Gene Summary

Gene:KRT7; keratin 7, type II
Aliases: K7, CK7, SCL, K2C7
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. This type II cytokeratin is specifically expressed in the simple epithelia lining the cavities of the internal organs and in the gland ducts and blood vessels. The genes encoding the type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. Alternative splicing may result in several transcript variants; however, not all variants have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:keratin, type II cytoskeletal 7
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 27 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: KRT7 (cancer-related)

Aron M, Chang E, Herrera L, et al.
Clear cell-papillary renal cell carcinoma of the kidney not associated with end-stage renal disease: clinicopathologic correlation with expanded immunophenotypic and molecular characterization of a large cohort with emphasis on relationship with renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(7):873-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell-papillary renal cell carcinoma (CC-Pap RCC) is a recently described renal tumor initially reported in the setting of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It has unique morphologic and immunohistochemical features that differentiate it from the more common clear cell RCC and papillary RCC. Recently, these tumors have also been described in a sporadic setting. We studied 64 cases of CC-Pap RCC not associated with ESRD (57 CC-Pap RCCs and 7 cases with features of renal angiomyoadenomatous tumors [RAT] including 5 initially diagnosed as such). The morphologic features of all cases and the immunohistochemical profile of 59 cases were studied along with the clinical and molecular features of 30 and 12 cases, respectively. All the tumors were well circumscribed with a mean tumor size of 2.6 cm and showed a wide array of architectural patterns, usually mixed, including tubular (77%), papillary (62%), tubulocystic (52%), and compact nested (21%). Seventy-three percent of the cases showed areas in which the tumor nuclei had a distinct orientation away from the basement membrane. Ninety-two percent of the cases had a low Fuhrman nuclear grade (nuclear grade 2%-86%, and nuclear grade 1%-6%); however, 8% cases showed foci of Fuhrman nuclear grade 3. In 4 cases, epithelial tumor comprised <5% of the tumor; >95% of the tumor was cystic or hyalinized. The stroma varied from being minimal to occasionally prominent myxoid to hyalinized and rarely with organized amianthoid fibers or well-defined smooth muscle bundles. Pathologic stage was reliably assigned in 60 cases, of which 93.3% (56 cases) were pT1, 3.3% (2 cases) were pT2, and 3.3% (2 cases) were pT3a with extension into the perinephric fat. One case had coagulative necrosis; sarcomatoid change and vascular invasion was not identified. The tumors showed a fairly typical immunoprofile characterized by positivity for CK7 (100%), HMCK (96%), CAIX (94%), and vimentin (100%) with negativity for AMACR, RCC, and TFE3; CD10 was positive in 24%. None of the cases tested showed recurrent chromosomal imbalances by virtual karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization, or 3p loss of heterozygosity analysis. VHL gene mutations were, however, noted in 3 cases (2 in exon 1 and 1 in exon 3). Clinical follow-up information was available in 47% of the patients, with a mean and median follow-up of 47 and 37 months, respectively (range, 18 to 108 mo). One case occurred in the setting of VHL syndrome and multiple benign cysts. None of the cases showed local recurrence, metastasis, or death due to disease. Morphology, immunophenotype, and molecular studies did not vary between typical cases, those with prominent smooth muscle (so-called RAT), and historically published data on cases occurring in ESRD. Our analysis confirms that CC-Pap RCC is a unique subtype of adult renal epithelial neoplasia in which tumors are frequently small, are of low nuclear grade and pathologic stage, and have extremely favorable short to intermediate range prognosis. Tumors occurring sporadically, with prominent smooth muscle stroma (so-called RAT), and occurring in ESRD are in the spectrum of the same category of tumors.

Zenali MJ, Weissferdt A, Solis LM, et al.
An update on clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular profiles of colloid carcinoma of the lung.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(6):836-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colloid carcinoma is a rare subtype of lung adenocarcinoma characterized by abundant pools of extracellular mucin and scant malignant epithelium. Because of the rarity of these tumors, many of the reported clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics are contradictory. Moreover, the molecular alterations that underlie these tumors are unknown. We present the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of 13 cases of colloid carcinoma of the lung. The patients were 9 women and 4 men between the ages of 48 and 86 years. Surgical resection and staging were performed in all patients. Seven patients were in stage T1N0M0, 3 in T2N0M0, 2 in T2N1M0, and 1 in T2N0M1. The tumor was 100% mucinous in 9 patients, whereas in 4 cases, the lesions consisted of 50% to 90% mucin pools with the remainder being a noncolloid adenocarcinoma component ranging in morphology from bronchioalveolar to acinar, papillary, solid, or mixed patterns. Follow-up ranged from 35 to 128 months. Three patients died, 1 of disease and 2 of unrelated causes. The remaining 10 patients are alive at the time of reporting, 3 with recurrent disease. Immunohistochemical studies showed CK7, CK20, and CDX2 expression in all tumors, whereas TTF-1, surfactant A, and napsin A were not present or were only focally positive in most cases. Analysis showed KRAS mutations in 2 cases. All tumors were negative for ALK gene rearrangement and EGFR mutation. Our study highlights the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of lung colloid adenocarcinoma and attempts to clarify some misconceptions regarding this rare tumor.

Hammam O, Wishahiz M, Khalil H, et al.
Expression of cytokeratin 7, 20, 14 in urothelial carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the Egyprian urinary bladder cancer.
J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2014; 44(3):733-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study estimated the expression of CK-7, CK14, and CK-20 protein in human bladder carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma (UC) in comparison to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to show its possible correlation to clinicopathologic parameters (grade and stage and bilharziasis), and investigate whether cytokeratin 14 immunostaining may be useful to detect early squamous metaplasia in bladder biopsies and in association with UC. We evaluated the bladder tissues of 200 patients with bladder carcinoma, 150 patients had UC, and 50 patients had SCC. Imunohistochemical technique was used for detection of CK7, CK14 and CK20 monoclonal antibodies. The mean age of the patients was 55 years (range 51-70 years). The UC were classified according to grades into grade I, II and III in 20, 40 and 90 cases, respectively. Stages of UC were: Ta in 10, T1 in 60 and 90 patients with muscle-invasive T2-3. In UC cases 105 /150 (70%) were positive for over expression of CK20. In the same group of UC 120/150 (80) were positive for over expression of CK7. Negative expression was found in SCC cases. A High grades of the UC were associated with decrease expression of CK 20, there were 20 (100%) in GI, 35 (87.5%) in GII, 50 (68.6%) in GIII (P <0.01), and an increase expression of CK7 4 (20%) in GI, 26 (65%) in GII, 90(100%) in GIII (P <0.01). CK20 expression decreased as the tumor stages increased, it was 15 (100%) in Ta, 50 (83.3%) in T1, 40 (50%) in T2-3 (P <0.01), while CK7 showed increase expression in 2 cases with Ta tumor (20%), 38 (47.5%) in T1, 80 (100%) in T2-T3 (P <0.01). The present study confirmed that CK14 is expressed in SCC and in UC with squamous differentiation.

