Gene Summary

Gene:LAMP1; lysosomal associated membrane protein 1
Aliases: LAMPA, CD107a, LGP120
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of membrane glycoproteins. This glycoprotein provides selectins with carbohydrate ligands. It may also play a role in tumor cell metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: LAMP1 (cancer-related)

Deng L, Liu G, Zheng C, et al.
Circ-LAMP1 promotes T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma progression via acting as a ceRNA for miR-615-5p to regulate DDR2 expression.
Gene. 2019; 701:146-151 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) act as pivotal functions in tumor progression. Nevertheless, the functions and mechanism of circRNAs in T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) remain unclear. In this work, we first screened the differentially expressed circRNAs between T-LBL tissues and normal infantile thymus and circ-LAMP1 was identified the highest expressed circRNA in cancerous tissues. qRT-PCR further verified its upregulation in T-LBL tissues and cell lines. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) experiment proved the cell proliferation-promoting role of circ-LAMP1. This effect is partially dependent on its inhibition on cell apoptosis proved by flow cytometric assay. Dual-luciferase reporter system further identified that miR-615-5p could be sponged by circ-LAMP1 and discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (DDR2) 3'-UTR is the direct target of miR-615-5p. Rescue assays demonstrated that the biological function of circ-LAMP1 is partly attributed to the modulation of miR-615-5p/DDR2 signaling. In summary, these findings documented that circ-LAMP1 might be an oncogene in T-LBL, which might be useful in developing promising therapies for T-LBL.

Ho K, Morfin C, Slowinska K
The Limitations of Collagen/CPP Hybrid Peptides as Carriers for Cancer Drugs to FaDu Cells.
Molecules. 2019; 24(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The in vitro efficacy of cancer prodrugs varies significantly between malignant cell lines. The most commonly identified problems relate to delivery: uptake mechanism, endosomal entrapment, and drug release. Here we present the study of collagen/cell penetrating hybrid (COL/CPP) peptide carriers intended to deliver paclitaxel to the hypopharyngeal carcinoma (FaDu) cells. Confocal microscopy imaging revealed the surprising response of FaDu cell to COL/CPP in comparison to previously studied cancer cell lines: hybrid peptides that carry both COL and CPP domain adsorb on the FaDu cell surface. While the CPP domain was design to facilitate the cellular uptake, in the case of FaDu cells, it also induced detrimental interactions with the cell membrane. Despite surface adsorption, the colocalization study with endosomal markers EEA1 and LAMP1 reveals that COL/CPP is internalized via endosomal pathway, peptides are able to escape before lysosome formation and release paclitaxel. Therefore, the main obstacle for paclitaxel delivery to FaDu cells appears to be related to cell surface properties. This behavior seems specific to FaDu cells, and could be linked to previously reported overexpression of T5, heparanase splice variants that produces protein lacking enzymatic activity of heparanase. This results in increased concentration of HSPG on FaDu cell surface, and possibly creates a barrier for cellular uptake of highly charged COL/CPP.

Pal R, Xiong Y, Sardiello M
Abnormal glycogen storage in tuberous sclerosis complex caused by impairment of mTORC1-dependent and -independent signaling pathways.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019; 116(8):2977-2986 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome that causes tumor formation in multiple organs. TSC is caused by inactivating mutations in the genes encoding TSC1/2, negative regulators of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Diminished TSC function is associated with excess glycogen storage, but the causative mechanism is unknown. By studying human and mouse cells with defective or absent TSC2, we show that complete loss of TSC2 causes an increase in glycogen synthesis through mTORC1 hyperactivation and subsequent inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a negative regulator of glycogen synthesis. Specific TSC2 pathogenic mutations, however, result in elevated glycogen levels with no changes in mTORC1 or GSK3β activities. We identify mTORC1-independent lysosomal depletion and impairment of autophagy as the driving causes underlying abnormal glycogen storage in TSC irrespective of the underlying mutation. The defective autophagic degradation of glycogen is associated with abnormal ubiquitination and degradation of essential proteins of the autophagy-lysosome pathway, such as LC3 and lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 and 2 (LAMP1/2) and is restored by the combined use of mTORC1 and Akt pharmacological inhibitors. In complementation to current models that place mTORC1 as the central therapeutic target for TSC pathogenesis, our findings identify mTORC1-independent pathways that are dysregulated in TSC and that should therefore be taken into account in the development of a therapeutic treatment.

