipsychotic drug CZP modulates the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3beta pathway by counteracting Ca(2+)/CaM in PTEN-negative U-87MG glioblastoma cells.

Howng SL, Hsu HC, Cheng TS, et al.
A novel ninein-interaction protein, CGI-99, blocks ninein phosphorylation by GSK3beta and is highly expressed in brain tumors.
FEBS Lett. 2004; 566(1-3):162-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
To explore more hNinein interacting proteins, the yeast two-hybrid screening using ninein C-terminal domain as bait protein was performed. One novel gene, CGI-99, was demonstrated to associate with hNinein in the yeast two-hybrid method and in vitro GST pull-down assay. Molecular characterization also showed that CGI-99 possessed a transcriptional activity at the N-terminal. In addition, CGI-99 formed a dimer with the C-terminal, which overlapped with hNinein binding site. In kinase assay, CGI-99 binds to hNinein and completely blocks the phosphorylation of hNinein by GSK3beta. Moreover, CGI-99 was highly expressed in all brain tumors which is in agreement with the Northern blot analysis. Taken together, we have isolated a novel protein CGI-99, which may be involved in the functional regulation of human ninein in the centrosome structure and may also be important in brain development and tumorigenesis.

Dammermann A, Merdes A
Assembly of centrosomal proteins and microtubule organization depends on PCM-1.
J Cell Biol. 2002; 159(2):255-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The protein PCM-1 localizes to cytoplasmic granules known as "centriolar satellites" that are partly enriched around the centrosome. We inhibited PCM-1 function using a variety of approaches: microinjection of antibodies into cultured cells, overexpression of a PCM-1 deletion mutant, and specific depletion of PCM-1 by siRNA. All approaches led to reduced targeting of centrin, pericentrin, and ninein to the centrosome. Similar effects were seen upon inhibition of dynactin by dynamitin, and after prolonged treatment of cells with the microtubule inhibitor nocodazole. Inhibition or depletion of PCM-1 function further disrupted the radial organization of microtubules without affecting microtubule nucleation. Loss of microtubule organization was also observed after centrin or ninein depletion. Our data suggest that PCM-1-containing centriolar satellites are involved in the microtubule- and dynactin-dependent recruitment of proteins to the centrosome, of which centrin and ninein are required for interphase microtubule organization.

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