Hayes M, Peckova K, Martinek P, et al.
Molecular-genetic analysis is essential for accurate classification of renal carcinoma resembling Xp11.2 translocation carcinoma.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(3):313-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Xp11.2-translocation renal carcinoma (TRCC) is suspected when a renal carcinoma occurs in young patients, patients with a prior history of exposure to chemotherapy and when the neoplasm has morphological features suggestive of that entity. We retrieved 20 renal tumours (from 17,500 archival cases) of which morphology arose suspicion for TRCC. In nine cases, TFE3 translocation was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis. In 9 of the remaining 11 TRCC-like cases (7 male, 4 female, aged 22-84 years), material was available for further study. The morphological spectrum was diverse. Six tumours showed a mixture of cells with eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm in tubular, acinar and papillary architecture. One case was high grade with epithelioid, spindle cell and sarcomatoid areas. Another showed tubular, solid, and papillary areas and foci containing spindle cells reminiscent of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma. The third showed dyscohesive nests of large epithelioid and histiocytoid cells in a background of dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. By immunohistochemistry, keratin AE1/AE3 was diffusely positive in three tumours, while CK7 strongly stained one tumour and another focally and weakly. CD10 and Pax8 were expressed by eight, AMACR and vimentin by seven, CA-IX by four and TFE3 and cathepsin K by two tumours. Of the two TFE3-positive tumours, one showed polysomy of chromosome 7 and the other of 17; they were VHL normal and diagnosed as unclassifiable RCC. Of the seven TFE3-negative tumours, three showed polysomy of 7/17 and VHL abnormality and were diagnosed as combined clear cell RCC/papillary RCC. One TFE3-negative tumour with normal 7/17 but LOH 3p (VHL abnormality) was diagnosed as clear cell RCC. One TFE3-negative tumour with polysomy 7/17 but normal VHL was diagnosed as papillary RCC, and two with normal chromosomes 7/17 and VHL gene were considered unclassifiable. As morphological features and IHC are heterogeneous, TRCC-like renal tumours can only be sub-classified accurately by multi-parameter molecular-genetic analysis.

Lee WS, Kim HY, Seok JY, et al.
Genomic profiling of patient-derived colon cancer xenograft models.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2014; 93(28):e298 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent evidence suggests that patient derived xenograft (PDX) models can maintain certain pathological and molecular features of the original disease. However, these characterizations are limited to immunohistochemistry or by tissue microarray analysis. We conducted a high-throughput sequencing of primary colon tumor and PDX has not been reported yet. Fresh primary colon cancer tissues that originate from surgery were implanted into the subcutaneous space of 6- to 8-week-old female BALB/c nu/nu or NOD/SCID mice and serially passaged in vivo. Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 (Ion Torrent) was used to detect frequent somatic mutations and similarity of molecular characteristics between the 10 patient tumors and matched PDX. Histologic and immunohistochemical analyses revealed a high degree of pathologic similarity including histologic architecture and expression of CEA, CK7, and CD20 between the patient and xenograft tumors. In 80% cases, all of the somatic mutations detected in primary tumor were concordantly detected in PDX models. However, 2 PDX models showed gained mutations such as PIK3CA or FBWX7 mutation. Ten patient-derived advanced colon cancer xenograft models were established. These models maintained the key characteristic features of the original tumors, suggesting useful tool for preclinical personalized medicine platform.

Majewska H, Skálová A, Stodulski D, et al.
Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: a new entity associated with ETV6 gene rearrangement.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(3):245-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumour that harbours the recurrent ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. This is the first series of MASC cases identified in the historic cohort of carcinomas of salivary glands with clinical/pathological correlation and follow-up data. We reviewed 183 primary carcinomas of major and minor salivary glands resected at the Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland, between 1992 and 2012. Based on morphology and immunohistochemistry, cases suspicious for MASC were selected, and the diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for ETV6 rearrangement and by RT-PCR for the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript. Seven carcinomas met the criteria of MASC, as they exhibited a typical appearance with solid/microcystic and papillary architecture and intraluminal secretions, and cells completely devoid of basophilic cytoplasmic zymogen granules indicative of true acinar differentiation. The only paediatric case was an unencapsulated tumour composed of macrocystic structures covered by a mostly single but, focally, double layer of cells with apocrine morphology. In all cases, the neoplastic cells revealed immunoreactivity for S100, mammaglobin, cytokeratin CK7, CK8, STAT5a and vimentin. FISH for ETV6 gene rearrangement was positive in six out of seven cases, and RT-PCR was positive in three cases. MASC is a new entity of malignant epithelial salivary gland tumours not included in the 2005 WHO Classification of Head and Neck Tumours. There is a growing body of evidence that it is not as rare as was assumed, as is also indicated by our series (3.8 %). In most cases, MASC shares some microscopic features with AciCC, adenocarcinoma/cystadenocarcinoma NOS and low-grade MEC. In rare cases, MASC with high-grade transformation may mimic the morphological appearances of high-grade salivary gland malignancies, such as salivary duct carcinoma.