Daßler-Plenker J, Paschen A, Putschli B, et al.
Direct RIG-I activation in human NK cells induces TRAIL-dependent cytotoxicity toward autologous melanoma cells.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(7):1645-1656 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activation of the innate immune receptor retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) by its specific ligand 5'-triphosphate RNA (3pRNA) triggers anti-tumor immunity, which is dependent on natural killer (NK) cell activation and cytokine induction. However, to date, RIG-I expression and the functional consequences of RIG-I activation in NK cells have not been examined. Here, we show for the first time the expression of RIG-I in human NK cells and their activation upon RIG-I ligand (3pRNA) transfection. 3pRNA-activated NK cells killed melanoma cells more efficiently than NK cells activated by type I interferon. Stimulation of RIG-I in NK cells specifically increased the surface expression of membrane-bound TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) on NK cells, while activated NK cell receptors were not affected. RIG-I-induced membrane-bound TRAIL initiated death-receptor-pathway-mediated apoptosis not only in allogeneic but also in autologous human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-positive and HLA class I-negative melanoma cells. These results identify the direct activation of RIG-I in NK cells as a novel mechanism for how RIG-I can trigger enhanced NK cell killing of tumor cells, underscoring the potential of RIG-I activation for tumor immunotherapy.

Schneidt V, Ilecka M, Dreger P, et al.
Antibodies conjugated with viral antigens elicit a cytotoxic T cell response against primary CLL ex vivo.
Leukemia. 2019; 33(1):88-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most frequent B cell malignancy in Caucasian adults. The therapeutic armamentarium against this incurable disease has recently seen a tremendous expansion with the introduction of specific pathway inhibitors and innovative immunotherapy. However, none of these approaches is curative and devoid of side effects. We have used B-cell-specific antibodies conjugated with antigens (AgAbs) of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to efficiently expand memory CD4

Sarafian VS, Koev I, Mehterov N, et al.
LAMP-1 gene is overexpressed in high grade glioma.
APMIS. 2018; 126(8):657-662 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-grade gliomas (HGG) are the most frequent brain tumors in adults. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is their most aggressive form resistant to therapy. It was shown that inhibition of autophagy reduced GBM development and autophagy interfering agents are regarded as a new strategy to fight glioma cells. The lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) display differential expression particularly in cancer. There are few data on their expression and especially on their molecular profile. The aim of the present study is to investigate the expression of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 genes and proteins in HGG. Newly diagnosed patients with HGG and healthy controls were examined by immunohistochemistry and qPCR for both protein and mRNA levels of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2. The transcriptional activity of LAMP-1 in HGG was significantly higher compared to normal brain and to LAMP-2. The two glycoproteins were detected in the cytosol of tumor cells with varying intensity, LAMP-1 showing again enhanced expression. In conclusion, novel data on LAMP-1 overexpression in HGG are presented suggesting involvement of this gene and protein in cell adhesion and tumor progression. These findings might help the elucidation of the complex biological role of the multifunctional LAMPs proteins and to predict novel therapeutic targets in lysosomes.

Talukdar S, Pradhan AK, Bhoopathi P, et al.
MDA-9/Syntenin regulates protective autophagy in anoikis-resistant glioma stem cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(22):5768-5773 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioma stem cells (GSCs) comprise a small subpopulation of glioblastoma multiforme cells that contribute to therapy resistance, poor prognosis, and tumor recurrence. Protective autophagy promotes resistance of GSCs to anoikis, a form of programmed cell death occurring when anchorage-dependent cells detach from the extracellular matrix. In nonadherent conditions, GSCs display protective autophagy and anoikis-resistance, which correlates with expression of melanoma differentiation associated gene-9/Syntenin (MDA-9) (syndecan binding protein; SDCBP). When MDA-9 is suppressed, GSCs undergo autophagic death supporting the hypothesis that MDA-9 regulates protective autophagy in GSCs under anoikis conditions. MDA-9 maintains protective autophagy through phosphorylation of BCL2 and by suppressing high levels of autophagy through EGFR signaling. MDA-9 promotes these changes by modifying FAK and PKC signaling. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function genetic approaches demonstrate that MDA-9 regulates pEGFR and pBCL2 expression through FAK and pPKC. EGFR signaling inhibits autophagy markers (ATG5, Lamp1, LC3B), helping to maintain protective autophagy, and along with pBCL2 maintain survival of GSCs. In the absence of MDA-9, this protective mechanism is deregulated; EGFR no longer maintains protective autophagy, leading to highly elevated and sustained levels of autophagy and consequently decreased cell survival. In addition, pBCL2 is down-regulated in the absence of MDA-9, leading to cell death in GSCs under conditions of anoikis. Our studies confirm a functional link between MDA-9 expression and protective autophagy in GSCs and show that inhibition of MDA-9 reverses protective autophagy and induces anoikis and cell death in GSCs.