Szasz AM, Szirtes I, Tihanyi B, et al.
Basaloid carcinoma of the pancreas--clinicopathological presentation and oncogenetic snapshot of a rare entity.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(2):237-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a case of basaloid pancreatic carcinoma with clinical, pathological, and genomic data. The 73-year-old male patient had jaundice, acholic stool, diarrhea, weight loss, and a large, painless gall bladder. His GGT was highly elevated. The pancreatic head contained a tumor, which was resected by partial pancreatoduodenectomy with pancreato-gastric anastomosis, cholecystectomy, and lymphadenectomy. On gross examination, a 3.8-cm white firm nodule was found, which microscopically was composed of basaloid cell nests with a less than usual desmoplastic stromal background and focally PANIN. Immunohistochemical profile displayed strong CK5/6, CK19, p63, EGFR, vimentin, and evident CK14 expression and absence of expression of CK7, chromogranin, synaptophysin, and BRCA1. A high Ki-67 index and p53 expression were noted. Sequencing of the most frequent 46 oncogenes with ionTorrent (AmpliSeq PCR) method identified PIK3CA, KRAS, and TP53 genes as drivers and variants of the FGFR3, PDGFRA, KIT, KDR, EGFR, RET, and ATM genes. The tumor we report displays histopathological appearances similar to the previously described case and a genomic landscape fitting to the general population of pancreatic carcinomas. We hypothesize that this tumor may belong to the group of DNA damage repair-deficient pancreatic carcinoma subgroup.

Shon W, Salomão DR
WT1 expression in endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma: a study of 13 cases.
Int J Dermatol. 2014; 53(10):1228-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC), a low-grade sweat gland carcinoma with a predilection for the eyelids, often shows areas of benign eccrine cysts, atypical intracystic proliferation and associated mucinous carcinoma, suggesting tumor progression. Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) protein, a transcription factor, is overexpressed in many tumors and plays a role in oncogenesis.
METHODS: A computer-based search for tumors diagnosed between 1989 and 2009 was conducted. Clinical data were obtained from pathology reports and patient records. Biopsies were reviewed for histologic features. Immunostaining was performed for WT1, chromogranin, synaptophysin, estrogen receptor (ER), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (P-CEA), cytokeratin 7 (CK7), cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and MIB-1.
RESULTS: Eight women and five men (mean age: 61.2 years; range: 40-77 years) presented with slow-growing eyelid nodules. Cases of EMPSGC were characterized by the presence of dermal nodules with various growth patterns. Adjacent eccrine cysts were present in five patients, atypical epithelial proliferation within the cyst wall in four patients, and an associated mucinous carcinoma in one patient. All tumors were positive for WT1, CK7, ER, P-CEA and EMA and negative for CK20. Tumors were positive for synaptophysin in 12 cases and chromogranin in nine cases. The MIB-1 proliferation index was low in most cases. No WT1 staining was observed in the overlying epidermis, adnexal structures or areas of benign eccrine cyst. WT1 expression was observed in areas of atypical epithelial proliferation, and the neoplastic cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows WT1 expression in the neoplastic epithelial cells of EMPSGC, areas of atypical intraductal proliferations, and mucinous carcinoma. The absence of WT1 expression in areas of benign eccrine cyst and cutaneous sweat glands suggests WT1 upregulation plays a role in tumor cell proliferation and progression of EMPSGC.

Man Y, Cao J, Jin S, et al.
Newly identified biomarkers for detecting circulating tumor cells in lung adenocarcinoma.
Tohoku J Exp Med. 2014; 234(1):29-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been implicated in cancer prognosis and follow up. Detection of CTCs was considered significant in cancer evaluation. However, due to the heterogeneity and rareness of CTCs, detecting them with a single maker is usually challenged with low specificity and sensitivity. Previous studies concerning CTCs detection in lung cancer mainly focused on non-small cell lung carcinoma. Currently, there is no report yet describing the CTC detection with multiple markers in lung adenocarcinoma. In this study, by employing quantitative real-time PCR, we identified four candidate genes (mRNA) that were significantly elevated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and biopsy tissue samples from patients with lung adenocarcinoma: cytokeratin 7 (CK7), Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel-2 (CLCA2), hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR), and human telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT). Then, the four markers were used for CTC detection; namely, positive detection was defined if at least one of the four markers was elevated. The positive CTC detection rate was 74.0% in patients with lung adenocarcinoma while 2.2% for healthy controls, 6.3% for benign lung disease, and 48.0% for non-adenocarcinoma non-small cell lung carcinoma. Furthermore, in a three-year follow-up study, patients with an increase in the detection markers of CTCs (CK7, CLCA2, HMMR or hTERT) on day 90 after first detection had shorter survival time compared to those with a decrease. These results demonstrate that the combination of the four markers with specificity and sensitivity is of great value in lung adenocarcinoma prognosis and follow up.

Ning G, Bijron JG, Yamamoto Y, et al.
The PAX2-null immunophenotype defines multiple lineages with common expression signatures in benign and neoplastic oviductal epithelium.
J Pathol. 2014; 234(4):478-87 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
The oviducts contain high-grade serous cancer (HGSC) precursors (serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasia or STINs), which are γ-H2AX(p) - and TP53 mutation-positive. Although they express wild-type p53, secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs) are associated with older age and serous cancer; moreover, both STINs and SCOUTs share a loss of PAX2 expression (PAX2(n) ). We evaluated PAX2 expression in proliferating adult and embryonic oviductal cells, normal mucosa, SCOUTs, Walthard cell nests (WCNs), STINs, and HGSCs, and the expression of genes chosen empirically or from SCOUT expression arrays. Clones generated in vitro from embryonic gynaecological tract and adult Fallopian tube were Krt7(p) /PAX2(n) /EZH2(p) and underwent ciliated (PAX2(n) /EZH2(n) /FOXJ1(p) ) and basal (Krt7(n) /EZH2(n) /Krt5(p) ) differentiation. Similarly, non-ciliated cells in normal mucosa were PAX2(p) but became PAX2(n) in multi-layered epithelium undergoing ciliated or basal (WCN) cell differentiation. PAX2(n) SCOUTs fell into two groups: type 1 were secretory or secretory/ciliated with a 'tubal' phenotype and were ALDH1(n) and β-catenin(mem) (membraneous only). Type 2 displayed a columnar to pseudostratified (endometrioid) phenotype, with an EZH2(p) , ALDH1(p) , β-catenin(nc) (nuclear and cytoplasmic), stathmin(p) , LEF1(p) , RCN1(p) , and RUNX2(p) expression signature. STINs and HGSCs shared the type 1 immunophenotype of PAX2(n) , ALDH1(n) , β-catenin(mem) , but highly expressed EZH2(p) , LEF1(p) , RCN1(p) , and stathmin(p) . This study, for the first time, links PAX2(n) with proliferating fetal and adult oviductal cells undergoing basal and ciliated differentiation and shows that this expression state is maintained in SCOUTs, STINs, and HGSCs. All three entities can demonstrate a consistent perturbation of genes involved in potential tumour suppressor gene silencing (EZH2), transcriptional regulation (LEF1), regulation of differentiation (RUNX2), calcium binding (RCN1), and oncogenesis (stathmin). This shared expression signature between benign and neoplastic entities links normal progenitor cell expansion to abnormal and neoplastic outgrowth in the oviduct and exposes a common pathway that could be a target for early prevention.