Kolb-Lenz D, Fuchs R, Lohberger B, et al.
Characterization of the endolysosomal system in human chordoma cell lines: is there a role of lysosomes in chemoresistance of this rare bone tumor?
Histochem Cell Biol. 2018; 150(1):83-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chordoma is a rare tumor of the bone derived from remnants of the notochord with pronounced chemoresistance. A common feature of the notochord and chordoma cells is distinct vacuolization. Recently, the notochord vacuole was described as a lysosome-related organelle. Since lysosomes are considered as mediators of drug resistance in cancer, we were interested whether they may also play a role in chemoresistance of chordoma. We characterized the lysosomal compartment in chordoma cell lines by cytochemistry, electron microscopy (ELMI) and mutational analysis of genes essential for the physiology of lysosomes. Furthermore, we tested for the first time the cytotoxicity of chloroquine, which targets lysosomes, on chordoma. Cytochemical stainings clearly demonstrated a huge mass of lysosomes in chordoma cell lines with perinuclear accumulation. Also vacuoles in chordoma cells were positive for the lysosomal marker LAMP1 but showed no acidic pH. Genetic analysis detected no apparent mutation associated with known lysosomal pathologies suggesting that vacuolization and the huge lysosomal mass of chordoma cell lines is rather a relict of the notochord than a result of transformation. ELMI investigation of chordoma cells confirmed the presence of large vacuoles, lysosomes and autophagosomes with heterogeneous ultrastructure embedded in glycogen. Interestingly, chordoma cells seem to mobilize cellular glycogen stores via autophagy. Our first preclinical data suggested no therapeutically benefit of chloroquine for chordoma. Even though, chordoma cells are crammed with lysosomes which are according to their discoverer de Duve "cellular suicide bags". Destabilizing these "suicide bags" might be a promising strategy for the treatment of chordoma.

Donnenberg VS, Zhang JJ, Moravcikova E, et al.
Antibody-based cell-surface proteome profiling of metastatic breast cancer primary explants and cell lines.
Cytometry A. 2018; 93(4):448-457 [PubMed] Related Publications
Flow cytometric cell surface proteomics provides a new and powerful tool to determine changes accompanying neoplastic transformation and invasion, providing clues to essential interactions with the microenvironment as well as leads for potential therapeutic targets. One of the most important advantages of flow cytometric cell surface proteomics is that it can be performed on living cells that can be sorted for further characterization and functional studies. Here, we document the surface proteome of clonogenic metastatic breast cancer (MBrCa) explants, which was strikingly similar to that of normal mesenchymal stromal cells (P = 0.017, associated with Pearson correlation coefficient) and transformed mammary epithelial cells (P = 0.022). Markers specifically upregulated on MBrCa included CD200 (Ox2), CD51/CD61 (Integrin α5/β3), CD26 (dipeptidyl peptidase-4), CD165 (c-Cbl), and CD54 (ICAM-1). Proteins progressively upregulated in a model of neoplastic transformation and invasion included CD26, CD63 (LAMP3), CD105 (Endoglin), CD107a (LAMP1), CD108 (Semaphorin 7A), CD109 (Integrin β4), CD151 (Raph blood group), and disialoganglioside G2. The proteome of the commonly used cell lines MDA-MB-231, MCF7, and BT-474 were uncorrelated with that of MBrCa (P = 1.0, 1.0, 0.9, respectively). The comparison has demonstrated the mesenchymal nature of clonogenic cells isolated by short-term culture of metastatic breast cancer, provided several leads for biomarkers and potential targets for anti-invasive therapy, including CD200, and highlighted the limitations of breast cancer cell lines for representing the cell surface biology of breast cancer. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

Bae J, Hideshima T, Tai YT, et al.
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor ACY241 enhances anti-tumor activities of antigen-specific central memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes against multiple myeloma and solid tumors.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(9):1932-1947 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are therapeutic targets in multiple cancers. ACY241, an HDAC6 selective inhibitor, has shown anti-multiple myeloma (MM) activity in combination with immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors. Here we show ACY241 significantly reduces the frequency of CD138

Mathew NR, Baumgartner F, Braun L, et al.
Sorafenib promotes graft-versus-leukemia activity in mice and humans through IL-15 production in FLT3-ITD-mutant leukemia cells.
Nat Med. 2018; 24(3):282-291 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Individuals with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring an internal tandem duplication (ITD) in the gene encoding Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) have a 1-year survival rate below 20%. We observed that sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased IL-15 production by FLT3-ITD

Ashok V, Ranganathan R, Chander S, et al.
Comparison of Diagnostic Yield of a FISH Panel Against Conventional Cytogenetic Studies for Hematological Malignancies: A South Indian Referral Laboratory Analysis Of 201 Cases
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2017; 18(12):3457-3464 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objectives: Genetic markers are crucial fort diagnostic and prognostic investigation of hematological malignancies (HM). The conventional cytogenetic study (CCS) has been the gold standard for more than five decades. However, FISH (Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization) testing has become a popular modality owing to its targeted approach and the ability to detect abnormalities in non-mitotic cells. We here aimed to compare the diagnostic yields of a FISH panel against CCS in HMs. Methods: Samples of bone marrow and peripheral blood for a total of 201 HMs were tested for specific gene rearrangements using multi-target FISH and the results were compared with those from CCS. Results: Exhibited a greater diagnostic yield with a positive result in 39.8% of the cases, as compared to 17.9% of cases detected by CCS. Cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) benefited the most by FISH testing, which identified chromosomal aberrations beyond the capacity of CCS. FISH was least beneficial in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) where the highest concordance with CCS was exhibited. Acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) demonstrated greater benefit with CCS. In addition, we found the following abnormalities to be most prevalent in HMs by FISH panel testing: RUNX1 (21q22) amplification in ALL, deletion of D13S319/LAMP1 (13q14) in CLL, CKS1B (1q21) amplification in multiple myeloma and deletion of EGR1/RPS14 (5q31/5q32) in MDS, consistent with the literature. Conclusions: In conclusion, FISH was found to be advantageous in only a subset of HMs and cannot completely replace CCS. Utilization of the two modalities in conjunction or independently should depend on the indicated HM for an optimal approach to detecting chromosomal aberrations.