Okuda Y, Nakano K, Suzuki K, et al.
Wnt signaling as a possible promoting factor of cell differentiation in pleomorphic adenomas.
Int J Med Sci. 2014; 11(9):971-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
There are well known that Wnt signaling was some roles of cell differentiation at the development tissues, especially the oral and maxillofacial regions of some developmental stages. Therefore, to determine Wnt signaling in the pleomorphic adenoma tissues, we examined. The expression of Wnt1 and β-catenin as well as the distribution of various cytoskeletal proteins CK7 and CK13 was examined in 30 cases of pleomorphic adenoma by immunohistochemistry. Wnt1 was detected in almost all tumor cells. The peripheral columnar cells in squamous metaplasia and small cuboidal cells in duct-like structures were strongly positive to Wnt1. Although β-catenin was clearly localized on the cell membrane of tumor cells, nuclear translocation was observed in small cuboidal cells and in some basaloid cells. The immunofluorescent staining pattern of Wnt1 and CK7 as well as Wnt1 and CK13 was consistent with IHC results. Thus, in pleomorphic adenoma, Wnt is involved in tumor cell differentiation of peripheral columnar cells forming solid nests and small peripheral columnar cells forming duct-like structures. Moreover, among the three currently known Wnt pathways, β-catenin is the suggested pathway working during cell differentiation. Furthermore, peripheral columnar cells in solid tumor nests and in squamous metaplasia are governed by another Wnt pathway other than β-catenin. Therefore, Wnt signaling through β-catenin pathway may be involved in the 'mixed' differentiation characteristic of pleomorphic adenoma although another pathway may also be possibly working in other parts of the tumor tissue.

Zhou J, Liu R, Luo C, et al.
MiR-20a inhibits cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma metastasis and proliferation by directly targeting LIMK1.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2014; 15(10):1340-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-20a (miR-20a) plays a key role in tumorigenesis and progression. But its function is reverse in different kinds of malignant tumor, and its role and mechanism in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) remains unclear.
OBJECT: To determine the miR-20a's roles in CSCC and confirm whether LIMK1 is a direct target gene of miR-20a.
METHODS: First miR-20a and LIMK1 expression levels were detected in six pairs of CSCC tissues and corresponding normal skin by qRT-PCR. Then MTT assays and colony formation assays were performed to evaluate the impact of miR-20a on cell proliferation. In addition, scratch migration assays and transwell invasion assays were performed to check miR-20a's effect on cell metastasis. Since LIMK1 (LIM kinase-1) was predicted as a target gene of miR-20a, the changes of LIMK1 protein and mRNA were measured by western blot and qRT-RCR methods after miR-20a overexpression. Moreover the dual reporter gene assay was performed to confirm whether LIMK1 is a direct target gene of miR-20a. Finally LIMK1 mRNA and miR-20a in other 30 cases of CSCC pathological specimens were determined and a correlation analysis was evaluated.
RESULTS: The miR-20a significantly low-expressed in CSCC tissues compared with that in matched normal tissues while LIMK1 has a relative higher expression. MiR-20a inhibited A431 and SCL-1 proliferation and metastasis. Both of LIMK1 protein and mRNA levels were downregulated after miR-20a overexpression. The dual reporter gene assays revealed that LIMK1 is a direct target gene of miR-20a. Furthermore, qRT-PCR results of LIMK1 mRNA and miR-20a in 30 cases of CSCC pathological specimens showed miR-20a is inversely correlated with LIMK1 expression.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that miR-20a is involved in the tumor inhibition of CSCC by directly targeting LIMK1 gene. This finding provides potential novel strategies for therapeutic interventions of CSCC.

Chevarie-Davis M, Riazalhosseini Y, Arseneault M, et al.
The morphologic and immunohistochemical spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma: study including 132 cases with pure type 1 and type 2 morphology as well as tumors with overlapping features.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(7):887-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Papillary renal cell carcinomas (pRCC) are classically divided into type 1 and 2 tumors. However, many cases do not fulfill all the criteria for either type. We describe the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of 132 pRCCs to better characterize the frequency and nature of tumors with overlapping features. Cases were reviewed and classified; IHC evaluation of CK7, EMA, TopoIIα, napsin A, and AMACR was performed on 95 cases. The frequencies of type 1, type 2, and "overlapping" pRCC were 25%, 28%, and 47%, respectively. The 2 categories of "overlapping" tumors were: (1) cases with bland cuboidal cells but no basophilic cytoplasm (type A); and (2) cases with predominantly type 1 histology admixed with areas showing prominent nucleoli (type B). The pathologic stage of "overlapping" cases showed concordance with type 1 tumors. Using the 2 discriminatory markers (CK7, EMA), "type A" cases were similar to type 1. Although the high-nuclear grade areas of "type B" tumors showed some staining differences from their low-nuclear grade counterpart, their IHC profile was closer to type 1. Single nucleotide polymorphism array results, although preliminary and restricted to only 9 cases (3 with overlapping features), also seemed to confirm those findings. In conclusion, we demonstrate that variations in cytoplasmic quality and/or presence of high-grade nuclei in tumors otherwise displaying features of type 1 pRCCs are similar in stage and IHC profile those with classic type 1 histology, suggesting that their spectrum might be wider than originally described.

Di Maro G, Orlandella FM, Bencivenga TC, et al.
Identification of targets of Twist1 transcription factor in thyroid cancer cells.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(9):E1617-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human tumors. Twist1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in cancer development and progression. We showed that Twist1 affects thyroid cancer cell survival and motility.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify Twist1 targets in thyroid cancer cells.
DESIGN: Transcriptional targets of Twist1 were identified by gene expression profiling the TPC-Twist1 cells in comparison with control cells. Functional studies were performed by silencing in TPC-Twist1 and in CAL62 cells the top 10 upregulated genes and by evaluating cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to verify direct binding of Twist1 to target genes. Quantitative RT-PCR was applied to study the expression level of Twist1 target genes in human thyroid carcinoma samples.
RESULTS: According to the gene expression profile, the top functions enriched in TPC-Twist1 cells were cellular movement, cellular growth and proliferation, and cell death and survival. Silencing of the top 10 upregulated genes reduced viability of TPC-Twist1 and of CAL62 cells. Silencing of COL1A1, KRT7, and PDZK1 also induced cell death. Silencing of HS6ST2, THRB, ID4, RHOB, and PDZK1IP also impaired migration and invasion of TPC-Twist1 and of CAL62 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Twist1 directly binds the promoter of the top 10 upregulated genes. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that HS6ST2, COL1A1, F2RL1, LEPREL1, PDZK1, and PDZK1IP1 are overexpressed in thyroid carcinoma samples compared with normal thyroids.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified a set of genes that mediates Twist1 biological effects in thyroid cancer cells.

Tonelli F, Giudici F, Giusti F, et al.
A heterozygous frameshift mutation in exon 1 of CDKN1B gene in a patient affected by MEN4 syndrome.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2014; 171(2):K7-K17 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 4 (MEN4) is an autosomal dominant disorder that presents with a spectrum of clinical manifestations overlapping with those of MEN1 syndrome. It is caused by inactivating mutations of the CDKN1B gene, encoding for p27(kip1) cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitor, implicated in cell cycle control. Eight mutations of CDKN1B in MEN4 patients have been published so far. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular basis of a case of MEN1-like syndrome with a neuroendocrine tumor and persistent primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
METHODS: Clinical, biochemical, and genetic evaluation were undertaken in the proband (a 53-year-old Caucasian woman) and in one 34-year-old son. The proband was operated for recurrent PHPT. Sequence analysis of the MEN1 and CDKN1B genes was performed on constitutional and parathyroid tissue DNA. Staining for p27 was carried out in parathyroid tissue.
RESULTS: Neither MEN1 mutations nor large deletions encompassing the MEN1 gene on chromosome 11q13.1 could be detected in the proband. A germline frameshift mutation of CDKN1B (371delCT) was revealed, predicted to generate a truncated p27 (CDKN1B) protein. This mutation was confirmed on somatic DNA from the pathological parathyroid tissue, with the retention of the WT allele.
CONCLUSIONS: We report a germline heterozygote frameshift mutation of the CDKN1B gene in a Caucasian woman with a long clinical history of MEN1-like multiple endocrine tumors, along with the finding of the mutation in her son. This is the first report of positive CDKN1B mutation analysis in a male subject and also the first description of recurrent hyperparathyroidism in MEN4.

Rao Q, Xia QY, Shen Q, et al.
Coexistent loss of INI1 and BRG1 expression in a rhabdoid renal cell carcinoma (RCC): implications for a possible role of SWI/SNF complex in the pathogenesis of RCC.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(4):1782-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
In this study, we analyzed the immunohistochemical and molecular profiles of an unusual RCC showed coexistent absence of INI1 and BRG1 expression, rhabdoid morphology, and poor prognosis. Histologically, the tumor had rhabdoid features, which were demonstrated by large round to polygonal cells with eccentric nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and eosinophilic cytoplasm varying from abundant to scanty. Immunohistochemically, the tumor were positive for BRM, PBRM1, ARID1A, CD10, CKpan, Vimentin, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX), and P504S (AMACR) but negative for INI1, BRG1, HMB45, melan A, CK7, CD117, Ksp-cadherin, TFEB, TFE3, and Cathepsin K. We detected all three exons status of the VHL gene of the tumor and observed 1 somatic mutations in 1st exon. Chromosome 3p deletion, coupled with polysomy of chromosome 3 was also found. Based on these findings, it is further indicated that in some cases, rhabdoid RCC may arise from clear cell RCC. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex may be an attractive candidate for being the "second hit" in RCCs and may play an important role during tumor progression. The role of SWI/SNF complex in rhabdoid RCC should be further studied on a larger number of cases.

Caliò A, Nottegar A, Gilioli E, et al.
ALK/EML4 fusion gene may be found in pure squamous carcinoma of the lung.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(5):729-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The report of cases of lung squamous cell cancers harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements raises the question whether this histologic subtype should be also evaluated for such molecular predictive test.
METHODS: A consecutive series of 40 lung pure squamous cell carcinomas were analyzed for ALK gene status by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Squamous differentiation was validated using an immunohistochemical panel including n-p63 (p40), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, sex-determining region Y (SRY)-Box2 (SOX2), thyroid transcription factor 1, CK7, and Napsin-A.
RESULTS: Squamous differentiation was confirmed in all tumors as they stained positive for n-p63 and CK5/6 and negative for thyroid transcription factor 1 and Napsin-A. One of 40 cases (2.5%) showed an ALK rearrangement on fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: ALK translocation may be found in lung pure squamous cell carcinomas. Our data suggest the opportunity to test ALK rearrangements on biopsy samples harboring squamous cell cancer differentiation.

Wang CX, Liu B, Wang YF, et al.
Pulmonary enteric adenocarcinoma: a study of the clinicopathologic and molecular status of nine cases.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(3):1266-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Pulmonary enteric adenocarcinoma (PEAC), a extremely rare variant of primary invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung, was recognized by the international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma which was proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) published in early 2011. Histologically, PEAC is considered to be mainly composed of tall columnar cells arranged in an irregular glandular cavity or cribriform pattern with extensive central necrosis which show high resemblance to that of intestinal epithelia and colorectal carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, PEAC can not only expresses typical proteins common to lung primaries but is positive for at least one intestinal markers, such as CDX2, cytokeratin (CK) 20, MUC2, therefore, the differentiation of primary PEACs from metastatic colorectal cancers can be challenging. In this study, we report 9 cases of PEAC and a panel of immunohistochemical protein markers of CK7, CK20, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), Napsin A, MUC2 and villin was analyzed with the comparison of 20 metastatic colorectal carcinomas (MCRs), and 20 typical primary adenocarcinomas (tPACs). As was expected, CK7 expression was documented in all 9 PEACs and 20 tPCAs while CK20 was significantly more prevalent in adenocarcinoma that originated from colorectal. Additionally, we evaluate the classical mutations of EGFR, KRAS in the 9 cases of PEACs, it turned out that all tumors were EGFR-wild and KRAS-wild types, which confirmed that PEAC has a separate phenotype from usual pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