de Urbina JJO, San-Miguel B, Vidal-Casariego A, et al.
Effects Of Oral Glutamine on Inflammatory and Autophagy Responses in Cancer Patients Treated With Abdominal Radiotherapy: A Pilot Randomized Trial.
Int J Med Sci. 2017; 14(11):1065-1071 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Chen S, Wu DD, Sang XB, et al.
The lncRNA HULC functions as an oncogene by targeting ATG7 and ITGB1 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(10):e3118 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC) is a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), which has recently been identified as a key regulator in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma, gliomas and gastric cancer. However, its role in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) remains unknown. In this study, HULC expression was examined in EOC, borderline and benign ovarian tumors, and normal ovarian tissues by RT-PCR. Ovarian cancer cell phenotypes, as well as autophagy-associated proteins were examined after HULC overexpression or downregulation by plasmid or small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, respectively. LncRNA-protein interactions were examined by ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays. We found that HULC expression levels were higher in EOC tissues than normal samples. HULC overexpression induced cell proliferation, migration, invasion, whereas reduced cell apoptosis in vitro and induced tumor growth in vivo. In contrast, downregulation of HULC by siRNA transfection reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis and autophagy. Our results showed that HULC overexpression reduced ATG7, LC3-II and LAMP1 expression, while inducing SQSTM1 (P62) and ITGB1 expression. HULC downregulation had the opposite effects. Furthermore, RIP indicated that ATG7 interacted with HULC; ATG7 downregulation also induced cell proliferation, reduced apoptosis and inhibited autophagy in vitro by reducing LC3-II and LAMP1 expression, while inducing SQSTM1 expression. Furthermore, ATG7 co-transfection with HULC reversed the oncogenic effects of HULC both in vitro and in vivo; however, downregulating ATG7 did not affect cell migration and invasive ability. We found that ITGB1 siRNA co-transfection with HULC reversed the function of HULC in inducing ovarian cancer cell migration and invasive ability. Taken together, our results show that HULC may promote ovarian carcinoma tumorigenesis by inhibiting ATG7 and inducing progression by regulating ITGB1.

Lampa M, Arlt H, He T, et al.
Glutaminase is essential for the growth of triple-negative breast cancer cells with a deregulated glutamine metabolism pathway and its suppression synergizes with mTOR inhibition.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(9):e0185092 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor cells display fundamental changes in metabolism and nutrient uptake in order to utilize additional nutrient sources to meet their enhanced bioenergetic requirements. Glutamine (Gln) is one such nutrient that is rapidly taken up by tumor cells to fulfill this increased metabolic demand. A vital step in the catabolism of glutamine is its conversion to glutamate by the mitochondrial enzyme glutaminase (GLS). This study has identified GLS a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer, specifically in the basal subtype that exhibits a deregulated glutaminolysis pathway. Using inducible shRNA mediated gene knockdown, we discovered that loss of GLS function in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines with a deregulated glutaminolysis pathway led to profound tumor growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo. GLS knockdown had no effect on growth and metabolite levels in non-TNBC cell lines. We rescued the anti-tumor effect of GLS knockdown using shRNA resistant cDNAs encoding both GLS isoforms and by addition of an α-ketoglutarate (αKG) analog thus confirming the critical role of GLS in TNBC. Pharmacological inhibition of GLS with the small molecule inhibitor CB-839 reduced cell growth and led to a decrease in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity and an increase in the stress response pathway driven by activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Finally, we found that GLS inhibition synergizes with mTOR inhibition, which introduces the possibility of a novel therapeutic strategy for TNBC. Our study revealed that GLS is essential for the survival of TNBC with a deregulated glutaminolysis pathway. The synergistic activity of GLS and mTOR inhibitors in TNBC cell lines suggests therapeutic potential of this combination for the treatment of vulnerable subpopulations of TNBC.