Abbas M, Kramer MW, Spieker T, et al.
Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis with carcinoma in situ in the ureter.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2014; 26(1):51-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary epithelial tumor of the renal pelvis is rare and only 100 cases are reported in the literature [1]. Histological examination of the tumor showed glands, cysts, and papillae lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium with hyperchromatic nuclei. Scattered signet ring-type cells were also seen floating in large pools of extracellular mucin. Sections from the ureter showed a component of adenocarcinoma in situ. No invasive tumor was identified in ureteric tissue. One case was reported with carcinoma in situ of the ureter (2). Immunohistochemically: The tumor showed positivity for CK7, CK20, CK8/18, GATA-3, MSH-2, MSH-6, MLH-1, Ber-EP4, and S-100-P with focal positivity for CDX-2, weak positivity for PMS-2 and negativity in TTF-1 and Her-2. Molecular pathological analysis revealed microsatellite stability and without mutation in K-ras-gene. Thus, a diagnosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis with in situ adenocarcinoma of the ureter was made.

Chapiro E, Antony-Debre I, Marchay N, et al.
Sex chromosome loss may represent a disease-associated clonal population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(3):240-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Whether sex chromosome loss (SCL) is an age-related phenomenon or a cytogenetic marker of hematological disease is unclear. To address this issue in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we investigated 20 cases with X or Y chromosome loss detected by conventional cytogenetics (CC). The frequency of SCL was low in CLL (2.3%). It was the sole abnormality, as detected by CC, in 10/20 (50%) patients. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses confirmed SCL in all patients tested, present in 5-88% of cells (median: 68%). Deletions of 13q were observed by FISH in 16/20 (80%) patients. Compared with CLL without SCL, SCL was significantly associated with 13q deletion, especially when bi-allelic (P = 0.04). Co-hybridization analyses showed that SCL could be a concomitant, primary or secondary change, or be present in an independent clone. FISH analyses were performed on blood sub-populations isolated by Ficoll or flow cytometry. Comparing mononuclear cells (including CLL cells) and polynuclear cells separated by Ficoll, a maximum of 2% of polynuclear cells were found with SCL, whereas mononuclear cells exhibited a significantly higher loss frequency (range: 6-87%) (P = 0.03). Comparing B-cells (including CLL cells) and T-cells sorted by flow cytometry, the proportion of B-CD19+ cells with SCL was significantly higher (range: 88-96%) than that observed in T-CD3+ cells (range: 2-6%) (P = 0.008). We conclude that SCL has to be considered as a clonal aberration in CLL that may participate in the oncogenic process.

Mackinnon AC, Luevano A, de Araujo LC, et al.
Cribriform adenocarcinoma of the lung: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of 15 cases of a distinctive morphologic subtype of lung adenocarcinoma.
Mod Pathol. 2014; 27(8):1063-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung adenocarcinoma is characterized by marked heterogeneity and may be composed of an admixture of histologic growth patterns, including acinar, papillary, solid, and lepidic (bronchioloalveolar). Tumors displaying a prominent or predominant cribriform architecture are rare and most often confused for metastases from other organs. We report the clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features in 15 primary lung adenocarcinomas with a predominant cribriform histology. All patients were adults between 30 and 80 years of age (median: 64), and all but one reported a history of heavy cigarette smoking. All cases showed a predominant (>70%) cribriform architecture that resembled a variety of tumors arising in other organs, including breast, prostate, ovary, pancreas, uterus, colon, and thyroid. Immunohistochemical stains showed a phenotype consistent with a primary lung tumor (ie, TTF1+/CK7+), with negative results for other markers. Molecular analysis in six cases showed that none harbored an EGFR-activating mutation. KRAS mutation was detected in one case, and an ALK1 and ROS1 gene rearrangement were each detected in an additional two cases. Cribriform adenocarcinomas of the lung represent a distinctive histologic subtype of lung cancer that may be morphologically difficult to differentiate from metastases with a predominant cribriform architecture.

Xia YH, Li M, Fu DD, et al.
Effects of PTTG down-regulation on proliferation and metastasis of the SCL-1 cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(11):6245-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To study effects of down-regulation of pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) on proliferation and metastasis ability of the SCL-1 cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) cell line and explore related mechanisms.
METHODS: SCL-1 cells were divided into 3 groups (untreated, siRNA control and PTTG siRNA). Cell proliferation assays were performed using a CCK-8 kit and proliferation and metastasis ability were analyzed using Boyden chambers. In addition, expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was detected by r-time qPCR and Western blotting.
RESULTS: Down-regulation of PTTG could markedly inhibit cell proliferation in SCL-1 cells, compared to untreated and control siRNA groups (P < 0.05). Real-time qPCR demonstrated that expression levels of PTTG, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the PTTG siRNA group were 0.8%, 23.2% and 21.3% of untreated levels. Western blotting revealed that expression of PTTG, MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins in the PTTG siRNA group was obviously down-regulated. The numbers of migrating cells (51.38 ± 4.71) in the PTTG siRNA group was obviously lower than that in untreated group (131.33 ± 6.12) and the control siRNA group (127.72 ± 5.20) (P < 0.05), suggesting that decrease of proliferation and metastasis ability mediated by PTTG knock-down may be closely correlated with down-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression.
CONCLUSION: Inhibition of PTTG expression may be a new target for therapy of CSCC.

Cho YB, Hong HK, Choi YL, et al.
Colorectal cancer patient-derived xenografted tumors maintain characteristic features of the original tumors.
J Surg Res. 2014; 187(2):502-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite significant improvements in colon cancer outcomes over the past few decades, preclinical development of more effective therapeutic strategies is still limited by the availability of clinically relevant animal models. To meet those clinical unmet needs, we generated a well-characterized in vivo preclinical platform for colorectal cancer using fresh surgical samples.
METHODS: Primary and metastatic colorectal tumor tissues (1-2 mm(3)) that originate from surgery were implanted into the subcutaneous space of nude mice and serially passaged in vivo. Mutation status, hematoxylin and eosin staining, short tandem repeat profiling, and array comparative genomic hybridization were used to validate the similarity of molecular characteristics between the patient tumors and tumors obtained from xenografts.
RESULTS: From surgical specimens of 143 patients, 97 xenograft models were obtained in immunodeficient mice (establish rate = 67%). Thirty-nine xenograft models were serially expanded further in mice with a mean time to reach a size of 1000-1500 mm(3) of 90 ± 20 d. Histologic and immunohistochemical analyses revealed a high degree of pathologic similarity including histologic architecture and expression of CEA, CK7, and CD20 between the patient and xenograft tumors. Molecular analysis showed that genetic mutations, genomic alterations, and gene expression patterns of each patient tumor were also well conserved in the corresponding xenograft tumor.
CONCLUSIONS: Xenograft animal models derived from fresh surgical sample maintained the key characteristic features of the original tumors, suggesting that this in vivo platform can be useful for preclinical development of novel therapeutic approaches to colorectal cancers.

Shi SS, Shen Q, Xia QY, et al.
Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological study emphasizing ultrastructural features and cytogenetic heterogeneity.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013; 6(12):2936-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a recently recognized renal neoplasm, which was initially described in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but some cases have been reported in otherwise normal kidneys. We report a series of 11 CCPRCC (age range, 33-72 years; male-to-female ratio, 8:3). Follow-up was available for 8 patients. No patients developed local recurrence, distant or lymph-node metastasis, or cancer death. Histologically, all tumors exhibit morphologic features typical of CCPRCC including a mixture of cystic and papillary components, covered by small to medium-sized cuboidal cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. All 11 cases exhibited moderate to strong positivity for CK7, CA9, Vim, and HIF-1α, coupled with negative reactions for CD10, P504S, and RCC. We did not find any VHL gene mutations in all 11 cases. Losses of chromosomes 3 (monoploid chromosome 3) was detected in 3 cases. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells composed of numerous glycogens with scanty cell organelles, reminiscent of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). In conclusion, the coexpression of CA9 and HIF-1α in the absence of VHL gene abnormalities in CCPRCC suggests activation of the HIF pathway by mechanisms independent of VHL gene mutation. Losses of chromosomes 3 (monosomies chromosome 3) was detected in 3 cases suggesting that at least some of these lesions have demonstrated abnormalities of chromosomes 3. Ultrastructurally, CCPRCC composed of numerous glycogens with scanty cell organelles, reminiscent of CCRCC suggesting the close pathogenesis relationship of CCPRCC with CCRCC.

Rossi G, Mengoli MC, Cavazza A, et al.
Large cell carcinoma of the lung: clinically oriented classification integrating immunohistochemistry and molecular biology.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 464(1):61-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed at challenging pulmonary large cell carcinoma (LLC) as tumor entity and defining different subgroups according to immunohistochemical and molecular features. Expression of markers specific for glandular (TTF-1, napsin A, cytokeratin 7), squamous cell (p40, p63, cytokeratins 5/6, desmocollin-3), and neuroendocrine (chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56) differentiation was studied in 121 LCC across their entire histological spectrum also using direct sequencing for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations and FISH analysis for ALK gene translocation. Survival was not investigated. All 47 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas demonstrated a true neuroendocrine cell lineage, whereas all 24 basaloid and both 2 lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas showed squamous cell markers. Eighteen out of 22 clear cell carcinomas had glandular differentiation, with KRAS mutations being present in 39 % of cases, whereas squamous cell differentiation was present in four cases. Eighteen out of 20 large cell carcinomas, not otherwise specified, had glandular differentiation upon immunohistochemistry, with an exon 21 L858R EGFR mutation in one (5 %) tumor, an exon 2 KRAS mutation in eight (40 %) tumors, and an ALK translocation in one (5 %) tumor, whereas two tumors positive for CK7 and CK5/6 and negative for all other markers were considered adenocarcinoma. All six LCC of rhabdoid type expressed TTF-1 and/or CK7, three of which also harbored KRAS mutations. When positive and negative immunohistochemical staining for these markers was combined, three subsets of LCC emerged exhibiting glandular, squamous, and neuroendocrine differentiation. Molecular alterations were restricted to tumors classified as adenocarcinoma. Stratifying LCC into specific categories using immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis may significantly impact on the choice of therapy.

Varinot J, Cussenot O, Roupret M, et al.
HOXB13 is a sensitive and specific marker of prostate cells, useful in distinguishing between carcinomas of prostatic and urothelial origin.
Virchows Arch. 2013; 463(6):803-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The origin of a primary or metastatic carcinoma in the pelvic area is sometimes difficult to establish, in particular the distinction between those originating in the bladder and the prostate. A candidate marker is the HOXB13 gene, essential for prostate development. Some studies have shown expression of HOXB13 protein by immunohistochemistry in the nuclear compartment of benign prostate luminal epithelium and prostate carcinoma. Forty-two cases of biopsies and resection specimens of the prostate and urinary bladder, metastatic lymph nodes, and pelvic masses were retrieved from our databases. In all cases, doubt persisted regarding prostatic versus urothelial origin. All cases were stained for CK7, p63, p504s, PSA, CK20, and HOXB13. Chromogranin A, CD56, and synaptophysin were used when neuroendocrine differentiation was suspected. HOXB13 staining was negative or only weakly positive in all carcinomas of urothelial origin. Three of four carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation did not express HOXB13. The fourth carcinoma, in a patient with a history of prostate carcinoma, was positive. In two cases with a synchronous prostatic and urothelial carcinoma, HOXB13 was exclusively expressed in the prostatic carcinoma. Our results demonstrate that HOXB13 expression identifies prostatic origin of a carcinoma with good sensitivity (89 %) and very good specificity (100 %). HOXB13 is a specific and sensitive marker for prostate cells and a valuable diagnostic tool, especially when poorly differentiated or neuroendocrine tumors are encountered. These results justify testing of HOXB13 as a prostate-specific carcinoma marker in larger cohorts for a more thorough evaluation of its sensitivity and specificity.