Konjevic G, Vuletic A, Mirjacic Martinovic K, et al.
Evaluation of the Functional Capacity of NK Cells of Melanoma Patients in an In Vitro Model of NK Cell Contact with K562 and FemX Tumor Cell Lines.
J Membr Biol. 2017; 250(5):507-516 [PubMed] Related Publications
NK cells of metastatic melanoma (MM) patients display impaired function, making them incapable to mount an effective antitumor response. In this study, we evaluated immunophenotypic characteristics and functional capacity of CD3

Khan MW, Saadalla A, Ewida AH, et al.
The STAT3 inhibitor pyrimethamine displays anti-cancer and immune stimulatory effects in murine models of breast cancer.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2018; 67(1):13-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor signal activator and transducer or transcription (STAT3), which regulates genes controlling proliferation, survival, and invasion, is activated inappropriately in many human cancers, including breast cancer. Activation of STAT3 can lead to both malignant cellular behavior and suppression of immune cell function in the tumor microenvironment. Through a chemical-biology screen, pyrimethamine (PYR), an FDA approved anti-microbial drug, was identified as an inhibitor of STAT3 function at concentrations known to be achieved safely in humans. We report that PYR shows therapeutic activity in two independent mouse models of breast cancer, with both direct tumor inhibitory and immune stimulatory effects. PYR-inhibited STAT3 activity in TUBO and TM40D-MB metastatic breast cancer cells in vitro and inhibited tumor cell proliferation and invasion into Matrigel basement membrane matrix. In tumor-transplanted mice, PYR had both direct and indirect tumor inhibitory effects. Tumor-bearing mice treated with PYR showed reduced STAT3 activation in tumor cells, attenuated tumor growth, and reduced tumor-associated inflammation. In addition, expression of Lamp1 by tumor infiltrating CD8

Tao H, Chen F, Liu H, et al.
Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation reverses gemcitabine resistance by attenuating Beclin1-mediated autophagy in the MG63 human osteosarcoma cell line.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(2):1701-1706 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Anaberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is frequently implicated in tumorigenesis. However, whether the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway plays a role in resistance to antitumor chemotherapy drugs remains unknown. In the present study, the process of autophagy was assessed following overexpression of the autophagy‑associated gene Beclin 1 in gemcitabine‑induced MG63 human osteosarcoma cells. Autophagy‑associated gene expression was measured following activation or inhibition of the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway in gemcitabine‑induced MG63 cells using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the percentage of MG63 cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry following Wnt/β‑catenin pathway activation or inhibition. The results demonstrated that Beclin 1 overexpression induced autophagy and reduced gemcitabine‑induced apoptosis in MG63 human cell line. Furthermore, activation of the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway attenuated autophagy and enhanced gemcitabine‑induced apoptosis. Additionally, the expression of Beclin 1 was reduced following Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway activation. The present study demonstrated that activation of the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway may rescue chemotherapy drug resistance by downregulating the expression of Beclin 1.

da Silva RF, Yoshida A, Cardozo DM, et al.
Natural Killer Cells Response to IL-2 Stimulation Is Distinct between Ascites with the Presence or Absence of Malignant Cells in Ovarian Cancer Patients.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peritoneal ascites are a distinguishable feature of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The presence of different lymphocyte subsets has been reported in EOC-associated ascites, which also can or not contain malignant cells. The goal of this study was to analyze the functional characteristics of natural killer (NK) cells from EOC-associated ascites in terms of their expression of activating receptors and ascites' contents of lymphocyte subtypes, cytokine profile and presence of EOC cells. NK cell function was evaluated by the expression of the degranulation marker CD107a in resting and interleukin (IL)-2 stimulated NK cells from ascites and blood. Degranulation of NK cells from EOC cell-free ascites was significantly (

Xiu YL, Sun KX, Chen X, et al.
Upregulation of the lncRNA Meg3 induces autophagy to inhibit tumorigenesis and progression of epithelial ovarian carcinoma by regulating activity of ATG3.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(19):31714-31725 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Maternally expressed gene 3 (Meg3), a long non-coding RNA, has been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of multiple malignancies. However, little is known regarding the role of Meg3 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). In this study, we found that the expression of Meg3 was lower in epithelial ovarian carcinoma, and has potential to be considered as a biomarker for ovarian cancer. After transfecting the ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR3 and A2780 with Meg3, phenotypic changes and autophagy-related molecules were examined. Upregulation of Meg3 inhibited cell proliferation, plate colony formation, induced cell cycle arrest in G2 phases, and promoted apoptosis. Observation of autophagosomes was performed by transmission electron microscopy. The expression levels of LC3-II, ATG3, LAMP1 were elevated, while SQSTM1/p62 expression declined. Upregulated expression of Meg3 also suppressed tumorigenesis in vivo in a xenograft mouse model through upregulating ATG3 expression. RIP (ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation) and RNA pull-down assays showed that Meg3 was co-immunoprecipitated with ATG3. In addition, Meg3 protected ATG3 mRNA from degradation following treatment with actinomycin D. Overall, our results suggest that the lncRNA Meg3 acts as a tumor suppressor in EOC by regulating ATG3 activity and inducing autophagy.

Taghiloo S, Allahmoradi E, Tehrani M, et al.
Frequency and functional characterization of exhausted CD8
Eur J Haematol. 2017; 98(6):622-631 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The phenotypic and functional properties of Tim-3
METHODS: Frequency of CD8
RESULTS: The proportion of exhausted CD8
CONCLUSION: Targeting immune inhibitory receptors to restore the function of tumor surrounding T cells could be helpful for immunotherapy of CLL.

Walters JN, Ferraro B, Duperret EK, et al.
A Novel DNA Vaccine Platform Enhances Neo-antigen-like T Cell Responses against WT1 to Break Tolerance and Induce Anti-tumor Immunity.
Mol Ther. 2017; 25(4):976-988 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor-associated antigens have emerged as important immunotherapeutic targets in the fight against cancer. Germline tumor antigens, such as WT1, Wilms' tumor gene 1, are overexpressed in many human malignancies but have low expression in somatic tissues. Recent vaccination approaches to target WT1 have been hampered by poor in vivo immune potency, likely due to the conserved self-antigen nature of WT1. In this study, we use a novel synthetic micro-consensus SynCon DNA vaccine approach with the goal of breaking tolerance and increasing vaccine immune potency. This approach induced new, neo-antigen-like responses that were superior to those induced by native WT1 DNA immunogens for driving T cell immunity and breaking tolerance. Non-human primates (NHPs) vaccinated with SynCon WT1 antigens elicited immune responses against native rhesus WT1 peptides. When delivered by electroporation (EP) in mice, SynCon-based WT1 constructs elicited strong CD4 and CD8 T cell responses (including IFN-γ, CD107a, and TNF-α) to both native and consensus peptides. In addition, SynCon WT1 vaccine-induced antibodies recognized native WT1 in vitro. Vaccination with the SynCon WT1 immunogens was capable of slowing tumor growth in therapeutic models in vivo. These data support the further study of synthetic consensus DNA vaccines for breaking tolerance to important germline antigens.

Minagawa K, Jamil MO, Al-Obaidi M, et al.
In Vitro Pre-Clinical Validation of Suicide Gene Modified Anti-CD33 Redirected Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cells for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(12):e0166891 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Approximately fifty percent of patients with acute myeloid leukemia can be cured with current therapeutic strategies which include, standard dose chemotherapy for patients at standard risk of relapse as assessed by cytogenetic and molecular analysis, or high-dose chemotherapy with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for high-risk patients. Despite allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant about 25% of patients still succumb to disease relapse, therefore, novel strategies are needed to improve the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed an immunotherapeutic strategy targeting the CD33 myeloid antigen, expressed in ~ 85-90% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia, using chimeric antigen receptor redirected T-cells. Considering that administration of CAR T-cells has been associated with cytokine release syndrome and other potential off-tumor effects in patients, safety measures were here investigated and reported. We genetically modified human activated T-cells from healthy donors or patients with acute myeloid leukemia with retroviral supernatant encoding the inducible Caspase9 suicide gene, a ΔCD19 selectable marker, and a humanized third generation chimeric antigen receptor recognizing human CD33. ΔCD19 selected inducible Caspase9-CAR.CD33 T-cells had a 75±3.8% (average ± standard error of the mean) chimeric antigen receptor expression, were able to specifically lyse CD33+ targets in vitro, including freshly isolated leukemic blasts from patients, produce significant amount of tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, express the CD107a degranulation marker, and proliferate upon antigen specific stimulation. Challenging ΔCD19 selected inducible Caspase9-CAR.CD33 T-cells with programmed-death-ligand-1 enriched leukemia blasts resulted in significant killing like observed for the programmed-death-ligand-1 negative leukemic blasts fraction. Since the administration of 10 nanomolar of a non-therapeutic dimerizer to activate the suicide gene resulted in the elimination of only 76.4±2.0% gene modified cells in vitro, we found that co-administration of the dimerizer with either the BCL-2 inhibitor ABT-199, the pan-BCL inhibitor ABT-737, or mafosfamide, resulted in an additive effect up to complete cell elimination.
CONCLUSIONS: This strategy could be investigated for the safety of CAR T-cell applications, and targeting CD33 could be used as a 'bridge" therapy for patients coming to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant, as anti-leukemia activity from infusing CAR.CD33 T-cells has been demonstrated in an ongoing clinical trial. Albeit never performed in the clinical setting, our future plan is to investigate the utility of iC9-CAR.CD33 T-cells as part of the conditioning therapy for an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for acute myeloid leukemia, together with other myelosuppressive agents, whilst the activation of the inducible Caspase9 suicide gene would grant elimination of the infused gene modified T-cells prior to stem cell infusion to reduce the risk of engraftment failure as the CD33 is also expressed on a proportion of the donor stem cell graft.