Kim SS, Rait A, Rubab F, et al.
The clinical potential of targeted nanomedicine: delivering to cancer stem-like cells.
Mol Ther. 2014; 22(2):278-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have been implicated in recurrence and treatment resistance in many human cancers. Thus, a CSC-targeted drug delivery strategy to eliminate CSCs is a desirable approach for developing a more effective anticancer therapy. We have developed a tumor-targeting nanodelivery platform (scL) for systemic administration of molecular medicines. Following treatment with the scL nanocomplex carrying various payloads, we have observed exquisite tumor-targeting specificity and significant antitumor response with long-term survival benefit in numerous animal models. We hypothesized that this observed efficacy might be attributed, at least in part, to elimination of CSCs. Here, we demonstrate the ability of scL to target both CSCs and differentiated nonstem cancer cells (non-CSCs) in various mouse models including subcutaneous and intracranial xenografts, syngeneic, and chemically induced tumors. We also show that systemic administration of scL carrying the wtp53 gene was able to induce tumor growth inhibition and the death of both CSCs and non-CSCs in subcutaneous colorectal cancer xenografts suggesting that this could be an effective method to reduce cancer recurrence and treatment resistance. This scL nanocomplex is being evaluated in a number of clinical trials where it has been shown to be well tolerated with indications of anticancer activity.

Crum CP, Herfs M, Ning G, et al.
Through the glass darkly: intraepithelial neoplasia, top-down differentiation, and the road to ovarian cancer.
J Pathol. 2013; 231(4):402-12 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
It is currently hoped that deaths from extra-uterine high-grade serous cancer (HGSC) will be reduced via opportunistic salpingectomy in healthy women. Accumulated data implicate the fimbria as a site of origin and descriptive molecular pathology and experimental evidence strongly support a serous carcinogenic sequence in the Fallopian tube. Both direct and indirect ('surrogate') precursors suggest that the benign tube undergoes important biological changes after menopause, acquiring abnormalities in gene expression that are often shared with malignancy, including PAX2, ALDH1, LEF1, RCN1, RUNX2, beta-catenin, EZH2, and others. However, the tube can be linked to only some HGSCs, recharging arguments that nearby peritoneum/ovarian surface epithelium (POSE) also hosts progenitors to this malignancy. A major sticking point is the difference in immunophenotype between POSE and Müllerian epithelium, essentially requiring mesothelial to Müllerian differentiation prior to or during malignant transformation to HGSC. However, emerging evidence implicates an embryonic or progenitor phenotype in the adult female genital tract with the capacity to differentiate, normally or during neoplastic transformation. Recently, a putative cell of origin for cervical cancer has been identified in the squamo-columnar (SC) junction, projecting a model whereby Krt7+ embryonic progenitors give rise to immunophenotypically distinct progeny under stromal influences via 'top down' differentiation. Similar differentiation can be seen in the endometrium with a parallel in juxtaposed mesothelial and Müllerian differentiation in the ovary. Abrupt mesothelial-Müllerian transitions remain to be proven, but would explain the rapid evolution, short asymptomatic interval, and absence of a defined epithelial starting point in many HGSCs. Resolving this question will require accurately distinguishing progenitor from progeny tumour cells in HGSC and pinpointing where initial transformation and trans-differentiation occur, whether in the tube or POSE. Both will be critical to expectations from prophylactic salpingectomy and future approaches to pelvic serous cancer prevention.

Wang SL, Wang FF, Chen SL, et al.
Expression, localization and clinical application of exogenous Smith proteins D1 in gene transfected HEp-2 cells.
Int J Rheum Dis. 2013; 16(3):303-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To establish an improved substrate for an indirect immunofluorescence test (IIF) to detect anti-Sm antibody.
METHODS: Full-length Smith protein D1(Sm-D1) complementary DNA was obtained from human larynx carcinoma cell line HEp-2 by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloned into the mammalian expression vector pEGFP-C1. The recombinant plasmid pEGFP-Sm-D1 was transfected into HEp-2 cells. The expression, localization and antigenicity of fusion proteins of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transfected cells were confirmed by means of immunoblotting (IBT), confocal fluorescence microscopy and IIF analysis. Transfected HEp-2 cells were analyzed with reference serum and compared with untransfected HEp-2 cells by IIF.
RESULTS: Stable expression of the Sm-D1-GFP was maintained for more than ten generations. This Sm-D1-GFP showed the antigenicity of Sm-D1 with a characteristic phenotype in IIF.Six of 12 serum specimens from systemic lupus erythematosus contained both 29/28 and 13.5 kDa proteins and showed characteristic immunofluorescent patterns. The same phenomenon appeared in 3/6 serum samples which contained 29/28 kDa proteins only. Sera from 10 healthy donors did not react with HEp-Sm-D1 or HEp-2 at 1:80 attenuant degrees. No alteration in expression, localization and morphology was observed when HEp-Sm-D1 or HEp-2 interacted with the reference sera which could react with Ro/SSA, La/SSB, β2GP1, centromere, histone, and Scl-70 antibodies in routine IIF tests.
CONCLUSION: As a new kind of substrate of IIF, HEp-Sm-D1 can be used to detect anti-Sm antibodies. Transfected HEp-2 cells keep the immunofluorescent property of HEp-2 cells in immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibody (IFANA) test and could potentially be used as substrate for routine IFANA detection.

Huang Q, Chen X, Lu W, et al.
Expression of REG4 in ovarian mucinous tumors.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2014; 22(4):295-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
Regenerating islet-deprived gene family, number 4 (REG4), is a novel marker for intestinal differentiation. We performed immunohistochemical studies on REG4, cytokeratin (CK)7, CK20, and caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) in 291 ovarian mucinous tumors. There were 226 primary tumors and 65 metastatic tumors. The primary tumors comprised 69/226 mucinous cystadenomas, 79/226 mucinous borderline tumors (64/79 intestinal-type and 15/79 endocervical-like tumors), and 78/226 mucinous carcinomas. We found that REG4 expression was significantly higher in mucinous borderline tumors (30/79, 38.0%) and primary mucinous carcinomas (26/78, 33.3%) than in mucinous cystadenomas (4/69, 5.8%; P<0.05). However, REG4 expression was more commonly associated with intestinal-type, borderline, mucinous tumors rather than the endocervical-like type (30/64 vs. 0/15, P<0.001). There was a significant correlation between the REG4 and CDX2 expression profiles in primary ovarian mucinous tumors (r=0.772, P<0.001). REG4, CDX2, and diffuse CK20 had higher expression frequencies in metastatic lower gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma than in primary mucinous tumors (P<0.01). The CK7/REG4 coordinate expression profile was comparable in diagnostic value to CK7/CK20 or CK7/CDX2 profile. We conclude that REG4 expression is common in mucinous borderline tumors of the intestinal type as it is absent in the endocervical-like form in this series. Expression of CK7/REG4 may contribute to the differential diagnosis between primary and metastatic ovarian mucinous tumors.

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