Kitahara T, Haraguchi N, Takahashi H, et al.
Identification and Characterization of CD107a as a Marker of Low Reactive Oxygen Species in Chemoresistant Cells in Colorectal Cancer.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2017; 24(4):1110-1119 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by chemoradiotherapy lead to cancer cell death. Although ROS regulation mechanisms play important roles in chemoradioresistance, few markers exist that indicated intracellular ROS status. This study aimed to identify novel cell surface markers that represented intracellular ROS status to characterize cells with low ROS (ROS
METHODS: We used ROS indicators and an antibody array with 242 cell surface antibodies to identify markers of ROS
RESULTS: CD107a was identified as a common marker of ROS
CONCLUSIONS: CD107a was identified as a novel marker of ROS

Das L, Anderson TA, Gard JM, et al.
Characterization of Laminin Binding Integrin Internalization in Prostate Cancer Cells.
J Cell Biochem. 2017; 118(5):1038-1049 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Laminin binding integrins α6 (CD49f) and α3 (CD49c) are persistently but differentially expressed in prostate cancer (PCa). Integrin internalization is an important determinant of their cell surface expression and function. Using flow cytometry, and first order kinetic modeling, we quantitated the intrinsic internalization rates of integrin subunits in a single cycle of internalization. In PCa cell line DU145, α6 integrin internalized with a rate constant (k

Okato A, Goto Y, Kurozumi A, et al.
Direct regulation of LAMP1 by tumor-suppressive microRNA-320a in prostate cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 49(1):111-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Advanced prostate cancer (PCa) metastasizes to bone and lymph nodes, and currently available treatments cannot prevent the progression and metastasis of the disease. Therefore, an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the progression and metastasis of advanced PCa using current genomic approaches is needed. Our miRNA expression signature in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) revealed that microRNA-320a (miR‑320a) was significantly reduced in cancer tissues, suggesting that miR‑320a may be a promising anticancer miRNA. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional roles of miR‑320a in naïve PCa and CRPC cells and to identify miR‑320a-regulated genes involved in PCa metastasis. The expression levels of miR‑320a were significantly reduced in naïve PCa, CRPC specimens, and PCa cell lines. Restoration of mature miR‑320a in PCa cell lines showed that miR‑320a significantly inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, we found that lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) was a direct target of miR‑320a in PCa cells. Silencing of LAMP1 using siRNA significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in PCa cells. Overexpression of LAMP1 was observed in PCa and CRPC clinical specimens. Moreover, downstream pathways were identified using si-LAMP1-transfected cells. The discovery of tumor-suppressive miR‑320a-mediated pathways may provide important insights into the potential mechanisms of PCa metastasis.

Pfefferle AD, Agrawal YN, Koboldt DC, et al.
Genomic profiling of murine mammary tumors identifies potential personalized drug targets for p53-deficient mammary cancers.
Dis Model Mech. 2016; 9(7):749-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Targeted therapies against basal-like breast tumors, which are typically 'triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs)', remain an important unmet clinical need. Somatic TP53 mutations are the most common genetic event in basal-like breast tumors and TNBC. To identify additional drivers and possible drug targets of this subtype, a comparative study between human and murine tumors was performed by utilizing a murine Trp53-null mammary transplant tumor model. We show that two subsets of murine Trp53-null mammary transplant tumors resemble aspects of the human basal-like subtype. DNA-microarray, whole-genome and exome-based sequencing approaches were used to interrogate the secondary genetic aberrations of these tumors, which were then compared to human basal-like tumors to identify conserved somatic genetic features. DNA copy-number variation produced the largest number of conserved candidate personalized drug targets. These candidates were filtered using a DNA-RNA Pearson correlation cut-off and a requirement that the gene was deemed essential in at least 5% of human breast cancer cell lines from an RNA-mediated interference screen database. Five potential personalized drug target genes, which were spontaneously amplified loci in both murine and human basal-like tumors, were identified: Cul4a, Lamp1, Met, Pnpla6 and Tubgcp3 As a proof of concept, inhibition of Met using crizotinib caused Met-amplified murine tumors to initially undergo complete regression. This study identifies Met as a promising drug target in a subset of murine Trp53-null tumors, thus identifying a potential shared driver with a subset of human basal-like breast cancers. Our results also highlight the importance of comparative genomic studies for discovering personalized drug targets and for providing a preclinical model for further investigations of key tumor signaling pathways.

Joshi S, Kumar S, Ponnusamy MP, Batra SK
Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress promotes MUC4 degradation via autophagy to enhance pancreatic cancer cells survival.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(45):5882-5892 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer (PC) and associated pre-neoplastic lesions have been reported to be hypoxic, primarily due to hypovascular nature of PC. Though the presence of hypoxia under cancerous condition has been associated with the overexpression of oncogenic proteins (MUC1), multiple emerging reports have also indicated the growth inhibitory effects of hypoxia. In spite of being recognized as the top-most differentially expressed and established oncogenic protein in PC, MUC4 regulation in terms of micro-environmental stress has not been determined. Herein, for the first time, we are reporting that MUC4 protein stability is drastically affected in PC, under hypoxic condition in a hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-independent manner. Mechanistically, we have demonstrated that hypoxia-mediated induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes autophagy by inhibiting pAkt/mTORC1 pathway, one of the central regulators of autophagy. Immunohistofluorescence analyses revealed significant negative correlation (P-value=0.017) between 8-hydroxy guanosine (8-OHG) and MUC4 in primary pancreatic tumors (n=25). Moreover, we found pronounced colocalization between MUC4 and LAMP1/LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) in PC tissues and also observed their negative relationship in their expression pattern, suggesting that areas with high autophagy rate had less MUC4 expression. We also found that hypoxia and ROS have negative impact on overall cell growth and viability, which was partially, though significantly (P<0.05), rescued in the presence of MUC4. Altogether, hypoxia-mediated oxidative stress induces autophagy in PC, leading to the MUC4 degradation to enhance survival, possibly by offering required metabolites to stressed cells.

Su Z, Wang K, Li R, et al.
Overexpression of RBM5 induces autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.
World J Surg Oncol. 2016; 14:57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dysfunctions in autophagy and apoptosis are closely interacted and play an important role in cancer development. RNA binding motif 5 (RBM5) is a tumor suppressor gene, which inhibits tumor cells' growth and enhances chemosensitivity through inducing apoptosis in our previous studies. In this study, we investigated the relationship between RBM5 overexpression and autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.
METHODS: Human lung adenocarcinoma cancer (A549) cells were cultured in vitro and were transiently transfected with a RBM5 expressing plasmid (GV287-RBM5) or plasmid with scrambled control sequence. RBM5 expression was determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Intracellular LC-3 I/II, Beclin-1, lysosome associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP1), Bcl-2, and NF-κB/p65 protein levels were detected by Western blot. Chemical staining with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and acridine orange (AO) was applied to detect acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs). The ultrastructure changes were observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM). Then, transplanted tumor models of A549 cells on BALB/c nude mice were established and treated with the recombinant plasmids carried by attenuated Salmonella to induce RBM5 overexpression in tumor tissues. RBM5, LC-3, LAMP1, and Beclin1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry staining in plasmids-treated A549 xenografts.
RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that overexpression of RBM5 caused an increase in the autophagy-related proteins including LC3-I, LC3-II, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, Beclin1, and LAMP1 in A549 cells. A large number of autophagosomes with double-membrane structure and AVOs were detected in the cytoplasm of A549 cells transfected with GV287-RBM5 at 24 h. We observed that the protein level of NF-κB/P65 was increased and the protein level of Bcl-2 decreased by RBM5 overexpression. Furthermore, treatment with an autophagy inhibitor, 3-MA, enhanced RBM5-induced cell death and chemosensitivity in A549 cells. Furthermore, we successfully established the lung adenocarcinoma animal model using A549 cells. Overexpression of RBM5 enhanced the LC-3, LAMP1, and Beclin1 expression in the A549 xenografts.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed for the first time that RBM5 overexpression induced autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma cells, which might be driven by upregulation of Beclin1, NF-κB/P65, and downregulation of Bcl-2. RBM5-enhanced autophagy acts in a cytoprotective way and inhibition of autophagy may improve the anti-tumor efficacy of RBM5 in lung cancer.

Ghiasi N, Habibagahi M, Rosli R, et al.
Tumor suppressive effects of WEE1 gene silencing could not enhance immunopotentiation effects of CD80 and 4-1BBL co-stimulation in human T cells.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2015 Oct-Dec; 11(4):708-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Activation of T cells against tumors by recruiting co-stimulatory molecules has been an attractive approach for cancer immunotherapy. Reports suggested that targeting different genes in tumors might also boost T cell-mediated tumor destruction.
AIMS: We investigated whether in vitro WEE1 gene silencing in MDA-MB-468 and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines could enhance immunopotentiating effects of CD80 and 4-1BBL co-stimulation in human T cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: WEE1 gene was specifically silenced in the cancer cells using shRNA technology. The co-stimulatory molecules were over-expressed on the surface of the cancer cells by recombinant non-replicative adenoviruses. The immune reaction of T cells in the co-culture with tumor cells was studied. IFN-g production was assessed by intracellular staining of T cells. To assess cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells, the CD107a mobilization-degranulation assay was performed. Expression of granzyme B, perforin and fasl were examined by real time PCR.
RESULTS: T cell dual co-stimulation led to a significant increase in the frequency of IFN-g producing cells and higher percentages of degranulation in CD8+ T cells. It also resulted in higher expression levels of the cytotoxicity-related genes. WEE1 gene silencing in the target cells alone however, could not produce significant immune reactivation in the cultured T cells. Likewise, the immune responses of T cells neither improved nor suppressed when dually co-stimulated PBMCs were exposed to the cancer cells with silenced WEE1.
CONCLUSIONS: In spite of antitumor effects of WEE1 silencing, combination of this approach with immune co-stimulation could not boost the reactivity of cultured T cells against the tested breast cancer cells.

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